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LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS (C1)

DEVELOPING AND STAGING EXPRESSING RESERVATIONS


JUSTIFYING AN ARGUMENT
Firstly, / In the first place / To I have my doubts about that.

• The way I see it…


start with
Do you think so? I doubt it.

• As I see it,
Secondly, / In the second place
You may have a point there, but
• I have the impression that…
What’s more / On top of that / I’m still not sure

• Personally,
Furthermore /

• To my mind,
Finally / Last but not least
EXPRESSING CAUTION
• I don’t know about you, but
I…
HYPOTHESISING I can’t say if

• Speaking from personal I would be careful, if I were you

experience,
• Could it be that …
Just be careful with that

• For me personally,
• It might be that case that…
If I were you I would

• I wonder if …

SUMMARISING CHALLENGING ARGUMENTS


INDICATING AND OPINIONS
• In a nutshell,
UNDERSTANDING OF POINTS
• To make a long story short,
MADE BY THE EXAMINER I (can) see your point, but

• The bottom line is …


Yes, but wouldn’t you say that…

• On balance, we can • Yes, absolutely


Yes, but don’t you feel that …

conclude that…
• Exactly
Well…maybe…possibly…

• Hmm, I see what you mean


I think that’s debatable.

REPHRASING • I can see what you’re I agree to some extent but

getting at
I’m not so sure about that

• In other words,
• I see your point

• ..., that is to say, …


• I couldn’t agree more
MAKING SUGGESTIONS

• OK, so you mean (to say) • You have a point there.

that…
Why don’t you…?

• OK, so what you mean is …


ESTABLISHING COMMON If I were you…

GROUND / PURPOSE OR
EVALUATING DIFFERENT STRATEGY I wonder if it might be better …

STANDPOINTS
• Would you agree that…
FILLERS

• That’s a very good point


• Reaching a conclusion: So,
• That’s a valid point
to sum up,
• So,

• I agree entirely
• You see, …

• That’s an interesting point, EXPRESSING SYMPATHY • …, you see, …

but / however…
AND EMPATHY • You know,

• You may / might be right


• I mean,

I’m sorry to hear about…

EVALUATING OPTIONS / That must be awful.

PAST ACTIONS / COURSE OF That’s so sad.


RECOVERING YOUR
EVENTS I do sympathise with you.
THOUGHTS
I hope things get better soon.

Past modals of deduction:


I hope you feel better soon.
Where was I?

He must have (thought)


Oh dear! 
 What was I saying?

He can’t have (seen)


Too bad!

That’s a pity!

DEDUCING AND INFERRING That’s unfortunate.

I know how you must be feeling.

I imagine / I guess / I take it…


I know what you mean.

From what you’re saying, it


seems to me (that)…

From what you’re saying, then, I


take it…/ I guess

I dare say that…

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