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Testing and commissioning of Electrical Equipments 10EE756

TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF ELECTRICAL


EQUIPMENTS

Subject Code : 10EE756 IA Marks : 25


No. of Lecture Hrs./
: 04 Exam Hours : 03
Week
Total No. of Lecture Exam
: 52 : 100
Hrs. Marks

PART-A

UNIT 1 & 2: Transformers


TRANSFORMERS:
a. Specifications: Power and distribution transformers as per BIS standards.
b. Installation: Location, site, selection, foundation details (like bolts size, their number, etc), code
of practice for terminal plates, polarity & phase sequence, oil tanks, drying of windings and general
inspection. 5 Hours
c. Commissioning tests: Following tests as per national & International Standards, volt ratio test,
earth resistance, oil strength, Bucholtz& other relays, tap changing gear, fans & pumps, insulation
test, impulse test, polarizing index, load & temperature rise test. 7 Hours
d. Specific Tests: Determination of performance curves like efficiency, regulation etc, and
determination of mechanical stress under normal &abnormal conditions. 3 Hours

UNIT 3 & 4
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES:
a. Specifications: As per BIS standards.
b. Installation: Physical inspection, foundation details, alignments, excitation systems, cooling and
control gear, drying out.
c. Commissioning Tests: Insulation, Resistance measurement of armature & field windings,
waveform & telephone interference tests, line charging capacitance. 4 Hours

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d. Performance tests: Various tests to estimate the performance of generator operations, slip test,
maximum lagging current, maximum reluctance power tests, sudden short circuit tests, transient &
sub transient parameters, measurements of sequence impedances, capacitive reactance, and
separation of losses, temperature rise test, and retardation tests. 6 Hours
e. Factory tests: Gap length, magnetic eccentricity, balancing vibrations, bearing performance
2 Hours
PART-B
UNIT: 5, 6 & 7
INDUCTION MOTORS:
a. Specifications for different types of motors, Duty, I.P. protection. 2 Hours
b. Installation: Location of the motors (including the foundation details) & its control apparatus,
shaft & alignment for various coupling, fitting of pulleys & coupling, drying of windings. 4 Hours
c. Commissioning Test: Mechanical tests for alignment, air gap symmetry, tests for bearings,
vibrations & balancing. 5 Hours
Electrical Tests: Insulation test, earth resistance, high voltage test, starting up, failure to speed up
to take the load, type of test, routine test, factory test and site test (in accordance with ISI code
4 Hours
d. Specific Tests: Performance & temperature raise tests, stray load losses, shaft alignment, and re-
rating & special duty capability. 4 Hours

UNIT 8:
Switchgear and Protective Devices: Standards, types, specification, installation, commissioning
tests, maintenance schedule, type & routine tests.

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UNIT 1 & 2: Transformers

a. Specifications: Power and distribution transformers as per BIS standards.


b. Installation: Location, site, selection, foundation details (like bolts size, their number, etc), code
of practice for terminal plates, polarity & phase sequence, oil tanks, drying of windings and general
inspection
c. Commissioning tests: Following tests as per national & International Standards, volt ratio test,
earth resistance, oil strength, Bucholtz& other relays, tap changing gear, fans & pumps, insulation
test, impulse test, polarizing index, load & temperature rise test
d. Specific Tests: Determination of performance curves like efficiency, regulation etc, and
determination of mechanical stress under normal &abnormal conditions

Introduction
Power and distribution transformers are used for the purpose of power transmission and distribution
respectively. Power transformer is one of the prime components of power system. The transformer
is to be operated as per the specifications for smooth performance. It is essential to keep the down
time as minimum as possible, thereby ensuring the continuity in the power supply. As it is an
important component of the system, utmost care is necessary in its procurement, installation, testing
prior to commissioning, operation and maintenance as per IS code. The transformer is fitted with
various accessories, fitments and protective devices for assisting the smooth functioning and
initiating necessary actions under abnormal conditions. Various inspection and tests are conducted
on the transformer to be installed, in the factory and at site depending upon the capacity of the
transformer and facilities available for testing. The transformer should be healthy in all respects
before it is energized.

Standards and Specifications


Standards are evolved to meet a generally recognized demand, taking into account the interest of
manufacturers and users and fulfilling the needs of economy. At present, a product cannot even be

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visualized without a standard. A standard is a useful guide in all facets of a product - conception,
design, manufacture, testing, installation, operation, maintenance etc.
The international standards published by IEC (International Electro technical Commission) are
accepted universally. However each country has its own National standards which are based on
particular requirements and practices of that nation. Indian Standards Institution (Bureau of Indian
Standards) publishes IS standards. The manufacturers and users in India have to follow IS standards
and IEC standards. The word specification or rating denotes the assigned numerical value of
capabilities. The transformer is assigned with certain definite ratings. These assigned ratings are
guaranteed by the manufacturer. These ratings are confirmed by acceptance test to the satisfaction
of the customer. Essential ratings are marked on the rating plate fixed on the equipment.

Need for standardization of specification: Transformer is a job specific (tailor made) product and
requires effort in its design and drafting, even if a single parameter is changed. Standardization of
the specification and design parameters of this vital equipment of energy transport will not only
help in ensuring optimal deployment of available resources but also go a long way in economizing
the capital costs. Efforts to standardize transformer specification have been made in different
forums. The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) report and the Central Board of Irrigation and
power (CBIP) specifications are the outcome of a concerted effort over years.

Specifications of transformers
The specifications of transformers should be supplied to the purchaser. The transformer is to be
operated as per the specifications in order to avoid failure. The life expectancy of transformer is
increased by proper handling.

Standard specifications of a Power Transformer


Indian standard IS 2026 "Specification for Power Transformers" is the governing standard on Power
Transformers. This has been revised time to time and is now in five parts and is an exhaustive
standard on power transformers. The following information must be available with enquiry and
order for the design and drafting of the transformer.

 Type of transformer: Separate winding transformer, autotransformer or booster transformer

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 Number of phases: single or polyphase


 Frequency
 KVA Rating
 Rated voltages for each winding
 Connection symbol
 Requirements of on-load / off-load tap changers
 Impedance voltage at rated current
 Indoor or outdoor type
 Type of cooling and if different types of cooling involved, rated required power for each
 Temperature rises and ambient temperature conditions including altitude and in case of
water cooling, chemical analysis of water.
 Number of cooling banks, spare capacity and cooling pumps & fans.
 Highest system voltage for each winding
 Method of system earthing for each winding
 Insulation levels
 Over fluxing conditions
 Details of auxiliary supply voltage (for fans, pumps, OLTC, motor alarm, control).
 Controls of tap changers
 Short circuit levels of the system
 Vacuum and pressure withstanding values of the transformer tank
 Noise level requirement
 Number of rails and rail gauge for movement along shorter and longer axes
 Fittings required with their vivid description
 Any other appropriate information including special tests if any and capitization formula for
the losses.

Specification of outdoor type 3-phase distribution transformer up to and including 100KVA,


11 KV: IS 1180 (Part1):1989
This standard specifies the requirements and tests for oil immersed, naturally air cooled, three

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phase, and double wound non sealed type out door distribution transformers.
 KVA rating: The standard rating shall be 16, 25, 63 and 100KVA.
 Rated Frequency: The rated frequency shall be 50Hz.
 Nominal system voltage: Nominal system voltage shall be chosen from 3.3, 6.6 an11KV.
 No Load voltage ratio: 3300/433-250V, 6600/433-250V or 11000/433-250V.
 The winding connection and vectors: The primary winding shall be connected in delta and
the secondary winding star Dyn11 (IS 2026 (part 4); 1977) so as to produce a positive phase
displacement of 30° from the primary to the secondary vectors of the same phase.
 Tapping ratings and tapping methods. The number of tapings, winding tapped i.e. primary or
secondary are to be specified. The total change in voltage as percent of total voltage and
percent voltage change per tap change are to be specified. Egg. Total change in voltage is
±10% and is achieved by changing taps with ±1.5% per tap.
 The transformer tank and the transformer oil shall comply with the requirements (IS 335;
1983).
 Standard fittings: Details pertaining to the following standard fittings shall be given.
 Earthling terminals
 Oil Level gauge
 Lifting Lugs
 Rating and terminal marking plates
 Breather
 Drain cum sampling valve (3/4 nominal size threads) preferably steel with plug.
 Oil filling hole (11/4 nominal size thread) with cover (for transformers without conservator).
 Terminal arrangements
 Mounting arrangements
 Insulation Levels
 Limits of temperature rise
 Losses and impedance values
 Ability of transformers to withstand external short-circuit
 Any other required relevant information shall be provided.

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Procurement and Installation of Transformers Inquiry:


In the initial stage of a transformer inquiry there is nothing as important as a full and explicit
statement of the total requirements that, from the users' point of view, have to be met and from the
manufacturers stand point have to be considered. Frequently, inquiries are received giving
insufficient information concerning the relevant details, so with a view to saving both time and
trouble. The general information should be given when issuing transformer enquiry.

 Planned Project
 Requirements of Load
 Location, environnemental conditions, ambianttempérature, raina, dus etc..
 Sub-station Layout, system voltage and fault Levels.
 Civil engineering requirements such as room, foundation, trenches for cabling, ventilation
aspects etc.
 Limits of variation of the supply voltage and/or frequency, coli nag, earthy nag etc.

Tenders:
The submission of comprehensive and informative tenders is essential from all points of view to all
parties concerned to facilitate the duties of others to the greatest possible extent. In addition, to
price, manufacturing period, conditions of payment, mode of supply, service after sale, maintenance
contract, essential and extra data as per the inquiry, quotations should give the following
specifications and performance.

 Type of transformer
 Type of tank
 Type of cooling i.e. self cooled, water cooled, forced oil
 cooled etc.
 Core loss at normal voltage and frequency
 Copper loss at rated load
 Percentage regulation at up

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 Percentage regulation at 0.8 lagging pf (or at any other specified pf)


 Percentage impedance and reactance
 Efficiency at up at 5/4, 1/1, 3/4, 112 and 1/4 full load.
 Performance reference temperature i.e. 75° C.
 Ambient air temperature or assumed temperature of cooling medium, permissible overloads
 Oil quantity
 Net overall dimensions
 Net weight of core and windings, tank and oil
 Shipping specifications (for export tenders)
 Insulating medium between windings and tank i.e. air or oil.
 Primary and secondary connections
 Overloads
 Locations
 Tapings used for the following purposes.
 Primary tapings to vary primary voltage
 Secondary tapings to vary secondary voltage
 Primary tapings to vary secondary voltage
 Secondary tapings to compensate for variations in primary voltage
 Details about the fittings with the transformer.

In comparing tenders, the simple and effective procedure is to tabulate the data submitted by
different manufacturers, on a sheet, so that a comprehensive summary can be made. Based on the
price and performance parameters indicated, depending upon the priority of the organization an
order shall be placed for supply of the transformer.

Dispatch:
The transformer is dispatched by the manufacturer by one of the following methods depending upon
the size and local conditions.
Dried out - filled with oil, ready for service' (small transformers)
With oil covering core and coils only (medium transformers)

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Without oil in the tank, filled with nitrogen at pressure slightly above the atmosphere pressure (large
transformers).

In majority of the cases accessories like radiators, bushings, explosion vent pressure relief valve,
dehydrating breather, rollers, Buchholz relay, conservator, pipe work, marshalling box are
separately dispatched. Transformer oil is sent in separate sealed containers. When transformers are
dispatched with inert gas, positive pressure must be maintained throughout the period till the gas is
replaced by oil. The transformer may be packed in a strong wooden packing and / or may be sent
without packing case or crate depending upon the conditions of transport. Special care is to be
exercised finally to prevent movement of the core and windings during transit. To send small and
medium transformers trucks and large transformers road trailers or rail wagons are generally used.

Inspection upon arrival at site:


Immediately after arrival at site, it should be inspected for possible damages during transit. The
nitrogen gas pressure should be checked. Positive pressure if not found, indicates that there is
leakage, and there is a possibility of the moisture entering the tank during transit. This can be
ascertained by dew point measurement which indicates the amount of surface moisture content in
transformer insulation. Internal inspection should be carried out to the extent possible through
inspection covers. Particular attention should be paid to the connections, bolt links, coil clamping
bolts, tap changers. Current transformers and the general insulation. Break down strength of oil of
transformer tank and drums containing transformer oil should be examined carefully. An inspection
of the transformer on arrival at site is to be carried out preferably in the presence of the
representative of the manufacturer.

Storage:
The transformers arrived at site and likely to be installed immediately do not need elaborate storage.
In case of delayed installation, it requires proper storage to avoid influx of moisture, effect of rain /
dust etc. It is preferable to store the transformers indoor on proper flooring with protective covering.
The oil should not be drained unless there is a provision of filling inert gas.

Handling:

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The transformers are provided with lugs and shackles for the purpose of lifting. The following
means are normally used for lift nag operations.
 Overhead travelling crane or gantry crane
 Jib crane
 Derricks
 Jacks and winches

The overhead crane and jib cranes are the convenient and safe means. Precautions mentioned below
should be complied with:
 Transformers should be lifted only through lifting points ,/ Cover must always- be bolted in
position
 Proper balance should be maintained while lifting.

Installation:
Location, site preparation and foundation details:
The location may be indoor or outdoor. For indoor installation, the following aspects should be
considered.
Ventilation
Noise level
Space required for movement, maintenance etc
Trenches for cables
Minimum clearances between the transformer and the walls should be as follows.

Clearance on all four sides of wall: 1.25 m


Clearance on all three sides of wall: 1 m
Clearance on a wall on backside only: 0.5 m
The clearance of 0.5 m (minimum) should be provided between the top most point of the
conservator and the roof.
Ventilation area: The ventilation area required is as follows.
Outlet: 2m2 per 1000 KVA
Inlet : 1m2 per 1000 KVA minimum

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Indoor transformers having oil capacity of more than 2000 liters should be provided with soak pits.
Power cables and control cables should never be run in the same conduit or cable tray or and
windings during transit. To send small and medium transformers trucks and large transformers road
trailers or rail wagons are generally used.

Inspection upon arrival at site:


Immediately after arrival at site, it should be inspected for possible damages during transit. The
nitrogen gas pressure should be checked. Positive pressure if not found, indicates that there is
leakage, and there is a possibility of the moisture entering the tank during transit. This can be
ascertained by dew point measurement which indicates the amount of surface moisture content in
transformer insulation. Internal inspection should be carried out to the extent possible through
inspection covers. Particular attention should be paid to the connections, bolt links, coil clamping
bolts, tap changers. Current transformers and the general insulation. Break down strength of oil of
transformer tank and drums containing transformer oil should be examined carefully. An inspection
of the transformer on arrival at site is to be carried out preferably in the presence of the
representative of the manufacturer.

Storage:
The transformers arrived at site and likely to be installed immediately do not need elaborate storage.
In case of delayed installation, it requires proper storage to avoid influx of moisture, effect of rain /
dust etc. It is preferable to store the transformers indoor on proper flooring with protective covering.
The oil should not be drained unless there is a provision of filling inert gas.

Handling:
The transformers are provided with lugs and shackles for the purpose of lifting. The following
means are normally used for lift nag operations.

 Overhead travelling crane or gantry crane


 Jib crane

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Foundation: No special foundation is required for the installation of a transformer except a level
floor strong enough to support the weight and prevent accumulation of water. Foundations with oil
drainage facilities during fire and emergency is recommended for large transformers. Transformers
should be positioned on the foundation so that easy access is available all around to read or reach
different fitments.

For outdoor installations, the clearance between live parts and neighboring structures, equipments
etc., should be adhered to electricity rules. Simple, firm, horizontal and leveled foundation is
necessary. The level of concrete plinth with bearing plates of sufficient size and strength can be
adopted. The space between the plinth and base of the transformer should be prevented by use of
rust proof bituminous compound. The suitable rail tracks should be provided where rollers are used.
Once the wheels of the transformer are in final position and then should be locked to prevent
accidental movement. Transformers having oil capacity more than 9000 liters should be provided
with drainage facility. For medium voltages, cable connector or bare conductor connection is used.

Code of practice for Rating and Terminal plates: IS 1180 (part 1): 1989
Each transformer shall be provided with non-detachable rating plate of weather proof material.
This plate fitted in a visible position, indicates the information given in fig. The entries on the rating
plate shall be indelibly marked (e.g. by etching, engraving or stamping).

Terminal marking plate: Each transformer shall be provided with a terminal marking plate as per
IS 1180 (part 1): 1989. This is in accordance with whichever is applicable. IS 2026 (part 4): 1981
(first revision) also highlights about terminal marking, tapping and connectors.

Phasor Diagram and Phasor Groups


Phases are used to represent the induced emus in pharos diagram of a transformer. The direction
employed for the rotation of phases is counter clock wise. In three phase transformers polarity alone
is insufficient to represent the relation between he and Live windings. Besides the terminal
markings on he and Live side voltage, pharos diagrams are required to show the angular
displacement between he and Live winding. The angular difference between phases representing the
voltages induced between he and Live terminals having the same marking Letters and the

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corresponding neutral point (real or fictitious) expressed with respect to the side is termed as the
displacement. Under normal conditions, the Line to Line voltages on the side are displaced from
corresponding voltages on Live side and the same is true for Line to neutral voltages also. This
displacement depends upon the transformer winding connections.
An internationally adopted convention for indicating phase displacement is to use a number which
represents the time indicated by a clock, where the minute hand represents the Line to neutral
voltage pharos for the he winding and is set at 12 0' clock and the hour hand represents the Line to
neutral voltage pharos for the Live winding. It therefore follows that the clock hour number is
obtained by dividing the phase displacement angle in degrees by 30. The following standard pharos
diagrams are frequently encountered in practice.
Three phase transformers, phase displacement Three phase transformers, phase displacement

Polarity and phase sequence


The induced relative voltage directions in he and live winding of a transformer is termed as polarity.
In primary and secondary winding of a transformer when the induced voltages have the same
direction i.e. when the polarity of the two windings is same, this is called as subtractive. When, on
the other hand, the induced terminal voltages are in the opposite direction, the windings are of
opposite polarity, which is referred to as additive.

Phase sequence:
Phase sequence is the angular direction in which the voltage and current phases of a polyphone
system reach their respective maximum values during a sequence of time. This angular direction
may be clock wise or counter clockwise. It should be remembered that the phase sequence is really
a question of the sequence of line terminal voltages, and not necessarily of the voltages across
individual windings. When two transformers are to be operated in parallel, phase sequence should
be same, which is one of the conditions for parallel operation of transformers. The phase sequence
indicator is used to know the sequence. The phase sequence of the supply is decided or fixed by the
generating plant

Tanks and testing of tanks


The transformer tank shall be of adequate strength to withstand positive and negative pressures built

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up inside the tank while the transformer is in operation. The transformer tank covers shall be welded
with tank rim so as to make a leak-proof joint. The exterior of the transformer tank and other ferrous
fittings shall be thoroughly cleaned, scraped and given a primary coat and two finishing coats of
durable oil and a weather resisting paint or enamel. All steel screws, nuts and f£.?tenors exposed to
atmosphere shall either be galvanized or cadmium plated. The space above the oil level in the tank
shall be filled with dry air or nitrogen confirming to commercial grade of IS 1747 : 1992. Dry air /
nitrogen plus oil volume inside the tank shall be such that even under the extreme operating
conditions the pressure generated inside the tan k does not exceed 40KPa positive or negative. The
transformer cover and frame shall be such that it is possible to remove the weld and rowel twice.
The tank sizes reach the transportable limits and call for a lot of ingenuity in the design, to meet
stringent conditions as minimum electrical clearances from high voltage points of windings and
leads proper shaping to reduce oil quantity, transportable profile suitable for loading on rail wagons,
transportable weight, etc. From these design considerations, in general, and for large power ratings,
transformer tanks are structurally quite complicated. For medium size, plain tanks are also used
quite often for the sake of ease and economy of cost of fabrication. The structural design of
transformer tanks comprises the computation of the combined behavior of plate and shells with
stiffeners, which involves a realistic estimate of boundary conditions. For calculating the stresses
and displacements at a few selected points the classical method is convenient, however for the
stresses and displacements in global sense, one has to make use of rigorous methods such as finite
element method.
Transformer tanks may be classified as
 Plain tanks: Plain tanks are rectangular box type in shape and are commonly used for small
and medium rating transformers.
 Shaped tanks: Here the profile of the tank body is suitably shaped to make it more
economical. The shaping is decided by the electrical layout, considerations of transformer windings
and terminal gear/tap changers mounting arrangements.
 Bell shaped tanks: Tanks which are made into two separable parts are known as bell type
tanks. When the top portion is removed, the height of the lower portion is such that there is
accessibility to the core and winding for inspection and maintenance. .

Corrugated tanks: An alternative for providing vertical ribs

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 welded to the plates is to form corrugation on the plates by suitably folding the plates. The
merits are additional cooling area on the tank walls and reduction in tank weight.
 Stub-end wagon type tanks: These tanks are of special construction and designed to
withstand dynamic loading during transit besides the static load. Such large size transformers are
not supported on girders thereby reducing the height during transport. The design is such that these
tanks are supported from either end stub-end wagons and the transformer hangs in the vertical
position, with minimum clearance between the bottom of the tank and railway track.

Testing of tanks:
The oil pressure and vacuum testing are conducted to ensure against leakages and to check for
strength.

Oil pressure test:


The oil is filled up to tank cover and the required pressure is applied using pump. The pressure is
maintained for few hours and all the wildings are checked for leakages. In case of leakage,
rectification is done by draining out the oil. The tank deflection readings are measured before the
starting of oil pressure, at full oil pressure and after releasing the oil pressure.

Vacuum test:
The oil is completely drained. After ensuring all the fitting, the vacuum pump is started and the
required vacuum is measured by a vacuum gauge. During vacuum testing the air leakage points are
detected by air leakage detecting instrument. If the leakages are found in casketed rims, the bolts are
tightened. The deflection reading at the starting and after maintaining full vacuum for one hour and
releasing the vacuum are taken to find out the permanent deflection. This shall be within specified
allowable limits of deflection, depending on the size of the tanks.

Measurement of stresses:
At various locations stresses are required to be measured.
The strain gauges are fixed to the tank structure with proper adhesive. A gauge consists of a fine
wire suitably fixed to the body of the structure. Under load, strains are developed on the body. This
results in displacements of the points to which the ends of the gauges are fixed. This changes the

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resistance of the gauge wire, which is measured electrically using a suitable electric / electronic
bridge. One typical strain gauge is Rosette delta with six wires connected to the ends of wire gauges
and brought to the bridge for measurement. The bridge is set to null balance prior to the
commencement of the measurements. The readings are simultaneously recorded. The tank is
subjected to full vacuum and readings are taken. The strain gauges are fixed inside and outside the
tank wall to compare the top and bottom principal stresses on the surface. The strain gauge gives
values of strains in the direction of Rosettes from which the two principal stresses and their
directions are calculated.

Transformer oil
Insulating oil forms important part of transformer insulation system and acts as electrical insulation
as well as coolant to dissipate heat. The basic raw material to get transformer oil is a low viscosity
lube called as Transformer Oil Base Stock (Tabs). This is obtained by fractional distillation and
series of treatment of crude petroleum. Tabs characteristics are kept within permissible limits in
order to produce good insulating oils. Tabs is further refined by acid treatment to get transformer
oil.

Characteristics Requirement
Viscosity at 40°C 9-14 cost
Pour point, max -9°C
Flash point (Pesky-Marten
closed cup method) min 145°C

Characteristics of TOBS
Transformer oil consists of four major generic class of organic compounds viz. paraffin’s,
naphthenic, aromatics and olefins. All these are hydrocarbons and hence insulating oil is called a
pure hydrocarbon mineral oil. Based on the requirement and predominance, oil is usually called
paraffinic base or naphthenic base.

Characteristics of oil and their importance:


The ,characteristics of transformer oil as per IS: 335 are, given in table

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Properties of insulating oil:

Physical properties:
Density: The maximum density of insulating oil at 29.50C must be 0.89 g/m2
Interfacial tension (1FT): This is the measure of the molecular attractive force between oil and
water molecules at their interface. A test is carried out for detecting the soluble polar contamination
and products of deterioration that reduces molecular attractive force between oil and water.
Moisture content: The moisture content is the amount of free and dissolved water present in the oil
and is expressed in pap (parts per million by weight i.e. mg/kg). Presence~ of moisture is harmful as
it has adverse effect on the elect cal characteristics of oil.
Flash point: It is the temperature at which the oil gives vapour, that this vapour, when mixed with
air,.for.ms ignitable moisture and gives a momentary flash on application of test flame under
specified conditions. A minimum flash point is specified to prevent the risk of fire that may result
by accidental ignition.
Viscosity: This is a measure of oil resistance to flow continuously without external forces. The oil
must be mobile. as heat transfer in transformers takes place by convection currents. The viscosity
increases with decrease in temperature, it is necessary that viscosity be as low as possible at low tem
prelatures.
Pour point: The temperature at which oil will just flow under specified conditions is known as pour
point. If the .Olli becomes too viscous or solidifies, it will hinder the formation of convection
currents and thus cooling of the equipment will be severely affected.

Electrical properties:
While selecting the oil to be used in transformer as insulating material, more emphasis is to be given
to the electrical properties.
Electric strength (Breakdown voltage): BDV is the voltage at which breakdown occurs between
two electrodes when oil is subjected to an electric field under prescribed conditions. Electric
strength is the prime parameter for insulation design of a transformer. It helps to know the presence
of contaminating agents like moisture, fibrous materials, carbon particles, perceptible sludge and
sediment.

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Specific resistance (Resistivity): This is the most sensitive property of oil requiring utmost care for
its determination. Resistivity in Acme is numerically equivalent to the resistance between opposite
faces of a centimeter cube of the liquid. Insulation resistance of windings of a transformer is also
dependent upon the resistivity of oil. A low value indicates the presence of moisture and conductive
contaminants.
Dielectric dissipation factor (DDF): DDF is numerically equal to sine of the loss angle
(approximately equal to tangent of loss angle for dielectrics) and is a good tool to indicate the
quality of insulation. A high value of DDF means the presence of contaminants or deterioration
products such as water, oxidation products, metal soaps, soluble varnishes and resins.

Chemical properties:
Neutralization value (total acidity): It is a measure of free organic and inorganic acids present in
the oil and is expressed in terms of milligrams of KOH required to neutralize the total free acids in
one gram of oil.
Oxidation stability: This gives the presence of natural inhibitors which impart anti-oxidation
characteristics to oil. This test is a measure of neutralization value and sludge after oil is aged by
simulating the actual service conditions of a transformer.
Sediment and perceptible sludge: These are oil deterioration products or contaminants which are
insoluble after dilution of the oil with n-heptanes under prescribed conditions. The oil is not suitable
for use, if sediment or perceptible sludge is detected.
Corrosive Sculpture: Crude petroleum usually contains sculpture compounds, most of which are
eliminated by refining. The traces of free corrosive sculpture may be present in oil. This will result
in pitting and black deposit on the surface of the bare conductor used in transformer which
adversely affects the dissipation of heat.

Qualities of good insulating on[:


The fresh dielectric oil has pale yellow color. Dark or cloud color indicates deterioration.
The oil should never contain suspended particles, water soluble acids and bases, and active
sculpture of colloidal carbon. These impurities accelerate deterioration rate.
It should be free from dust particles, carbon particles and sludge.

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It should have high dielectric strength.


It should have low viscosity.
It should have high flash point.
It should. posses good electrical characteristics.

Effect of moisture, water and impurities:


The impurities accelerate deterioration of the dielectric oil.
The dust particles, carbon particles and sludge in suspended form gather along the conductor and
insulating surfaces in the presence of electric field. This forms a thin conducting layer gradually
along the internal surface of internal insulation during service. The flash over can occur along the
surface of the insulation or tank due to tracking. The transformer oil and winding have tendency to
readily absorb moisture from the air. This decreases the dielectric strength of the oil. All possible
preventive measures are taken to avoid moisture penetration. Oxygen reacts on the insulation and
decomposed products cause sludge, which blocks the free circulation of the oil. The dielectric
strength gets diminished significantly in the presence of solid impurities.

Procedure of filling oi[ in the transformer tank:


Before filling with oil, transformer should be fitted with all accessories including valve gauges,
thermometers and plugs and made oil tight. Oil sample is tested before filling. It should be ensured
that no air packets are left in the tank and no dust or moisture is present. All air vents should be
opened. Oil should be filled from the filtering plant. To prevent aeration of oil, the transformer tank
should be filled through the bottom drain valve. Enough time should be allowed (16 to 24 hours) for
the oil to settle in the transformer and also the bubbles to escape. Vacuum filling may be used for
large transformers. A vacuum pump may be connected to the top valve of the transformer and oil
hose to the top filter press valve. The tank shall be tightly sealed.

Oil filtering:
The oil filtering equipment (oil purifying equipment shown in fig 1.8) is a portable device used for
filtering transformer oil and switchgear oil. The oil is circulated through the filtering equipment for
several hours till the desired dielectric strength of oil is achieved. The purifying equipment removes

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the dissolved moisture, free water and solid particles. The oil purifier comprises of the following
components.
1) Vacuum tank and pump
2) Centrifugal filter unit
3) Oil pump
4) Heater
5) Valves
6) Temperature gauges
7) Vacuum gauge
8) Pressure gauge

Maintenance of Transformer Oil:

Oil maintenance is carried out in accordance with standards titled "Code, practices of maintenance
of insulating oil". The code refers to the contamination of oil and determination of suitability of oil
for further service. It also gives the procedure of treatment of oil at site. The transformer oil is tested
for the desired qualities giving more emphasis to moisture and dielectric strength during periodic
maintenance. A sample of insulating oil is taken from the bottom of the transformer tank. The fresh
dielectric oil has pale clear yellow color and dark brown and cloudy appearance indicate
deterioration. Contamination of oil due to moisture or solids are dealt by centrifugal separators to
effectively remove free water and fine solid impurities. Filters are used to remove solid impurities.
The dust particles, carbon particles and sludge are responsible for formation of thin layer on the
insulation part thereby causing internal flashover due to tracking can be removed by means of filters
in the oil filtering unit. Moisture level is to be less than the specified value which otherwise cause
internal flashover. Viscosity indicates fluidity. Oil with low viscosity has more fluidity and gives
better cooling. Hence, viscosity should be measured at various temperatures.
observation is to be made on flash point. Higher flash point (1450C) is preferred and flash point
indicates the tendency to evaporate. For satisfactory use of insulating oil for the desired and
specified qualities, periodic checking of the oil is to be carried out.

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Testing of transformer oil:


Sampling:

The condition of the oil should be checked before commissioning, during maintenance and re
commissioning after overhaul. Sample of oil from the transformer should be taken from the bottom
of the tank. The sample should be collected only after the oil is allowed to settle for 24 hours.

Containers of sample:

Containers for samples should be bottles of clear glass, clean and dry with one liter capacity. The
samples should not be filled up to the top.

Samples from transformer tank:

When taking sample remove dirt from the sampling valve plug. Sample should not be taken
immediately after opening the valve. Allow some oil to flow first, then collect sample in the bottle.
Oil sample from the transformer in service may be taken preferably under switched off or no-load
condition.

Oil sample from drums:

Before taking oil for testing allow it to settle for 24 hours without any disturbance so that the heavy
contents will settle down. Then oil will be collected from the bottom of the drum.

Testing of dielectric strength:

BDV test: The test sample from the bottom of the drum or transformer tank is collected in the
standard test cup (80mm x 60mm x 100cm) size. Electrodes are polished brass spheres of 12.5 to 13
mm diameter mounted horizontally. The gap is 2.5 mm to 4 mm ± 0.2 mm depending upon the
magnitude of voltage available for breakdown test. Allow the sample in the cup for 20 minutes for

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air bubbles to vanish, apply ac voltage gradually and steadily till the breakdown occurs between
electrodes.

Six breakdown tests are conducted at an interval of one or five minutes. After each breakdown test,
the oil is gently stirred with clean, dry glass rod. Average of five subsequent tests is considered as
the BDV (breakdown value) of oil sample.

Crackle test:

This test is performed to determine free water. A sample is heated rapidly over silent flame. The
presence of moisture above 50-60 pap of water will give typical crackling sound. The Karl Fisher
Solution test is used for determining the moisture more accurately (up to 2 pap). During periodic
maintenance crackle test, dielectric test, acidity test and moisture measurement is carried out .

Drying of transformers: IS 10028 (part II) 1981

The transformer oil and insulation are hygroscopic (absorbs moisture). When the transformer is
dispatched without oil or is left idle for a long period, the oil and insulation absorb moisture and
drying out is required before commissioning. When the power transformer is idle for more than a
month, drying out is necessary prior to re commissioning. The main purpose of the drying out is to
expel the moisture from the oil, the winding insulation and other internal parts. If the transformer is
not dried out properly, it cannot withstand specified voltage for long duration leading to premature
failure of insulation. In drying out process the transformer oil/winding is heated by one of the
approved methods for a prolonged period (ten hours to four weeks). Periodic readings of
a)Oil and winding temperature
b)Power input
c)Insulation resistance

are taken. The temperature of oil is maintained at 800e and that of the windings at 90°C. Figure 1.9
shows variation of insulation resistance with time of drying.

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Different methods of drying out:


I) Drying of core and coils with oil by oven
ii) Drying of core and coils with oil by short circuit method
iii) Drying with oil removed by using external heat
iv) Drying with oil removed by using both external and internal heat.

Drying with oil:


i)Drying of core and coils with oil by using oven. The core and coils can be effectively dried in a
suitable oven, by raising the temperature to a value not exceeding 8o°e. A large volume of air
should pass through -the oven to remove moisture and vapors. Insulation resistance check will
indicate when the coils are dry.
j)Drying by short circuit method: The transformer can also be dried by heating the coils by short
circuiting the low voltage winding and supplying a reduced voltage at the terminals. Current should
not exceed 70% of the rated current and oil temperature should not exceed 75°e. The winding
temperature under no condition should exceed 90°e. This method is more effective in drying the
insulation at site.

Drying without oil:


By external heat: The transformer may be placed in its own tank without oil. Externally heated air is
blown into the tank at the bottom through the main oil valve. A small blower or fan should be used
to get the proper circulation. It is desired to-force as much of the heated air as possible through the
ducts in the transformer windings. To accomplish this, baffles should be placed between the core
and the case, closing off as much of the space as possible. The convenient way to get the heated air
is by passing air through grid resistors. The resistors are in fire proof box. The temperature of the air
should not exceed 115°C. The heat may also be obtained by direct combustion but care is to be
taken to avoid the products of combustion entering into the transformer tank.
By both external and internal heat: This is a combination of the hot air circulation and short circuit
method. The current circulated in the windings should, of course, be less than that when drying out
is done by the method of short circuit alone.

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Duration of drying out:


Transformer voltage rating Duration
11 kV 1 to 6 days
220 kV 10 days to 30 days
400 kV 15 days to 40 days

Precautions to be taken while drying:


1. Only spirit type thermometers are to be used for temperature measurement. Mercury thermometers
shall not be used except in the pockets provided for this purpose.
2. The temperature of transformer oil in the top should not be more than 85°C. The maximum
sustained temperature to which anything in contact with the oil should be raised, is 90°C.
3. Under no condition the transformer is left unattended during any part of the dry out period. The
transformer should be under constant observation throughout the dry out process and all
observations shall be carefully recorded.
4. It is recommended to keep firefighting equipment ready during dry-out period. Naked lights and
flames should be kept away while the drying operation is in progress.

Preparations of drying out:


 The tank is covered with external shields Like fire resistance mat such as asbestos cloth, glass sheet
to prevent drought of cold air.
 Connecting thermo couples, fixing thermometers calibration and arranging measuring instruments
 Bring out well insulated Leads from the windings, from the terminal bushings for the measurement
of insulation resistance
 Bring out thermo couple Leads through one of the opening in the tank
 To prepare Log-book to record the data regarding the dry out process. This Log sheet will have the
following details
 Details of the transformer
 Details about method of drying
 Date of start
 Date of completion
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 Time of start
 Temperature of top oil
 Temperature of bottom oil
 Average temperature
 Insulation resistance in mega ohms
 Power inputs
 Initial heat nag up
 Steady temperature
 Cool down etc.

Procedure / steps involved in drying out of power transformer:
1. Preliminary preparation of the machine, source of heat,
2. measurements etc.
3. Arrangement of the set up
4. Gradually applying heat by one of the suitable methods
5. Take periodic readings of

 Clock time
 Temperature of different parts
 Insulation resistance values with 15 second mugger reading and 60 second mugger reading
 Winding resistance (in the beginning and at the end)
 Maintenance of steady temperature
 Gradually reduce the heat applied and stop.

Testing of Transformers
The establishment and maintenance of high standard of materials and workmanship can only be
achieved by continuous inspection during the manufacturing stages and by subsequent testing of the
components and finished product. In broad sense, the tests can be classified as preliminary and final
tests. Preliminary tests are carried out on the transformer components before it is placed in the tank.
Final tests are carried on the completely assembled transformers.

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Following tests are carried out when the work is at different stages, prior to the insertion of core and
coil assembly in the tank. These tests help in Locating any fault at an early stage.
a)Core insulation
b)Core Loss test
c)Check of ratio, polarity, vector relationship and winding resistance of transformer assembly.
d)Preliminary Load Loss and impedance voltage measurements

The completely assembled transformer is subjected to the following final tests in accordance with
international standards. These tests are
a)Routine tests: These tests are conducted on every transformer before it Leaves the factory, to
ensure that it is in accordance with the specifications.
I) Voltage ratio and polarity test [IS 2026 (part 1) : 1977];
ii) Winding resistance test [IS 2026 (part 1): 1977];
iii) Impedance voltage, short circuit impedance and Load Loss [IS 2026 (part 1) : 1977];
iv) Dielectric tests
Separate source ac voltage [IS 2026 (part 3) : 1984];
Induced over voltage [IS 2026 (part 3) : 1984]
v)No Load Losses and current [IS 2026 (part 1) : 1977]; vi) On Load tap changers, where
appropriate.
b)Type tests: These tests are performed on a single transformer which is representative of batch of
transformers, to demonstrate that they comply with specified requirements and are not covered by
routine tests.
I) Temperature rise test: [IS 2026 (part 2) 1977]; ii) Lightning impulse test; [Is 2026 (part 3); 1977]
iii) Air pressure test [IS 1180 (part 1) 1989];
iv) Permissible flux density and over fluxing [IS 1180 (part I) 1989];
v) Noise Level test.
c)Pedal tests: The tests conducted other than routine or Type tests, based on the agreement between
the manufacturer and purchaser as asked for in the tenders/orders placed;
I) Dielectric tests
ii) Zero sequence impedance on three phase transformers iii) Short circuit test iv) Acoustic sound
level

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v) Harmonics on the no-load current


vi) Power taken by fan and oil-pump motors vii) Partial discharge test
viii) Vibration test
ix) Tan delta test
Special tests and type tests are to be performed in the presence of the purchaser or his
representative. Commissioning tests are conducted at site before commissioning.

Polarity testing
In the he winding the induced elf at any instant is in the direction A1 to A2, the direction of the
induced elf in the live winding at the same instant will also be in the same sequence a1 to a2• When
the two windings are joined in series by connecting A2 to a1 and a single phase elf applied to
terminals A1 and a2, the elf measured between the he terminals A1A2 will be less than the applied
voltage. Then the transformer windings will have the same polarity i.e. subtractive. On the other
hand, the elf measured between the terminals A1A2 is more than the applied voltage then the
transformer windings have opposite polarity i.e. additive. For three-phase transformers the
procedure of polarity testy nag is same, except that the windings, of course, be excited from a three
phase supply. Fig.1.12 shows the test connections and results for a star/star connected transformer
with subtractive polarity.

Measurement of winding resistance


To calculate the I2R Loss, it is necessary to know the dc resistance of winding. The measurement is
done once the dc current reaches steady state. In some cases it may take several minutes depending
upon the winding inductance. This test is conducted at stable temperature, for this reason it is
carried out usually before Load Loss measurement. The average oil temperature and is taken as the
average winding temperature. DC resistance can be measured with sensitive Wheatstone or Kelvin’s
double bridge. Volt-ampere method can also be used to measure resistance by using Low voltage
high current source. Winding and oil temperature must be recorded when measurement is made.

Volt Ratio test


Ratio test is conducted to ensure the correctness of voltage ratio between different windings on each
tapping. The tolerance allowed for ratio is ± 0.5% of the declared ratio or ± 10% of the percentage

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impedance voltage, whichever is Less. This test can be done using calibrated voltmeter. It is
advisable to use special rcy:io testing apparatus called ratio meter which is designed to give a
measurement accuracy of 0.1% over a ratio range up to 1110 : 1. The ratio meter is used in a bridge
circuit where the voltages of the windings of the transformer under test are balanced against the
voltages developed across the fixed and variable resistors of the ratio meter. This method also
confirms the polarity of the windings. With this type of ratio meter the test can be performed at
normal mains supply voltage without Loss of accuracy. This test is to be conducted on every
transformer for position of every tap.

Measurement of Insulation resistance and polarization index


The insulation resistance 'is measured between two parts separated by insulation. Insulation
resistance of electrical equipment refers to the resistance between conducting part and earth. It is
expressed in mega ohms. Insulation resistance is measured by mugger which consists of a hand
driven generator. Muggers are available for dc voltages of 500V, 1000V and 2500V. Mugger of
500V is used to measure the insulation resistance of transformers up to 60KVA, mugger of 2500V
are employed for transformers operating at 11, 33, 110, 220 kV and above. One of the terminals of
mugger is connected to conducting part. Other terminal is connected to the earthed frame as shown
in fig 1.13. The generator is hand driven and the reading is directly obtained on the scale graduated
from zero to infinity in mega ohms.

Dielectric test
This test is to check the adequacy of main insulation to earth and between windings. The Line
terminals of the windings under test are connected together and the appropriate test voltage is
applied while the other windings and tank are connected together to the earth. The supply voltage
must be nearly sinusoidal. The peak value of the voltage is measured using digital voltmeter. The
peak value divided by {2 shall be equal to the test value.
The duration of application of test voltage is 60 sacs.

No load current and no-load losses


No Load current is the current drawn by the transformer when there is no Load. Usually no-Load

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current is Less than 4% of full Load current. Hence 12R Losses are negligible. However iron losses
(hysteresis and eddy current losses) are present in no-load condition. No-load test is performed at
normal voltage and frequency with the winding open circuited. The live winding is supplied with
normal voltage. The input power measured will give no-load loss. The no load current and losses
are useful in evaluating the efficiency of transformer

Temperature rise test


Temperature rise test is one of the Type tests which confirms the design for temperature rise. This is
also called as heat run test. This test simulates the conditions of continuous rated load and
occurrence of temperature rise.
For standard tank, the dissipation constant is known. In such case it is necessary to measure only
transformer losses and to calculate the temperature rise of the coil and windings on continuous
loading. For non-standard tank, it is necessary to carry out temperature rise on the transformer and
different methods to obtain the temperature rise are as below.
a)Short circuit test
b)Back to back test
c)Delta/Delta test
d)Open-circuit test
In short circuit method, one winding of the transformer is short circuited and voltage applied to the
other winding of such a value that the power input is equal to the total normal full load losses of the
transformer at the temperature corresponding to continuous full load. The measurements are taken
with the transformer at ambient temperature. The copper loss at the continuous full load temperature
will be higher than the measured copper loss at lower temperatures Le the copper loss varies
directly as the resistance of the windings. At the commencement of the test, the current is given by

However to ensure greater accuracy, the test is made by measuring the power input, which is finally
increased to include the hot copper loss. In general, it is seen that this test is most suitable when the
copper loss is high compared with the iron loss and conversely and not for the transformers having
relatively high iron losses. When the normal temperature rise is approached the copper loss should
be measured and any necessary current adjustment should then be made in order to correct the
power input to obtain the true losses under normal full-load conditions.

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Cooling of transformers:
The oil acts as an insulating medium and cooling medium.
The heat generated is removed by the oil and is transferred to atmospheric air or water. The
effective cooling ensure longer life due to less thermal degradation. Several cooling methods are
possible for transformers depending on the capacity of the transformers.
i)ONAN: Oil Natural Air Natural: This is widely used for transformers up to 30MVA and are fitted
with panel type radiators for oil natural circulation.
ii) ONAF: Oil Natural Air Forced: This is used for transformers of capacity between 30 MVA and
60 MVA. The panel type radiators are used with cooling fans. Fans are switched on during heavy
loads only.
iii) OFAF: Oil Forced Air Forced: This method is used for transformers above 60 MVA. The oil is
circulated through coolers. Fans are used to exchange heat from oil to air.
iv) OFWF: Oil forced Water Forced: The heat is exchanged from oil to cooling water. Both oil and
cooling water are circulated through radiator.
v)AN: Air Natural: The ambient air used for cooling. This method is employed for oil free
transformers up to 1.5MVA
Radiators are
tank mounted radiators
 Banked radiators

Impulse testing:
Lightning is probably the most common cause of flashover on overhead transmission line. Two
mechanisms can be distinguished. In the first, the lightning stroke makes a direct contact with phase
conductor producing a voltage on the line in excess of the impulse voltage level and in the other, the
stroke makes contact with an earth wire or tower and the combination of tower current and tower
impedance produces a voltage near the tower top to produce back flashover. The terminal
equipments of high voltage transmission lines experience lightning impulses in service.

Switching impulses can occur during all kinds of switching operations in the system. The magnitude

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and form of impulses generated differ from case to case. The magnitudes of switching impulses in
the network are proportional to system voltage. The maximum voltage can be about 3.5 times the
service voltage.
The system disturbances may be
a)Full waves
b)Chopped waves
c)Front waves

The standard impulse voltage is characterized by


a)Polarity
b)Peak value
c)Virtual front T1
d)Virtual half time T2
e)Virtual time chopping TCU

The standard impulse waves are of three types:


a)Lightning impulse: 1.2/50 ~s wave with wave front of 1.2 ~ sacs and wave tail of 50 ~ sacs
b)Switching impulse wave: 250/2500 ~s
c)Chopped impulse wave: 12/50 ~s.

The Chopped wave is an incoming surge chopped by a flashover of the co-ordination gaps close to
the transformer.
Test set up for impulse testing of Power Transformer: The impulse voltage is produced by the
discharge of a capacitor or number of capacitors into a wave generating network and so produced
impulse voltage is applied to the object under test. For the impulse test a multi stage impulse
generator which is a modified version of Marx's original circuit is used. This consists of number of
capacitors initially charged in parallel and discharged in series by the sequential firing of the
interstate gaps.

Partial Discharge Testing

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A partial discharge is localized electrical discharge in insulating media which only partially bridges
the insulation between conductors. Some of the reasons for initiation of partial discharge in
transformers are - Improper processing or drying of the insulation
- Over stressed insulation due to the lack of proper
recognition of the voltage limitation of the insulation
- High stress areas in conducting part or the ground plane.
These factors cause
Ionization in the cavities within the solid insulation
Gas bubbles in insulating liquids or along dielectric surfaces
Partial discharge may lead to progressive deterioration of insulating materials
The partial discharge test has been introduced as routine test for transformers of system voltages
more than 300 kV. This test is a long duration test, to check the insulation with regard to voltage
under normal operating conditions and momentary over voltages originating from switching
operations and faults. The magnitude of these over voltages shall not exceed 1.5 up. The test voltage
of 1.5 up for 30 minutes is suitable for checking the ability of the insulation to sustain the stresses.

Power frequency withstand test


This is a routine test conducted at specified test voltage applied for one minute to check for the flash
over or breakdown. The test voltages depend upon the type of the transformer i.e. dry or oil
immersed transformer. These tests are usually conducted in high voltage test laboratories. Voltage
source is derived from an ac generator driven by a motor. High voltage transformers are cascaded to
get the voltage. During the test, voltage is gradually raised and kept applied for one minute. Special
methods used to measure high voltages include sphere gap, transformer ratio method, potential
divider etc
.
Sudden short circuit withstand test
It may be considered as a Type test and is conducted in a short circuit testing station. The ability of
transformer to and external short circuit (through short circuit) is proved .
withstand the mechanical and thermal stresses caused by to external short circuit current. When
short circuit current flows ~~rough the winding, the winding is subjected to radial force. The radial
forces produce hoop stress on outer and compressive stress on inner winding. The winding also

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experiences axial forces tending to collapse the winding, fracture the end rings and bending of
conductor between spacer. The windings should not get deformed when short circuit current is
circulated. The secondary is shorted and low specified voltage is applied for short duration of the
order of 2 seconds.

Induced over voltage withstand test:


Power transformers are subjected to a voltage equal to twice the rated voltage. This test is carried
out by supplying the specified test voltage to the live windings from an he testing transformer at a
frequency higher than the rated value. The test voltage may be measured on live side of the
transformer under test, either directly or using a voltage transformer or peak value of voltage
induced in the winding using electrostatic voltmeter or a suitable voltage divider. The duration of
test must be 60 sacs at any frequency up to and including twice the rated frequency. When the
frequency exceeds twice the rated frequency, the duration of the test should be equal to rated
frequency

Efficiency and regulation


The efficiency of transformer is the ratio of its output to input. The efficiency changes with load
(both magnitude and quality of the load). The losses in transformers are
a)No-load losses: It includes both hysteresis loss and eddy current loss. As the core flux in a
transformer remains
practically constant at all loads, the core loss is also called as constant loss. These losses are
minimized by using steel of high grade silicon for the core and by using very thin laminations. The
input power of a transformer under no-load, measures the core loss.
b)Load losses: This loss is mainly due to holmic resistance of the transformer winding. Copper-loss
also includes the stray loss occurring in the mechanical structure and winding conductor due to the
stray fluxes.
c)Full load copper loss is measured by the short circuit test.

Loading conditions of transformer:


The loading of transformer is decided by permissible temperature rise of windings and oil.
Permissible oil temperature is 650( and hot spot temperature of the winding is 800C at rated current.

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As load on the transformer varies according to the load curve, loading becomes an important
operating problem. Life expectancy reduces if the transformer is overloaded for longer duration.
Tap changers
Voltage variation is a normal phenomenon, because of rapid growth of electrical load and
distribution network. It is necessary to maintain system voltage within the specified limit for the
better health of electrical equipments. The system voltage may be adjusted by changing the tapings
on the power transformer. The variation in voltage may be brought in either by step or step less
control. But the practice proved that voltage variation is handled effectively in steps without
creating objectionable disturbances on the system. This variation is generally achieved by means of
tapings on the power transformer because of the smaller currents to be dealt with, are normally
located on the higher-voltage winding

Off circuit tap changer:


The economic method of changing the turns ratio of a transformer is the use of off-circuit tap
changer. As the name suggests, it is necessary to de-energize the transformer before changing the
tap. A mechanical lock is provided to prevent unauthorized operation and inadvertent operation. The
transformers are normally provided with off-circuit taps with ± 2.5 percent and ±5 percent on the
side. The station transformers are preferably provided with OLTC with ± 10% in steps of 1.25
percent on the side.

On Load Tap Changers (OLTC):


OLTC are employed to change turns ratio of transformer to regulate system voltage while the
transformer is delivering normal load. With the inception of o LTC, the operating efficiency has
considerably improved. All forms of OLTC circuit possess an impedance, which is introduced to
avoid short circuiting of tapping section during tap changer operation. The OLTC can in general, be
classified as resistor or reactor type. As the motor drive unit is initiated by a push button or voltage
control relay, tap selector changes tap. The diverter switch diverts the current. The tap changers
function without interruption in load current.

Commissioning of transformers:

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Transformer must be healthy in all respects before energizing and, therefore, it should be thoroughly
checked before commissioning. The tests to be carried out at site before commissioning will depend
upon the voltage and KVA rating of the transformer, facilities available at site and conditions of
contract. The typical tests to be carried out are as follows

Typical Tests carried out before commissioning


General inspection
a) Control and relay panels, etc.
b)Junction boxes and marshalling kiosks.
On all transformer protection relays
a)Tests on operation and stability of earth fault relays on high voltage side.
b)Tests on line directional elements of high voltage line relays.
c)Tests on high speed neutral circuit breaker
d)Tests on over current relays on low voltage side.
e)Tests on operation and stability of earth fault relays on low-voltage side.
f)Tests on operation of standby earth fault relay on low-voltage side.
g)Tests on over current relay on high voltage side (when current transformer are not in transformer)
bushings
h)Voltage compensation
i)With 415 V applied on high-voltage side, measure the voltage between all phases on the low-
voltage side for every tap position.
j)To check phasing, measure volts: A to a, band c B to a, band c ( to a, b and c where A, Band ( are
the terminals of three phases on high voltage side and a, band c are the corresponding terminals on
low voltage side.
k)Magnetic balance test.

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UNIT 3 & 4
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES:
a. Specifications: As per BIS standards.
b. Installation: Physical inspection, foundation details, alignments, excitation systems, cooling and
control gear, drying out.
c. Commissioning Tests: Insulation, Resistance measurement of armature & field windings,
waveform & telephone interference tests, line charging capacitance.
d. Performance tests: Various tests to estimate the performance of generator operations, slip test,
maximum lagging current, maximum reluctance power tests, sudden short circuit tests, transient &
sub transient parameters, measurements of sequence impedances, capacitive reactance, and
separation of losses, temperature rise test, and retardation tests
Factory tests: Gap length, magnetic eccentricity, balancing vibrations, bearing performance

SPECIFICATIONS
Following are the ratings of synchronous machines :
 Rated Voltage : 3.3 KV, 6.6 KV, 11 KV
 Power Rating : 10 MW, 20 MW, 50 MW, 100 MW, 500 MW
 Excitation Voltage : 100 V – 1000V dc
 Excitation Current : 5-20A
 Speed : Speed in rpm is mentioned (say 3000 rpm)
 Cooling System : Forced air, Hydrogen cooled, Water cooled.
 Type of rotor : Salient pole or smooth cylindrical
 Short circuit ratio
 Class of Insulation
 Temperature limits
 Connections
 Frequency

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INSTALLATION
Physical Inspection :
The synchronous generator received at site must be stored in a safe place. Before keeping in store,
the machine should pass an acceptance procedure intended to check it for missing or damaged parts
so as to take necessary measures for excluding the violation of installation terms. For this, the
machine is partially unpacked for checking preferably in presence of representative of the supplier.
Large capacity synchronous generators are delivered in a disassembled condition.

Foundation
Large alternators require strong foundation depending on the type of mounting i.e. horizontal or
vertical mounting. Alternators in generating stations are usually vertically mounted covering two
flours, the basement and the ground floor. Foundations should be separated from columns and other
supporting structures of the building so as to prevent the transfer of vibrations of the machine to the
building. Basic dimensions of the foundations are specified by the manufacturer in the foundation
drawing. The foundation must be provided with holes to receive anchor bolts securing the bed
plates. The holes and anchor bolts shall be fixed in the concrete. The alternator is installed in a
strong structure constructed for this purpose only.
Various steps in installation of an alternator
Installation of bed plate and the leveling of bed plate
Installation of the bearing pedestals and leveling of the bearing pedestals
Checks on stator and rotor
Assembly of the rotor onto the shaft
Installation of the stator
Installing the rotor in the stator
Checking of the air gap between stator and rotor
Preparation of shaft couplings
Mounting of shaft couplings on shaft
Preparation of shafts and alignment of shafts.

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Installation of cooling systems


Drying out
Testing
Commissioning
Each of the above activities should be carried out by technically skilled staff. The instruction
manual supplied by the manufacturer should be referred in practice.
Shaft alignment should be, perfect to get trouble free mechanical performance of the generator with
the driven equipment. The rating plate is of definite dimensions as per IS Code. The ratings are
etched or engraved and is fixed to the machine in a clearly visible position.

Procedure to start synchronous generator


The starting of synchronous generator is a slow and complex process as it involves starting of
boilers, turbine auxiliaries boiler auxiliaries etc. When starting synchronous generator fro~ "cold"
the following steps to be followed.
Starting of boiler auxiliaries
Starting of turbine and auxiliaries
Starting of boiler
Roll turbine .
Keep the unit as a spinning reserve.
The above said activities may take several hours.

Excitation system
The rotor of a synchronous machine needs dc current for excitation. The field current is supplied
and controlled by the excitation system. An excitation system includes all the equipment required
for supply of field current and voltage regulator system. Excitation response is the rate of change of
exciter voltage and is expressed in terms of volts per second. The maximum voltage that may be
attained by an exciter under specified condition of load is termed as excitation ceiling voltage. The
function of the excitation system is to supply and regulate field current.

Brushless (static) excitation system:


a- Permanent magnet alternator (Rotating field, stationary armature)
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b - Magnetic amplifier
c - AC exciter (Rotating armature, stationary field) d - Silicon diode rectifier (Revolving with rotor)
e - Main generator field or rotor
f - Feed back of generator voltage for control and regulation
The silicon diode rectifier is mounted on the same shaft to
excite the field of the main generator directly. An acexcitp.r is used to feed power to the revolving
rectifier. The field of the ac exciter is fed by a magnetic amplifier that controls and regulates the
output voltage of the main generator. The excitation power for the magnetic amplifier is obtained
from a small permanent magnet alternator which is also driven from the main shaft. The voltage and
frequency of ac exciter are selected so as to optimize the performance and design of the overall
system.

Cooling
The heat due to losses in the machine is imparted first is primary coolant, by raising its temperature.
The heated primary coolant may be replaced by a new coolant at a lower temperature or may be
cooled by a secondary coolant in some form of heat exchanger. The 12R losses and other losses in
electrical machine appear as heat raising the temperature of each internal part above the ambient
temperature of the surrounding air. The temperature rise is related to the rate of heat production, the
rate of cooling and the thermal capacity. The temperature rise is significant as it affects the life of
the winding insulation. Heat is removed by a combination of conduction, convection and by
radiation from Outer surfaces. Terms used in cooling system are as below
Primary coolant: A medium, being at lower temperature than that part of machine and is in contact
with it which removes the heat.
Secondary coolant: A medium, which being at Lower temperature than that of primary coolant
which removes the heat given up by primary coolant.
Heat exchanger: A component of cooling system that transfers heat from one coolant to another by
keeping the two coolants separate.
Inner cooled (direct cooled) winding: A winding which has either hollow conductors or tubes"
which form an integral part of the winding, through which the coolant flows. .
Open circuit cooling: A method of cooling in Which the coolant is drawn from the medium
surrounding the machine, passes through the machine and then returns to the surrounding medium.

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Closed circuit cooling: The primary coolant is circulated in a closed circuit through the machine and
if necessary, through heat exchanges. Heat is transferred to the secondary coolant.
Further the cooling system may be
Standby or emergency cooling system
Dependent circulating circuit components v' Independent circulating circuit components v' Integral
circulating circuit components
Machine mounted circulating circuit components v' Separately mounted circulating components

Hydrogen cooling of turbo - generators:


The thermal conductivity of hydrogen is about 7 times that of air. The density of hydrogen is 0.07
times that of air. The specific heat of hydrogen is 14 times that of air. Hence hydrogen gas is
preferred to air as a coolant in Large turbo generators of capacity 60 MW and above. It reduces
noise and improves heat transfer. The hydrogen cooling is direct cooling i.e. the cooling medium is
in direct contact with conductors. The hydrogen gas is passed through the rectangular tubular cross
section rotor conductors. The stator conductors are hollow and hydrogen gas from a separate circuit
is circulated through the stator conductors. The pressure of the gas is of the order of 1.5 Kgjm2 and
flow rate is about 15 m3 jess. Hydrogen blowers are required to circulate hydrogen gas through
direct cooled machine.

Water cooled machines:


In direct water cooling, water is the cooling medium and it is circulated through stator conductors
and rotor conductors. The speed of the water flow in the chillness is about 2.5 music. The water at
higher speed efficiently removes the heat.

Types of enclosures
The method of cooling is closely related to the construction and the type of enclosure of the
machine.
Open - pedestal: In this the stator and rotor ends are open to the outside ambient air, the rotor being
supported on pedestal bearings mounted on the bed plate.
Open end bracket: In this the bearings forms part of the end shields which are fixed to the stator
housing. The air is in comparatively free contact with the stator and rotor through the openings. This

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is common for small and medium size motors and generators.


Protected or end-cover type with guarded openings: The protector may be screen or fine-mesh
covers.
Drip, splash or hose proof: This is a protected machine with the openings in the end shield for
cooling. The end shields are designed to prevent entry of falling water or dirt or jets of liquid.
Pipe or duct cooled: With end covers closed except for flanged openings for connection to cooling
pipes.
Totally enclosed: In this type, the air will not be in contact with the ambient air. The machine is
totally air tight. Total enclosure may be associated with an internal rotor fan, an external fan,
cooling or closed air circuit cooling in which the air is circulated to a cooler and returned to the
machine.
Water proof or water tight
Flame proof or explosion proof: This motor is used in hazardous location such as mines, chemical
industries etc.
The ratings of machines are dependent upon their respective cooling systems. For complex cooling
systems, the machines may have to be dated.

Duty of rotating machines


The limits of temperature rise has a reference to the standard duty specified for the machine.
According to IEC, 15 and B5 standard specifications, the standard duty cycles are designated as 51,
52 ... 58. The standard operating conditions are designated by letters N,R,D,F,V. The temperature
rise depends on the duty and local conditions.
Standard duty cycles for synchronous motors:
51 Continuous operation at rated load
52 5hort time operation
53 Intermittent periodic operation
54 Intermittent periodic operation with starting
55 Intermittent periodic operation with electric braking
56 Continuous cyclic operation
57 Continuous cyclic operation with electric braking
58 Continuous cyclic operation but with related load/torque characteristics

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Procedure for drying out synchronous machines:


The circuit for drying out of synchronous machines. This is the most convenient method of drying.
The machine stator windings are supplied with low voltage. The input voltage, current, power &
temperature of winding, temperature of body, temperature of air are periodically measured. The end
shields of the machine are removed. The machine body is covered with tarpaulin. No cool air blow
shall come over the hot winding.

Testing of Synchronous machines


1 Testing of synchronous generators
The tests performed include factory tests and field tests.
The tests are conducted to demonstrate that the machine gives the required performance. These tests
are
 Open circuit test (no load test)
 Short circuit test
 Zero power factor characteristics tests and loss measurement
 Temperature rise test by Full load over excited run
 By equivalent heat run
 Over speed test
 High voltage tests
 Insulation resistance tests
 Waveform interference, gap length, balance, vibration, bearing currents, magnetic symmetry
 Measurement of dc resistance of armature and field windings
 Dielectric test

2. Tests on synchronous motors:


 Measurement of dc resistance of armature & field windings
 Dielectric tests on armature and field windings
 Mechanical balancing test

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 Temperature rise test


 Over speed test
 Harmonic analysis
 Telephone interference ./ Short circuit test
 Reactance and time constants ./ Speed torque characteristics ./ Efficiency calculations
 Bearing insulation test
 Direction of rotation
 Current balance on no Load
 Commissioning tests

3. Measurement of insulation resistance


The insulation resistance of stator winding to earthed frame, rotor winding to earthed frame, phase
to phase winding pedestal and bearing insulation resistance is measured using mugger. The mugger
readings for 15 seconds and 60 seconds are taken to find the polarization index.

4. Measurement of dc resistance of windings


The dc resistance of armature windings, field windings and field discharge resistance are measured
using the following methods.

a)Voltmeter ammeter method: In which voltage applied across the winding and current through the
winding are noted at the specified temperature. Then the resistance is calculated. This is suitable for
field resistance measurement. Built in bridges via Wheatstone bridge and Kelvin's double bridge are
used to measure field resistance & armature resistance respectively. As resistance is sensitive to
temperature, temperature is also recorded and three to five readings are taken.

5. Open circuit test (No load saturation test)


The open circuit characteristics of a synchronous machine is the curve showing the relationship
between armature terminal voltage and field excitation. The prime mover is run at rated speed. The
excitation is varied in steps and corresponding no load voltage is recorded. The characteristic curve
may be plotted in per unit where unit voltage and unit excitation corresponding to rated voltage and
excitation current on the air gap Line. The open circuit characteristics represent the relation between
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the space fundamental component of the air gap flux and the miff on the magnetic circuit when the
field winding constitutes the only miff source. During no Load test the no Load Losses of the
machine can be obtained.

6..Sudden 3-phase short circuit test on generator


When an alternator is subjected to sudden short circuit, the current in all the three phases increases
suddenly to a high value (10 to 8 times full Load current) during the first quarter cycle. The flux
crossing the air gap is Large during first couple of cycles. The reactance during this period is Least
and the short circuit current is high. This reactance offered during sub transient period is called as
sub transient reactance x/. The first few cycles are covered under sub transient state. After few
cycles the decrement in rams value of short circuit current is Less rapid than that during the first few
cycles. This state is called as Transient state and the reactance offered during this period is called as
transient reactance Ad" The circuit breaker contacts open during this period. Finally the transient
dies out and the current reaches a steady sinusoidal state called the steady state and the reactance
offered during this state is called as steady state reactance Ad' Since the short circuit current lag the
voltage by 90°, the reactance involved is direct axis reactance.

7. Negative phase sequence test


The test is conducted when reduced symmetrical voltage (0.02-0.2) up is applied to the machine
driven at rated speed, connected to an external source of supply with negative phase sequence i.e.
operating as an electromagnetic brake with the slip equal to 2. The excitation winding is short
circuited. If the residual voltage of the machine under test exceeds 0.30 times of the supply voltage,
the rotor should be demagnetized before testing the machine. The voltage and current in all the three
phases and power are noted.

Negative sequence reactance and resistance are determined from the negative phase sequence test
by the formulae.

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where P = input power


I = average current measured V = average voltage measured
Lower case letters indicate per unit values

8. Measurement of sub transient reactance


The voltage is applied across any two terminals except neutral, with the rotor at rest and short
circuited on itself through an ammeter as shown in figure 3.7. The rotor is rotated by hand and it
will be observed that for a fixed voltage applied, current in the field varies with the position of the
rotor. When the rotor is in the position of maximum induced field current direct axis sub transient
reactance is obtained. When the rotor is in a position of minimum induced field current quadrature
axis sub transient reactance is obtained.

9. Slip test and calculation of ax & Ad


During the slip test, subnormal symmetrical three phase voltage of magnitude 10 to 200!0 of the
rated voltage is applied to the armature terminals of the machine. The field of the alternator is either
open circuited or short circuited. The prime mover is run at slightly less than synchronous speed to
get a slip of 0.01. Armature current and voltages are measured using indicating instruments or
recorded by using oscilloscope. The ammeter & volt meter readings will indicate two values which
are to be taken as minimum and maximum quantities respectively.

10. Power frequency voltage withstand test


This test is conducted on 3 phase ac windings of an ac generator with the specified values of power
frequency test voltage. The test voltage of (2V+l) KV is applied for specified time (1 minute)
between windings and earthed frame. The machine parts should not exhibit flash over, to consider it
to have passed the test.

11. Over speed tests on motors


In certain applications over speed can occur occasionally. This test is an essential Type test and
even may be a routine test. Egg: for traction motors, over speed test is conducted at speed of 120 to
150% of the rated speed for two minutes. This test is carried out on hot motor. After the test, profile

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of rotor, end coils, air gaps and bearings can be observed visually. Minor repairs can be attended. If
the serious damage occurs, the design/ma:lufacture should be reviewed.
12. Vibration test
The vibration test is carried out on the complete machine after assembly and balancing of the
machine. A set of three orthogonal accelerometers are fixed on each bearing. The vibrations are
measured in two directions normal to the shaft. For vibration test the machine is run at no load
without coupling to any machine.

Measurement of audible noise:


In applications where driven machine makes more noise, motor noise is ignored. In applications
where audible noise
levels are to be held within permissible limits, the audible noise test on motor may be an acceptance
test in work or at site. Motor design features including enclosure, degree of protection, power rating
and speed influences audible noise directly. For example, 6 pole motor gives 76 dB(A) and 2 pole
motor gives 84 dB(A) 1.1 KW motor gives 76 dB(A) and 1.1 MW motor gives 105 dB(A).

Sound measurement: This requires sound meter fitted with filters to accept noise at set
frequencies. The table 3.1 gives lee A weightings of standardized curves of frequency (Hz) to
relative sound pressure level (dB).

Noise Reduction:
Noise is due to
 Magneto striation ./ Aerodynamics
 Bearing noise of rotating shaft
Speed and power affect aerodynamics and bearing noise of the rotating shaft.
 Totally enclosed machine gives least sound, open ventilated machines give maximum sound.
 Ventilation noise predominates in 2 pole machine
 When bearing noise becomes audible, the other two are less significant.

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Methods to reduce noise:


 ' By reducing magnetic loading
 By increasing number of armature slots
 By skewing slots
 By continuously grading main pole gap ../ By increasing air gap length
 By providing brace commutating poles against main poles
 By using 12 pulse thruster for speed control instead of 6 pulse converter

Semi enclosed slots or totally closed slots for compensating windings.


Measurement of temperature

The temperature of various parts of electrical machines can be measured by one of the following
means.
1. Thermometer: This gives the temperature of the surface at one point only
2. Embedded temperature detector (thermo couple or resistance coil): This gives
thetemperature at one internal point
3. Estimating the mean rise in temperature using the resistance temperature co-efficient.

Loading of the machine should be within its specified limits as per duty. Over loading leads to
temperature rise. Standard limits of temperature rise in electrical machines and the class of
insulation temperature for different insulating materials are as shown in the next page.

Double line to neutral sustained short circuit test


The 2 L-N sustained short circuit test is considered to determine zero sequence resistance of a
synchronous machine. The short circuit is applied to any two of the stator and the neutral of the
stator winding. To conduct the line-line and neutral sustained short circuit test armature winding is
star connected, two line terminals are short circuited to neutral and the machine is driven at rated
speed and is then excited.

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UNIT: 5, 6 & 7
INDUCTION MOTORS
a. Specifications for different types of motors, Duty, I.P. protection
b. b. Installation: Location of the motors (including the foundation details) & its control
apparatus, shaft & alignment for various coupling, fitting of pulleys & coupling, drying of
windings. 4 Hours
c. Commissioning Test: Mechanical tests for alignment, air gap symmetry, tests for bearings,
vibrations & balancing.
Electrical Tests: Insulation test, earth resistance, high voltage test, starting up, failure to speed up
to take the load, type of test, routine test, factory test and site test (in accordance with ISI code
d. Specific Tests: Performance & temperature raise tests, stray load losses, shaft alignment, and re-
rating & special duty capability.

Introduction
The induction motors are widely used as industrial drives because of simplicity, reliability and low
cost. Induction motors works with better efficiency, appreciable over-load capacity and maintenance
required is minimum. With the application of thruster control, induction motor can be used for
variable speed drive. Three - phase induction motors are available with various ratings from
fractional hp to several thousands of hp (say 10,OOOhp). Small motors below 1 hp (FHP motors)
are usually single phase induction motors. Induction motors are available with different voltage.
ratings i.e. 440V, 3.3 KV, 6.6 KV, 11 KV. Induction motors are not economical above 11 KV
because it is difficult to design slot insulation. The rated voltage generally depends on KW rating.
The following table gives ratings of 3phase induction motors.

Specifications of 3-phase induction motors


The important step in selection of an induction motor for ~pacific application is deciding the ratings
considering all affecting. parameters. Design of the motor is based on the following assigned

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numerical values of capabilities as per IS 325 - 1978.


Output rating: The preferred output rating for induction motors up to and including 110 KW are
0.06, 0.09, 0.12, 0.18, 0.25, 0.37, 0.55, 0.75, 1.1, 1.5 2.2, 3.7, 5.5, 7.5, 11, 15, 18.5, 22, 30, 37, 45,
55, 75' 90,100 KW.
Type of mounting: The mounting is to be specified like foot mounting, bed mounting, etc.
Rated voltage and rated frequency with variations:
Motors shall be able to deliver rated output with;
Aterminal voltage differing from its rated value by not more than ± 6 percent or,
 The frequency differing from its r::tied value by not more than ± 3 percent or
Combination of a and b.
The preferred voltages shall be in accordance with IS 5851962. The voltages preferred for 3 phase,
50Hz machines are 415V, 3.3KV, 6.6KV and l1KV.

Procurement of induction motor


Information to be given 'with enquiry and order: IS 3251978.When enquiring for and placing an
order for induction motor the following particulars should be supplied.
1)Site and operating conditions
2)Reference to this standard i.e. IS code number
3)Type of enclosure
4)Type of duty
5)Method of cooling
6)Type of construction
7)Frequency in Hz
8)No. of phases
9)Mechanical output in KW
10)Rated voltage and permitted variation
11)Class of insulation
12)Speed in revolutions per minute, approximate, at the rated output
13)Direction of rotation, looking from the driving end.
14)Unit or bidirectional of rotation required.
15)The maximum temperature of air and water used for cooling.

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16)Maximum permissible temperature rise


17)The height at which the motor is intended to work
18)Variation of voltage, current, frequency and speed
19)Particulars of tests required and where the tests are to be carried out

Rating plate of induction motor


Rating plate giving the following details should be supplied with each motor
Reference to the standard i.e. Ref. IS: 325
Induction motor
Name of the manufacturer
Manufacturer's number and frame reference
Type of duty
Class of insulation
Frequency in Hz
Number of phases
Speed in rpm
Rated output in KW
Rated voltage and winding connections
Current in amperes at rated output
Rotor (secondary) voltage and winding connections
Rotor (secondary) current in amperes at rated output and
Ambient temperature when above 40°C.

Types of enclosures:
The different types of enclosures are as follows I) Open ventilated motor
ii) Ventilated motor
iii) Drip proof motor
iv) Water protected motor v) Totally enclosed motor
vi) Totally enclosed fan cooled motor vii) Environment proof motor
viii) Weather proof motor

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ix) Hose proof motor

Duty
The duty requirement shall be given by the purchaser as accurate as possible. Based on the loading
pattern the duty shall be declared by the purchaser by numerical value or with the aid of time
sequence graphs of variable quantities. The assigned rating by the manufacturer gives the capa-
bilities. The ratings are to confirm IS 4722 - 1968 and IS 1885 ( art 35) 1973. The electrical motors
have time rate of temperature ~e. Duty indicates the duration for which the motor may be run at the
assigned values.

Three phase induction motors with type of protection 'n'


It is essentially standard industrial equipment with additional attention paid to certain features
which is suitable for operating in any gas mixed with air having an ignition temperature higher than
that of the temperature class marked on it. Flame proof enclosure, intrinsic safety or type of
protection 'e' motors are also operated in hazardous Locations. However a substantial saving in cost
may be achieved by using equipment with type of protection 'n'. IS 9628-1980 is referred to provide
a common basis for the construction and testing of motors with type of protection 'n'.
A flame proof equipment installed in hazardous Locations Like mining industry ensures that
ignition occurring within the enclosure of the motor will not transmit the flame to the atmosphere
surrounding the motor. However flame proof motors are expensive and difficult to manufacture for
higher rating. The advent of technology and improvement in installation Lead to the development of
type of protection 'e'. However with type of protection 'e' the temperature rise of the apparatus lode
less than the normally permitted temperature rise for the class of
Hazardous locations and explosion or flame proof machine:
Special enclosures are used for machines operating in hazardous Locations i.e. in presence of highly
inflammable gas vapors, combustible dust, highly inflammable Liquids such as petrol, naphtha,
benzene etc.. These will explode in presence of electric spark. In case of explosion, it is confined
within the ~aching and will not be spread to atmosphere. For this reason enclosure should be strong
to withstand high pressure built

Installation of Induction Motors

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The various stages in the installation of induction motor\ are as follows:

.Acceptance and proper storage at site ./ Foundation and civil work

.Drawing of supply and control cables ./ Preparing motor for


installation
Preparing driven machine and shaft alignment ready

Checking the insulation, starter, supply and control cable\ ./ Drying


out

Checks and tests on the machine and related accessories\ ./ Trial run
on load under observation
Settings of protective relays
Final commissioning and handing over to operating staff
The electrical motors are classified as low power motif
(up to 100 KW), medium power motors (100 KW - 500KW) an~ high power motors (above 1000
KW) based on the output power,

Foundation
The civil construction and foundation of the machine roar should be spacious. The machine room is
to be equipped with~ overhead traveling cranes or jibs for handling assemble machines and any
other heavy parts. Depending upon the size o' the motor, appropriate foundation is to be designed.
However this can be referred to civil engineer for suggestions. Tiff function of the foundation is to
transmit the static and dynamic load of the running motor to the ground.

The machine is bolted to bed plate. The bed plate is fixed to the foundation. The foundation bolts
are used for securing the bed plate. Rolled I-sections are placed in concrete on which the bed plate is
place

Drying of windings

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The insulation of rotating machines is hygroscopic in nature .absorbs moisture. The moisture
reduces the insulation resistance. It is essential to remove the moisture prior to the commissioning
of the motor by drying out. There are different methods available to apply the heat for drying of
induction motor. During drying it is necessary to record the temperature at various stages of drying
out, insulation resistance and time. There are three phases in drying out of induction motor. In the
first phase the insulation resistance starts decr2asing due to the distributionoft moisture in the entire
insulation. The second phase is a steady temperature phase over certain time and the insulation
resistance remains almost constant. In the third and last phase the insulation resistance drastically
increases thereby indicating that the moisture is expelled. The high resistance of insulation gives the
degree of dryness of the insulation.

Polarization index:
It is the ratio of 10 minutes resistance to one minute resistance. PI gives the quantitative information
regarding the presence of moisture, dust and dirt. For class A insulation PI is 1.5 or more, for class
B insulation 2.0 or more. PI value less than 1 indicates the immediate need of reconditioning. Log
sheet of drying out of an induction motor:

1)Technical particulars of machine Rated voltage, rated frequency Rated KW, full load current
Connection diagram, number of windings
2)Technical particulars about connections for drying out
3)Check prior to starting the drying
4)Ambient temperature
5)Initial values of insulation resistance
6)Time of start, date, hours

Drying out of induction motor by drying chamber and resistor heater


Dry the induction motor using drying chamber. The machine to be dried is housed in a drying
chamber. The volume of drying chamber should be nearly four times the volume of the induction
motor. The heated air by using resistor heaters ~s circulated by means of fans and air circulation
system. The air temperature is measured using thermometers. The moisture 15 expelled from the
machine is let out of the drying chamber through air outlet. For large machines heater blowers of 25

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KW are suitable. The chamber should be thermally insulated to avoid heat loss. The machine body
is covered with canvas to prevent heat loss. Temperature of the air shall be controlled by turning off
the heater from time to time. The temperature is gradually raised i.e. not faster than lode per hour.
Higher rate of heating may result in damage due to differential expansion of metals and insulation.
It is required to preferably maintain steady temperature throughout the heating.
Drying out by radiating lamps
This is the convenient and simple method used for medium and small motors. The infrared lamps
are located in the chamber facing the motor windings with rotor removed. This method is applicable
to dismantled motor for drying the stator winding and rotor Winding separately.

Drying out by circulating short circuit current


This is convenient method for drying out slip-ring induction motors. The machine is connected to
low voltage source. The input voltage, current, power, the temperature of winding, temperature of
body, temperature of hot air are periodically recorded. The end covers of the machine are removed.
The machine body is covered with tarpaulin. The increase and decrease of the temperature should
be gradual. The rotor is blocked. The current through the stator winding not to exceed 50% of the
rated current.

Drying by windage losses


This method is applicable to high frequency motors having high speed. The inlet and outlet air ports
are blocked. The windings gets dried by wind age losses dissipated in the form of heat.

Testing of induction motors (mechanical tests)


The various tests conducted on the induction motor are
1)Type tests: These tests are conducted on the first machine manufactured to confirm the design.
2)Routine tests: These tests are conducted on each motor to confirm proper manufacture and to
ensure smooth performance, at manufacturer's premises (factory) or/ and at site.
3)Commissioning tests: These' tests are conducted at site, after installation, before final
commissioning to ensure desired performance under practical conditions.
4)Special tests: These tests are conducted for special investigation as per the contract made between
the manufacturer and purchaser, preferably in presence of representative of purchaser at the floor

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before dispatch.
5)Development test: These tests are conducted to analyze for design parameters and stresses. These
are helpful in development/improvement of the earlier machine or new machine.
6)Reliability tests: These tests are conducted to ascertain reliability of the motor under operating
conditions.
7)Periodic maintenance checks and tests: These tests are included in the preventive maintenance
schedule which depends on the service conditions.

Commissioning tests:
Prior to the commissioning of induction motors, the following are to be carried out to get trouble
free performance.
1. Measurement of resistance of windings
2. Measurement of insulation resistance of winding insulation
3. Power frequency high voltage test
4. Trial start
5. No load tests
6. Load tests
7. Tests on cooling system
8. Tests on lubricating system
9. Performance tests viz. no-load, full load, short circuit speed control, speed-torque
characteristics, starting; stopping/reversing/braking etc.
10. Special tests viz. vibration tests, oscillographic tests to record starting currents, switching
voltages etc.

Mechanical alignment and air gap symmetry


When the rotor is supplied without shaft assembled, is to be fitted on to the shaft before installation.
While fitting the rotor .on to the shaft the difference between the rotor and shaft temperature are to
be taken into account. The rotor hub bore and shaft diameters are to be matched properly. Installing
rotor in the stator is a difficult process. Sling the rotor with a rope and suspend it horizontally. Then
drive it to the stator bore by means of a crane. Place the rotor in position such that the air gap
between the rotor and rotor stocks is approximately uniform. Once the stator and rotor are mounted

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in position, check for clearances between shaft journal necks and the butt end of the bearing shells.
The air gap between the stator and the rotor are checked and adjusted after the shaft is fully aligned.
Set the air gap with the help of wedge type gauges on both sides of the rotor. Permissible values of
difference between maximum and minimum air gap for an induction motor is 10%.

Load Test: 154029 -1967


1f with load are conducted for the determination of performance, such as efficiency, power factor,
speed and temperature rise. For all tests with load, the machine shall be properly aligned and
securely fastened. Load characteristics are obtained usually at 125, 100, 75, 50 and 25 percent of the
full load ~lees.

Methods of Loading:
Brake method
Dynamometer method
Calibrated machine
Non-calibrated machine

The motor may be loaded by ac or dc coupled generator either directly or by belt. The output of the
generator is measured and its efficiency at various loads must be known to calculate the output of
the motor under test. The input to the motor is measured by using wattcmeters. When belt drive is
Jed, the power loss in the belt should be considered. When pony brake is used, for large machine,
then brake gets extremely hot, so the observations must be taken very quickly. This method is
suitable for small machines testing in the laboratory.

No load Test: 154029 - 1967


This test is conducted to determine the no-load current, core loss and friction and wind age losses.
The motor is run on no-load at rated voltage and frequency until the input power is constant. The
readings of voltage, frequency, current and power are noted. This test shall be preferably conducted
immediately after the temperature rise test. The input power is the sum of friction and wind age
losses, core loss and no-load primary I2R loss. The friction and wind age losses and core losses may
be separated if required. locked rotor test

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This test is a carried out by holding the rotor stationary b clamps. The stator is supplied with low
voltage of normal frequency. The applied voltage is gradually increased till the rated current is
circulated in the stator windings. The readings of voltage, current and power are noted. The leakage
impedance reduces with higher current as a result of saturation. Locked rotor test gives copper loss
for particular stator current. Iron losses are ignored.

Temperature rise test: 154029 - 1967


The aim of this test is to find out the temperature rise on different parts of the motor while running
at rated conditions. During temperature rise test, the motor should be shielded from currents of air
entering from adjacent pulleys and other machines. A small current of air may cause great
discrepancy in results obtained. The duration of temperature rise test depends on the type of rating
of the motor. For motors of continuous rating, the test should be continued till the thermal
equilibrium is reached. For motors of short time rating the duration of test corresponds to the
declared short time rating, the test should be continued till the thermal equilibrium is reached.
Methods of measuring temperature rise of parts of motor:
The following methods are approved for determining the temperature of windings and other parts of
motor.
1) Embedded temperature detector method:
Embedded temperature detectors are resistance thermometers or thermocouples built in the machine
at points which are inaccessible when the machine is assembled. This method is generally employed
for the slot portion of stator windings. At least six detectors to be built in a machine suitably
distributed around the circumference.
2) Resistance Method:
This method is generally used for stator whirling’s. Here temperature is determined by the increase
in the resistance of the windings.
3) Thermometer method:
In this method, the temperature is determined by thermometers placed at the accessible surface of
the rotor.

Methods of cooling adopted:


The squirrel cage induction machines are cooled Ii1y circulation of air. The enclosure should be

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such, that the windings are protected from unfavorable environments. When adelllJate surface area
is not available, heat exchangers are used. In self cooled motor a fan is attached to the rotor. This
fan forces air circulation over the windings to give cooling.
Starting test on 3-phase induction motor
The starting test is conducted usually on squirrel cage motors to confirm that induction motors are
capable of starting against specified load torque v.<without crawling or developing vibrations.
When the motor fails to start against load and accelerate up to full speed but runs at 1/7th normal
full load is called as crawling. The voltage is gradually applied to stator winding. The motor should
start at nearby 70% rated voltage. The time taken by the motor to reach rated speed and the current
are noted.

Running up test
Cage motors are liable to harmonic torques, productive of crawling. A running up test is conducted
on cage motors to ensure that they are capable of starting against a reasonable load torque without
failing to attend normal running speed. The test also reveals noisy running and the presence of loose
bars. The load torque applied depends upon the rating and size of the motor and its method of
starting. Thus a continuously rated motor for star delta starting might be expected to start with 25 33
% of full load torque at 175% of full load current in the line.

Noise in Motors:
The noise of a rotating machine is generated by the cooling fans. Noise may be minimized by using
unidirectional trailing bladed fans by the normal radial blades. Further reduction is achieved by inlet
and outlet silencers or the adoption of closed ventilation circuit of cooling air. The noise around a
machine is affected by the shape and dimensions of the outer surfaces of the case and reflection
from hard surfaces of wall.
The noise is also caused by magnetic effects and depends on the stator and rotor slots. The value of
the stator presence variation may be the cause, but the amplitude also depends on higher order rotor
miff space harmonics. The frequency of the noise is twice the product of the supply frequency with
that integer nearest to the number of slot per pole i.e.
fn = fix n
wherefn - frequency of noise due to slot miff harmonic, Hz f - supply frequency

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n - Number of slots per pole.

Effect of variation of supply frequency


The change in frequency results in change in synchronous speed. The change in frequency affects
the synchronous speed, percentage slip, full load speed, full load current, temperature rise on full
load and starting current.

Effect of unbalanced voltages:


Unbalanced supply voltage causes negative component in the rotating magnetic field. This will
induce high rotor current and rotor gets heated and due to overheat rotor may fail. The permissible
unbalance in supply voltage is related with duration. A prolonged unbalanced voltage of 3% results
in excessive heating and damages the rotor and stator insulation.

Dating:
Dating is operation of the machine at underrated value.
This is done when the supply quantities are not as per the specifications. Instead of putting off the
machine, it is Continued to run by making it to develop output power less than the specified.

Methods of starting induction motors


The starting current is higher than the full load current. The different techniques to start the
induction motor to limit the starting current are
1)Direct on line starting (for machines <5 hp)
2)Stator resistance starting
3)Autotransformer starting
4)Start delta starting
5)Rotor resistance starting
6)Thruster starting control
Methods of braking induction motors:
The table gives the different methods adopted for braking of an induction motor.

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Maintenance of Motors
The objective of the maintenance is to reduce the number of failures. During normal working, some
parts wear out and calls for replacement and minor defects are to be rectified to avoid failure. The
breakdown of motor results in loss / damage /outage /inconvenience. The down time of the machine
must be kept as minimum as possible. Hence preventive maintenance is justified
The preventive maintenance needs
 Proper records
 Skilled labor and staff
 Facilities for repairs
 Storage of spares
The repeated inspection leads to wastage of time and money. The neglected/hardly inspection leads
to failure. The frequency of inspection must depend on;
 Importance of the machine
 Duty cycle
 Age
 Overloads, service conditions
The maintenance schedule is always recommended by the manufacture. .Maintenance includes
activities to be taken up to keep the machine in working condition. It includes inspection,
lubrication, cleaning etc., and does not involve complete dismantling. Overhaul includes thorough
checking, inspection, repairs, adjustment and restoring good working condition. During Overhaul,
the machine is dismantled, worn out parts are replaced and the machine is completely restored to
good working Condition.

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UNIT 8:
SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES

SWITCH GEAR & PROTECTIVE DEVICES: Standards, types, specification, installation,


commissioning tests, maintenance schedule, type & routine tests.

Introduction
The term switchgear includes wide range of equipment used for switching, interruption,
measurement, control, indication etc. The necessary units are arranged in a sequence. The
components are enclosed in sheet metal enclosure or cast iron enclosures. Hence the name metal
clad switchgear or metal enclosed switchgear. The components of indoor switchgear include (1)
switching and interruption components viz. switches, switch fuse combinations, circuit breakers,
HRC fuses, isolators and earthling switches (2) measuring components viz. CT, PT, meters etc.
Faults occur on power system due to several reasons and no part of the power system is left
unprotected. The unhealthy part is isolated immediately upon the occurrence of the fault by
protective devices like relays and circuit breakers. The functions of different devices used in
protection are mentioned below.
1.Relay: It is used to sense the change in the operating quantity when it exceeds certain preset value.
2.Fuse: It is a simple protective device which breaks the circuit when the current exceeds the rated
value. After the clearance of the abnormality, the fuse element is to be replaced to resume normal
operation.
3.Circuit breaker: It is used to break or make the circuit upon receiving the signal from the
associated relay under abnormal and normal conditions respectively. Based on the location the
making may be manual, semi-auto enclosure or auto closure.
4.Isolators: Isolators are used to isolate during off-load to ensure that the circuit breaker is de
energized for scheduled or unscheduled maintenance activity and is provided with interlocking
provision.

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5.Load break switch: This is used to disconnect the load and overload currents and not short circuit
current.
Circuit breaker
A circuit breaker is capable of breaking & making the circuits under abnormal and normal
conditions respectively. The parts of circuit breaker include
a)Poles with interrupter, porcelain, arc quenching medium
b)Operating mechanism
c)Support structure and
d)Control cabinet

Upon the occurrence of the fault, the current in the secondary side of CT is more than the current
under normal condition and relay connected to the CT actuates and thereby closes its contacts.
Battery supplies the" current to energize the trip coil of the circuit breaker to open the contacts.
After resuming the normal condition, the battery circuit is open & circuit breaker contacts are
closed.

Types of circuit breaker


According to the method of control of the closing operation, circuit breakers are classified as (IS
1011 (Part-II)-1982).
Dependent manual closing
Independent manual closing
Dependent power closing and
Stored energy closing

According to the interrupting medium, circuit breakers are divided into


Oil circuit breakers
Bulk oil circuit breaker - up to 33 KV (now obsolete) ./ Minimum oil circuit breaker - up to 36 KV,
1500 MVA, 132 KV, 3500 MVA
Air circuit breaker - LV circuit breaker up to 1000 V
Air blast circuit breaker - 132 KV, 220 KV, 400 KV, 760 KV
Sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker - 132 KV, 220 KV, 400 KV, 760 KV
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Vacuum circuit breaker - 11 KV, 33 KV

The type of equipment is also further characterized by


Number of poles
Kind of current
Method of closing
Method of opening and

Types of opening mechanism used in high voltage circuit breakers


For circuit breakers above 200 MVA, stored energy type independent automatic operating
mechanisms are used. These can be classified as Spring open, spring closed mechanism: The
closing spring is of higher energy level and is charged by driven gear.
1)Pneumatic operating mechanism: Air blast circuit breakers are invariably provided with
pneumatic operating mechanism. Here the force required for closing and opening operation is
derived from compressed air at certain pressure (18 to 30 kg/cm2).
2)Hydraulic mechanism: High pressure hydraulic oil (300 to 3350 bar) is admitted from the bottom
of hydraulic cylinder by opening of hydraulic valve for opening and closing of the contacts.
3)Solenoid mechanism: In this mechanism, the closing operation is obtained by energizing a
solenoid by direct current. Solenoid mechanism is suitable for auto reclosing.

Specifications of high voltage circuit breaker


Rated voltages: A circuit breaker is defined by the following rated voltages
Rated operational voltage
Rated insulation voltage
Rated current: The circuit breaker is defined by the following currents
rated thermal current
rated uninterrupted current
Rated frequency: The rated frequency of the equipment is so chosen as to suit the service frequency
Rated short circuit breaking and making capacities: The rated short circuit breaking current is the
highest value of short circuit current which the circuit breaker is capable of breaking under specified
conditions of recovery voltage and power frequency recovery voltage. The rated making current

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must be at least 2.5 times the rams value of ac component of rated breaking current.
Rated short time withstand current: It is the rams value of the current that the circuit breaker can
carry in a fully closed position during specified time.
Short circuit performance category: The rated short circuit performance category of the equipment
states the rated operating sequence and the condition of the circuit breaker after performing this
sequence at the rated short circuit making and breaking capacities. For the same circuit breaker the
value of the rated short circuit breaking and corresponding making capacities may be different for
different short circuit performance categories.
The following characteristics should also be considered while selecting the circuit breakers .
a)For control circuits: Rated control supply voltage and type (ac or dc) of current.
b)For air supply system: Rated pressure and its limits and volumes of air at atmospheric pressure
required for each closing and opening operation.
c)For shunt release and under voltage release: Rated voltage & kind of current .
d)For over current release: Rated thermal current, kind of current and range of settings.
e)For auxiliary switches: Rated voltage & current
The circuit breakers intended for circuit operating below 1000 volts ac or 1200 volts dc are covered
under the group low voltage circuit breaker.

Tests on circuit breakers


Type tests: These tests are conducted on the first circuit breaker manufactured to prove the
capabilities and to confirm the specified characteristics of the circuit breaker of that design in a
specially built testing laboratory.
Routine test: Routine tests are performed on each and every circuit breaker as per the
recommendation of the standards to verify the performance.
Commissioning tests: These tests are conducted on the circuit breaker after installation at site to
verify the readiness and proper functioning.
Development tests: These tests are carried on components, sub-assemblies and complete circuit
breakers during and after the development of the circuit breaker. The designers and research
scientists verify the effect of various parameters.

Types of test:

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1.No Load mechanical operation test: This test is to verify speed of travel, operating time and
closing time and is carried out at 85% and 110% rated voltage of shunt trip release.
2.Mechanical performance tests (endurance): It is to check the mechanical ability of opening and
closing of the contacts by carrying out 1000 close and open operations or more.
3.Temperature rise test: Steady temperature of conducting part and insulating parts measured for
rated continuous alternating current.
4.Dielectric tests:
1.2/50 IPSec Lightning impulse withstand
One minute power frequency voltage withstand
250/2500 Ills switching impulse withstand
5.Short time current test: Rated short circuit current is passed through closed breaker for less or 3
sacs .
6.Short circuit breaking and making tests: This test is conducted at 10%, 30%, 60% and 100% rated
short circuit braking current with specified operating sequence and specified TRV (transient
recovery voltage).
7.Line charging current breaking test: This test is conducted for circuit breakers 72.5 KV and above.
8.Cable charging current breaking test: This test is applicable to circuit breakers intended for long
cable network.
9.Single capacitor bank breaking test: This test is applicable for circuit breakers used for capacitor
switching.
10.Small inductive current breaking test: This test is to be conducted on circuit breakers with
reactors, transformers, motors etc.

Commissioning tests:
After the installation, the circuit breakers and protective gear are subjected to certain tests at site to
ensure proper assembly and readiness of the circuit breaker. The commissioning tests include:

Mechanical operation tests


Measurement of travel, simultaneous closure of contacts Measurement of insulation resistance
between terminals
of pole

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Pre commissioning checks


Checking close and open operation by energizing the manual operating signal
Checking close and open operation by energizing relays etc
The insulation resistance is measured using megger. It consists of a built in hand driven dc
generator. The two terminals of megger are connected across the insulation i.e. one to the conductor
and other to the earthed body. Then the dc generator is driven & corresponding resistance indicated
by the mugger is recorded. For the switchgear 1000V or 2500V mugger is preferred. Insulation
resistance of the control circuit, trip circuit, relay circuit etc. is measured using 500V mugger.

High voltage test at site


High voltage test as per the relevant IS code is conducted after the erection of the circuit breaker. By
conducting this test the defect in the insulation can be checked. The test voltage is generally applied
for duration of one minute. The circuit breaker is isolated suitably during the test. The test voltage is
applied between the to be 'tested part' and earthed parts as follows.
1)With breaker closed:
a)Tested part: R - phase
earthed part: Y - phase, B - phase, frame of the circuit breaker
b)Similarly for the phase Y and B
2)With breaker open: This test is conducted on breaker contacts by shorting R,Y,B phases on bus-
bar side~ Voltage is applied from other side consecutively to each phase.

The purpose of high voltage test on circuit breaker is as follows:


To define the insulation characteristics
To standardize the insulation levels
To specify the markings on the rating plates indicating insulation levels
To confirm that, there are no cracks in porcelain, no dust
and moisture is present in the circuit breaker

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High voltage tests on circuit breaker include the following.


Impulse voltage dry withstand test
One minute power frequency voltage dry withstand test
One minute power frequency voltage wet withstand test Power frequency voltage withstand tests
are conducted by applying specified high voltage alternating quantity for one minute. High voltage
testing transformer is an important component of the high voltage testing of circuit breakers. Sphere
gaps are used for the measurement of high voltage. The sphere gap gives the peak voltage from the
known spacing and standard table, the peak Voltage at the instant of disruptive discharge can be
obtained.

Temperature rise test


This test is to be conducted on a circuit breaker that is the representative of a batch of circuit
breakers manufactured Alternating current of rated value at rated frequency is passed through the
circuit breaker by keeping the contacts in the closed position, continuously till the steady
temperature is reached. Readings of various conducting, insulating and structural parts are taken at
an interval of one or half an hour. When steady temperature is reached, the maximum temperature
rise of each part should be less than the permitted values.

Mechanical test (Endurance test)


The breaker should consistently open and close its contacts. In mechanical endurance test the circuit
breaker is opened and closed many times (nearly 1000 times). Few opening & closing operations
(nearly 50 times) is done by energizing the relay and the remaining are by closing the trip circuit by
other means. Mechanical tests on high voltage ac circuit breakers are conducted without charging
the main circuit. During mechanical tests adjustment or replacement of any part of the circuit
breaker is not allowed. However lubrication is to be applied as per the instructions of the
manufacturer. After repeated closing and opening operation, the contacts and other parts of circuit
breaker must be in good position and there should not be any permanent deformation of any parts.
The dimensions should be within original limits. During repeated operations, the breaker parts in the
assembly may fail. The circuit breaker is then considered to have failed in the mechanical test. The
tests are to be conducted after the improvement in the design and manufacture. Successful

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performance in mechanical endurance test proves the adequacy of design and also good quality of
material used in manufacture. Though 1000 close and open operation are specified in the standard,
the manufacturer may conduct nearly 10000 times or more operations to ascertain the reliability and
for getting design data.

Test for contact resistance of circuit breaker pole


The resistance of the pole should be less than about m x 20j..all where m is the number of joints,
contacts in series per pole. This is measured by one of the following two methods.
1)Micro ohmmeter: A micro ohmmeter is connected across terminals of the pole to measure the
resistance directly.
2)Mill volt drop method: The voltage drop across the circuit breaker pole is measured for different
values of dc current. The voltage drop gives a measure of current carrying part and contacts. The dc
current should be sufficiently high but must be less than the rated current. The resistance
measurement of circuit breaker pole should be done at ambient temperature. The resistance must be
of the order of few tens of micro ohms. This test is a routine test to be carried out to ascertain the
performance when the circuit breaker is put in actual operation.

Impulse voltage test


This test is carried· out on indoor and outdoor circuit breakers. Standard impulse wave of specified
amplitude is applied five times in succession. During the test impulse wave with reversed polarity is
also applied. The impulse wave is obtained from an impulse voltage generator. One terminal of the
impulse generator is connected to the terminal of the circuit breaker pole and the other terminal is
connected to the earth and frame of the circuit breaker. The peak value of the impulse wave and its
shape is recorded using RO with calibrated voltage divider. The different impulse voltages will have
different front Wave and tail wave. During the test if there is failure of the insulation or puncture,
will be considered as the circuit breaker has failed

Time versus travel characteristics


There are two methods to obtain the time versus travel characteristics of a high voltage circuit
breaker.
1.Use of potentiometer: In this method, the two fixed terminals of potentiometer is supplied with 3

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volts de. The stem connected to the variable terminal of the potentiometer is connected to the lever
of the circuit breaker. As the lever moves during opening and closing operation, the current through
the variable terminal changes proportional to the travel.

2.The curve-roller: This method is suitable for obtaining the travel. A drum with a paper fixed on it
is driven by a motor. The curve roller is fixed vertically on the top hood of the interrupter of the
circuit breaker. A pencil attached leaves mark on the paper as the drum rotates at the time of closing
and opening.

Short circuit testing station and short circuit test


Short circuit test is conducted to prove the ratings and to obtain the behavior of the circuit breaker
for research and development. The short circuit testing plants are built specially to provide facility
for short circuit testing. Provisions are made to test the complete capability of circuit breaker by
direct and indirect tests. The short circuit power is supplied by specially built short circuit
generators. There are normally two or more generators. These generators are driven by three phase
induction motors and special type of excitation called impulse series resistors and reactors are
provided for adjusting the magnitude of short circuit current and power factor. The master circuit
breaker has higher capacity than that of the circuit breaker under test and protect the breaker under
test. In addition the equipments in short circuit stations are measuring, recording and control
instruments, sequence switch to obtain sequential operation of auxiliaries tee. The preliminary
preparations of circuit breaker testing include connecting the equipments, adjusting the magnitude
of the reactors, contacts on sequence switch to get desired timing etc. are done, while testing, short
circuit is created and the switch is closed. The breaking current is obtained by using oscillograph.
The circuit breaker should be capable of performing the opening and closing operations as per rated
operating sequence for all values of short circuit currents up to its rated short circuit breaking
current at specified test voltage and relevant conditions of transient recovery voltage for terminal
short circuits. Steps in installation and commissioning of outdoor circuit breakers:
In installation and commissioning, the guidelines given by manufacturers are to be followed.
1)Prepare foundation, support structure of the circuit
breaker in position as per the plan
2)Check for the horizontal level

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3)Assemble operating mechanism


4)Extend supply to auxiliary system egg: for motor, for trip·
circuit and closing circuit
5)Measure insulation resistance
6)Check open and closing contacts
7)Make terminal connections
8)Operate breaker from local control panel
9)Operate the breaker from control room as per the instructions and also by operating the respective
10)Put it in actual service

Selection of circuit breakers:


Circuit breakers are used at various voltage levels. The following factors are to be given
consideration while selecting the circuit breakers.
1)Ratings
2)Break time
3)Ambient conditions
4)Type; indoor or outdoor
5)Control desired
6)Type of operating mechanism
7)Type of breaker based on arc extinction medium
8)To be operated alone or in group
9) Frequency of operation
10) Other protective equipment’s with which to be co-ordinate

Installation procedure for circuit breakers:


In the process of installation of circuit breakers, the preliminary preparations such as study of
drawings, acceptance, report checking certificates, test reports of the equipment, completion of civil
engineering work, arranging the tools, organizing the labor, preparation of schedule of installation,
preparation of sequence cards for erection etc. are to be d~.ne. The different steps of installation
include:
1)Sequence card for erection of switchgear equipment

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2)Location of switchgear
3)Unpacking
4)Foundation
5)Erection
6)Bus bar earthling connections
7)Connection of main cables
8)Earthling

Low voltage circuit breakers


Low voltage ac circuit breakers are used in control gear for controlling power by the consuming
devices. LV circuit breakers are for indoor applications. LV circuit breaker operates more frequently
than he circuit breakers. LV circuit breakers are different from the circuit breakers from the point of
view of both ratings and constructional features. LV circuit breakers are more compact as the phase
to phase and phase to. ground clearances for low voltage are less. LV circuit breakers are used for
repeated switching of low currents and overload currents and have capability to break short circuit
currents. The circuit breakers operating below 1000 volts ac or 1200 volts dc are covered under low
voltage switchgear.

Ratings of LV circuit breakers


The important ratings of low voltage circuit breakers are as follows
 Rated voltage and frequency
 Rated currents
 Rated duty
 Rated short circuit making and breaking capacity
 Rated short time withstand categories
 Rated voltages: Rated operational voltage, rated Insulation voltage
 Rated currents: Rated thermal current, rated uninterrupted current
 Rated duty: short time, uninterrupted duty
 Rated short circuit making capacity
 Rated short circuit breaking capacity

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 Rated short circuit withstand capacity


Tests on low voltage ac circuit breakers
The different tests to be carried out on live circuit breakers are as follows.
Type tests: To be conducted to confirm the design, on the first piece manufactured.
 Temperature rise limits test
 Dielectric tests
 Short circuit making and breaking tests
 Short time withstand current test
 Mechanical endurance test
 Overload performance

Routine tests: To be conducted to predict the performance behavior on each circuit breaker.
 Mechanical operation tests
 Calibration of releases
 Dielectric tests
 Insulation resistance test

For low voltage load control, the switchgear used may be one of the following
Low voltage air break circuit breaker
Low voltage contactor
Switch fuse combination
Miniature circuit breaker
Molded case breaker

Maintenance of circuit breakers


The circuit breaker is intended for repeated operations as the occurrence of the faults in the system
is unpredictable. Hence to ensure the protection of system components, more emphasis is to be
given to the maintenance of circuit breakers. The maintenance procedure differs from breaker to
breaker based upon the quenching medium used. The maintenance to be carried out includes the
following.

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1)Period of maintenance Under normal condition On clearing faults


2)Checking of contacts
3)Checking of arc control devices
4)Checking of insulators
5)Checking of relays

Precautions to be taken during maintenance:


The maintenance work should be carried out with authentic permission by the concerned authority.
The following steps are to be followed.
1)Isolate the live part
2)Danger notices should be displayed
3)The neighboring switch should be locked to avoid accidental switch nag
4)The equipment and conductors should be earthed
5)Power tools and safety devices to be provided to the electricians
6)Well trained people must be allowed for the work
7)First aid should be available
8)There should not be any chance of negligence

HVDC circuit breaker


In HVDC system, dc current is controlled by blocking the valves. The arc extinction in ac circuit
breakers takes place at natural current zero of the wave. Thus, the energy in system inductance at
current zero is nil and current interruption is relatively easy. In dc system a LC resonant circuit is
introduced in parallel, just after contact separation of main circuit breaker, thereby oscillations are
produced artificially as shown in fig 4.4. The circuit breaker uses one of the current zeros so as to
extinguish the arc. Such breakers are used for transferred nag current from earth return path to
metallic return

Fuses
Fuse is the weakest link in electrical circuit. It is the simplest current interrupting device used to
protect from excessive currents. It is used for low voltage applications. However modern High

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Rupturing Capacity cartridge fuses (HRC) provide reliable discrimination and accurate
characteristics. In some respects HRC fuses are superior to circuit breakers. The main difference
between the two is that, fuse can break the circuit under abnormal conditions but cannot make the
circuit on its own after the system returns to normal condition, whereas a circuit breaker can make
and break the circuit under normal and abnormal conditions res pectin vet lee.

Types of fuse:
Semi enclosed or re wearable fuse
Totally enclosed or cartridge type
o D-type
o Bolted type
o Expulsion fuse
o High Rupturing capacity fuse (HRC)

The following details pertaining to fuse are considered while selecting the fuse for particular
application.
Rated current
Minimum fusing current
Perspective current
Pre-arcing time
Arcing time
Total operating time
Fusing factor

Metal clad switch gear


The indoor switchgear is generally factory assembled and unit type. The term switchgear covers a
wide range. of,equ.ipment for switching, interruption, measurement, control, mdlCatlOn etc. The
components of switching and interruption include s.witches, switch fuse combinations, circuit
breakers, HRC fuses, isolators and earthling switches. These components are assembled and
enclosed in sheet metal enclosure or cast iron enclosures. Hence these switchgears are called as
metal clad or metal enclosed switchgears. The components for measurement include current and
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potential transformers. In draw-out type metal enclosed switchgear, the components are mounted on
withdraw able carnage. Interlocking for safety is another important feature of such switchgear.
Contactor is a mechanical switching device capable of making, carrying and breaking electric
current under normal conditions including operating overload conditions. Contactors are used
basically for operation under normal conditions and overload conditions. Contactors are required to
operate more frequently. During mechanical endurance test contactors are operated more than
10,000 times on no load to verify the resistance to mechanical wear. Contactors are designed
according to the method of energizing the control circuit viz. electro m;,gnetic, pneumatic and
electro pneumatic. The ratings of the contactors are as follows.
1)Type of contactor
2)Interrupting medium
3)Rated voltage
4)Rated current
5)Rated duty and service conditions

Utilization categories of contactors:


AC-l: Non inductive or slightly inductive, resistance furnaces AC-2: Slip ring induction motors,
starting, plugging
AC-3: Squirrel cage induction motors, starting & to stop AC-4: Squirrel cage induction motors,
starting, plugging & inching
DC-l: Non-inductive, slightly inductive loads DC-2: Shunt motors, starting & to stop
DC-3: Shunt motors, starting, plugging & inching DC-4: Series motors, starting & to stop
DC-5: Series motors, starting, plugging & inching.

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