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Determination of Caffience in Tea samples

Contents

1. Introductions
2. Theory
3. Uses of caffiene
4. Effects of Caffiene
5. Procedure
6. Observations
7. Result

Introduction

Tea is the most commonly and widely used soft


beverage inthe household. It acts as a stimulant
for central nervous system and skeletal muscles.
That is why tea removes fatigue, tiredness and
headache. It also increaes the capacity of
thinking. It is also used for lowering body
temperature. The principle constituent of tea,
which is responsible for all these properties is the
alkaloid caffiene. The amount in tea leaves varies
from sample to sample.

Originally it was thought that caffiene is


responsible for the taste and flavour of tea. But
pure caffience has been found to be tasteless
white substance. Therefore the taste and the
flavour varies from individual to individual.

For example, some people boast their ability to


drink several cups of coffee in eveining and yet
sleep for long, on the other hand there are
people who are sensitive to caffiene that even a
single cup pf coffe will cause a response boarding
on the toxic.

The xanthene beverages also create a


medical problem. Theyare dietary of a
stimulant of the CNS. Often the physicians face
the question whether to denycaffiene containing
beverages to patients or not. In fact children are
more susceptible than adults to excitation by
xanthenes.

For this reason. tea and coffee shpuld be


excluded from their diet. even cocoa is of
doubtful value. It has a high tannin contain
maybe as high as 50 mg per cup.

Afterall our main stress is of the presence of


caffiene is xanthene beverages and so in
thisproject we will study and observe the quantiy
of caffiene varying in different samples of tea
leaves.
Theory

The most important methylate alkalod that


occurs naturally is caffiene. Its molecular formula
is CsH10N4O2. Its IUPAC name is, 1, 3, 7-
trimethylxanthenen and common name is 1-
methylated thiobromine.

Purely it is white, crytalline solid in the form of


needles. Its melting point is 1230 C. It is the main
active principle component of tea leaves. It is
present in tea leaves up to 3% and can be
extracted by first boiling the tea leaves with
water which dissolves many glycoside
compoundsin addition to caffiene. The clear
solution is then treated with lead acetate to
precipitate the glycoside comounds in the form of
lead complex. The clear filterate is then extracted
with extractscaffiene because it is more soluble in
it then water.

Uses of caffiene

8. In medicine, it is used used to stimulate CNS


and to oncrease flow of urine.
9. It imroves physical and mental ability.
10. Its effect in learning is doubtful but
intellectual performance may improve where
it has been used to reduce fatigue or
boredom.

Prodecure

11. First of all, take 50 grams of tea leaves and


add 150ml water to them in a beaker.
12. Then heat the beaker up to extreme boiling.
13. Filter the solution and add Lead acetate to
the filterate, leading to the formation of a
curdy brown precipitate.
14. Keep adding lead acetate till no precipitate
can be formed.
15. Filter the solution again.
16. Now heat the obtained filterate until it has
become 50 ml.
17. Allow the solution to cool.
18. After cooling, add 20 ml of chloroform to it.
Soon after two layers appear in the
seperating funnel.
19. Seperate the lower layer.
20. Expose the solution to atmosphere in order
to allow chloroform to get evaporated.
21. The residue left behind is caffiene.
22. Weigh the residue and record the
observations.
23. Repeat the procedure with different samples
of tea leaves abd observe the quantity of
caffiene in them.