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Singapore Maritime Technology Conference (SMTC 2015)

NRF-CRP5-2009-01
UNDERWATER INFRASTRUCTURE AND
UNDERWATER CITY OF THE FUTURE
(National Research Foundation - 2nd grant call on Scenario-based CRP)

Presented by: Dr. Wang Xikun

Principal Investigators:
• A/P TAN Soon Keat (Hydrodynamics Group)
• A/P CHU Jian (Geotechnical Group)
• A/P Susanto TENG (Structural Group)

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Nanyang Technological University
Research Team

Tan Soon Keat, Chu Jian, Susanto Teng


+ 20 researchers
+ international collaborators
+ engineering consultants
+ marine constructors
+ class societies

• Financial support by NRF and NTU, Singapore are acknowledged.

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A conceptual model of underwater city
Environmental loadings
(hydrodynamic) Plan view of structural
Column-based structure
arrangement

A A

A-A

Large- (or mega-) structure:

• D = 10 ~ 50 m
• Do = 50 ~ 200 m

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Why select this model?

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Environmental Loads on mega underwater structures

Worldwide
Specific region or site specific

¾Waves
¾Current Singapore
¾Wind
¾Tidal effects
¾Seism
¾Temperature
¾Snow and Ice

Environmental loads on a mega underwater structure is not


adequately addressed in any of international design codes
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for land based, maritime and floating structures
Objectives and Scope

Objective: To investigate the structural characteristics (dynamic loadings, 
instability, etc.) of large submerged multiple‐cylinder structure 
due to vortex‐induced vibration (VIV).

Scope: 
• Effects of configuration and placement of cylinders (e.g. number of 
cylinders and the spacing between adjacent cylinders) under different 
flow conditions (e.g., velocity of incoming current and incident angle)   

• Investigation of methods for reducing or suppressing VIV of the 
cylinders

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Dynamic Behavior of Underwater Structure

mode 1 mode 2 mode 3

To study the structure dynamic characteristics and behaviour under multiple support.

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Reynolds number dependency (highly nonlinear)

• Reynolds Number

UD inertial effects
Re = ≈ Laminar
v viscous effects
– ν ≈ 10-6 m2/s (kinematic
viscosity of water)
– Re is determined by U and D
– subcritical (Re < 105)

Experimental model
Subcritical

Supercritical

Real structure

Transcritical
Increasing Re 8
Challenges for VIV prediction in the present study

¾ Mega-size of the structure


• Resulting in very high Re ~ 106 – 107 (in supercritical to transcritical regime)

• Full-scale model not achievable; no published data available

¾ Much complicated flow patterns


• Flow interference between
cylinders (e.g., at small values of
gap ratio g/D)

• Variation in flow conditions


(current speed and oncoming
direction)

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Methodology

¾ Small-scale model in open channel


ƒ Cylinder diameter D = 20 mm (Re = 103 – 104)

ƒ Simultaneous force measurement (using load cell) and velocity measurement


(using Particle Image Velocimetry - PIV)

¾ Intermediate-scale model in a towing tank and a large water channel


ƒ D = 100 ~ 320 mm (Re = 104 – 105)

ƒ Force measurement (using load cell)

¾ Numerical simulations (small-, intermediate- and full-scales)


ƒ Benchmark simulations at small- and intermediate-scales

ƒ Modeling at full-scale using several different software packages

ƒ D = 10 ~ 50 m (Re = 106 – 107)

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Reynolds numbers (Re) achieved in different model tests

Experiments Re

Open channel (6m × 0.3m × 0.4m) @


MRC, NTU 8×103 1×104 1.2×104
Cylinder diameter: D = 20 mm, 
Velocity: U = 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 m/s

Towing tank (10m × 4m × 1.2m) @


Hydraulics Lab, NTU 2×104 4×104 6×104 8×104
Cylinder diameter: D = 100 mm, 
Velocity: U = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 m/s

Large channel (50m × 7m × 0.4m) @ 


Shanghai Jiao Tong University
6×104 1.2×105
Cylinder diameter: D = 320 mm
Velocity: U= 0.2, 0.4 m/s
Flow around 2 side-by-side cylinders
g/D = 
0.25 D = 20 mm
g = 0 ~ 80 mm

2.5
1.5

Instantaneous flow fields obtained by PIV (Re = 6000) 12


Simulation of the flow around 2 cylinders

2 cylinders in side-by-side arrangement 2 cylinders in tandem arrangement

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Flow around 6-cylinder group (Re = 12 000)
g/D = 0.8 g/D = 2

α = 0°

α = 30°

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Experimental setup in towing tank (intermediate-scale model)
Tank dimension Carriage Platform
1.4m *4m * 10m (H*W*L) Motor Track

Varying towing speeds

Cylinder models:
Material – stainless steel; Diameter = 100 mm.

Control box
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Model tests at a large channel at SJTU (intermediate-scale)
Venue: School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU),
Shanghai, China

Dimensions: 50 m long and 7 m wide; Oncoming flow speed: up to ~ 1 m/s

Cylinder diameter D = 320 mm

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Dynamic force measurement using load cells
• To obtain mean and root‐mean‐square (rms) lift and drag force coefficients of each 
cylinder, including  C D , C L , C ' D , C ' L
• To determine the vortex shedding frequency of each cylinder 

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Numerical results of flow around 6-cylinder group
¾ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
o Numerical models are generated by ICEM with structured grids
o Commercial CFD packages: FLUENT, Flow3D, ANSYS CFX
o Experimental data are used to validate the numerical models

α=0° α=5° α=10° α=15°

α=20° α=25° α=30°


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Vorticity Contours (g/D = 1.5, Re = 12 000 )
VIV suppression using strakes
• Most proven way to suppress VIV 
• Widely used in Spars

Genesis Spar production platform – Moored vertically 
in sea of 2000‐feet in depth. 
Diameter: 120 feet; Length: 650 feet.

Experimental model in the water channel @ 
Shanghai Maritime University (China). 19
Artist vision of the proposed underwater city

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