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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The study regarding calamansi (Fortunellamicrocarpa) extracts, baking soda, and

vinegar were used as components to make fire retardant. The researchers used different level of

concentration of calamansi extract and vinegar mixed with baking soda and were compared as to

what is the best solution for a fire retardant.

Fire can take many forms, all of which involve chemical reactions between combustible

species and oxygen from the air. Properly harnessed, it provides great benefit as a source of

power and heat to meet our industrial and domestic needs but, unchecked, it can cause untold

material damage and human suffering (Drysdale, 1999).

There are three components of fire in order to start and spread all throughout, which are

heat, oxygen and fuel. Heat will act as an ignition that will set the fire and start to burn the object

or area. It will remove the moisture and warm are in order to let the fire spread and develop. Fire

can start with at least 16% oxygen and act as oxidizing agent and generate the combustion. Fuel

is the material to burn of any combustible material and characterized according to its

composition. If one of these is removed, fire can be extinguished or slowed down. Fire is one of

the most dangerous phenomena or natural occurrence that happens which some people

encounter. And the only way to stop it or slowdown is with the use of an extinguisher or a fire

retardant.

According toLohner (2017), fire extinguishers were designed to remove one of the

necessary ingredients for a fire to burn. There are several ways this can be done. For example,

water can be used to remove heat from a fire. Adding water often cools down the fuel enough so

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that it stops burning.Cable, et. al. (n.d.) further explained that common fire extinguishers

contains carbon dioxide. The tank is filled with carbon dioxide under pressure. When the fire

extinguisher is applied to fire, it blankets over the fire which contains oxygen supply. Salts of

carbon dioxide are carbonates and bicarbonates. Baking soda or also called sodium bicarbonate

is probably the purest chemicals found in households. When bicarbonate and acids are mixed,

they release carbon dioxide. According to Hughes Associates, Inc. (2010) stated that fire

extinguishing agents have an important role in reducing the impact on fire with the use of

portable extinguishers to its initial stages to prevent the growth of threat. As eloquently states

also by Dweyr (2017), the fire extinguisher apparatus comprises sodium bicarbonate and the

liquid comprises acetic acid. The extinguishing mixture is made from a combination of acetic

acid in the form of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate in the form of baking soda.

Acids and bases are present in a variety of foods and consumer products. Acids generally

have a sour taste, and nearly every sour food contains an acid. Lemons, oranges, and grapefruit

contain citric acid, for instance, and sour milk contains lactic acid. Bases are not so obvious in

foods, but most of us have them stored under the kitchen or bathroom sink. Bases are present in

many household cleaning agents, from perfumed toilet soap, to ammonia-based window

cleaners, to the substance you put down the drain to dissolve hair, grease, and other materials

that clog it (Stanley, 2007). Acetic acid, CH3CO2H, is the primary organic constituent of vinegar.

It also occurs in all living cells and is used in many industrial processes such as the preparation

of solvents, lacquers, and coatings.

Another type of acid can also be found in citrus fruit such as the calamansi, according to

the article of Morte and Liwayway (2017), calamondin (Citrofortunellamicrocarpa) fruits or

locally known as “Kalamansi” is widely cultivated in Philippines and is used as a condiment

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almost in every famous dish made in the Philippines. Citrus fruits such as calamansi, is utilized

mainly for its pulp and juice, the rest of the fruit or the pressed pulp, and the rind are considered

sources of citrus waste, finding a way to utilize it will also help the environment.

It is also known for a fact that when baking soda (sodium carbonate) and vinegar (acetic

acid) are mixed, one of their products is carbon dioxide (CO2 ), same as through with mixing

baking soda and calamansi which is known to have citric acid, the researchers will use calamansi

(Citrofortunellamicrocarpa) extract to be mixed with baking soda to create a chemical reaction

which produces mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) to see if it can act as a fire retardant which slows

down or stop fire from any material. The researcher then thought of combining all three

ingredients to produce carbon dioxide. The lack of oxygen then extinguishes the flame.

According to Goodman, Bradbury, and Murphy of 2008, if sodium bicarbonate, which is also

known as baking soda, is combined with an acid base it can produce carbon dioxide. Carbon

dioxide can act to lessen the amount of oxygen present in the fire. Absence of oxygen in the fire

causes it to stop or reduce the intensity of fire.

The study tries to help the environment by substituting the chemicals used in fire

retardants by using Calamansi(citrofortunellamicrocarpa) which is very abundant and is easy to

cultivate in the country (Cheong et al. 2012).

The researches will identify the variable(s) of interest in the study. Develop a detailed

plan for collecting data. Identify the best concentration or amount of mixtures between baking

soda, vinegar and calamansi that can slow down or stop the fire and see the efficacy of the 3

components of a fire retardant. The objective of the experiment is to conduct the experiments

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with 3 trials then describe the data using descriptive statistics techniques. Interpret the data and

make a conclusion based on the results of the experiments.

Statement of the Problem

The researchers will identify the variable(s) of interest in the study. Identify the best

concentration that can slow down or stop the fire and identify the viability of baking soda,

calamansi, and vinegar as fire retardant. This study aims to find out if calamansi, vinegar and

baking soda is effective as fire retardant specifically it aims to be an environmental and

consumer-friendly compared to commercial fire retardants

1. Is calamansi, vinegar, and baking soda viable as fire retardant?

Hypothesis:Calamansi, vinegar, and baking soda is viable as fire retardant.

2. Which of the following amount of concentration of solution would be most effective as

fire retardant?

a) 20g baking soda, 15ml apple cider vinegar and 15ml calamansi extract

b) 15g baking soda, 15ml apple cider vinegar and 25ml calamansi extract

c) 15g baking soda, 25ml apple cider vinegar and 15ml calamansi extract

Hypothesis: Concentration B is most effective as fire retardant

3. Is there a significant difference between high oxygen and low oxygen as a factor in fire

retardant to the following concentration of solution?

a) 20g baking soda, 15ml apple cider vinegar and 15ml calamansi extract

b) 15g baking soda, 15ml apple cider vinegar and 25ml calamansi extract

c) 15g baking soda, 25ml apple cider vinegar and 15ml calamansi extract

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Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between high and low oxygen as a factor in
fire retardant in concentrations A, B, and C.

The purpose of each experiment is to identify and observe the desired positive results of

each of different amount of mixtures of baking soda, apple cider vinegar and calamansi. From

the gathered results, the researchers then identify the significance of the 3 ratios and see what is

the most effective as fire retardant.

Significance of the Study

Fire retardants are used in numerous everyday materials to prevent something from being

burnt or at least to slow down a fire. Some fire retardants that people use contain hazardous

chemicals that pollute the environment. Upon combustion, these hazardous chemicals release

toxic gasses that can be harmful. Unlike the fire retardant from calamansi extract, baking soda,

and vinegar, with the rightamount of mixture, these three ingredients are harmless to us humans.

With this alternative fire retardant, which ingredients that are commonly found in household, it

can be made easily and is very useful and effective as fire retardant in times of situations where

fire occurs.

The study can also be used in future researches and can be improved for better and more

desired significance of the study. It can also provide prior information to all people about the

benefits of the alternative fire retardant regarding the 3 components which is not harmful and

does not danger any health of a person.

Scope and Limitations

The study focuses on experimenting and testing the efficacy of 3 different mixtures of

calamansi (Fortunella japonica) extract, baking soda, and apple cider vinegar as fire retardant.

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The data collection was conducted through an experiment, burning a strip of paper then timed in

order to record the time the ignition started and time it stopped.The 3 different mixtures of

baking-soda, vinegar and calamansi went under a 3trial test in order for the researchers to gather

right amount of results. The study was conducted between the 2nd week of March until the 2nd

week of April including the ingredients used and experimental trials.

The study did not use any human contact or other material aside from the strips of paper

applied with different mixtures of the 3 components to be burned. The researchers did not also

use any other commercialized products aside from the materials used in the experiment. By the

process of conducting the study, the researchers will be able to know the most effective and

significant mixture as a fire retardant.

Review of Related Literature

Fire Retardant

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2016) described fire retardants or

flame retardants as a chemical substance that is applied on a material in order to prevent the

growth of fire. NIEHS also provided information about the usage of the fire retardant saying that

fire retardants have been used in consumer and industrial product since the year 1970s and is

often applied or added to the following products which are:

 Furnishings like foams, mattresses, carpets, curtains, and other fabric materials.

 Electronic and electrical devices, such as computers, laptops, phones televisions, wires

and cables and also other household appliances.

 Building and construction materials, like electrical wires and cables, insulation materials.

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 Transportation products, such as seat covers and other automobiles other parts of vehicles

like the bumper.

Fire retardant is a material used to lessen or stop the fire from spreading. It comes in various

forms such as gels, foams, water, and powder. It is accomplished by chemical reaction that has

the ability to reduce the flammability and delay combustion (Horrocks, Price, & Price, 2001).

Negative Effects of Fire Retardants

Fire retardants may come into many benefits because it can be applied to such materials

but the down side effect of this material is that it affects the health of a person, an animal or even

the environment. Since 1990s, some flame retardants started to raise environmental concern

because of the toxic chemicals that the fire retardant contains (Cosmin, et.al. 2010). Dr. Joseph

Mercola (2012) stated that toxins from fire retardants are not chemically bound to plastic foams,

fabric and other materials, they can easily leach into homes, and also contaminating the air, soil

and other waterways. According to DiGangi, (2012), chemical industry claims that adding toxic

flame retardant chemicals to foam used in furniture’s gives more time to escape a fire. A burn

study cited by the industry showed that only very large amounts of chemicals slowed a fire. Yet,

the chemical industry used the study to claim that addition of toxic fire retardant chemicals to

consumer products gives a 15-fold increase in escape time in case of a fire. An interview by

Chicago tribune on VytoBabrauskas who is author of the study noted that since furniture is

covered with fabric, the flames from the burning fabric will quickly overwhelm the foam, even if

toxic chemicals are added, and household furniture’s often contains enough chemicals to pose

health threats but not enough to stem fire.

A study was also discussed by O’Niell (2017), about the long term effects on the human

health after inhaling hazardous chemical fire retardant. He said that common fire retardants,

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“Associated with adverse health impacts including hyperactivity, poorer neurodevelopment and

lower IQ, hormone disruption, fertility problems and cancer.” Which may come into a significant

and irreversible health effects, including cognitive and neurobehavioral changes in a human

body, and even with simple dose of inhaling a fire retardant it could greatly affect the person

exposed.

DiGangi (2012) also discussed about the three toxic flame retardant chemicals that are

banned globally which are commercial pentabromodiphenyl (PentaBDE) used in foam for

furniture, commercial octabromobiphenyl (OctaBDE) used in plastic for electronics products and

hexabromobiphenyl used in plastics and auto upholstery. Velsicol manufactured

hexabromobiphenyl in the 1970s, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were manufactured by

Albemarie(US), Chemtura (US), ICL (Israel), and Tosoh (Japan). In 1970’s in the US,

manufactures voluntarily removed chlorinated tris from children’s pajamas after the substance

was linked to cancer. However, it was never banned. In 2011, a study by researchers at Duke

University on foam-containing baby products was being found that chlorinated tris was the most

common flame retardant in the product. The cancer risk for children during the first two years of

life would be seven times higher than what most physicians, scientists and regulators consider to

accept. On a scientific study that have found toxic chemical fire retardant in highchairs, diaper-

changing pads and breast-feeding pillows.

Fire retardants are composed of chemicals used as an additive in various products to

suppress ignition and prevent the fire from spreading continuously. A research was conducted by

Aschberger (2017), discussing about common fire retardants that contains hazardous chemicals

affecting human health and the environment. These common fire retardants are also known as

Halogenated FRs (HFRs) that are commonly used due to low impact on other materials

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properties and having low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. A

method was used, which is the chemical alternative assessment (CAA), to compare the toxicity

level between Halogenated fire retardants and halogen-free FRs, such as phosphorus and

nitrogen based chemicals and inorganic (metals) materials. They finally concluded, that there is a

significant difference between the aquatic toxicity and environmental effect between the two

type of fire retardants used, which is halogenated and halogen-free. And discussed that chemical

alternative assessment is essential to find an eco-friendly and safer fire retardant.

Other Chemicals Used in Fire Retardant

There are hundreds of different fire retardants that are broken into categories which is

based on the chemical structure and their properties. Fire retardants are grouped basing on

whether they contain bromine, chlorine, phosphorus, nitrogen, metals, or boron (National

Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2016).

According to Farooq et. al, (2018), Cellulose nanofibrils aerogels has unique properties

such as low thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, high strength and elastic modulus,

biocompatibility, and sustainability. These properties possessed could greatly be used as a

material to prevent fire. But cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is flammable, but researchers find new

ways to use this material as an alternative fire retardant, by incorporating CNF to sodium

bicarbonate, in order to reduce its flammability and act as a lay foundation for bio-based

insulation materials. Various test was done in order to test the product, through horizontal

combustion test, the researchers able to identify the flame retarding performance between pure

CNF and sodium bicarbonate-containing CNF aerogels. The chemical, physical, thermal

characteristics of the CNF were also identified more in details. Study shows that CNF aerogels

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with sodium bicarbonate is an effective flame-retarding agent based on its high porosity, low

thermal conductivity, and considerable flame retardancy. Aside from being successful retardant,

the CNF aerogels is also eco-friendly because it is renewable materials that does not need

hazardous chemical additives. Through this study, it can be used as a replacement for oil-based

insulation materials in different sectors.

A study was also conducted by Atay and Çelik (2015) about the characteristics present in

boric acid and antimony oxide with huntite and hydromagnesite that could be used as a fire

retardant in polymer composites. The chemical composition was used to improve the flame

resisting property of polymer. The minerals were added in various loading and sizes. Various

experiment was conducted such as, different thermal Analysis thermogravimetry (DTA-TG)

were performed to investigate the thermal behavior, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR)

spectroscopy, X-ray difractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive

spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), flame retardancy, and surface profilometry. Analysis shows that boric

acid is more effective than antimony oxide when applied to plastics, but both minerals

accompanied with huntite and hydromagnesite shows a positive result to the flame-retardance of

flammable polymers.

Another experiment was also conducted to study new alternative fire retardant, in the

Philippines, conducted by Ligutan, et. al. (2014) about effectiveness of citrus extract combined

with sodium bicarbonate and tap water as main ingredients for an alternative fire retardant for

combustible materials such as fabric, human hair, wood, and paper. They improvised an anti-

flame spray, a mixture that specifically contains 10 grams of baking soda and 10 milliliters of

lemon juice and 5 milliliters of tap water. They sprayed the mixture in various sample materials

and light 2 similar candles and using a tong, they set the materials on fire and record the time.

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Results shows a success rate when it comes to products containing the fire retardant having

failed ignition of fire while products that does not contain any mixture, its ignition time is

relatively short. And finally concluded, the combination of citrus extract, water, and sodium

bicarbonate, its extinguishing properties is essential to the prevention of fire.

Helmenstine (2018) experimented about the other purpose of when baking soda and

vinegar are combined. The carbon dioxide produced from the mixture of baking soda and

vinegar can be collected and used as a chemical fire extinguisher. It starves the fire from the

oxygen needed for combustion. As studied by Fleming, Reed, Sheinson, and Williams (1997)

have examined the tire suppression properties of bicarbonate powders in two different

environments. Similar dependence on size and powder composition was found in both studies.

KHC03 (potassium bicarbonate) was shown to be more effective on a mass basis than NaHC0 3

(found in baking soda) for all particle sizes tested. It was also shown that the effectiveness of an

agent varies inversely with the particle size for the ranges tested; smaller particles are more

effective in suppressing the flame than the larger ones.

Similar study was also conducted by Lohner (2017), described that when baking soda

reacts with any type of acids it produces a gaseous carbon dioxide. He tested it in the candle

flame. When vinegar was added to baking soda in a glass dish and applied in the candle, in a

short period of time the flame went out. Fire is the product of chemical reaction between oxygen

gas with the substance that is burnt. The carbon dioxide released stops the air from reaching the

flame. He then concluded baking soda and vinegar is effective as an alternative fire retardant.

A recently published research have successfully developed a fire retardant coating, used

for protection for materials such as in furniture, textiles, upholstered, and insulations. The study

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specialized in utilizing nanomaterials, clay nanoplatelets and cellulose nanofibrils, ingredients

used to make a shield from heat and flame-retardant coating as a multilayer thin fil deposited

from water. For their methodology, to test the coatings, the flexible polyurethane foam, often

used in furniture cushions, was exposed to fire using butane torch in order to determine the level

of protection the compounds provided. Results showed, the uncoated polyurethane melts

immediately while the researchers’ coating underneath the material used was undamaged and

finally concluded, “The nanobrick wall structure of coating reduces the temperature experienced

by the underlying foam, which delays the combustion and promote insulating char formation and

reduces the release of fumes that feed a fire.” The researchers believed through this experiment,

it can be essential in households in order to prevent the further damage of infrastructures by

reducing the flammability (Kuhlmaan, 2019).

Oxygen as a Factor in Flammability

Fuel (F) + oxygen (O) products (P) represents how oxygen is mostly involved in the

combustion of fire. The oxygen involved here will mostly come from the air. However, fuel

consists most of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) in its molecular structure.

(Quintiere, 2006).

Atmospheric oxygen concentration is very essential to flammability. With 15% of

oxygen, wildfires could not have spread. But at with 25% or greater of oxygen even wet plants

could get burned. While having oxygen at the level of 30%-35%, as have been suggested for the

Paleozoic, wildfires would be more often and more disastrous (Glasspool& Scott,2010). Similar

study fromBerner, et. al. (2003) as cited in Rimmer, et. al. (2015) suggested an important

positive response loop in the relationship between fire and oxygen: as oxygen increases more

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fires happen, resulting to more production of charcoal and burial. Fossil charcoal gives proof for

the earliest fires in the latest Silurian. There is a lack of charcoal recovered from the Devonian,

this suggests that there is an insufficient supply of fuel and low level of atmospheric oxygen

(Rimmer, et. al,2015).Fire is an exothermic oxidation reaction dependent on the quickness of

mixture of fuel and oxygen together with heat. Charcoal is a secondary product produced by

wildfire and is first recorded in the latest Silurian period and has been consistently documented

in all geological periods from a range of sedimentary setting. Determining the fuel flammability

at varying oxygen concentrations allows oxygen to be forced with in the span of 15%-30%

which is the fire window, whenever charcoal is retrieved from the fossil record (Glasspool&

Scott, 2010).

Air is an important compartment of the environment, is regarded as a major reservoir for

the organophosphorus (OPs) released from consumer products, resulting in the ubiquitous

detection of OPs in the atmosphere. Researchers have previously conducted surveys on the

occurrence of OPs in various indoor atmospheric environments, including private home and

different occupational environments. As depicted the magnitude of the levels and the distribution

pattern of the OPs varied significantly among various categories of indoor environments, mostly

depending on the types and quantities of emission sources, including building materials, furniture

and electronic appliances used in sampling areas. Private homes tented to have lower Ops

concentration compared with work environments such as an office, school building, hospital,

prison, bowling alley, workshop and electronics recycling plant, likely dye to much stricter fire

safety standards on the flooring, floor polishes, upholstered furniture and acoustic ceilings in

public buildings (Wei, et. al, 2015).

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Marquis, Guillaume, and Camillo (2014) explained that the burning behavior of materials

produced vary substantially with the oxygen depletion. If sufficient oxygen is available,

combustion is thorough. When the amount of oxidizer able to react with the fuel is inadequate,

the oxidation reactions lead to the formation of incomplete combustion products such as carbon

monoxide. During an experiment in an oxygen-controlled enclosure, one of the most significant.

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CHAPTER II

RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

Materials and Equipment Used

The study made use of all necessary materials and equipment as follows:

1. 55ml calamansi extract

2. 50g of baking soda

3. 55ml vinegar

4. 9 strips of paper (2x11)

5. 3 containers or bowls

6. Measuring materials (spoons and containers)

Procedure:

First, the researchers cut each short bond paper into strips of paper having 2 inches width

and 11 inches length. The researchers then grouped the strips into 3 –for each trial- having three

per groupof paper strips, the researchers labeled the first strip of paper as “20BS 15V 15C”,

second as “15BS 15V 25C”, and third as “15BS 25V 15C. The researches labeled each of the

three bowls/ container the same way as the researchers labeled the strips of paper. In result, the

researchers had bowls and paper strips. To make the fire retardant with the first concentration, in

that bowl the researchers placed20g of baking soda and after doing so the researchers got 15ml

of vinegar and poured it down into the bowl/container labeled as 20BS 15V 15C then the

researchers got 15ml of calamansi extract and poured it at the same bowl/container.So then the

researchers hadthe first bowl/container with a mixture of 20g baking soda, 15ml vinegar, and

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15ml calamansi extract. The researchers let the bubbling reaction settle down for a while and

when it settled the researchers grabbedthe strips of paper labeled as “20BS 15V 15C” then

soaked the strips of paper into the bowl. The researchers waited for 20-30 minutes to let paper

strip labeled vinegar dry completely. The researchers continued in making the other solutions.

The whole process would be the same but the only difference is the amount of baking soda,

vinegar, and calamansi extract in each of the solutions.

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CHAPTER III

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The researchers used one-way ANOVA to find out if there is a significant difference

between the exposure of the types of oxygen in an environment to compare to the three

concentrations, concentration A, B, and C. This is to see if the results of the experiment are to

compare which concentration is viable in being a fire retardant in terms of its exposure to each

type of oxygen. Below are the results gathered in conducting the experiment.

Table 1: Comparison of lapsed-time from different concentrations in both types of Oxygen

ANOVA TEST

Low Oxygen High Oxygen

No. of Mean S.D No. of Mean S.D


trials
trials

Concentration A 3 1.1733 .676778 3 1.1700 .33719

Concentration B 3 3.8300 1.28020 3 2.8133 .77797

Concentration C 3 1.2667 .64532 3 1.8267 .45369

Post hoc comparisons using the Turkey HSD test indicated that the low oxygen mean

score for concentration B (M = 3.830, SD = 1.280) was significantly different than concentration

A (M = 1.173, SD = 0.676) and concentration C (M = 1.266, SD = 0.645). However,

concentration A (M = 1.173, SD = 0.676) did not significantly differ from concentration C while

Post hoc comparisons using the Turkey HSD test indicated that the high oxygen mean score for

concentration B (M = 2.813, SD = 0.777) was significantly different than concentration A (M =

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1.170, SD = 0.194) However, concentration C (M = 1.826, SD = 0.453) did not significantly

differ from concentrations A and B.

This result indicates that concentration B, which contains 15 grams of baking soda, 15 ml

of apple cider vinegar, and 25 ml of calamansi, is the most effective concentration for fire

retardant. Calamansi, containing citric acid, had made the fire retardant more effective. Similar

study conducted by Ligutan, et. Al. (2014), where they used citrus fruit as an additive for fire

retardant. They improvised an anti-flame spray, a mixture that specifically contains 10 grams of

baking soda and 10 milliliters of lemon juice and 5 milliliters of tap water. And concluded that

citrus juice with sodium bicarbonate and tap water has an extinguishing property to prevent fire.

Similar to the first table presented in the low oxygen, concentration B, with more

calamansi extract present, it shows a more effective performance in the high oxygen area, having

an open area in the outdoor scene. Calamansi(citrofortunellamicrocarpa) which is very abundant

and is easy to cultivate in the country (Cheong et al. 2012), and being important component for

most efficient fire retardant, following results shows that calamansi extract with citric acid has

more effect with sodium bicarbonate along with vinegar, shows the positive results and greater

than other concentration.

Table 2: Significant values between groups in both types of oxygen

F Sig.

Low Oxygen 6.659 0.030


(b/n groups)

High Oxygen 8.139 0.020


(b/n groups)

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Between the mean groups, the significant value is (p=0.020) which is below 0.05 and,

therefore there is a statistically significant difference in the meantime lapses of fire on the

different concentrations in a low oxygen environment. There was a significant effect of low

oxygen at the p<.05 level for the tree concentrations [F(2, 6) = 8.139, p = 0.20]. The significant

value between the mean groups in high oxygen is (p=0.030) which is below 0.05 and, therefore

there is a statistically significant difference in the meantime lapses of fire on the different

concentrations in a high oxygen environment. There was a significant effect of high oxygen at

the p<.05 level for the three concentrations [F(2, 6) = 6.659, p = 0.30].

This result implies that even with the low amount of oxygen in the surroundings, it could

greatly affect the flammability of the fire. Explained by Quintier (2006), the oxygen plays a vital

role in the combustion of fire. Regardless of the amount of oxygen present, as long as there is

oxygen in the surroundings, it has a high possibility for fire to produced and difficult to slow

down.

Even with greater amount of oxygen present, it could affect the combustion of fire.

Similar study fromBerner, et. al. (2003) as cited in Rimmer, et. al. (2015) suggested an important

positive response loop in the relationship between fire and oxygen.

Significant Difference between the type of Oxygen

The researchers used T-test independence to find out if there is a significant difference

between the time lapses of fire on concentrations A, B, and C when exposed to an environment

of both types, low oxygen and high oxygen. This is to see if the results of the experiment is

affected due to the exposure in two different environments of both types of high and low oxygen.

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Table 3 shows the results from the independent sample test. The results show that there is

no significant difference of the time lapses of fire on the concentrations A, B and C when

exposed to an environment of both types, low oxygen and high oxygen, since it acquired a 0.171

significance.

Marquis, Guillaume, and Camillo (2014) explained that the burning behavior of materials

produced vary substantially with the oxygen. If sufficient oxygen is available, combustion is

thorough. When the amount of oxidizer able to react with the fuel is inadequate, the oxidation

reactions lead to the formation of incomplete combustion products such as carbon monoxide.

During an experiment in an oxygen-controlled enclosure, one of the most significant

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CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendation of the research study entitled

Viability of baking soda, vinegar, and calamansi(Citrofortunellamicrocarpa)extract as fire

retardant based on a thorough analysis and interpretation of the data gathered.

Conclusions

1. The findings suggest that baking soda, calamansi, and vinegar is viable as a fire retardant.

2. Based on the results gathered from table 1 and 4 , the concentration of solution that

would be most effective among the 3 different concentration as fire retardant is

concentration B with 15g baking soda, 15ml apple cider vinegar and 25ml calamansi

extract.

3. Between high and low oxygen as a factor in the fire retardant of the material, the findings

reveal that there is no significant difference among the 3 different concentrations,

implying that between an open area which is exposed in high oxygen and a closed area

which has low oxygen exposure affects the ability of the fire being extinguished.

Recommendation

In relation with the findings and conclusions of this experimental study, the following

recommendations are suggested:

1. Since calamansi, baking soda, and vinegar is viable as a fire retardant, it can be further

improved by future researchers.

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2. Based on the results gathered, it is recommended to use concentration B with 15g baking

soda, 15mL apple cider vinegar and 25mL calamansi extract in making fire retardant for

a more effective fire retardant.

3. Based on the data, it is recommended to use the fire retardant indoors with lower pressure

and outdoors with higher exposure of oxygen.

For future researches, it is recommended to make the fire retardant as coating for paint in

order to lessen the flammability of commercial paint.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary Sources:

Dascil-Canete, A. (n.d.). Laboratory manual for general chemistry. Wiseman’s Books Trading, I

nc. Retrieved on April 2, 2019.

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27
APPENDIX A

MATERIALS

I. MATERIALS

1. 55ml of calamansi extract

2. 50g of baking soda

3. 55ml of apple cider vinegar

28
4. 9 strips of paper (1x11)

5. 3 containers or bowls

6. Measuring materials

29
7. Match Sticks

30
APPENDIX B

RECORDED DATA

Table 1: 20g of Baking Soda, 15ml of Apple Cider Vinegar and 15ml Calamansi extract

Low Oxygen (O2) High Oxygen (O2)

Lapsed Time Lapsed Time

Trial 1 1.82s 1.46s

Trial 2 0.47s 1.25s

Trial 3 1.23s 0.8s

Table 2: 15g of Baking soda, 15ml of Apple Cider Vinegar and 25ml of Calamansi

extract

Low Oxygen (O2) High Oxygen (O2)

Lapsed Time Lapsed Time

Trial 1 2.96s 1.95s

Trial 2 3.23s 3.03s

Trial 3 5.3s 3.46s

31
Table 3: 15g of Baking soda, 25ml of Apple Cider Vinegar and 15 ml of Calamansi

extract

Low Oxygen (O2) High Oxygen (O2)

Lapsed Time Lapsed Time

Trial 1 0.94s 1.41s

Trial 2 0.85s 1.76s

Trial 3 2.01s 2.31s

32
APPENDIX C

DATA ANALYSIS

Low Oxygen

33
High oxygen

34
Significant bet type of oxygen

35