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I N D D B33.

5 92 m 2595532 0078089 517

ADOPTION NOTICE
ASME-B31.5, "Piping, Refrigeration," was adoptedon October
3, 1994 for use by the Department of Defense (DoD) .
Proposed changesby DoD activities must be submitted to the
DoD Adopting Activity: Commanding Officer, Naval
Construction Battalion Center, Code156, 1000 23rd Avenue,
Port Hueneme, CA 93043-4301. DoD activities may obtain
copies of this standard from the Standardization Document
Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4D, Philadelphia,
PA 19111-5094. The private sector and other Government
agencies may purchase copies from the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY
10017.

Custodians: Adopting Activity


Army - ME Navy - YD-1
, Navy - YD-1
Air Force - 99

FSC 4130
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release;
distribution is unlimited.

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ASME B31.5A 9 4 0757670 0543809 370 m

ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31


AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ASME B31.5a-I994

ADDENDA
to

ASME B31.5-1992 EDITION


REFRIGERATION PIPING

THA
EMERICAN
SOCIETY OF M E C H A N I C AE
LNGINEERS

United Engineering
Center O 345 East 47th Street O New York, N.Y. 10017

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Date of Issuance: August 31, 1994
Mandatory Date: February 28, 1995
This Addenda was approved by the American National Standards Institute
and designated ASME B31.0-I994 on May 23, 1994

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for
American National Standards. The Consensus Committee that approved the code or standard
was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have hadan
opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review
and comment which provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia,
regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietarydevice, or
activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in
connection with any items mentioned in this document, and doesnot undertake to insure anyone
utilizing a standard againstliability for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent, nor assume
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ASME procedures and policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual vol-
unteers.

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in an electronic retrieval systemor otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Copyright Q 1994 by
THEAMERICANSOCIETY OF MECHANICALENGINEERS
All Rights Resewed
Printed in U.S.A.

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ASME B31.5a-1994
Summary of Changes

Revisions, additions, deletions, and erratato ASME B31.5-1992Edition are publishedin loose-leaf, replacement-
page format. The affected material is incorporated directly into the page on which it does, or should, appear;
any excess material appears on a point page, or if space permits, on the following page.
This Addenda, ASME B31.5a-1994,is the first Addenda to be issued to ASME 631.5-1 992 Edition. A margin
designator, either an (a) or a bullet h), is used to identify the affected material and corresponds to the items
listed in the Summary of Changes pages. Themargin designatorswill remain on the pages until the 1997 Edition
of B31.5 is published.

page Location Change


Contents ix, xi Updated to reflect Addenda (a)
3, 4 500.2 refrigerant and refrigerant mixtures revised
Footnote 1 Added
4.1 Table 500.2 Table 501.2.4 redesignated as Table 500.2, moved from
p. 6 to p. 4.1,and revised as follows:
(1) Group column revised
(2)Minimum Design Gage Pressures columns deleted
(3)Chemical formulas revised for R-123and R-134a
5 501.2.4 Revised in its entirety
6 Table 501.2.4 See Summary of Changes item above for Table 500.2
10,ll Table 502.3.1 Stress lines revised for A 333 1, second A 53 B, A 135 B,
and A 178 C
12,13 Table 502.3.1 Stress lines revisedfor A 334 6,B, and A 134 A 283 Gr.
51
D
14,15 Table 502.3.1 (1) Stress lines revised for A 211 A 570 Grs. 30 and 33,
first A 333 A 9,334 and 9, A 213 304 and 304L
(2)(a) A 254 Cl. I redesignated as A 254 with its Min. Yield
Strength revised
(b) A 254 Cl. II deleted
16,17 Table 502.3.1 (11 A 269 304 and 304L in two places each, A 271 and
304
304L, A 376 304L, A 358 and 3041, and A 409
304 304
and 3041 deleted
(2)Stress linesrevised for A 312 304and 304L in two
places each, A 376 304, and A 249 and 3041
304
. (3)Min. YieldStrengthrevised for A 249 304L
20,21 Table 502.3.1 (1) Order of appearance on pagereversed for B 111
C60800 and C68700
(2)Stress lines revised for both B 466 C70600
22,23 Table 502.3.1 (1 Stress lines revised for second B 467 and both
C70600
B 543 C70600
(2)B 467 C71000 and second B 543 Cl2200 deleted

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ASME B31.5a-1994
Summary of Changes (Cont’d)

page Location Change


24,25 Table 502.3.1 (1) Stress lines revised at 100°F for fourth 6 165 N04400
and first B 241 Temper O
(2) General Note revised
27 504.1.2 Equation (3) corrected by Errata
35 504.3.1 (h)(4) Revised
39 505.1 .I Revised
42 514(c) Revised
514(d) Revised
43 51 7(a)(l) Revised
51 7(a)(2) Revised
44-46 519.3.1 Revised
Table 519.3.2 General Note revised
51 9.3.2 Revised
51, 52 519.4.6 Nomenclaturefor S, added
54 Table 521.3.5 General Note revised
520.1.6(b) Revised
55 521.3.1 (a) Revised
58-62 Table 523.1 (1) For specifications indicated by bullets P), Material col-
umn revised
(2) In Component column, Steel and iron plate revised to
read Steel plate
64,65 Table 526.1 (1) B16.1 through B16.28 revised (except 616.18 is un-
changed); also, 61.1 and 61.20.1 revised
(2) B1 6.34, SP-70, SP-71 , and SP-80 added
71 Fig. 52 7.4.4-C Middle callout on right-hand side corrected by Errata
81 536(a)(2) Revised
537.3.2.1 Revised
537.3.2.2 Revised
82 537.4.1.1 Revised
537.4.1.2 Revised
537.4.1.3 Revised
83, 84 Appendix A Entries indicated by bullets P) revised, added, or deleted
85 Appendix A EJMA and NlST added

NOTES:
(1) The Interpretations to ASME B31.5 issued between October 1, 1991, and July 31, 1994, follow the last page
of this Addenda as a separate supplement, Interpretations No. 5. The supplement is not part of ASME B31.5
or its Addenda.
(2) There is no Cases supplement following this Addenda. The Cases are not part of ASME 631.5 or its Addenda.

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CONTENTS

Foreword ...................................................................... iii


Personnel ...................................................................... v
Introduction ...................................................................... xv

Chapter I Scope and Definitions


500 General
Statements ...................................................... 1
500.1 scope ................................................................. 1
500.2 Definitions ............................................................. 1

Table
500.2 Refrigerant
Classification ................................................. 4.1

Chapter II Design

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria .................................................. 5


501 Design
Conditions ....................................................... 5
501.1 General ................................................................ 5
501.2 Pressure ............................................................... 5
501.3 Temperature ............................................................ 5
501.4 Ambient
Influences ...................................................... 7
501.5 Dynamic
Effects ........................................................ 7
501.6 Weight
Effects .......................................................... 7
501.7 ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads .................................. 7
502 DesignCriteria ......................................................... 7
502.1 General ................................................................. 7
502.2 PressureTemperatureDesignCriteriaforPipingComponents .................. 7
502.3 AllowableStressesandOtherStressLimits .................................. 8
502.4 Allowances ............................................................. 9

Part 2 PressureDesign of PipingComponents ..................................... 26


503 CriteriaforPressureDesignofPipingComponents ........................... 26
504 PressureDesignofComponents ........................................... 26
504.1 Pipe ...........................................................
Straight 26
504.2 CurvedSegmentsofPipe ................................................. 30
504.3 Intersections ............................................................ 30
504.4 Closures ............................................................... 37
504.5 PressureDesignofFlangesandBlanks ..................................... 38
504.7 PressureDesign of OtherPressureContainingComponents .................... 39
Part 3 Design Application of Piping Componen@ Selection andLimitations ............. 39
505 Pipe ................................................................... 39
505.1 General ................................................................ 39
505.2 NonferrousPipe .or Tube ................................................. 39
506 Fittings.Bends,andIntersections .......................................... 40

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ASME B33.5A 9 4 m 0759670 0 5 4 3 8 3 4 738 m

506.1 Fittings ................................................................ 40


506.2 BendsandIntersections .................................................. 40
506.3 Couplings .............................................................. 40
507 Valves ................................................................. 40
508 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting ........................ 41
508.1 Flanges ................................................................ 41
508.2 Blanks ................................................................. 41
508.3 Flange Facings .......................................................... 41
508.4 Gaskets ................................................................ 41
508.5 Bolting ................................................................ 41
Part 4 Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints .................................. 41
5 10 Piping
Joints ........................................................... 41
5 10.1 General ................................................................ 41
511 Welded Joints .......................................................... 42
511.1 General ................................................................ 42
51 1.2 Welds .............................................................
Butt 42
51 1.3 Welds ...........................................................
Socket 42
511.4 Welds ............................................................
Fillet 42
51 1.5 Seal
Welds ............................................................. 42
512 FlangedJoints .......................................................... 42
513 ExpandedJoints ........................................................ 42
5 14 ThreadedJoints ......................................................... 42
515 Flared,Flareless,andCompressionJoints ................................... 42
517 BrazedandSolderedJoints ............................................... 43
518 SleeveCoupledand Other Novel or PatentedJoints ........................... 43
Part 5 Expansion, Flexibility, StructuralAttachments,Supports, and Restraints . . . . . . . . . 43
519 ExpansionandFlexibility ................................................. 43
519.1 General ................................................................ 43
519.2 Concepts ............................................................... 44
519.3 Properties .............................................................. 44
519.4 Analysis for BendingFlexibility ........................................... 46
520 Design of PipeSupportingElements ........................................ 53
520.1 General ................................................................ 53
521 DesignLoadsforPipeSupportingElements ................................. 54
521.1 General ................................................................ 54
521.2 ResilientVariable-SupportandConstant-SupportTypes ....................... 54
521.3 Details ..........................................................
Design 55

Figures
502.3.2 StressRangeReductionFactors ........................................... 26
504.1.1-A Chart for Determining Thickness of Pipe and Closures Under External
Pressure When Constructed of Carbon Steel (Minimum Specified Yield
Strength24. 000 psi to 30.000 psi) ........................................ 28
504.1.1-B Chart for Determining Thicknessof Pipe and Closures Under External
Pressure When Constructed of Carbon Steel (Minimum Specified Yield
Strength30. 000 psi to 38.000 psi) ........................................ 29
504.3.1-A Reinforcement of BranchConnections ...................................... 32
504.3.1-B ExtrudedOutletHeaderNotation .......................................... 34
504.3.1-C MechanicallyFormedTeeConnectionsinCopperMaterials .................... 36
504.5.3 Blanks ................................................................. 40
519.4.5-B Bends ................................................................. 51

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519.4.5-c Branch
Connections ..................................................... 52

Tables
502.3.1 AllowableStresses.
ksi ................................................... 10
519.3.1 ThermalExpansion Data ................................................. 45
519.3.2 Moduliof
Elasticity ..................................................... 45
519.3.6 FlexibilityFactor k andStressIntensificationFactor i ........................ 47
521.3.5 MinimumSize of Straps.Rods.andChainsforHangers ....................... 54

Chapter III Materials


523 Materials . GeneralRequirements ......................................... 57
523.1 AcceptableMaterialsandSpecifications ..................................... 57
523.2 Limitations on Materials ................................................. 57
523.3 DeteriorationofMaterialsinService ....................................... 62
524 MaterialsAppliedtoMiscellaneous Parts ................................... 62
524.1 Gaskets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
524.2 Bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Table
523.1 Specifications ......................................
AcceptableMaterials . 58

Chapter IV Dimensional Requirements


526 Dimensional Requirements for Standard and Nonstandard Piping
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
526.1 StandardPipingComponents .............................................. 63
526.2 Nonstandard Piping Components .......................................... 63
526.3 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Table
526.1 DimensionalStandards ................................................... 64

Chapter V Fabrication and Assembly


527 Welding ............................................................... 67
527.2 Material ............................................................... 67
527.3 Preparation ............................................................ 67
527.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
527.5 Qualification ............................................................ 71
527.6 Records ............................................................... 74
527.7 DefectRepairs .......................................................... 74
528 Brazing and
Soldering ................................................... 74
528.1 BrazingMaterials ....................................................... 74
528.2 Preparationand Procedure ................................................ 74
528.3 SolderingMaterials ...................................................... 74
528.4 SolderingPreparationandProcedure ....................................... 75
529 Bending.HotandCold .................................................. 75
529.1 RadiiofBends .......................................................... 75

xi

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529.2 Procedure .............................................................. 75


529.3 Heat
Treatment ......................................................... 75
530 Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
530.1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
530.2 Heat
Treatment ......................................................... 75
53 1 Heat
Treatment ......................................................... 75
531.1 HeatingandCoolingMethod ............................................. 75
531.2 Preheating ............................................................. 75
531.3 Treatment ......................................................
Postheat 75
535 Assembly .............................................................. 78
535.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
535.2 Procedure .......................................................
Bolting 78
535.4 ThreadedPiping ........................................................ 78
535.5 Welded Joints .......................................................... 79
535.6 BrazedSleeveJoints ..................................................... 79
535.7 SolderedSleeveJoints .................................................... 79
535.8 FlareTypeFittingJoints ................................................. 79
535.9 FlarelessandCompressionTypeFittingJoints ............................... 79
535.10 Assembly of
Hangers .................................................... 79

Figures
527.2.2 TypicalJointsWithBackingRing ......................................... 68
527.3.1-A ButtWelding EndPreparation ............................................ 68
527.3.1-B Internal Trimming for Butt Welding of Piping Components With
Misalignment ..................................................
Internal 68
527.4.4-A FilletWeldSize ......................................................... 70
527.4.4-B Welding Details for Slip-On and Socket Welding Flanges; Some
AcceptableTypes of FlangeAttachmentWelds ............................ 70
527.4.4-C Minimum Welding Dimensions Required for Socket Welding
ComponentsOtherThanFlanges ........................................ 71
527.4.6-A TypicalWeldedBranchConnectionWithoutAdditionalReinforcement .......... 72
527.4.6-B TypicalWeldedBranchConnectionWithAdditionalReinforcement ............. 72
527.4.6-C Typical Welded Angular Branch Connection Without Additional
Reinforcement ........................................................ 72
527.4.6-D Some Acceptable Types of Welded Branch Attachment Details Showing
Minimum Acceptable
Welds ............................................ 72
527.4.7-A AcceptableWeldsforFlatPlateClosures ................................... 73
527.4.7-B UnacceptableWeldsforFlatPlateClosures ................................. 73

Table
531.2.1 HeatTreatmentofWelds ................................................. 76

Chapter VI Inspection and Test


536 Inspection .............................................................. 81
537 Tests .................................................................. 81
537.1 TestsBeforeErection or Assembly at the Factory or on thePremises ............ 81
537.2 PreparationforTesting ................................................... 81
537.3 Tests ...........................................................
Factory 81
537.4 FieldTests ............................................................. 81

xii

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 500.2

skelp and subsequently cut into individual lengths, hav- which serve suchpurposes as mixing, separating,
ing its longitudinal butt joint force welded by the me- snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow,
chanical pressure developed in rolling the hot-formed pipe supporting fixtures, and structural attachments.
skelp through a set of round pass welding rolls postheating- the application of heat to an assembly
(c) electric-fusion welded pipe - pipe having alongi- after a welding, brazing, soldering, or cutting operation
tudinal or spiral butt joint wherein coalescence is pro- preheating - the application of heat to thebase metal
duced in the preformed tube by manual or automatic immediately before a welding, brazing, soldering, or
electric-arc welding. The weld may be single or double cutting operation
and may bemade withor without theuse of filler metal.
premises -the buildings and that partof the grounds
Spiral welded pipe is also made by the electric-fusion
of one property, where an installation would affect the
welded process with either a lap joint or a lock-seam
safety of those buildings or adjacent property
joint.
pressure vessel, general - see Section VIII, Division 1,
(dl electric--ash welded pipe - pipe having a longi-
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (hereinafter
tudinalbuttjointwherein coalescence is produced,
referred to as the ASME BPV Code)
simultaneously over the entire area of abutting sur-
faces, by the heat obtained from resistance to the flow pressure vessel, refrigerant - any refrigerant contain-
of electric current between the two surfaces, and by the ing receptacle of a refrigerating system,otherthan
application of pressure after heating is substantially evaporators (each separate section of which does not
completed. Flashingand upsetting are accompanied by exceed '/2 CU ftof refrigerant containing volume),
expulsion of metal from the joint. evaporator coils, compressors,condenser coils, con-
trols, headers, and piping. (See ANSVASHRAE
(e) double submerged-arc welded pipe - pipe having
15.)
a longitudinal buttjointproduced by at least two
passes, one of whichis on theinside of the pipe. Coales- refrigerant and refrigerant mixtures- the fluidused (a)
cence is produced by heating with anelectric arc or arcs for heat transfer in a refrigerating system which ab-
between the bare metalelectrode or electrodes and the sorbs heat during evaporation at low temperature and
work. The welding isshielded by a blanketof granular, pressure, and releases heat during condensation at a
fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and higher temperature andpressure. The safety classifica-
filler metal for the inside and outside welds is obtained tion group consists of two characters, e.g., A l or B2.
from the electrode or electrodes. The capital letter indicates the toxicity and the Arabic
numeral indicates the flammability, based on the fol-
pipe supporting elements - pipe supporting elements lowing criteria ] :
consist of fixtures and structural attachments. They do Class A - refrigerants for which toxicity has not
not include support structures and equipment, suchas been identified at concentrations less than or equal to
stanchions, towers, building frames, pressure vessels, 400 ppm (parts per million), based on data used to
mechanical equipment, and foundations. determineThresholdLimit Values-Time Weighted
&tures - fixtures are elements which transfer the Average (TLV-TWA) or consistent indices
loadfrom the pipe orstructuralattachment to the Class B - refrigerants for which thereis evidence of
supportingstructureorequipment.Theyinclude
toxicity at concentrations below 400 ppm, based on
hangingtype fixtures, suchashanger rods, spring
data used to determine TLV-TWA or consistent in-
hangers, sway braces, counterweights, turnbuckles,
dices
struts, chains, guides, and anchors, and bearing type
fixtures, such as saddles, bases, rollers, brackets, and Class I - refrigerants that donot show flame propa-
sliding supports. gation when tested in air at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) and
65°F (18°C).
structural attachments - structural attachments are
elements which are welded, bolted, or clamped to the Class 2 - refrigerants having a Lower Flammability
pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamps, clevises, straps, Limit (LFL) of more than 0.00625 lb/ft (O.10 kg/m 3,
and skirts at 70°F (2 1°C) and 14.7 psia (101 kPa) AND a heat of
combustion of less than 8174 Btu/lb (19,000 kJ/kg)
piping -means the pipe or tube mains for intercon- Cluss 3 -refrigerants that are highly flammable as
necting the various parts of a refrigerating system. defined by having an LFL of less than or equal to
Piping includes pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves,
fittings, the pressure containing parts of other compo-
nents, such as expansion joints, strainers, and devices 'See Table 500.2. (a)

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A S I E B 3 L = 5 A 9Y m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0543838 3 8 3 W

500.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

0.00625 lb/ft3 (0.10 kg/m3) at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 slag inclusion - nonmetallic solid material entrapp-
psia (101 kPa) OR a heat of combustion greater than ed inweld metal or betweenweld metaland base
or equal to 8174 Btu/lb (19,000 kJ/kg) metal
refrigerating system - a combination of interconnect- soldered joint -a gas-tight joint obtainedby the join-
ing refrigerant containing parts constituting a closed ing of metalpartswithmetallicmixtures or alloys
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated which melt at temperatures not exceeding 800°F and
for the purpose of extracting heat above 400°F
reinforcement of weld -weld metal in excess of the submerged arc welding (SA W)- an arc welding pro-
specified weld size cess wherein coalescence is produced by heating an
root opening-the separationbetween the members to arc(s) between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and
be joined, at the root of the joint the work. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular
root penetration -the depth a groove weld extends fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and
into the root of a joint measured on the center line of filler metal is obtained from the electrode and some-
the root cross section times from a supplementary welding rod.

seal weld - any weld used primarily to provide a spe- tack weld - a weld made to hold parts of a weldment
cific degree of tightness against leakage in proper alignment until the final welds are made
secondary coolant- any liquid used for the transmis-
throat of a fillet weld
sion of heat without a change in its state and having no
flash point, or a flash point above 150°F as determined theoretical - the distance from the beginning of the
by ASTM D 93 root of the joint perpendicular to the hypotenuse
of the
largest right-triangle that can be inscribed within the
self-contained system - a complete factory-made and
fillet-weld cross section
factory-tested system in a suitable frame or enclosure
which is fabricated and shippedin one or more sections actual - the shortest distance from the root of a
and in which no refrigerant containing parts are con- fillet weld to its face
nected in the field other than by companion flanges or toe of weld - the junctionbetween the face of the weld
block valves and the base metal
semiautomatic arc welding - arc welding with equip-
tube -see p i p
ment which controls only the filler metal feed. The
advance of the welding is manually controlled.
undercut - a groove melted into the base metal adja-
shall - where “shall” or “shall not” is usedfor a provi- cent to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilledby weld
sion specified, that provision is intended to be a Code
metal
requirement
shielded metal-arc welding (SMA W)-an arc welding weld - a localized coalescence of metal wherein coa-
process wherein coalescence is produced by heating lescence is produced by heating to suitable tempera-
with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode ture, with or without the application of pressure, and
and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposi- with or without theuse of filler metal. The filler metal
tion of the electrodecovering. Pressure is not used and has a melting point approximatelythe same as the base
filler metal is obtained from the electrode. metals.
should - “should” or “it is recommended” is used to
welder - one who is capable of performing a manual
indicate provisions which are not mandatory but rec-
or semiautomatic welding operation
ommended good practice
size of weld welding operator-one who operates machine or auto-
matic welding equipment
groove weld - the joint penetration (depth of chamf-
ering plus the root penetration when specified) welding procedures -the detailed methods and prac-
fillet weld -a weld of approximatelytriangular tices including all joint welding procedures involved in
crosssectionjoiningtwosurfacesapproximatelyat the production of a weldment
right angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, or weldment -an assembly whose component parts are
corner joint joined by welding

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A S I E B33.5A 9 4 W 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 054383723T m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 500.2

TABLE 500.2
REFRIGERANT CLASSIFICATION

Group
[Note (1)l Refrigerant
Formula Chemical Name

A l R-11 Trichlorofluoromethane CCI,F


A l R-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane CCI,F,
A l R-13 Chlorotrifluoromethane CCIF,
A l R-1361 Bromotrifluoromethane CBrF,
A l R-14 Tetrafluoromethane c F*
B1 R-21 Dichlorofluoromethane CHCI,F
Al R-22 Chlorodifluoromethane CHCIF,
B2 R-30 Methylene chloride CH,CI,

B2 R-40 Methyl chloride CH,CI

Al R-113 Trichlorotrifluoroethane CCI,FCCIF,


Al R-114 Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF,CCIF,
Al R-115 Chloropentafluoroethane CCIF,CF,
B1 R-123 Dichlorotrifluoroethane CHCI,CF,
Al R-134a Tetrafluoroethane CH,FCF,
A2 R-142b 1-Chloro-1, CH,CCIF,
1-Difluoroethane
A2 R-152a 1,l-Difluoroethane CH,CHF,
A3 R-170 Ethane C,%

A3 R-290 Propane C%
,

Al R-C318 Octafluorocyclobutane
Al R-400 ...
Al R-500 Dichlorodifluoromethane, CCI,F,/CH,CHF,
73.8%, and ethylidene
fluoride, 26.2%

Al R-502 Chlorodifluoromethane, CHCIF,/CCIF,CF,


48.8%, and chloropenta-
fluoroethane, 51.2%
Note (2) R-503 R-23 (40.1%) &
R-13 (59.9%)
A3 R-600 N-butane

A3 R-6OOa Isobutane (2 methyl propane)


B2 R-611 Methyl formate

B2 R-717 Ammonia
Al R-744 Carbon dioxide
B1 R-764 Sulfur dioxide

A3 R-1150 Ethylene

A3 R-1270 Propylene

NOTES:
(1)Information in this table is established by ANSI/ASHRAE 34 and is shown here for convenience.
(2) N o classification assigned as of this date.

4.1

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501-501.3.1

CHAPTER II
DESIGN

PART 1 pressure and temperatureshall be that condition which


CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA results in the greatest required pipe thickness and the
highest component rating.
DESIGN
501 CONDITIONS
General
501.1
501.2.4 Minimum Design
Pressure. Minimum (a)
Paragraph 501 defines the temperatures, pressures, design gage pressure shall be not less than 15 psi (103
and various forces applicable to the design of piping kPa), and exceptas noted in para. 501.2.5, shall be not
systems. It also states considerations that shall be given less than the saturation pressure of the refrigerant at
to ambient and mechanical influences and variousload-
the following temperatures:
ings.
(u) low sides of all systems: 80°F (27°C);
(6) high side of water or evaporatively cooled sys-
tems: 104°F (WC);
Pressure
501.2 (c) high sides of air cooled systems: 122°F (50°C).
501.2.2 Internal Design Pressure
(u)The piping component shall be designed for an
internal pressure representing the most severe condi- 501.2.5 Minimum Design Pressure for Specific Ser-
tion of coincident pressure and temperature expected in vice
normal operationor standby (including fluid head) and (a) Design pressure for either high orlow side need
also shall allowforshippingconditionsconsidering not exceed the critical pressure of the refrigerant unless
possible loss of external pressure. The most severe con- the system is intended to operate at these conditions.
dition of coincident pressure and temperature shall be (b) When components of a system are protected by
thatconditionwhich results in the greater required a pressure relief device, the design pressure of the pip-
piping component thickness and the highest compo- ing need not exceed the setting of the pressure relief
nent rating. device.
(b) Any piping connectedto components other than (c) In a compound systemthe piping between stages
piping shall have a design pressure no less than the shall be considered the low side of the next higher stage
lowest design pressure of any component to which it is compressor.
connected.

501.2.3 External Design Pressure. The piping com-


ponent shall be designed for anexternal pressure repre- Temperature
501.3
senting the most severe condition of coincident pres-
In this Code, metal temperatureof piping in service
sure and temperature expected during shutdown orin
is considered to be the temperature of the fluid con-
normaloperation (including fluid head)considering
veyed.
possible loss of internal pressure. Refrigerant piping
systems shall be designed to resist collapse when the 501.3.1BrittleFracture. Considerationmustbe
internal pressureis zero absoluteand theexternal pres- given to a reduction in impact strength occurring in
sure is atmospheric. This is to permit drying the pipe some materials when subjected to low temperatures.
by evacuation. The most severe condition of coincident Notch effects should be avoided. See para. 523.2.

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ASME B3L-5A Y 4 0759670 0543823 978 m

Table 501.2.4 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

Table 501.2.4 redesignated as Table 500.2, revised, and moved to p. 4.1

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ASME B31.5A 94 W 0759670 0543822 804

ASME B3151992 Edition 502.3.1-502.4.1

Thecreepandstress-rupturestrengthsaredeter- the number of cycles of temperature change


mined by plotting the results of the creep and stress- from minimum to maximum temperature ex-
rupture tests in the manner described in “Interpreta- pected to be encountered [see Note (2)].
tion of Creep and Stress-Rupture Data”by Francis B.
NOTES:
Foley, Metal Progress, June 1947, pp.951-958. ( I ) Applies to essentially noncorrosive services.Corro-
(d) Allowable stress values in shear shall be 0.80 of sion can sharply decrease cyclic life. Corrosion resistant
the values obtained from para. 502.3.1 andTable materials should be used where a large number of major
stress cycles is anticipated.
502.3.1, and allowable stress values in bearing shall be (2) If the range of temperature changes varies, equiva-
1.60 of the values obtainedfrompara. 502.3.1 and lent full temperature cycles may be computed from the
Table 502.3. l. equation:
(e) When steel materials of unknown specifications N = NE + r, N, + r2 ’ N 2 + . . . + r n 5 N , ,
are used at a temperaturenot to exceed 400°F for struc-
tural supports and restraints, theallowable stress value where
shall not exceed 12.0 ksi. N E = number of cycles of full temperaturechange
Ir) For components nothaving established pressure- TE for which expansion stress SE has been cal-
temperature ratings, allowable stress values may be ad- culated
N , , N2, . . ., N,,
justed in accordance with para. 502.2.4 for other than = number of cycles of lesser temperature change
normal operation. A T , , A T , , . . . , AT,,
r , , T Z , . . . , r“
502.3.2 Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to = A T , / A T , . A T ~ / A T E , .. .AT,/ATE
= ratio of any lesser temperature cycle to that for
Sustained Loads and Thermal Expansion or Contrac- which SE has been calculated
tion
(a) Internal Pressure Stresses. The calculated stress (d) The sum of the longitudinal stresses (in the cor-
due to internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable roded condition) due to pressure, weight, and other
stress values given in Table 502.3.1 except as permitted sustained external loading shall not exceed S,. Where
by paras. 502.3.2(b), (c), and (d). the sum of these stresses is less than s
h the difference
(6) External Pressure Stresses. Stress dueto external between s h and this sum may be added to the term in
pressures shallbe considered safe when the wall thick- parentheses in Eq. (1).
ness of the piping component and means of stiffening In calculating the longitudinal pressure stress, con-
meet the requirements of paras. 503 and 504. sider the internal pressure as acting only on the area
(c) Allowable Stress Rangefor Expansion Stresses in established by the internal diameter.
Systems Stressed Primarily in Bending andTorsion. The
502.3.3 Limits of CalculatedStressesDueto
expansion stress range S, (see para. 519.4.5) shall not
Occasional Loads
exceed the allowable stress range S, given by Eq. (1): (a) Operation. The sum of the longitudinal stresses
produced by pressure, live and dead loads, and those
produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earth-
quake, may not exceed 1.33 times the allowable stress
where values givenin Table 502.3.1. It is not necessary to
S, = basic materialallowablestress at minimum consider wind and earthquake as occurring concur-
(cold)normaltemperature(use S, not SE , rently.
from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1) (b) Test. Stresses due to test conditions are not sub-
S, = basic material allowable stress at maximum ject to the limitations of para. 502.3 of this Code. It is
(hot) normal temperature (use S , not SE from not necessary to consider other occasional loads, such
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1) as wind andearthquake,asoccurringconcurrently
with the live, dead, and test loads existing at the time
NOTE: Does not include abnormal conditions, such as
exposure to fires. of test.

f= stress-range reduction factor forcyclic condi-


tions [see Note (l)] for total numberN of full
502.4 Allowances
temperature cycles over total numberof years
during which system is expected to be in active 502.4.1 Corrosion and Erosion. When corrosion or
operation(read
or
interpolate
from Fig. erosion is expected, an increase in wall thickness of the
502.3.2). By full temperature cycles is meant components over that dictatedby other design require-

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ASIE B3L-5A 74 M 0757670 0543823 740 H

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 502.3.1
ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Min. Grade, Min.


Type, Tensile Yield Longitudinal or
spec. or Strength, Strength, Spiral Joint
Material No. Class ksi ksi Notes Factor

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube

Steel pipe ASTM A 53 A 48.0 30.0 ... ...


Steel pipe ASTM A 53 B 60.0 35.0 ... ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 A 48.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 B 60.0 35.0 ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 C 70.0 40.0 ...
Steel tube ASTM A 179 C 47.0 26.0 ... ...
Steel tube ASTM A 192 ... 47.0 26.0 ... ...
Steel
ASTM tube A-1
A 210 60.0 37.0 ...
(a) Steel pipe ASTM A 333 1 55.0 30.0 ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 333 6 60.0 35.0 ...
Steel tube ASTM A 334 1 55.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel tube ASTM A 334 6 60.0 35.0 ... ...
Steel pipe 5L API A 48.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel pipe 5L API B 60.0 35.0 ... ...

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

(a) Steel pipe ASTM A 53 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85


Steel pipe ASTM A 53 B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85

(a) Steel pipe ASTM A 135 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85


Steel pipe ASTM A 135 B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 178 A 47.0 26.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 178 C 60.0 37.0 ... 0.85

Steel tube ASTM A 214 ... 47.0 26.0 ... 0.85


Steel tube ASTM A 226 ... 47.0 26.0 ... 0.85

10

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~

ASME B 3 L = 5 A 7 4 m 0759b70 0543824 687 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1
ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
300 100 2%150 200 400 No.

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube

12.0 12.0
12.0 12.0 12.012.0 12.0 ASTM A 53
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.015.0 15.0 ASTM A 53

12.0 12.012.0 12.0 12.012.0 12.0 ASTM A 106


15.0 15.015.0 15.0 15.015.0 15.0 ASTM A 106
17.5 17.517.5 17.5 17.517.5 17.5 ASTM A 106
11.8 11.811.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 ASTM A 179
11.8 11.811.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 ASTM A 192

15.0 15.015.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 ASTM A 210

13.7 13.713.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 ASTM A 333 (a)


15.0 15.015.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 ASTM A 333
13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.713.7 13.7 ASTM A 334
15.0 15.015.0 15.0 15.015.0 15.0 ASTM A 334

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0


12.0 12.0 API 5L
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 API 5L

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 ASTM A 53 (a)


12.7 12.712.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 ASTM A 53

10.2 10.210.2 10.2 10.210.2 10.2 ASTM A 135 (a)


12.7 12.712.7 12.7 12.712.7 12.7 ASTM A 135
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.010.0 10.0 ASTM A 178
12.7 12.712.7 12.7 12.712.7 12.7 ASTM A 178

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 214


10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 226

11

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Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Grade, Min. Min.


Type. Tensile Yield or Longitudinal
Spec. Strength,
or Strength, Spiral Joint
Material No. Class ksi ksi Notes Factor

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

(a) Steel
pipe ASTM A 333 1 55.0 30.0 ... 0.85
Steel pipe ASTM A 333 6 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 334 1 55.0 30.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 334 6 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85

pipeSteel ASTM A 587 .. 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85

(a) Steel
pipe API 5L A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85
Steel pipe API 5L B 60.0 35.0 ,.. 0.85

Electric Fusion Welded Pipe

Steel ASTM A 134 A 570 49.0 30.0 (1) 0.80


Gr. 30
Steel ASTM A 134 A 570 52.0 33.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. 33

Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 45.0 24.0 (1) 0.80


Gr. A
Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 50.0 27.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. B
Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 55.0 30.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. C
(a) Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 60.0 33.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. D

Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 45.0 24.0 ... 0.80


Gr. A
Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 50.0 27.0 ... 0.80
Gr. B
Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 55.0 30.0 ... 0.80
Gr. C

Steel ASTM A 139 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.80


Steel ASTM A 139 B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.80

12

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ASME B 3 1 * 5 A 74 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 054382b 4 5 T

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100
200 150 250
350 300 400 No.

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 ASTM A 333 (a)
12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 ASTM A 333
11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 ASTM A 334
12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 ASTM A 334

10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 ASTM A 587

10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 API 5L (a)


12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 API 5L

Electric Fusion WeldedPipe

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 ASTM A 134

9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 ASTM A 134

8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 ASTM A 134

9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 ASTM A 134

10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 ASTM A 134

11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 ASTM A 134 (83)

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 ASTM A 134

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 134

11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 ASTM A 134

9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 ASTM A 139


12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 ASTM A 139

13

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ASME B31.5A 9 4 m 0759670 05q3827 396

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT’D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Grade, Min. Min.


Type, Tensile Yield Longitudinal or
Spiral Strength, Strength,
spec. or Joint
Material No. Class ksi Factor ksi Notes

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont’d)


Electric Fusion Welded Pipe (Cont’d)

(a) Steel ASTM A 211 A 570 49.0 30.0 (1) 0.80


Gr. 30
(a) Steel ASTM A 211 A 570
33.0 52.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. 33

Copper Brazed Tubing

(a) Steel A ASTM 254 ... 42.0 25.0 ... ..

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube

(a) 3%Ni pipe 3 333ASTM


A 65.0 35.0 ... ...
Cr-Cu-Ni-Al pipe 4 333ASTM
A 60.0 35.0 ... ...
21/2Ni pipe 7 333ASTM
A 65.0 35.0 ... ...
2Ni pipe 9 333ASTM
A 63.0 46.0 ... ...
(a) 3 M N i tube 3 334ASTM
A 65.0 35.0 ... ...
2%Ni tube 334ASTM
A 7 65.0 35.0 ... ...
2Ni tube 9 334ASTM
A 63.0 46.0 ... ...

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

3 l/z Ni pipe 3 333ASTM


A 65.0 35.0 0.85
2 M Ni pipe 7 333ASTM
A 65.0 35.0 0.85
2Ni pipe 9 333ASTM
A 63.0 46.0 ... 0.85

3%Ni tube 3 334ASTM


A 65.0 35.0 0.85
2% Ni tube 7 334ASTM
A 65.0 35.0 0.85

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Pipe and Tube

(a) 18-8 tube ASTM A 213 304 75.0 30.0 ... ...
18-8 tube ASTM A 213 304 L 70.0 25.0 ... ...

14

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 74 m 0759670 0543828 222

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 250 150 200 m 350 400 No.

Carbon Steel PipeandTube(Cont'd)


Electric FusionWeldedPipe(Cont'd)

9.8 9.8 ASTM A 211 (a)

4 10.4 10.4 ASTM A 211 (a)

Copper Brazed Tubing

6.0 5.8 5.5 5.1 4.7 3.0 4.0 ASTM A 254 (a)

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel PipeandTube


SeamlessAlloy Steel Pipe and Tube

16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3


16.3 16.3 ASTM A 333 (8)
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 ASTM A 333
16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3
16.3 16.3 ASTM A 333
15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7
15.7 15.7 ASTM A 333

16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3


16.3 16.3 ASTM A 334 (8)
16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3
16.3 16.3 ASTM A 334
15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.7
15.7 15.7 ASTM A 334

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 ASTM A 333


13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8
13.8 13.8 ASTM A 333
13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4
13.4 13.4 ASTM A 333

13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8


13.8 13.8 ASTM A 334
13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8
13.8 13.8 ASTM A 334

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Pipe and Tube

18.8 ... 17.8 .. 16.6 16.2 ASTM A 213 (a)


16.7 ... 16.5 .. 15.3 14.7 ASTM A 213

15

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A S I E B31.5A 9 4 m 0759b70 0543829 Lb9

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

(a) TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT’D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Min. Min. Grade,


gitudinal Yield Tensile Type, or
th, or Spec.
Class
Material No. Factor Notes

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont’d)


SeamlessPipeandTube(Cont’d)

18-8 pipe ASTM A 312 304 75.0 30.0 ... ...


18-8 pipe ASTM A 312 304 L 70.0 25.0 ... ...
18-8 pipe 304 ASTM A 376 30.0 75.0 ... ...

WeldedPipeandTube

18-8 tube ASTM A 249 304 75.0 30.0 ... 0.85


18-8 tube ASTM A 249 304L 70.0 35.0 ... 0.85

18-8 pipe ASTM A 312 304 75.0 30.0 ... 0.85


18-8 pipe ASTM A 312 304 L 70.0 25.0 ... 0.85

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ASME B 3 1 * 5 A 74 m 0759b70 0543830 980 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

18.8 ... 17.8 ... 16.6 ... 16.2 ASTM A 312


16.7 ... 16.5 ... 15.3 ... 14.7 ASTM A 312

18.8 ... 17.8 f . . 16.6 ... 16.2 ASTM A 376

Welded Pipe and Tube

16.0 ... 15.1 14.1 13.8 ASTM A 249


14.2 14.0 13.0 ... 12.5 ASTM A 249

16.0 ... 15.1 .. 14.1 13.8 ASTM A 312


15.7 15.7 15.3 14.7 ASTM A 312

17

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ASME B3L-5A 94 0759670 0543831 817 m

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT’D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Tensile Copper Yield
Spec. or Copper Strength, Strength,
Material No. NPS Alloy No. Temper
ksi ksi Mots

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

Copper
pipe ASTM B 42 1/8-21/2 incl. c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

Copper
pipe ASTM B 42 1/8-21/2 incl. c10200 Drawn 45.0 40.0 (2)
c12000
c12200

Copper
pipe ASTM B 42 21/2-12 incl. c10200 30.0
Drawn 36.0 (2)
c12000
c12200

Red brass pipe ASTM B 43 ... C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0 ...
Copper tube ASTM B 68 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

CopperASTM
tube B 75 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ..
c12000
c12200
C14200

CopperASTM
tube B 75 ... c10200 Light drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

CopperASTM
tube B 75 ... c10200 Hard drawn 45.0 40.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

CopperASTM
tube B 88 ... c10200 Drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200

CopperASTM
tube B 88 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

18

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~~

ASME B 3 1 * 5 A 94 m 0759670 0543832 753m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, 'F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 250
150 200 350 300 400 No.
SeamlessCopperandCopper Alloy Pipe and Tube

4.8 6.40
.8 5.1 ASTM B 42

11.3 11.3 ASTM B 42

9.0 9.0 9.0 8.2 9.0


8.5 8.7 ASTM B 42

8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 ASTM B 43

6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 68

6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 75

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2 ASTM B 75

11.3 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.0 10.3 4.3 ASTM B 75

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.5 8.2 ASTM 0 88

6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 88

19

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ASME B 3 1 - 5 A 94 0759670 0543833 b9T

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Yield Tensile Copper
Strength, Strength, Spec. Copper or
Material No. NPS Alloy No.
ksi Temper ksi Notes

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

Copper tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 c10200 Light drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 c10200 Hard drawn 45.0 40.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper alloy ASTM B 111 up t o 2 C19200 Annealed 38.0 12.0 ...


Red brass condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0 ...
Muntz metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C28000 Annealed 50.0 20.0 ...

Admiralty metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C44300 Annealed 45.0 15.0 ...
C44400
C44500

(a) Aluminumbronzecondenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C60800 Annealed 50.0 19.0 ...
(a) Aluminumbrasscondenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C68700 Annealed 50.0 18.0 ...
95Cu-5Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 up t o 2 C70400 Annealed 38.0 12.0 ...
95Cu-5Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C70400 Light drawn 40.0 30.0 ...
90CW"ONi condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0 ...
80Cu-20Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to2 C71000 Annealed 45.0 16.0 ..*
70Cu-30Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to2 C71500 Annealed 52.0 18.0 ...
Copper tube ASTM B 280 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

Copper silicon A pipe ASTM B 315 ... C65500 Annealed 50.0 15.0 ...

(a) 90Cu-1ONi pipe ASTM B 466 ... C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0 ...
90Cu-1ONi tube ASTM B 466 ... C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0 ...
70Cu-30Ni pipe ASTM B 466 ... C71500 Annealed 50.0 18.0 ...

20

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ASME B3L.5A 94 m 0759b70 0543834 5 2 6 W

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

SeamlessCopperandCopper Alloy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

9.0 9.0
8.2 9.0 8.5 8.7 9.0 ASTM B 111

11.3 11.3 ASTM B 111

7.5 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.1 ... ASTM B 111

8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 ASTM B 111

12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 10.8 5.3 ASTM B 111

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.8 3.5 ASTM B 111

12.5 12.4 12.2 11.9 11.6 10.0 6.0 ASTM B 111 (a)

12.0 11.9 11.8 11.7 11.7 6.5 3.3 ASTM B 111 (a)

8.0 8.0 ... .. ... ... ASTM B 111


10.0 10.0 ... ... ASTM B 111

10.0 9.7 9.5 9.3 9.0 8.7 8.5 ASTM B 111

10.7 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.1 9.9 ASTM B 111

12.0 11.6 11.3 11.0 10.8 10.6 10.3 ASTM B 111

6.0 5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 280

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 5.0 5.0 ASTM B 315

8.7 8.4 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.6 ASTM B 466 (a)
8.7 8.4 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.6 ASTM B 466

12.0 11.6 11.3 11.0 10.8 10.6 10.3 ASTM B 466

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ASME B 3 L = 5 A 9Y m 0759b70 0543835 Yb2

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 5023.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Tensile Copper Yield
spec. or Copper Strength, Strength,
Material No. NPS Temper Alloy No. ksi ksi Notes

Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

(a) 90Cu-1ONi pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Up to 4% incl. C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0
9OCu-1ONi pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Over 4 % C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0

70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Up to 4% incl. C71500 Annealed 50.0 20.0
70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Over 4% C71500 Annealed 45.0 15.0
70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube ASTM B 467 up to 2 C71500 Welded,drawn, 72.0 50.0
and tempered

Copper tube ASTM 0 543 up to 3% c12200 Light cold 32.0 15.0


worked

Copper alloy tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C19400 Annealed 45.0 15.0


Copper alloy tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C19400 Light cold 45.0 22.0
worked

Red brass tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0


Red brass tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C23000 Light cold 42.0 20.0
worked

Admiralty metal tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C44300 Annealed 45.0 15.0


C44400
C44500

Aluminum brass tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C68700 Annealed 50.0 18.0

95Cu-5Ni tube ASTM B 543 up to 3% C70400 Annealed 38.0 12.0

(a) 90Cu-lONi ASTM B 543 up to 3% C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0


90Cu-1ONi ASTM B 543 up to 3% C70600 Light cold 45.0 35.0
worked

70Cu-30Ni ASTM B 543 up to 3% C71500 Annealed 52.0 18.0

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 9 4 m O759670 054383b 3 T 9 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding


~ ~ ~~~~

Spec.
100 250 150 200 Mo 350 400 No.

Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

.2 8.5 7.9 8.1 7.4 7.6 7.2 ASTM B 467 (a)


.1 7.4 6.8 7.1 6.5 6.6 6.5 ASTM B 467

.6 10.6 8.8 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.8 ASTM B 467


2 8.5 7.8 8.0 7.5 7.7 7.3 ASTM B 467
15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 14.9 15.3 14.7 ASTM B 467

4.3 5.1 ASTM B 543

8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.3 6.0 ASTM B 543


8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.3 6.0 ASTM B 543

6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 5.9 4.2 ASTM B 543


6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 5.9 4.2 ASTM B 543

8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.3 3.0 ASTM B 543

10.2 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.9 5.5 2.7 ASTM B 543

6.8 6.8 ... ... ... ... ... ASTM B 543

8.5 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.2 ASTM B 543 (a)
8.5 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.2 ASTM B 543

10.2 9.9 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.0 8.8 ASTM B 543

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A S I E B 3 L - 5 A 9 4 W 0759670 05'43837 235 W

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Yield Tensile Copper
Strength,
Spec. Strength, or Copper
Material No. NPS Alloy No. Temper ksi Notes ksi

Seamless Nickel Base Alloy Pipe and Tube

pipe
copper
and
Nickel ASTM B 165 5 O.D. and N04400 28.0
Annealed
70.0 ..
under
pipe
copper
and
Nickel ASTM B 165 Over 5 O.D. N04400 Annealed
70.0 25.0 ..
Nickel
and
copper tube
ASTM B 165 5 O.D. and N04400
28.0 70.0Annealed ..
under
(a)
copper
and
Nickel ASTM
tube B 165 Over 5 O.D. N04400 Annealed 70.0 25.0 ..

Seamless Aluminum Base Alloy Pipe and Tube

tube 3003 B 210 ... ... O 14.0 5.0

M tube 3003 B 210 ... ... H 14 20.0 17.0 (4)

6063 tube ASTM B 210 ... ... T6 28.0 33.0 (5)


6063 tube ASTM B 210 ... ... T6 welded 17.0 ... ...
ASTM 6061 tube B 210 ... ... T4 30.0 16.0 (5)

6061 tube ASTM B 210 ... ... T6 35.0 42.0 (5)


6061 tube ASTM B 210 ... ... T6 welded 24.0 ... ..

ASTM 6061 tube B 234 ... ... T4 30.0 16.0 (5)

6061 tube ASTM B 234 ... *.. T6 35.0 42.0 (5)


6061 tube ASTM B 234 *.. ... T6 welded 24.0 ... ...
or tube
(a) 3003 pipe ASTM B 241 ... ... O 14.0 5.0 ...
3003 pipe ASTM B 241 Under 1 ... H 18 24.0 27.0 (4)

3003 pipe ASTM B 241over 1 and ... H112 5.0 14.0 (4)

tube 5083 B 241 ... ... O 16.0 39.0 ..


tube 6063 B 241 ... ... T5 16.0 22.0 (5)

tube 6063 ...


B 241 ... T6 30.0 25.0 (5)

ASTM 6061 tube ...


B 241 ... T4 16.0 26.0 (5)

6061 pipe ASTM B 241over 1 and ... T6 38.0 35.0 (5)


6061 pipe ASTM B 241 ... ... 24.0T6 welded ... ...

(a) GENERAL NOTE: Except where specific omissions of stress values occur in this Table, the values in Section II, Part D for Section VIII, Division
1, of the ASME BPV Code may be used t o supplement this Table for allowable stresses,

NOTES:
(1) A quality factor of 92% is included for structural grade.
(2) Where brazed construction is employed, stress values for annealed material shall be used.
(3) 85% joint efficiency has been used in determining the allowable stress value for welded tube.
(4) For brazed or welded construction or where thermal cutting is employed, stress value for "O" temper material shall be used.
(5) The stress values given for this material are not applicable when either brazing, welding, or thermal cutting is used.

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 7 4 W 0759670 0543838 L71 W

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 150 200 250
350 300 400 No.
~~ ~ ~

SeamlessNickelBaseAlloyPipeandTube

17.5 ... 16.4 ... 15.4 ... 14.8 ASTM B 165

16.6 ... 14.6 ... 13.6 ... 13.2 ASTM B 165


17.5 ... 16.4 ... 15.4 ... 14.8 ASTM B 165

16.6 ... 14.6 ... 13.6 ... 13.2 ASTM B 165 (a)

SeamlessAluminumBaseAlloyPipeandTube

3.4 3.4 ASTM B 210

5.0 5.0 ASTM B 210

3 8.3 7.4 7.9 3.4 5.5 2.0 ASTM B 210


3 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.0 3.9 2.0 ASTM B 210

7.5 7.5 ASTM B 210

10.5 10.5 9.9 10.5 6.3 8.4 4.5 ASTM B 210


0 6.0 5.9 6.0 4.6 5.5 3.5 ASTM B 210

7.5 7.5 ASTM B 234

10.5 10.5 9.9 10.5 6.3 8.4 4.5 ASTM B 234


.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 4.6 5.5 3.5 ASTM B 234

3.4 3.4 ASTM B 241 (a)

6.8 6.8 ASTM B 241

3.3 3.3 ASTM B 241

9.8 9.8 ... ... ... ... ... ASTM B 241

5.5 5.5 ASTM B 241

7.5 7.5 ASTM B 241

6.5 6.5 ASTM B 241

9.5 9.5 ASTM B 241


4.6 6.0 5.5 6.0
5.9 6.0 ASTM B 241

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 74 m 0759670 0543839 O08

502.4.1-504.1.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition


Cyclesper day for 2 0 y r life [Note (111

T
8 10

4 6 8 10'

NOTE:

ments shall be provided, consistent with the expected


life of the particular piping involved.
502.4.2 Threading and Grooving. [See definition for
2 3 4

504
b

504.1
1I
6

Straight
8 lo5
Total number M of cycles during anticipated life

( 1 ) Assuming 365 day per year operation.

FIG. 502.3.2 STRESSRANGEREDUCTIONFACTORS

Pipe
COMPONENTS
2

PRESSURE DESIGN OF
8
(9
m
m
m

c in para. 504. l. l(b).]


504.1.1 General
502.4.4MechanicalStrength. When necessary to (u) The required thicknessof straight sections of
pipe
prevent damage, collapse, or buckling due to superim- shall be determined in accordance with Eq. (2). (Also
posed loads from supports,backfill, or othercauses, the see para. 503.)
pipe wall thickness shall be increased or, if this is im-
practical or would cause excessivelocal stresses, the t,=t+c (2)
factors that would contribute to damageof the piping
(b) The notations described below are used in the
shall be compensated for by other design methods.
equations for the pressure design of straight pipe.
tm = minimum required thickness,in., satisfying re-
quirements for design pressure and mechani-
PART 2 cal, corrosion, and erosion allowances
PRESSURE DESIGN t = pressure design thickness, in.,as calculated
OF PIPING COMPONENTS from Eq. (3) for internal pressure, or in ac-
cordance with the procedures given in para.
503
CRITERIA
FOR PRESSURE DESIGN
504.1.3 for external pressure
OF PIPING COMPONENTS
c = for internal pressure, the sum, in., of the me-
The design of piping components, considering the chanicalallowances(thread, groove depth,
effects of pressure, and providing for mechanical, cor- and manufacturers' minus tolerance) plus cor-
rosion, and erosion allowances, shall be in accordance rosion and erosionallowances. (See para. 502.-
withpara. 504. In addition,thedesignsmust be 4.1.) For threaded components, the nominal
checked for adequacy of mechanical strength under thread depth (dimension h of ANSI B1.20.1,
other applicable loadings as given in para. 501. or equivalent) shall apply. For machined sur-

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 9 4 m 0759670 0543840 8 2 T m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 504.1.1-504.1.3

faces or grooves, where thetolerance is not theinternal pressure design thickness t shall be cal-
specified, the tolerance shall be assumed to be culated using Eq. (3).
'/W in. in addition to thespecified depth of the

cut.
= for external pressure, the sum,in., of corrosion
and erosion allowances plus manufacturer's
minus tolerance (see para. 502.4.1)
P = internal design pressure (see para. 501.2.2), 23
psig, or external design pressure (see para. P =
D, -- 2yt
501.2.3), psi
D, = outside diameter of pipe, in.
d = inside diameter of pipe, in. (excluding metal NOTE The followingsimpler alternative equationmay Ix employed
which gives somewhat greater pipewall thickness:
required for corrosion or erosion allowance,
manufacturers' minus tolerance, and any al-
lowance required for thedepth of internal
threads or grooves)
S = applicable allowable hoop stress in accordance
with para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, psi
y = coefficient for materials indicated: for ductile 504.1.3 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure. The
nonferrous materials, use y = 0.4 (see Note); pressure design thickness t for straight pipe under ex-
for ferritic steels, use y = 0.4 (see Note); for ternal pressure shall be determined (see Note) in ac-
austenitic steels, use y = 0.4 (see Note). cordance with the following procedure:
NOTE: If D,/t in range of 4-6, usey = d/(d + D,) for Step 1. Assume a value for t . Determine L / D , and
ductile materials. D, / t .
For cast iron, use y = 0.0, Step 2. For carbon steel materials enter the left hand
A, B = factors for external pressure design, from Figs. side of Fig. 504.1.1-A (specified minimum yield
504.1.I-A or 504.1.1-B corresponding to the strength of 24.0 ksi to 30.0 ksi) or Fig. 504.1.1-B (spe-
design temperature of the pipe. (These figures cified minimum yield strength of 30.0 ksi to 38.0 ksi)
apply only if the pipe material is of carbon at the value of L / D , determined in Step 1. (For other
steel with a minimum specified yield strength materials use the charts in Section VIII, Division 1, of
of 24.0 ksi to 38.0 ksi. D , / t should not exceed the ASME BPV Code).
100. To find factors A and B for other materi- Step 3. Move horizontally to the line representing
als, use the charts in Section VIII, Division 1, D,/t as determined in Step 1.
of the ASME BPV Code.) Step 4. From this intersection move vertically to the
A , = cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring, line for design temperature.
in. Step 5. From this intersection move horizontally to
I, = required moment of inertia of the transverse the right and read the value of factor B .
cross-sectional area of a circumferential stiff- Step 6. Computethe allowable external working
ening ring about its neutral axis parallel to axis pressure P, using Eq. (4)
of the pipe, in.4
L = design length of pipe section taken as thelarg- B
P"
est of the following: - D,/t
(a) distance between flanges or stiffening
rings; Step 7. Compare P, with P. If P, is smaller than P,
(b) distance between the point of tangency a greater value for t must be selected (or the design
on an elbow or cap and a flange or stiffening length L may be shortened by addition of stiffeners; see
ring; or para. 504.1.4 for the design of stiffener rings) and the
(c) the distance between the points of tan- design procedure repeated until a value of P, is ob-
gency oftwo elbows or caps where there areno tained that is equal to or greater than P.
intermediate flanges or stiffening rings, in. NOTE Where applicable, the method outlined ln UG-31 of Section
VIII, Division 1, of the ASME BPV Code is also acceptable for
(a) 504.1.2 StraightPipeUnderInternalPressure. For designingpipeunderexternalpressureusingappropriatedesign
metallic pipe with diameter-thickness ratios D , / t > 4, stress values from Subsection C of that Code.

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ASME B31.5A 94 0759670 0543841 766 m

Fig. 504.1.1-A B3151992 Edition

50 50,000

40 40,000
35 35,000
30 30,000
25 25,008

20 20,oQo
18 18,008
16 16,000
14 14,000
12 12,000

10 10.000
9.0 9.000
8.0 amo
7 .O 7.000
6.0 6,000

5.0 5,088

4.0 4,000
Q, 3.5 3,500
.-P
Q 3.0 3,000
ò
.
*
ao
2.5 2,500

.-
4 2.0 2,000
1.8 1,800
2 1.6 1,600
1.4 1,400
.i1.2 1,200
õ
.
E!
-
1.0
0.90
0.80
1,000
900
ao0
O. 70 700
0.60 600
0.50 500

0.40 400
0.35 350
0.30 300
0.25 250

0.20 200
0.18 180
0.16 160
0.14 140
0.12 120
0.10 100
O. o9 90
0.08 80
0.07 70
0.06 60
0.05 50
o.oooo1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 o. 1
Factor A

FIG. 504.1.1-A CHART FOR DETERMINING THICKNESS OF PIPE AND CLOSURES UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
WHEN CONSTRUCTED OF CARBON STEEL (MINIMUM SPECIFIED YIELD STRENGTH 24,000 psi TO 30,000 psi)
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ASME 8 3 L . 5 A 74 H O757670 0543842 bT2 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 504.3.1

apply only to cases where the axis of the outlet inter- ment area defined in (g)(5) below is not less than the
sects and is perpendicular to the axis of the run. These required area A , .
rules do not apply to any nozzle in which additional (S) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area
nonintegral material is applied in the form of rings, shall be the sum of areas A2 + A3 +A , as defined
pads, or saddles. below.
(3) Notations. The notations used herein are illus- (a) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
trated in Fig. 504.3.1-B. Note the use ofsubscript x for ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
extruded outlet. Refer to (f) above for notations not in the run wall.
listed here.
d , = the design inside diameter of the extruded out- A2 = dx(Th - t h )
let, in., measured at the levelof the outside
surface of the run (b) Area A,. The arealying within the reinforce-
h, = height of the extruded outlet,in. This must be ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
equal to orgreater than r, [except as shown in in the branch pipe wall.
sketch (b) in Fig. 504.3.1-B].
L , = height of reinforcement zone, in. A3 = 2L,(Tb - t b )
-
- 0.7 m
T, = corroded finished thickness of extruded outlet (c) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
measured ata height equal to r, above the ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
outside surface of the run, in. in the extruded outlet lip.
d2 = half-width of reinforcement zone, in. (equal to
d, ) A4 = 2rx(Tx - T b )
r, = radius of curvature of external contoured por-
tion of outlet measured in the plane containing (6)Reinforcement of Multiple Openings. The rules
the axis of therunandbranch, in. This is of (9(5) above shall befollowed except that the re-
subject to the following limitations. quired area and reinforcement area shall be as given in
(a) Minimum Radius. This dimension shall para. 504.3.1(g).
not be less than 0.O5Dobexcept that on branch (7) Inaddition to the above, themanufacturer
diameters larger than NPS 30 it need not ex- shall be responsible for establishing and marking, on
ceed 1.50 in. the header containing extruded outlets, the design pres-
(6) Maximum Radius. For outlet pipe sizes sure andtemperature and thisCode Section. The man-
NPS 8 andlarger,this dimension shall not ufacturer’s name or trademark shall be marked on the
+
exceed O.10Dob 0.50 in. For outlet pipe sizes header.
less than NPS 8, this dimension shall not be (h) Mechanically Formed Tee Connections in Copper
greater than 1.25 in. Materials (Type K, L, M)
(c) When the external contourcontains (I) These mechanically formed connections shall
more than one radius, the radius of any arc be perpendicular to the axis of the run tube (header).
sector of approximately 45 deg. shall meet the They shall be formed by drilling a pilot hole and draw-
requirements for maximum and minimum ing out thetube surface to form a collar having a height
radii. of not less than three times the thickness of the branch
(d) Machining shall not be employed in wall. The collaring device shall be such as to assure
order to meet the above requirements. proper fit up of the joint.
(4) Required Area. The required areais defined as (2) The inner branch tube endshall conform to the
A , = Kthd, where K shall be taken as follows. shape of the inner curve of the run tube. Insertion of
fa) For Dob/Dohgreater than 0.60,K = 1 . 0 0 . the branch tube shall be controlled to assure alignment
(6) For Dob/Dohgreater than O.15 and not ex- with specified depth into the collar without extending
ceeding 0.60, into theflow stream so as to provide internal reinforce-
ment to the collar as illustrated in Fig. 504.3.1-C.
(3) Branches can be formed up to the run tube size.
Manufacturing procedures shallbe in accordance with
(c) For Dob/Dohequal to or less than 0.15, K tool manufacturer’s recommendations.
= 0.70. (4) These types of connections may not be used in (a)
The design must meet the criteria that the reinforce- other than Group Al refrigerant service.

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ASME B 3 1 * 5 A 94 m 0759670 0543843 539 m

504.3.1-504.3.2 ASME B3151992 Edition

IkTb
1 II II I

Corrosion allowance -L
when required
Required area @

Al = requiredin.
area,
sq = thdl A2 +A,+ A4 3 Al
A, = area lying within the reinforcement zone
resulting from any excess thickness available
T = actual thickness of tube wall
b = branch
in the header wall
A, = area lying within the reinforcement zone
dl = opening size in header tube

resulting from anyexcess thickness in the d2 = dl = reinforcement zone


branch tube wall h = header
A, = area lying within the reinforcement zone r = pressuredesignthickness
resulting from anyexcess thickness
available in the extruded Ilp

FIG. 504.3.1-C MECHANICALLY FORMED TEE CONNECTIONS IN COPPER MATERIALS

(5) All joints shall be brazed in accordance with Use of ribs, gussets, andclamps is permissible to
paras. 528.1 and 528,2. stiffen the branch connection but their areas cannot be
(i) Other Designs. Components to which design rules counted as contributing tothe reinforcement area
given in (c) and (d)above are not applicable shall meet defined in (d)(3) above. Consideration should be given
the requirements of para. 504.7. to stress arising from a temperature gradient between
fi) The requirements of the preceding subpara- the piping and gussets during a sudden changein tem-
graphs are designed to assure satisfactory performance perature of the fluid in the piping.
of abranch connection subjected only to pressure. It is not practicable to give definite rules for design
However, in addition, externalforces and moments are to accommodate the effects mentioned in this subpara-
usually applied to a branch connection by such agen- graph. The purpose is to call them to the attention of
cies asthermal expansion andcontraction, by dead the engineer so that from experience and judgment he
weight of piping, valves and fittings, covering and con- may adequately provide for them.
tents, and by earthsettlement. Special consideration Attention is especially directed to thedesign of small
shall be given to the design of a branch connection to branches out of large and relatively heavy runs. Ade-
withstand these forces and moments. quate flexibility must be provided in the smaller line to
Where the ratio of branch diameter to run diameter accommodate thermalexpansion and othermovements
is large or where repetitive stresses may be imposed on of the larger line.
theconnectiondue to vibration, pulsating pressure,
Bemverature cycling, etc., it is recommended that the 504.3.2 Openings in Closures
aesign be rather conservative and that consideration be (a)The rules of this paragraph are intended to apply
given to the use of tee fittings or complete encirclement to openings in closures in which the size of the opening
types of reinforcement. is not greater
than one-half of the inside diameter of the

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ASME B3L*SA 9 4 m 0759670 0543844 475 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 504.5.2-505.2.1

I, = minimum required thickness, in., satisfying re- standards listed in Table 526.1 and for which design
quirements for pressure, mechanical, corro- formulas or procedures are not given in this paragraph
sion, and erosion allowances (para. 504), may be used where they have been proven
t = pressure design thickness, in., as calculated for satisfactory by successful performance under compara-
the given closure shape and direction of pres- ble service conditions. (Where suchsatisfactory service
sure loading from the appropriate equations experience exists, interpolation may be made to other
and procedures in Section VIII, Division 1, of sized components with a geometrically similar shape.)
the ASME BPV Code. (Certain symbols used In the absence of such service experience, the pressure
in these equations, namely P and S , shall be design shall be based on an analysis consistent with the
considered to have the meanings described in general design philosophy embodied in this Code Sec-
this subparagraphinstead of those given in the tion and substantiated by at least one of the following:
ASME BPV Code. All other symbols shall be (u) proof tests (as described in UG-101 of Section
as defined in the ASME BPV Code.) VIII, Division 1,of the ASME BPV Code);
c = sum of the corrosion and erosion allowances, (6)experimental stress analysis.
in.
P= internal design gage pressure (see para. 501.2.-
2), psig, or external design gage pressure (see
para. 501.2.3), psi PART 3
S= applicable allowable stress in accordance with DESIGN APPLICATION
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi OF PIPING COMPONENTS
504.5.3 Blanks SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS
(a) The pressure design thickness of permanent 505 PIPE
blanks (see Fig. 504.5.3) shall be calculated in accord-
ance with Eqs. (8) and (9). 505.1 General
Pipe and tubesconforming to the standards and spe-
t =d g g
cifications listed in Tables 502.3.1 and 526.1 shall be
used within the limitations of temperature and stress
given in para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1 and within the
where additional limitations contained in this Code.
dg = inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat
(plain) face flanges, or the gasket pitch diame- 505.1.1 Additional Limitations for CarbonSteel (a)
ter for retained gasketed flanges, in. Pipe. No less than Schedule 80 (ANSI B36.10) wall
P = internal design gage pressure (see para. 501.2.- thickness shall be used for other than Group A l refrig-
2), psig, or external design gage pressure (see erant liquid lines for NPS 1 Y2 and smaller.
para. 501.2.3), psi No less than Schedule 40 (ANSI B36.10) wall thick-
S = applicable allowable stress in accordance with ness shall be used for Group Al refrigerant liquid lines
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi NPS 6 and smaller, other than Group A l refrigerant
(b) Blanks to be used for test purposes only shall be liquid lines NPS 2 through 6, and all Groups of refrig-
designed in accordance with Eq. (S), except that P shall erant vapor lines NPS 6 and smaller.
be at least equal to the test pressure and S may be as ASTM A 53 Grade F is not permitted.
great as 95% of the specified minimum yield strength
505.1.2 Additional Limitations for Cast Iron Pipe.
of the blank material. (This applies only if the test fluid
Cast iron pipe shall not be used for refrigerant service.
is incompressible.)

504.7 Pressure Design of OtherPressure 505.2 Nonferrous


Pipe or Tube
Containing Components
505.2.1 Copper, copper alloy, aluminum, or alumi-
Other pressure containingcomponents manufac- num alloy pipe and tubeof any size may be usedfor any
tured in accordance with the standards listed in Table refrigerant service where compatible with the refriger-
526.1 shall be considered suitable for use at the pres- ant used and when selected in accordance with the
sure-temperature ratings specified by such standards. design rule in para. 504.1 and allowable stress values in
Pressurecontainingcomponentsnot covered by the Table 502.3. l .

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A S I E B 3 1 - 5 A 74 m 0759670 0543845 3 0 1 m

505.2.t.507 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

FIG. 504.5.3 BLANKS

505.2.2 Soft annealedcoppertubing larger than 506.2


Bends
and
Intersections
1YBin. O.D. shall not beused for field assembled refrig-
Bends, miters, and extruded branch connectionsmay
erant piping, unless itis protectedfrommechanical
be used when they are designed in accordance with the
damage.
principles in Chapter II, Part 2.

Couplings
506.3
506
FITTINGS, BENDS, AND
INTERSECTIONS Couplings madeof cast or malleable iron shall notbe
used on pipe containing flammable or toxic fluids.
Fittings
506.1
506.1.1 General. If fittings complying with applica-
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the limita- 507 VALVES
tions specified in this Code. (a) Valves complying with the standards listed in
Other fittings, including thoseexceeding the range of Table 526.1 may be used inaccordance withthe limita-
sizes in the standardslisted in Table 526.1, may beused tions listed in the specific standards and in this Code.
provided the designs meet the requirements in para. (6)Refrigerantgate valves, ball valves, and plug
504. cocks shall not be used in liquid refrigerant lines unless
consideration is given to the expansion of liquid
506.1.2Bell andSpigotFittings. Bell and spigot trapped in the valve cavities when the valve or cock is
fittings shall not be used for refrigerant service. closed.

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A S I E B3Lm5A 9 4 m O759670 054384b 2 4 8 m

ASME B31.5-1992Edition 508-510.1

508 FLANGES,
BLANKS,
FLANGE operating gage pressure exceeds 720 psi. Confinedcom-
FACINGS, GASKETS, AND BOLTING pressed-sheet-asbestos gaskets arenot limited as to
pressures provided the gasket material is suitable for
508.1 Flanges
the temperature.
508.1.1 General. If flanges complying with applica- The useof metal or metal-asbestos gaskets is not
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1 limited as to pressures.
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the limita-
tions specified in this Code.
Other flanges, including thoseexceeding the range of 508.5 Bolting
sizes in the standardslisted in Table 526.1, may be used
provided the designs meet the requirements of para. 508.5.1 General. If bolts, nuts, and washers comply-
504. ing with applicable standards and specifications listed
in Tables 523.1 and 526.1 are used, they shall be used
508.1.2 Screwed Flanges. Screwed flangesare subject within the limitations specified in this Code and shall
to restrictions on threaded joints established in para. also be subject to the requirementsof Chapter III and
5 14(e). paras. 508.3 and 508.5.2(a) and (b).
508.5.2 Bolting for Cast Iron Flanges
508.2 Blanks (u) Classes 25 and 125 cast iron integral or screwed
companion flanges may be used with a full-face gasket
Blanks shall conformto design requirements in para.
or with a flat ring gasket extending to theinner edge of
504.5.3.
the bolts. When using a full-face gasket, the bolting
may be alloy steel (ASTM A 193). When using a flat
508.3 Flange
Facings ring gasket, the bolting shall be of carbon steel equal to
or less than ASTM A 307, Grade B. Materials other
Flange facings complying with standards listed in than carbon steels may be used provided the physical
Table 526.1 are suitable foruse under thisCode. Other properties are equal to orless than the requirementsof
special facings maybeused provided they meet the ASTM A 307, Grade B.
requirements of para. 504.7. (b) When bolting together two Class 250 cast iron,
Class 150 steel flangesmay be bolted to cast iron integral, or screwed companion flanges having 1/16 in.
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components raised faces, the bolting shall be of carbon steel equal
having either Class 125 cast integralor screwed flanges. to orless than ASTM A 307, Grade B. Materials other
If such construction is used, it is preferred that the than carbon steels may be used provided the physical
1/16 in. raised face on steel flanges be removed. If the
properties are equal to orless than the requirementsof
raised face is removed and a ring gasket extending to ASTM A 307, Grade B.
the inner edge of the bolt holes is used, or if the raised
face is not removed, the bolting shall be carbon steel not
stronger than ASTM A 307, Grade B. If a full-face
gasket is used, the bolting may be alloy steel (ASTM A PART 4
193).
Class 300 steel flanges may be bolted to cast iron
SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components OF PIPING JOINTS
having either Class 250 cast iron integral or screwed 510 PIPING
JOINTS
flanges, without any changein the raised face on either
flange. If such constructionis used, the bolting shallbe 510.1 General
carbon steel not stronger than ASTM A 307, Grade B. The typeof piping joint used shall be suitable for the
pressure-temperature conditions, and shallbe selected
giving consideration to joint tightness and mechanical
508.4 Gaskets
strength under the service conditions (including ther-
Gaskets shall be made of materials which are not mal expansion and vibration) and to the nature of the
injuriously affected by the nature of the fluid nor its fluid handled with respect to corrosion, erosion, flam-
temperature. mability, and toxicity.
Only metallic or asbestos-metallic gaskets shall be The following limitations are in addition to applica-
used on flator raised face flanges if the expected normal ble requirements in other portions of this CodeSection.

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ASME B 3 L m 5 A 71d 0759670 0543847 L84 m

511-515.2 ASME B3151992 Edition

WELDED
511 JOINTS FLANGED
512 JOINTS
General
511.1 Flanged joints shall meet the requirements of para.
508.
Welded joints may be used with any materials for
which itispossible to qualify weldingprocedures,
welders, and welding operators in conformance with
Chapter V. 513 EXPANDED JOINTS
Expanded joints may be used where experience or
tests have demonstrated that the joint
is suitable for the
511.2
Butt
Welds conditions and where adequate provisions are made in
Butt welds shall be made in accordance with the the design to prevent separations of the joints.
applicable requirements of Chapter V and para. 500.
When backingrings are used inservices where theiruse
will result in severe corrosion or erosion, the backing THREADED
514 JOINTS
ring should be removed and the internal joint ground (a) Threaded joints maybeused within the limits
smooth. In such services where it is impractical to re- stated in (b) through (f) below.
move the backing ring, consideration shall begiven to (6) When used, all pipe threads shall be taper pipe
welding the joint without backing rings, or consumable threads where the tightness of joint depends upon the
inserts may be used. seating of the thread. Straight threads on pipe joints
which depend upon a seating surface other than the
thread are allowed within the limitations of para. 518
511.3
Socket Welds
if the thread root is no deeper than a standard pipe
511.3.1 Socket welds shall be made in accordance thread and if the thread is sealed from the contained
with the applicable requirements of Chapter V and fluid.
para. 500. Dimensions of socket welding piping joints (c) Threaded joints shall not be used for Group A2
shall conform to ANSI 816.5 for flanges and ANSI or Class 3 refrigerants, unless suitably seal welded or
B16.11 for fittings, and the weld dimensions shall be brazed.
not less than the minimum dimensions shownin Figs. (d) Threaded jointslarger than NPS 1 should not be
527.4.4-B and 527.4.4-C. used for Group A2 or Class 3 refrigerants.
(e) Threaded joints larger than NPS 6 should not be
511.3.2 Socket welded connections inserted directly used for salt brines.
into thewall ofthe runpipe shall be in accordance with cf) Pipe with awall thickness less than ANSI B36.10
requirements of para. 504.3.1(c). Standard Weight or Schedule 40 up to NPS 6 and
511.3.3 Drains and bypasses may be attached to a Schedule 30in NPS 8, 10, and 12 shouldnotbe
fitting or valve by socket welding, providedthe socket threaded.
depth, bore diameter, and shoulder thickness conform
to the requirements of ANSI B16.5.
515
FLARED,
FLARELESS, AND
COMPRESSION JOINTS
511.4
Fillet Welds
515.1
Fillet welds shall be made in accordance with the
In selecting and applying flared, flareless, and com-
applicable requirements of Chapter V and para. 500. pression type tube fittings, the designer shall consider
Fillet welds shall not have dimensions less than the
the adverse effects on the joints of such factors as as-
minimum dimensions
shown Figs.
in 527.4.4-B,
sembly and disassembly, cyclic loading, vibration,
527.4.4-C, and 527.4.6-D.
shock,thermalexpansionandcontraction,andthe
problem of frost growth between the tube and fitting.
511.5
Seal
Welds
515.2
Seal welds may be used to avoid joint leakage; how-
ever, they shall not be considered as contributing any Piping joints using flared, flareless, or compression
strength to the joint. (See also para. 527.4.5.) fittings may be used within the limitations of applicable

42

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 515.2-519.1.2

standards or specifications listed in Table 526.1 and the 518


SLEEVE
COUPLED
AND
OTHER
following requirements. NOVEL OR PATENTED JOINTS
(u) Fittings and their joints shall be suitable for the
tubing with which they are to be used with considera- Coupling type, mechanical gland type, andother
tion to minimum tubing wall thickness and method of patented or novel type joints maybeused provided
assembly recommended by the manufacturer. adequate provisions are made to prevent separation of
(b) Fittings shall not be used in services which exceed the joints andprovided a prototype joint hasbeen sub-
jected to performance tests to determine the safety of
the manufacturer’s maximum pressure-temperature
the joint under simulated service conditions. When vi-
recommendations.
bration, fatigue, cyclic conditions, low temperature,
thermal expansion, or hydraulic shock are anticipated,
515.3 the applicable conditions shall be incorporated in the
tests.
For piping joints using flared, flareless, or compres-
sion fittings for which there areno applicable standards
or specifications listed in Table 526.1, the engineer shall
determine that the type of fitting selected is adequate PART 5
and safe for the design conditions and that it meets the EXPANSION, FLEXIBILITY, STRUCTURAL
requirements of paras. 515.2(a) and (b) and the follow- ATTACHMENTS, SUPPORTS,
ing requirements. AND RESTRAINTS
(u) The pressure design shall meet the requirements
of para. 504.7. 519
EXPANSION
AND
FLEXIBILITY
(b) A suitable quantityof the type and size of fitting General
519.1
to be used shall meet successful performance tests to
determine the safety of the joint under simulated ser- The following clauses define the objectives of piping
vice conditions. When vibration, fatigue, cyclic condi- flexibility analysis and alternative ways in which these
tions, low temperature, thermal expansion, hydraulic can be realized.
shock, or frost growth are anticipated, the applicable 519.1.1 Objectives.Piping systems shall be designed
conditions shall be incorporated in the test. to have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expan-
sion from causing:
(a) failure of piping or anchors from overstress or
overstrain;
517
BRAZED AND SOLDERED JOINTS (b)leakage at joints; or
(c) detrimental distortion of connected equipment
(a) Brazed and soldered socket type joints may be
(pumps, turbines, or valves) resulting from excessive
used with the following limitations for the attachment
thrusts and moments.
of valves, fittings, and flanges to nonferrous pipe and
tubing. 519.1.2ExpansionStrains. Expansion strains may
(a1 ( I ) Soldered joints shall not beused for piping be taken up in two ways, either primarily by bending
containing other than Group A l refrigerants or any or torsion in which case only the extreme fibers at the
other toxic or flammable fluid. critical location are stressed to the limit, or by axial
(a) (2) Bores anddepths of sockets of brazed and sol- compression and tension in which case the entirecross-
dered fittings shall conform to the dimensions in ANSI sectional area over the entire length is substantially
B16.18 or ANSI B16.22. Depths of sockets for brazed equally stressed.
fittings only may conform to MIL-F-1 183J. (u) Bending or torsional flexibility may be provided
(3) Brazed socket type jointsmay be used provided by the use ofbends, loops, or offsets; or by swiveljoints,
it is determined that the fittings are adequate and safe ball joints, corrugated pipe, or expansion joints of the
for the design conditions in accordance with the re- bellows typepermittingangular movement. Suitable
quirements listed in paras. 5 15(a) through (d) forflared anchors, ties, or other devices shall be provided as nec-
and flareless fittings. essary to resist end forces from fluid pressure, fric-
(4) The piping systems should be kept free of flux tional, or otherresistance to joint movement and other
and other foreign materials. causes.
(5) Solder joints shall not be used for temperatures (b) Axial flexibility may be provided by expansion
in excess of those given in ANSI B16.22. joints of the slip-joint or bellows types. Pipe running

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 94 m 0759670 0543849 T57

519.1.2-519.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

from anchorsto the jointsmust be guided where neces- for materials of relatively low ductility. In addition, it
sary to keep the pipe from bowing because of end forces helps assure minimum departure from as-erected
originating in the jointfrom fluid pressure, friction, and hanger settings. Inasmuch as thelife of a system under
deformation of the bellows. Anchors must be adequate cyclic conditions dependsprimarily on the stress range
for these forces plus the force arising from friction in rather than the stress level at any one time, no credit
the guides. For design and selection of expansion joints for cold spring is given for stress range calculations.In
of the bellows type, reference to the Standards of the calculating end thrusts and moments where actual re-
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association is recom- actionsatanyone time rather than their range are
mended. considered significant, cold spring is credited. (See
para. 5 19.4.6.)
519.2 Concepts 519.2.4 Local Overstrain. All the commonly used
methods of piping flexibility analysis assume elastic
Concepts peculiar to piping flexibility analysis and
behavior of the entire piping system. This assumption
requiring special consideration areexplained in the fol-
is sufficientlyaccurate for systems where plastic strain-
lowing paragraphs.
ing occurs at many points or over relatively wide re-
519.2.1 Stress Range. As contrasted with stresses gions, but fails to reflect the actual strain distribution
from sustained loads (such as internalpressure or in unbalanced systems where only a small portion of
weight), stresses caused by thermal expansion in sys- the piping undergoes plastic strain, orwhere, in piping
tems stressed primarily in bending and torsion are per- operating in the creep range, the strain distribution is
mitted to attain sufficient initial magnitude to cause very uneven. In these -cases, the weaker or higher
local yielding or creep. The attendant relaxation or stressed portions will be subjected to strain concentra-
reduction of stress in the hot condition leads to the tionsdue to elastic followup of the stiffer or lower
creation of a stress reversal when the component re- stressed portions. Unbalance can be produced:
turns to thecold condition. This phenomenon is desig- (a) by use of small pipe runs in series with larger or
nated as self-springing of the line and is similar in effect stiffer pipe with the small lines relatively highly
to cold springing. The amount of self-springing de- stressed;
pends on the initial magnitude of the expansion stress, (6) by local reduction in size or cross section, or local
thematerial,thetemperature,and the elapsed time. use of a weaker material;
While the expansion stress in the hot condition tends (c) in a system of uniform size, by use of a line confi-
to diminish with time, the arithmetic sumof the expan- guration for which theneutral axis (actually, the
sion stresses in the hot and cold conditions during any wrench axis) is situated close to the major portion of
one cycle remains substantially constant.Thissum, the line with only a very small portion projecting away
referred to as the stressrange, is the determining factor from it absorbing most of the expansion strain.
in the thermal design of piping. Conditions of this type should preferably be avoided,
particularly where materials of relatively low ductility
519.2.2 Expansion Range. In computing the stress
are used; if unavoidable, they should be mitigated by
range, the full thermal expansion range from the mini-
the judicious application of cold spring.
mum to maximum metaltemperature normally ex-
pected during installation and operation shall be used,
whether the piping is cold sprung or not. Linear or
519.3 Properties
angular movements of the equipmentto which the pip-
ing is attached shallbe included. For values of the unit The following paragraphs deal with materials and
thermal expansion range, refer to para. 519.3.1. geometric properties of pipe and piping components
Wheresubstantialanchor or terminal movements and the mannerin which they are tobe used in piping
are anticipated as a result of tidal changes (unloading flexibility analysis.
dock piping) or wind sway (piping attached to slender
towers), these effects shall be considered analogous to 519.3.1 UnitThermalExpansion Range. The ther- (a)
terminal movements caused by thermal expansion. mal expansion range e (in./100 ft) shall be determined
from Table 5 19.3.1 as thealgebraic difference between
519.2.3 Cold Spring. Cold spring is recognized as the unit expansion shown for the maximum normal-
beneficialin that it serves to balance hotand cold operating metal temperature and that for the minimum
stresses without drawing on the ductility of the mate- normal-operating metal temperature.For materials not
rial, for which reason it is recommended in particular included in this Table, reference shall be made to au-

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ASNE B 3 1 - 5 A 9 4 0759670 0543850 777 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 5193.2 Tables 519.3.1,

TABLE 519.3.1
THERMAL EXPANSION DATA

Linear Thermal Expansion, in./100 ft


Temperature Range, "F, 70 t o
Material -325 - 150 -50 70 200 300 400

Carbon steel; carbon moly steel -2.37 - 1.45 - 0.84 0.00 0.99 1.82 2.70
Nickel steel (3% Ni) -2.37 - 1.43 - 0.81 0.00 1.00 1.80 2.61
Nickel steel (9Nil -2.27 - 1.43 - 0.81 0.00 0.98 1.77 2.57

Austenitic stainless steels - 3.85 -2.27 -1.24 0.00 1.46 2.61 3.80
Cast iron ... ... ...
2.42 0.00
1.64 0.90
Monel (67Ni-30Cu) -2.62 - 1.79 - 0.98 0.00 1.22 2.21 3.25

Copper (99.90Cu) Alloys C12000 and C12200 -3.70 -2.28 - 1.28 0.00 1.51 2.67 3.88
Red brass (85Cu) Alloy C23000 - 3.88 -2.24 - 1.29 0.00 1.52
4.05 2.76
Copper-nickel (90Cu-lONi) Alloy C70600 -4.10 - 2.26 - 1.29 0.00 1.49
3.77 2.62

Copper-nickel (70Cu-30Ni) Alloy C71500 -3.15 - 1.95 - 1.13 0.00 1.35


3.59 2.46
Aluminum -4.68 -2.88 - 1.67 0.00 2.00
5.39 3.66
Copper silicon ( 3 5 ) Alloy C65500 -4.21 -2.31 - 1.32 0.00 1.51 2.67 3.88

TABLE 519.3.2
MODULI OF ELASTICITY

E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Tabulated Values by lob)


Temperature, "F
Material -325 - 150 -50 70 200 300 400

Carbon steels with carbon content 0.30 or less 30.0 29.2 28.7 27.9 27.7 27.4 27.0
Cast iron ... ... ... 13.4 13.2 12.9 12.6
Monel (67Ni-30Cu) 26.8 26.4 26.1 26.0 26.0 25.8 25.6

Copper (99.90Cu) Alloys C12000, C12200 17.5 16.8 16.5 16.5 16.3 16.2 16.0
Red brass (85Cu) Alloy C23000 18.2 17.7 17.5 17.0 16.6 16.4 15.8
Copper-nickel (90Cu-lONi) Alloy C70600 20.2 19.6 18.8 18.8 18.2 17.7 17.4

Copper-nickel (70Cu-30Ni) Alloy C71500 22.8 22.8 21.8 21.8 21.5 21.2 21.0
Aluminum 11.3 11.0 10.8 10.6 10.4 10.2 9.5
Copper silicon (3.5) Alloy C65500 16.6 15.8 15.3 15.3 14.7 14.2 13.7

GENERAL NOTE: Refer to National Institute of Standards and Technology.

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ASME B33-5A 94 m 0759670 0543853 605 m

519.3.1-519.4.4 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

thoritative source data, such as publications of the Na- 519.4.2 Adequate flexibilitymay generally be as-
tional Institute of Standards and Technology. sumed to be available in systems which:
(u)are duplicates of successfully operating installa-
519.3.2 Moduli of Elasticity. The cold and hot
tions or replacements of systems with a satisfactory
moduli of elasticity, E, and Eh, respectively, shall be
service record;
taken from Table 519.3.2 for the minimum and maxi-
(b) can be readily adjudged adequate by cornparision
mum normal-operating metal temperatures in Table
with previously analyzed systems;
519.3.2. For materials not included in these Tables,
(c) are of uniform size, have no more than two points
reference shall be made to authoritative source data,
of fixation and no intermediate restraints, are designed
such as publications of the National Institute of Stan-
for essentially noncyclic service (less than 7000 total
dards and Technology.
cycles), and satisfy the following approximate criterion:
519.3.3 Poisson’s Ratio. Poisson’s Ratio is the ratio
of the unit deformation at right angles to thedirection DY 30SA
of the load to the unit deformation in the direction of <-
( L - up - E c
the load, and may be taken as 0.3 at all temperatures
for all metals. However, more accurate data maybe
where
used if available.
D = nominal pipe size, in.
519.3.4 Allowable Expansion Stress Range. The al- Y = resultant of movements to be absorbed by
lowable basic expansion stress range S, and permissi- pipeline, in.
ble additive stresses shall be as specifiedin paras. U = anchor distance (length of straight line joining
502.3.2(c) and(d) for systems primarily stressed in anchors), ft
bending or torsion. L = developed length of piping between anchors, ft
S, = allowable stress range, psi, include stress range
519.3.5 Dimensions. Nominal dimensions of pipe reduction factor f where more than 7000 cy-
and fittings, and cross-sectional areas, moments of iner- cles of movement are anticipated during the
tia, and section moduli based thereon shall be used in life of the installation (see Fig. 502.3.2)
flexibility calculations, including the permissible addi- E, = modulus of elasticity of the piping material in
tive stresses. the cold condition, psi
519.3.6 Flexibility and Stress Intensification Fac- 519.4.3 Methods of Analysis. Systems which do not
tors. Calculations shall take into account stress inten- meet the requirements of para. 519.4.2 shall be
sification factors found to exist in components other analyzed by a method appropriate to the hazard en-
than plain straight pipe. Credit may be taken for the tailed by failure of the line, the importanceof maintain-
extra flexibility of such components. In the absence of ing continuous service, the complexity of the layout,
more directly applicable data, the flexibility and stress and strainsensitivity of the pipe material. Simplified or
intensification factors shown in Table 519.3.6 may be approximate methods may be applied without correc-
used. For piping components or attachments (such as tion only if they are used for therange of configurations
valves, strainers, anchor rings or bands) not covered in for which their adequate accuracy has been demon-
the Table, suitable stress intensification factors may be strated. Accompanying any flexibility calculation,
assumed by comparison of their significant geometry there shall be an adequate statementof the method and
with that of the components shown. any simplifying assumptions used.
519.4.4 Standard Assumptions. Standard assump-
tions specified in para. 519.3 shall be followed in all
519.4 Analysis for Bending Flexibility cases. In calculating the flexibility of a piping system
The following paragraphs establish under what cir- between anchor points, the system shall be treated as
cumstances and in what manner piping flexibility anal- a whole. The significance of all parts of the line and of
yses are tobe made where the system primarily derives all restraints, such assolid hangers or guides, including
its flexibility from bending or torsional strains. intermediate restraints introduced for the purpose of
reducing moments and forces on equipment or small
519.4.1 Formal calculations or model tests shall be branch lines,and also the restraint introducedby support
required only where reasonable doubt exists as to the friction, shall be recognized. Not only the expansion of
adequate flexibility of a system. the line itself, but also linear and angular movements

46

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ASME B 3 L m 5 A 94 m 0759670 0543852 5 Y L m

ASME B31.5-1992Edition 519.4.4-519.4.6

where
i; = inplane stress intensification factor from Table
519.3.6
i,, = outplanestress intensification factor from
Table 519.3.6
M , = inplane bending moment, in.-lb
M , = outplane bending moment, in.-lb
Z = sectional modulus of pipe, in.
(c) The resultant bending stresses Sb to be used in
Eq. (24) for branch connections shall be calculated in
accordance with Eqs. (26) and (27) with moments as
shown in Fig. 519.4.5-C.
(I) For header (Legs 1 and 2),

A (2) For branch (Leg 3),

FIG. 519.4.5-B BENDS

where
S b = resultant bending stress, ksi
of the equipment to which it is attached shall be consid-
Z, = effective section modulus for branch of tee,
in.
ered.
= Tr,,, 2 ts
519.4.5 Flexibility Stresses rm = mean branch cross-sectional radius, in.
(u) Bending and torsional stress shall be computed t , = effective branch wall thickness, in. (lesser of
using the as-installed modulus of elasticity E, (E, = th and j o t b )
E, at installation temperature) and then combined in th = thickness of pipe matching run of tee or header
accordance with Eq. (24) to determine the computed exclusive of reinforcing elements, in.
stress range S,, which shall not exceed the allowable t b = thickness of pipe matching branch, in.
stress range S, in para. 502.3.2. i, = outplane stress intensification factor
ii = inplane stress intensification factor
(d) Allowable stress range S, and permissible addi-
tive stresses shall be computed in accordance with
where paras. 519.2.1 and 519.2.2.
Sb = resultant bending stress, psi
S, = torsional stress, psi
519.4.6 Reactions. The reactions (forces and mo-
= M,/2Z
ments) R h and R , in the hot and cold conditions, re-
M , = torsional moment, in-lb
spectively, shall be obtained from the reaction range R
Z = section modulus of pipe, in.
derived from theflexibility calculations, using Eqs. (28)
fb)The resultant bending stresses S b , psi, to be used
and (29):
in Eq. (24) for elbows and miter bends shall be cal-
In the design of anchors and restraints and in the
culated in accordance with Eq. (25), with moments as
evaluation of some mechanical effects of expansion on
shown in Fig. 519.4.5-B.
terminal equipment (such as pumps, heat exchangers,
etc.) either-reaction range R (seehefinition below) or
Sb =
V(iiM,P +
(ioM,)2 instantaneous values of reaction forces and momentsin
Z (25) the hot or cold condition may be of significance. Deter-

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ASME B31.5A 94 m 0759b70 0543853 488 9

519.4.6-519.4.8 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

Leg 2

Leg 1

FIG. 519.4.5-C BRANCH CONNECTIONS

mination of the latter may be complicated by the diffi- Eh =modulus of elasticity in the hot condition,
culty of performing the desired cold spring and by ksi
other factors. Thus their determination may imply an R = range of reaction forces or moments corre-
elaborate engineering calculation, the basis of which sponding to the full expansion range based
should be clearly set forth. In the absence of a better on E,, lb or in.-lb
procedure, in the case of one material uniform-temper- R,, R h = maximum reaction forces or moments es-
ature two anchor systems without intermediate con- timated to occur in the cold and hot condi-
straints, the hot and cold reactions may be estimated by tions, respectively, lb or in.-lb
the formulas: S , = maximum computed expansion stress range
at any point in the line, ksi (see paras. 519.-
2.1 and 519.2.2)
sh = basic material allowable stress at maximum
(hot) normal temperature, ksi. (Use S, not
SE, from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1.)

R, = CR or Cl R , whichever
greater
is (29) 519.4.7 Reaction
Limits. The computed reactions
shall not exceed limits which connected equipment,
where specifically strain sensitive components, such aspumps,
C = cold spring factor varying from zero for no compressors, valves, strainers, tanks, and pressure ves-
cold spring toonefor 100% cold spring sels, can safely sustain.
NOTE: Factor V 3 appearing in E q . (28) accounts for
observation
that
specified cold spring cannot be fully 519.4.8 Movements. Calculation of displacements
assured, even with elaborate precautions.
androtationsat specific locations may be required
C , = estimated self-spring or relaxation factor; where clearance problems are involved. In cases where
LSC ZWC if value becomes negative small-size branch lines attached to stiff main lines are
= 1 - ShE,/sEEh to be calculated separately, the linearangular
and
E, = modulus of elasticity in the cold condition, movements of the junctionpoint must be calculated or
ksi estimated for proper analysis of the branch.

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 520-520.1.6

520 DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING (b) An increase in allowable stress of 20% shall be
ELEMENTS allowed for short-time overloading conditions.
520.1 General (c) For requirements pertaining to springs, see para.
521.3.2.
Loads on equipment supporting,bracing, guiding, or (d)For requirements pertaining toanchorsand
anchoring piping include, in addition to weight effects, guides, see paras. 521.1.3 and 521.1.4.
loads due to service pressure and temperatures, vibra- (e) The principles in para. 502.3.l(d) are notapplica-
tion, wind, earthquake, shock, erection contingencies ble to design of springs.
(including testing), thermal expansion and contraction, # Pipe support andhanger components conforming
and differential settlement of foundations, all as defined to the requirements of para. 502.3.1 may have an in-
in para. 501. The design of all elements supporting or crease in their working stress to 80% of minimum yield
restraining pipe shall have regard to the degree of prob- strength at room temperature for the period of hydro-
ability of concurrence of loads and whether they are static testing. This applies only to supports that have
sustained or tend to relax themselves as defined inpara. been engineered by the designer and not to standard
519.2.1. catalog items unless they have been carefully analyzed
by the designer.
520.1.1 Objectives.Supporting elements shall be de-
signed to prevent the loadings and deflections due to 520.1.4 Materials - Steel. All equipment for per-
the influences delineated in para. 520.1 from causing: manent supports and restraints shall be fabricated from
(a) piping stresses in excess ofthose permitted in this durable materials suitable for the service conditions.
Section of the Code; Unless otherwise permitted in para. 520.1.5, steel shall
(b) leakage at joints; beused for pipe supporting elements. All materials
(c) detrimental distortion of connected equipment shall be capable of meeting the respective standard spe-
(such as pumps, turbines, valves, etc.) resulting from cifications given in Table 523.1 with regard to the tests
excessive forces and moments; and physical properties.
(d)excessive stresses in the pipe supporting (or re- Parts of supporting elements which are subjected
straining) elements themselves; principally to bending or tension loads and which are
(e) resonance with imposed vibrations; subjected to working temperatures for which carbon
If) excessive interference with the thermal expansion steel is not recommended shall be made of suitable
and contraction of a piping system which is otherwise alloy steel, or shall be protected so that the temperature
adequately flexible; of the supporting members will be maintained within
(g) unintentional disengagement of the piping from their temperature limits.
its supports;
520.1.5MaterialsOther ThanThosein Para.
(h) excessive piping sag in systems requiring drainage
520.1.4. Cast iron may be used for roller bases, rollers,
slope.
anchor bases, brackets, and parts of pipe supporting
520.1.2 Allowable Stresses in Piping. The design of elements upon which the loading will be mainly that of
piping-support elements shall be suchthatthe sus- compression. Malleable or nodular iron castings may
tained piping stresses shall not exceed the allowable be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps, hanger flanges,
value as defined in paras. 502.3.2td) and 523.2.2(0(4). clips, bases, swivel rings, and parts of pipe supporting
elements. Treated wood may be used for pipe support-
ing elements which are primarily in compression when
520.1.3Allowable Stresses in Piping Supportand
the metal temperatures are at or below ambient temper-
Restraint Components
ature.
(u) The allowable stress for the base material of all
Materials other than thoselisted in Table 523.1 may
parts of supporting and restraint assemblies shall not
be employed to take advantageof their superior proper-
exceed the appropriate S value taken from para. 502.-
ties, in specialty items such as constant support hang-
3.1 and Table 502.3.1 including Notes except as permit-
ers. In such cases, allowable stresses shall be deter-
ted in 520.1.3(b). It is not necessary to include joint
mined in accordance with the principles given in para.
factors.
502.3.1.
The allowable stressshall be reduced 25% for
threaded members and for welds in support assemblies 520.1.6 Protective Coatings
or for attachments to piping. For threaded members (a) Under conditionscausing mild corrosion, suchas
stresses shall be based on the root areaof the threads. atmospheric rusting, which are not of an intensity to

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ASME B 3 1 - 5 A 9 4 m 0759b70 0543855 250

520.1.6-521.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

(a) TABLE 521.3.5


MINIMUM SIZES OF STRAPS, RODS, AND CHAINS FOR HANGERS

Nominal Minimum Stock Size, in.


Pipe Size Component (Steel) Exposed
Weather
Protected
to from Weather

1 and smaller Strap '/a thick '/16 thick x 3/4 wide


Above 1 Strap 1/4 thick VE thick x 1 wide

2 and smaller Rod 3/a diameter 3/8 diameter


Above 2 Rod l/z diameter 1/z diameter

2 and smaller Chain 3/16 diameter or '/lb diameter or


equivalent area equivalent area
Above 2 Chain 3/8 diameter or diameter or
equivalent area equivalent area

All sizes Bolted 3/16 thick; 3/16 thick; bolts


clamps bolts 3/8 diameter 3/8 diameter

GENERAL NOTE: For nonferrous materials,the minimum stock area shall be increased by the ratio of
allowable stress of steel to the allowable stress of the nonferrous material.

warrant the use of corrosion resistantmaterials, a dura- liquid if the possibility of these lines containing liquid
ble protective coating, such as hot-dipped galvanizing, is remote and provided the lines are not subjected to
weather resistant paint, or other suitable protection, hydrostatic tests.
should be applied to all parts after fabrication or after
installation. 521.1.3 Restraints, such as anchors and guides, shall
(a) (b) Under any conditions, exposedscrew threads on be provided where necessary to control movement or to
parts of the equipment where corrosion resistant mate- direct expansion and/or other effects into those por-
rials are not used shall be greased immediately after tions of the system which are adequate to absorb them
fabrication. Paints, slushes, or other suitable protective for the purpose of protecting terminal equipment and/
coatings may be used instead of grease. or other (weaker) portions of the system. The effect of
friction inother supports of the system shall be consid-
520.1.7 Threaded Components, Threads shall be in ered in the design of such anchors and guides.
accordance with ANSI B1.1,except that other thread
forms may be usedto facilitate adjustment under heavy 521.1.4 Anchors or guides for expansion joints of the
loads. Allthreaded adjustments shall be provided with corrugated or slip-type (or variants of these types)shall
lock nuts or be locked by other positive means. Turn- be designed to resist end forces from fluid pressure and
buckles and adjusting nuts shall have the full length of frictional or other applicable resistance to joint move-
thread in service. Means shall be provided for deter- ment, in addition to other loadings.
mining that full length of thread is in service.
521.2 Resilient Variable-Support and
Constant-Support Types

521 DESIGN
LOADS FOR Reactions or load calculations for resilient or con-
PIPE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS stant effort type supports, such as springs or weight
loaded supports and braces, shall be based the on maxi-
521.1 General mum working conditions of the piping. However, the
521.1.1 Forces and moments at pipe supporting ele- support shall be capable of carrying the total load
ments caused by thermal expansion or contraction under test conditions, unless additional support is pro-
shall be determined as necessary. vided for the test period. The amount of variation that
can be tolerated shall be determined by incorporating
521.1.2 Weight calculations for gas, vapor, or safety the change in supporting effect inthe flexibility analysis
valve discharge piping should not include the weight of or shall be based on such considerations as bending

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ASME B 3 L m 5 A 9 4 m 0759670 05q385b L97 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 521.2421.3.5

effect, control of piping elevation, allowable terminal the load. Preheating, welding, and postheating shall be
reactions, etc. in accordance with the rules of Chapter V.
(g) See MSS SP-58 for typical design details.
521.3.2 Spring Supports. Spring type supports shall
521.3 Design Details be provided with means to prevent misalignment, buck-
ling, or eccentric loading of the spring, and to prevent
521.3.1 General
unintentional disengagement of the load. Materials
(a) (a) Hanger Rods. Safe axial loads for threaded
shall be in accordance with the provisions of paras.
hanger rods shall bebased on the root area of the
520.1.4 and 520.1.5. Constant support spring hangers
threadsand subject to25% reduction in allowable
shall bedesigned to provide a substantially uniform
stress as in para. 520.1.3(a). Pipe, straps, or bars of
supporting force throughout the range of travel. All
strengthand effective area equal tothe equivalent
spring elements shall be provided with means of adjust-
hanger rod may be usedinstead of hanger rods. Seealso
ment for the pipe position in the operating and nonop-
Table 521.3.5.
erating condition. Means shall be provided to prevent
(6) Chains. Chain may be used for pipe hangers and
overstressing the spring due toexcessive deflections.It
shall be designed in accordance with para. 521.3.1(a).
is desirable that all spring hangers be provided with
(c) Sliding Supports. Sliding supports (or shoes) and
position indicators.
brackets shall be designed to resist the forces due to
friction in addition to the loads imposed by bearing. 521.3.3 Counterweights. Counterweights when used
The dimensions of the support shall provide for the instead of spring hangers shall be provided with stops
expected movement of the supported piping. to prevent overtravel. Weights shall bepositively
(d) At point of support subject to horizontal move- secured. Chains, cables, hanger and rocker arm details,
ment, the movement shall be provided for by the swing or other devices used to attach the counterweight load
of long hanger rods or chains or by the use of trolleys, to the piping, shall be subject to requirements of para.
rollers, sliding or swinging supports. 521.3.1.
(e) Covering on insulated piping shall be protected
521.3.4 Hydraulic Type Supports. An arrangement
from damage at all hanger locations. Saddles, bases, or
utilizing a constant hydraulic head may be installed to
suitable shields properly constructed andsecured to the
give a constant supporting effort. Safety devices and
covered pipe shall be used at points of roller, base, and
stops shall be provided to support the load in case of
trapeze support.
hydraulic failure.
# Lugs, plates, angle clips, etc., used as part of an
assembly for the support or guiding of pipe may be 521.3.5 Sway Braces or Vibration Dampeners.Sway
welded directly to the pipe provided the material is of braces and vibration dampeners may be used to limit
good weldable quality and the design is adequate for the movement of piping due to vibration.

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ASME 8 3 L . 5 A 9 4 0759670 0543857 023

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 523-523.2.4

CHAPTER III
MATERIALS

523 -
MATERIALS GENERAL (e) One set of impact-test specimens with the notch
REQUIREMENTS in the weld metal and one set with the notch at the
fusion line,shall be made for each range of pipe thick-
523.1 Acceptable Materials and Specifications
ness that does not vary by more than !L4 in. over and
The materials used shall conform to the specifica- under the tested thickness for each material specifica-
tions listed in Table 523.1 or shall meet the require- tion used on the job.
ments of this Code for materials not so established. Ifl The following materials are exempted from the
Reclaimed pipeand piping componentsmay be used requirements for impact testing.
provided they are properly identified as conforming to ( I ) Impact tests are not required for aluminum;
a specification listed in Table 523.1 and otherwise meet Types 304 or CF8, 304L or CF3, 316 or CF8M, and
applicable requirements of this Code. 321 austenitic stainless steel; copper; red brass; copper-
nickel alloys; and nickel-copper alloys.
(2) Impact tests are not required for bolting mate-
523.2 Limitations on Materials
rial conforming withA 193, Grade B7, for use at tem-
523.2.1 General. The materials listed in Table 502.- peratures above - 50°F.
3.1 shall notbe used at design temperatures above those (3) Impact tests are notrequiredforbolting
forwhich stress values are givenin the Table. The materials conforming withA 320, Grades L7, L10,and
materials shall not be used below --@F, unless they L43, at temperatures above - 150°F or above
meet the impact test requirements of para. 523.2.2. "225°F for A 320, Grade L9.
(4) Impact tests are not required for ferrous
523.2.2 Impact Tests. Materials subject to tempera- materials used in fabricating a piping system for metal
tures below -20"F, except for those exempted in (0 temperatures between -20°F and - 150°F provided
below, shall be impact tested as required by UG-84 of the maximum circumferential or longitudinal tensile
Section VIII, Division 1, ofthe ASME BPV Code, with stress resulting from coincident pressure,thermal con-
the following substitution for UG-84(b)(2). traction, or bending between supports does not exceed
(a) A welded test section shall be prepared from a
40% of the allowable stress for the materials as given
piece of plate, pipe,or tubing for eachmaterial specifi- in Table 502.3. l. See paras. 502.3.2, 519, and 520.
cation certifiedby the manufacturer in accordance with
UG-84(e).
(b) If the material to beusedis not certified, test
sections shall be preparedfromeachpiece ofpipe, 523.2.3 Cast Iron and Malleable Iron. Cast iron and
plate, or tubing used. malleable iron shall not be used for piping components
(c) One set of impact-test specimens shall be taken in hydrocarbon or other flammable fluid service at tem-
across the weld (the metal tested is the weld metal) with peratures above 3WF, nor at gage pressures above 300
the notch in the weld, and one set shall be taken simi- psi. Cast iron or malleable iron shall not be used at
larly with the notch at the fusion line (the metal tested temperatures below - 150°F.
is the base metal).
(d) Impact test specimens shall be cooled to a tem-
perature not higher than the lowest temperature to 523.2.4 Nodular Iron. Nodular iron shall not be used
which the pipe, plate,or tubing may be subjected in its for piping componentsat gage pressures aboveloo0 psi
operating cycle. or at temperatures below - 150°F.

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ASME B31.5A 94 W 07596700543858 TbT H

Table 523.1 ASME B31.J-1992 Edition

TABLE 523.1
-
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
~ ~~~

Component Specification Material

Bolting ASTM A 193 Alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature
service
ASTM A 194 Carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high pressure and high
temperature service

*ASTM A 307 Carbon steel bolts and studs, 60,000 psi tensile
ASTM A 320 Alloy steel bolting materials for low-temperature service
ASTM A 325 High strength bolts for structural steel joints
ASTM A 354 Quenched and tempered alloy steel bolts, studs, and other externally
threaded fasteners

ASTM B 21 Naval brass rod, bar, and shapes


ASTM B 98 Copper-silicon alloy rod, bar, and shapes

-ASTM B 211 Aluminum and aluminum alloy bars, rods, and wire

Fittings, valves, flanges *ASTM A 47 Ferritic malleable iron castings


ASTM A 48 Gray iron castings

ASTM A 105 Forgings, carbon steel, for piping components


ASTM A 126 Gray iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
eASTM A 181 Forgings, carbon steel for general purpose piping
ASTM A 182 Forged or rolled alloy steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves
and parts for high temperature service
ASTM A 197 Cupola malleable iron

eASTM A 216 Steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding for high
temperature service
*ASTM A 217 Steel castings, martensitic stainless and alloy, for pressure containing
parts suitable for high temperature service
ASTM A 234 Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate
and elevated temperatures
ASTM A 278 Gray iron castings for pressure containing parts for temperatures up
to 650°F (345°C)

ASTM A 350 Forgings, carbon and low alloy steel, requiring notch toughness testing
for piping components
eASTM A 351 Steel castings for high temperature service
eASTM A 352 Steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure containing parts,
suitable for low temperature service
ASTM A 395 Ferritic ductile iron for pressure retaining castings for use a t elevated
temperatures

*ASTM A 403 Wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings


ASTM A 420 Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low
temperature service

ASTM A 522 Forged or rolled 8% and 9 % nickel alloy steel flanges, fittings, valves,
and parts for low temperature service

*ASTM A 743 Castings, iromhromium, iromhromiumnickel, and nickel base,


corrosion resistant, for general application
eASTM A 744 Castings, iromhromium-nickel and nickel base, corrosion resistant,
for severe service

= (a) 58

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ASME B 3 1 = 5 A 74 m 0757670 0543859 9Tb m
ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 523.1

TABLE 523.1 (CONT’D)


ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS
Component Specification Material

Fittings, valves, flanges ASTM B 16 Free-cutting brass rod, bar, and shapes for use in screw machines
(cont’d) ASTM B 21 Naval brass rod, bar, and shapes
ASTM B 26 Aluminum alloy sand castings
ASTM B 61 Steam or valve bronze castings
ASTM B 62 Composition bronze or ounce metal castings
ASTM B 85 Aluminum alloy die castings

ASTM B 124 Copper and copper alloy forging rod, bar, and shapes
ASTM B 179 Aluminum alloys in ingot form for sand castings, permanent mold
castings, and die castings

oASTM B 247 Aluminum and aluminum alloy die,hand, and rolled ring forgings
ASTM B 283 Copper and copper alloy die forgings (hot pressed)

ASTM B 361 Factory made wrought aluminum and aluminum alloy welding fittings

ASTM B 584 Copper alloy sand castings for general applications

AWWA Cl10 Gray iron and ductile iron fittings 2 in. through 48 in. for water and
other liquids

Steel pipe ASTM A 53 Pipe, steel, black and hot dipped, zinc coated, welded and seamless
[Note (1)l

ASTM A 106 Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temperature service
.ASTM A 134 Pipe, steel electric-fusion4arc) welded (sizes NPS 16 in. and over)
ASTM A 135 Electric-resistance welded steel pipe
oASTM A 139 Electric-fusion4arc) welded steel pipe (sizes NPS 4 in. and over)

ASTM A 211 Spiral-welded steel or iron pipe

ASTM A 312 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe


ASTM A 333 Seamless and welded steel pipe for low temperature service
ASTM A 358 Electric-fusion welded austenitic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for
high temperature service
ASTM A 376 Seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station
service

oASTM A 409 Welded large outside diameter austenitic steel pipe for corrosive or
high temperature service

ASTM A 587 Electric-welded low carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry

API 5L Line pipe

Nonferrous pipe ASTM B 42 Seamless copper pipe, standard sizes


ASTM B 43 Seamless red brass pipe, standard sizes

ASTM B 165 Nickekopper alloy (UNS N044001 seamlesspipe and tube

oASTM B 241 Aluminum and aluminum alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded
tube

ASTM B 302 Threadless copper pipe


ASTM B 315 Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube
.ASTM B 345 Aluminum and aluminum alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded
tube for gas and oil transmission and distribution piping systems

ASTM B 466 Seamless copper-nickel alloy pipe and tube


ASTM B 467 Welded copper-nickel pipe

= (a) 59

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ASME B 3 1 - 5 A 9 4 0757670 0543860 bL8

Table 523.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 523.1 (CONT'D)


ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS
Material Component Specification

Steel tube ASTM A 178 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler tubes
ASTM A 179 Seamless cold-drawn low carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser
tubes
ASTM A 192 Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high pressure service

ASTM A 210 Seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes


ASTM A 213 Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and
heat exchanger tubes
ASTM A 214 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser
tubes
ASTM A 226 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes
for high pressure service
oASTM A 249 Welded austenitic steel boiler, superheater, heat exchanger and
condenser tubes
ASTM A 254 Copper brazed steel tubing
ASTM A 269 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general
service
ASTM A 271 Seamless austenitic chromium-nickel steel still tubes for refinery
service

*ASTM A 334 Seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel tubes, for low
temperature service

Nonferrous tube oASTM B 68 Seamless copper tube, bright annealed


ASTM B 75 Seamless copper tube
ASTM B 88 Seamless copper water tube

ASTM B 111 Copper and copper alloy seamless condenser tubes and ferrule stock
ASTM B 165 Nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400) seamless pipe and tube

ASTM B 210 Aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes


*ASTM B 234 Aluminum and aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes for condensers
and heat exchangers
ASTM B 280 Seamless copper tube for air conditioning and refrigeration field
service

ASTM B 315 Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube

ASTM B 466 Seamless copper-nickel pipe and tube

ASTM A 36 Structural steel

ASTM A 240 Heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate,


sheet, and strip for pressure vessels
*ASTM A 283 Low and intermediate tensile strength carbon steel plates
ASTM A 285 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, low and intermediate tensile
strength

*ASTM A 353 Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, 9% nickel, double-normalized and
tempered

ASTM A 515 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for intermediate- and
higher-temperature service

= (a) 60

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ASME B3L-5A 9 4 m 0759630 0543861 554 H

ASME B3151992 Edition Table 523.1

TABLE 523.1(CONT'D)
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS
Material Component Specification

ASTM A 516 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for moderate- and
lower-temperature service
ASTM A 553 Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, quenched and tempered 8 % and
9 % nickel
aASTM A 570 Hot rolled carbon steel sheet and strip, structural quality

eASTM A 611 Steel, cold rolled sheet, carbon, structural

Nonferrous plate *ASTM B 96 Copper-silicon alloy plate, sheet, strip, and rolled bar for general
purposes and pressure vessels

ASTMB152 Copper, sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar


ASTMB 171 Copper alloy condenser tube plates

ASTM B 209 Aluminum and aluminum alloy sheet and plate


ASTM B 248 General requirements for wrought copper and copper alloy plate,
sheet, strip, and rolled bar

Welding electrodes and .ASME SFA-5.1 or Covered carbon steel arc welding electrodes
rods for steel and iron AWS A5.1
-ASME SFA-5.2 or Carbon and low alloy steel rods for oxyfuel gas welding
AWS A5.2
.ASME SFA-5.4 or Covered corrosion resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel
AWS A5.4 welding electrodes
OASME SFA-5.9 or Corrosion resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel bare and
AWS A5.9 composite metal cored and stranded welding electrodes and
welding rods

Welding electrodes AWS A5.3 Aluminum and aluminum alloy covered arc welding electrodes
for nonferrous metals
ASME SFA-5.6 or Copper and copper alloy covered electrodes
AWS A5.6
ASME SFA-5.7 or Copper and copper alloy bare welding rods and electrodes
AWS A5.7
.ASME SFA-5.10 or Bare aluminum and aluminum alloy welding electrodes and rods
AWS A 5 1 0

AWS A 5 1 2 Tungsten arc welding electrodes

Solder and brazing metal ASTM B 32 Solder metal

ASME SFA-5.8 or Brazing filler metal


AWS A5.8

Springs ASTM A 125 Steel springs, helical, heat treated

Chains -ASTM A 413 Carbon steel chain


ASTM A 466 Weldless carbon steel chain
oASTM A 467 Machine and coil chain

O = (a) 61

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ASME B 3 L - 5 A 34 m L3753670 0543862 490 W

523.2.5-524.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 523.1 (CONT'D)


ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS- SPECIFICATIONS
-
Component Material
~ ~~~~ ~~ -
Bars oASTM A 663 Steel bars,
carbon, merchant quality, mechanical properties
ASTM A 675 Steel bars,
carbon, hot wrought, special quality, mechanical
properties

oASTM B 221 Aluminum alloy extruded bars,


rods,
wire,
shapes, and tubes

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) For specific edition of specifications referred to in this Code, see Appendix A and subsequent addenda.
(bl All ASME SFA specifications appear in Section II, Part C, of the ASME BPVCode.

NOTE:
(1)Excluding Grade F (see para. 505.1.1).

=(a)

523.2.5 CladandLined Materials. Clad and lined 523.3Deterioration of Materials in Service


materials may be used in accordance with the applica- The selection of materials to resist deterioration in
ble requirements in Part UCLof Section VIII, Division
service is outside the scope of this Code. It is the re-
1, of the ASME BPV Code.
sponsibility of the engineer to select materials suitable
for the conditions of operation.

523.2.6Nonmetallic Pressure ContainingCompo-


nents. Nonmetallic pressure containing components, 524
MATERIALS APPLIED TO
such asplastics, glass, carbon, rubber,or ceramics, may MISCELLANEOUS PARTS
be used even if not specifically listed in this Code. If
Gaskets
524.1
stress data arenot available for establishment of allow-
able stresses, the components may be qualified per para. Limitations on gasket materials are covered in para.
504.7. Consideration shall be given to the suitability of 508.4.
the material for the service temperature, its resistance
to deterioration from the service fluid or environment,
Bolting
524.2
its flammability, its resistance to shock, its creep, and
itspropersupportand protection from mechanical Limitationson bolting materials are covered in
damage. paras. 508.5 and 523.2.2.

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ASME B 3 2 . 5 A 9 4 N 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0 5 4 3 8 6 3 3 2 7 N

CHAPTER IV
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

526 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS


FOR STANDARD AND
NONSTANDARD PIPING
COMPONENTS
526.1 Standard Piping Components
Dimensional standards for piping components are
listed in Table 526.1. Also, certain material specifica-
tions listed in Table 523.1 contain dimensional require-
ments which are requirements of para. 526. Dimen-
sions of piping components shall comply with these
standards and specifications unless the provisions of
para. 526.2 are met.

526.2
Nonstandard
Piping
Components
The dimensions for nonstandard piping components
shall, where possible, provide strength and perform-
ance equivalent to standardcomponents, except as per-
mitted under para. 5 0 4 . For convenience, dimensions
shall conform to those of comparable standard compo-
nents.

526.3 Threads
The dimensions of all piping connection threads not
otherwise covered by a governing component standard
or specification shall conform to the requirements of
applicable standards listed in Table 526. l .

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ASME B3195A 9 4 0759b70 0 5 4 3 8 6 4 263

Table 526.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 526.1
DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS

Standard Designation

Bolting

SquareandHex Bolts and Screws . . . . . , .. . .. . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . , . ... . .. . . . . ANSI B18.2.1


Square and Hex Nuts . . . . . . . ... ... .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. ..... .. ...., ., .. ... .. .. ANSI 818.2.2

Fittings, Valves, Flanges, and Gaskets

Cast Iron PipeFlangesandFlanged Fittings, Classes25,125, 250, and 800 .. ... . ................ ASMEIANSI
816.1
Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 150 and 300 . . , . . . . . . , . . . , . . , . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASME 816.3
Cast-Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . , . . , . . . . ASME 816.4
Steel PipeFlangesandFlanged Fittings . , . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .... . .. . . .. . . . . . . . ASMEIANSI
816.5
Factory Made Wrought Steel ButtweldingFittings . .. ... .... ... .... ... .... ..... .. ..... .. ASME B16.9
Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves .... ... .. ... .... ....... ... .... ... .. .. ASME B16.10

Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding andThreaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . ASME Bl6.11


Ferrous PipePlugs,Bushings,and Locknuts With PipeThreads . ., ., ., , .. .. ... .... ... .. .. ..... ASME 816.14
CastBronzeThreaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 . . . , ., . .... ... ..., .., ..., ..... .... ... ANSIIASME
B16.15
CastCopper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings . .., .. .. . .. .. .. ..... .. ... .. .. ... .. .. ... ANSI 816.18

Wrought CopperandCopper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings .. ..... .. .... ....... ... .. .. ... ASMEIANSI
816.22
CastCopper Alloy PipeFlangesandFlanged Fittings: Class150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 .. .... .. . ASME 816.24
Buttwelding Ends . . . . . . . .. .. .. ... .... ... .. ... .. .. ... ...... ... ... . .. ..... . ASME B16.25
Wrought Steel ButtweldingShort RadiusElbowsandReturns .
. . . . . . .. . .. ... . . . .... . . ,.. .... . ASMEIANSI
816.28
Valves-Flanged,Threaded,and Welding Ends ... . . ... .... ... .................. .. . .. ... ASMElANSI
816.34

Gray-Iron and Ductile-Iron Fittings, 2-Inch Through 48-Inch forWater and Other Liquids . . , . , .. . . . .. . . .
, ANSI/AWWA
Cl10
Gate Valves 3 Through 48Inch NPS forWater andSewageSystems .. . . .... . . . . . . , . . , . ... . .. . .. ANSIIAWWA
C500

Refrigeration Type Fittings ... . . . . . .. . . , . ... . . . .... . .. . ... . .. . , ., . , . . . . .., . . . . ANSIISAEJ513

Flangedand Butt-Welded-End Steel Gate and ?lug Valves for Refinery Use......... ....... .... ... . API600
Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping . . . . . . ....
.... ... .... . ......... .. .. ... .... .... API601

Fittings, Tube, Cast Bronze, Silver Brazing ......., ..... ..., .., .... .., ..., ... .... ... . MIL-F-1183E

Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges
of Valvesand Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .... ... ..
. ..... ....... . MSS SP-6
Spot Facing for Bronze, Iron, and Steel Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
. .. ....... ... .... .... MSS SP-9
Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges,andUnions . ...... . .
., , . .... ... .... . . . . MSS S?-25
Class 150 Corrosion-Resistant Gate,Globe,Angle,andCheckValves With Flangedand Buttwelding Ends ... .... MSS S?-42
Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-weldingFittings .
. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . .. . . , .. . .. .. .... ... . MSS S?-43
Bypassand Drain Connection Standard , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .... MSS S?-45

Class 150LW Corrosion-Resistant CastFlanges and Flanged Fittings . . ... . .. ..... .... . .. ..... . .. MSS SP-51
Cast Iron Gate Valves,FlangedandThreadedEnds ...... .. .. . . ... . .. ..... . ... . .. . . .. . .. . MSS SP-70
Cast Iron Swing CheckValves, FlangedandThreadedEnds ..... . . . .. . . . ..... . ... . .. . ... . . . . MSS SP-71
BronzeGate,Globe,AngleandCheckValves , . ..
.. ....... . . . . ... . . ... . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . MSS S?-80
PipeHangerand Supports-Materials Designand Manufacture . . . . . . . ..... . ... . .. .... . . ... . . . . ANSIIMSS
5p-58

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ASME B3151992 Edition Table 526.1

(a) TABLE 526.1 (CONT'D)


DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS
~~~~

Standard Designation

Pipe and Tube

Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ........................................... ANSI 836.10


Stainless Steel Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................................... ANSI 836.19

Miscellaneous

Unified Screw Threads ...................................................... ASME 81.1


Pipe Threads . . . . . ...................................................... ANSI/ASME
81.20.1
Dryseal Pipe
Threads ....................................................... ANSI 81.20.3

Mechanical Refrigeration, Safety Code for ........................................... ANSI/ASHRAE


15
Number Designation for Refrigerants .............................................. ANSI/ASHRAE
34

GENERAL NOTE: For specific edition of specifications referred t o in this Code,see Appendix A and subsequent Addenda.

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ASME B3151992 Edition 527.4.6-527.5.1

t l , min. pipe wall thickness not beless than0.7tmln [see Fig.527.4.6-D sketch (e)J.
The weld at the outer edge joining the outer reinforce-
ment to the run(header) shall also be a fillet weld with
a minimum throat dimension of 0.9,.
c, min. = 1.4t but not (e) When rings or saddles are used, a vent hole shall
less than 1/8 in.
be provided (at the side and not at the crotch) in the
ring or saddle to reveal leakage in the weld between
1/16 in.
approximately branchand main run and
to provide venting during
before welding welding and heat treating operations. Rings or saddles
may be made in more than the one piece if the joints
between the pieces have adequate strength and if each
piece is provided with a vent hole. A good fit shall be
provided between reinforcing rings or saddles and the
parts to which they are attached.
527.4.7 Welded Flat Plate Closures. Figures
(a) FIG.
527.4.4-C MINIMUM WELDING
DIMENSIONS 527.4.7-A and 527.4.7-B show acceptable and unac-
REQUIRED FORSOCKET WELDING COMPONENTS ceptable welds for flat plate closures in pipe. See para.
OTHERTHANFLANGES 504.4.2 for nomenclature.
527.4.8 Heat Treatment for Welds. Heat treatment
of welds shall be in accordance with para. 531.

t, = nominal thickness of reinforcing element (ring


or saddle), in. ( t , = O if there is no added
527.5 Qualification
reinforcement.)
lm,"= t, or t,, whichever is smaller 527.5.1 General
(c) Branch connections (including specially made (a) The qualification of welding procedures and
integrally reinforced branch connection fittings) which welders performance for both ferrous and nonferrous
abut the outside surface of the run (header) wall, or materials shall be in accordance with Section IX,
which are inserted through an opening cut in the run ASME BPV Code, or with AWS welding procedure,
(header) wall, shall have opening and branch contour AWS D10.9 Level AR-1 for refrigerant piping, Level
where necessary to provide a goodfit and shall be AR-1 or AR-3 for nonvolatile brine piping.
attached by means of fully penetrated groove welds. (b) General Requirements
The fully penetrated groove welds shall be finished with (1)The following rules shall apply to thequalifica-
cover fillet welds having a minimum throat dimension tion of welding procedures and welder performance for
not less than tc [see Fig. 527.4.6-D sketches (a) and all types of manual, semiautomatic, and automatic arc
(b)]. The limitations as to imperfection of these groove and gas welding processes.
welds shall be as set forth in para. 527.4.2(d) for butt (2) Each employer is responsible for the welding
welds. done by personnel of its organization and shall conduct
(d) In branchconnections having reinforcement pads the tests required in Section IX, ASME BPV Code, or
or saddles, the reinforcement shall be attached by welds AWS D10.9, to qualify the welding procedures used in
at the outer edge and at the branch periphery as fol- the construction of weldments constructed under this
lows. Code Section and toqualify welders and welding opera-
(1) If the weld joining the added reinforcement to tors who apply these procedures, and the employer
the branch is a fully penetrated groove weld, it shall be shall maintain records thereof.
finished with a cover fillet weld having a minimum (3) To avoid duplication of qualification tests of
throat dimension not less than t,; the weld at the outer procedures, welders or welding operators, the proce-
edge, joining the added reinforcement totherun dures, welders, or welding operators qualified as re-
(header), shall be a fillet weld with a minimum throat quired above by one employer maybe accepted by
dimension of 0.5t, [see Fig. 527.4.6-D sketches (c) and another employer on piping using the same or anequiv-
(dl]. alent procedure wherein the essential variables are
(2) If the weld joining the added reinforcement to within the limits established in Section IX, ASME BPV
the branch is a fillet weld, the throat dimension shall Code, or AWS D10.9. The contractor, fabricator, or

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ASME B 3 2 . 5 A 9 4 m O759670 0543867 T72 M

Figs. 527.4.6-A-527.4.6-D ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

FIG. 527.4.6-A TYPICAL WELDED BRANCH


CONNECTION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL
REINFORCEMENT

FIG. 527.4.6-B TYPICAL WELDED BRANCH


CONNECTION WITH ADDITIONAL
REINFORCEMENT

GENERAL NOTE:
Weld dimensions maybe larger than the minimum values
FIG. 527.4.6-C TYPICAL WELDED ANGULAR shown here.
BRANCH CONNECTION WITHOUT
ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT
FIG. 527.4.6-D SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF
WELDED BRANCH ATTACHMENT DETAILS
SHOWING MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE WELDS

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536-537.4.1

CHAPTER VI
INSPECTION AND TEST

536 INSPECTION 537.2 Preparation for Testing


(a)Prior to initial operation, a piping installation 537.2.1 All joints, including welds and bonds, are to
shall be inspected to the extent necessary to assure be left uninsulated and exposed for examination during
compliance with the engineering design, material, fab- leak testing, except that joints previously tested in ac-
rication, assembly, and test requirements of this Code. cordance with this Codemay be insulated and covered.
Systems shall be inspected visually after complete in- All such welds and bonds that are required to be unin-
stallation and before operation, except that parts of the sulated and exposed for examination shall be unpainted
system that would not be accessible after complete in- (uncoated) and free of rust, dirt, oil, and other foreign
stallation shall be inspected after completion of those materials.
parts. Parts not previously tested and inspected which
are tobe insulated shall be leftuninsulated until all tests
have been completed. 537.3 Factory Tests
( I ) All joints and connections shall be examined 537.3.1 All refrigerant containing piping of every
for apparent faults. Soldered joints that appear to be system shall be tested and proved tight by the manufac-
burned or which are obviously defective shall be disas- turer at not less than the design pressure for which it
sembled and resoldered before testing. Visual inspec- is rated except as noted in paras. 537.3.2 and 537.3.2.2.
tion of joints shall not be accepted as a substitute for
tests in accordance with para. 537. 537.3.2 The test pressure applied to thehigh pressure
side piping of each factory-assembled refrigerating sys-
(a) (2) Circumferential welds subject to sustained
a
longitudinal stress of 70% or more of the allowable tem shall be at least equal to the design pressure of the
stress or to anexpansion stress of 50% or more of the component in the high pressure side which hasthe
allowable stress range shall all be identified onthe lowest rated design pressure. The test pressure applied
drawings and shall be inspected visually or by other to the low pressure side piping of each factory-assem-
equivalent means to establish that they comply with the bled refrigerating system shall be at least equal to the
requirements of para. 527.4. For Group A2 or Class 3 design pressure of the component in the low pressure
refrigerant piping the inspection requirements of Chap- side which has the lowest rated design pressure.
ter VI of ASME B3 1.3 shall be followed. 537.3.2.1 ForGroupA2 or Class 3 refrigerant (a)
piping the testing requirements of ChapterVI of
ASME B3 1.3 shall be followed.
537.3.2.2 In testing piping of systems using non- (a)
positive displacement compressors, the entire piping
537 TESTS shall be considered for test purposes as thelow pressure
side. For Group A2 or Class 3 refrigerant piping, block
537.1 Tests BeforeErection or Assemblyatthe valves between the high and low sides shall be used if
Factory or on the Premises necessary to permit testing per para. 537.3.2.1.
537.1.1 When piping components including valves,
gauges, regulators, pipe, tube, and fittings have been
537.4 Field
Tests
tested by the component manufacturer according to
standards or applicable specification, no furthertests of 537.4.1 All refrigerant containing piping of every
these components are required. system that is erected on the premises, except piping

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ASME B31.5A 94 m 0759670 0543869 845

537.4.1-537.8.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

components that are factory tested, shall be tested and reducing device with a pressure relief device and a gage
proved tight after complete installation, and before op- on the outlet side. The pressure relief device shall be set
eration. above the test pressure, but low enough to prevent
The high and low pressure side piping of each system permanent deformation of any of the system compo-
erected on the premises shall be tested and proved tight nents.
at not less than the lower of the design pressure or the
setting of the pressure relief device protecting the high
537.6 Tests for SecondaryCoolantPiping
or low pressure side of the system, respectively, except
as noted in paras. 537.4.1.1 and 537.4.1.2. (u) Piping systems for secondary coolant shall be
tested at least at the design pressure.
(a1 537.4.1.1 Piping for systems erected on the prem- (b) A piping system using refrigerant as a secondary
ises using Group A l refrigerant and with copper tubing
coolant shall be treated as refrigerant piping.
not exceeding Ys in. outside diameter may be tested by
(c) Water should not be used as a test medium for
means of the refrigerant charged into thesystem at the
secondary coolant piping when the presence of water
saturated vapor pressure of the refrigerant at 68°F min-
may be detrimental.
imum.
(a1 537.4.1.2 For Group A2 or Class 3 refrigerant
piping, the test requirements of Chapter VI of ASME
537.7 Pressure
Gages
B31.3 shall be followed.
Pressure gages shall be checked for accuracy prior to
(al 537.4.1.3 In testing piping of systems erected on test, either by comparison with master gages or by
the premises and using nonpositive displacement com-
setting the pointer as determined by a dead-weight
pressors, the entire piping system shall be considered
pressure gage tester.
for test purposes as the low pressure side. For Group
A2 or Class 3 refrigerant piping, install block valves
between the high and low pressure sides, if necessary,
to permit testing per para. 537.4.1.2. 537.8 Repair of Joints
(u) All leaking joints shall be repaired.
(b) Solder joints which leak shall be disassembled,
537.5 Test
Medium
cleaned, refluxed, reassembled, and resoldered. Solder
Oxygen or any combustible gas or combustible mix- joints shall not be repaired by brazing.
ture of gases shall not be used within the piping for (c) Brazed joints which leak may be repaired by
testing. cleaning the exposed area, refluxing, and rebrazing.
Water or water solutions should not be used to test (d) Welded joints which leak shall have the defective
refrigerant piping but ifused it must be completely areas of the weld removed and rewelded.
removed.
537.8.1 After joints have been repaired, the repair
537.5.1 The means used to build up the test pressure shall be retested in accordance with paras. 537.3 and
shall have either a pressure limiting device or a pressure 537.4.

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Appendix A

APPENDIX A
REFERENCED STANDARDS

Standards incorporated in this Code by reference and the names and addresses of the sponsoring organizations are shown in this Appendix.
It is not practical to refert o a specific edition ofeach standard throughout theCode text; instead, the specific edition reference dates are shown
here. This Appendix will be revised a t intervals as needed.

ASTM Specifications ASTM Specifications (Cont’d) ASTM Specifications (Cont’d)

*A 36I36M-91 *A 320/A 320M-91 *B 42-92


*A 47-841R-90) *A 325-91c/A 325M-91C eB 43-91
*A 48-83 (R-90) .A 333lA 333M-91a
*A 334IA 334M-91 *B 61-90
.A 53-90a .A 3501A 350M-91a *B 62-90
*A 105lA 105M-90 OB 68-92IB 68M-92
*A 106-91 .A 3 5 l l A 351M-91a OB 75-92alB 75M-92a
A 125-81 *A 352lA 352M-89 .B 85-90
*A 126-84 (R-91) wA 353lA 353M-90 OB 88-92aIB 88M-92a
*A 134-90 *A 354-91 .B 96-92
*A 135-89 .A 358lA 358M-89 OB 98-92
*A 139-90 .A 376/A 376M-91
A 395-88 B 111-8818 l l l M - 8 8 a
*A 1781178M-90 B 124-89
*A 1791A 179M-90a *A 403IA 403M-91
*A 18llA 181M-90 .A 409M-91 B 152-8818 152M-88
.A 182IA 182M-91 A 413-80 B 165-87
*A 192IA 192M-90 SA 420/A 420M-91 *B 171-8918 171M-91a
-A 1931A 193M-91a -A 450/A 450M-89 *B 179-90
*A 194lA 194M-91 *A 466-91
A 197-87 A 467-86a .B 209-9018 209M-90
*B 210-9018 210M-90
.A 210lA 210M-90 *A 515IA 515M-90 mB 211-9018 211M-90
A 211-75(R-85) *A 516IA 516M-90 *B 221-9118 221M-91
.A 2131A 213M-91a *A 522IA 522M-90 B 234-8818 234M-88
.A 214IA 214M-90 *B 24118 241M-90
.A 216lA 216M-89 *A 553IA 553M-90 .B 247-90IB 247M-90
.A 217lA 217M-91 *A 570IA 57OM-90 *B 248-91bIB 248M-90
.A 226IA 226M-90 .A 587-89a
*A 234IA 234M-91~ O B 280-92
.A 240-91a *A 611-89 OB 283-91
*A 249lA 249M-91
A 663-88 B 302-87
.A 254-90 .A 675IA 675M-90 B 315-86
-A 269-90a OB 345-90
A 271-88 -A 7431A 743M-92a
.A 278-85 (R-911 *A 744IA 744M-89 B 361-88
.A 283IA 283M-91
*A 285IA 285M-90 * B 16-8518 16M-85 B 466-8618 466M-86
*B 21-83bIB 21M-90 B 467-88
*A 307-91 *B 26/B 26M-91
*A 312IA 312M-91b B 32-89 * B 543-89

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Appendix A ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

REFERENCED STANDARDS (CONT'D)

ASTM Specifications (Cont'd) ASME Codes (Cont'd) API Specifications

* B 584-90b 0818.2.1-1981 (R-92) *5L, 40th Ed., 1992


618.2.2-1987
*D 93-90 0600, 9th Ed., 1991

ASCE Standards
836.10M-1985
636.19M-1985 .
A58.1-1982 AWS Specifications
AWWA Standard
A5.1-81(R-1989)
ASME Codes A5.2-88 C110-87
A5.3-88 ~Clll-85
831.3-1990 A5.4-81(R-1989) C500-86
A5.6-84
*ASME Boiler and A5.7-84
PressureVesselCode, 1992 & Addenda A5.8-89 CDA Publication
Section II Part C A5.9-81
Section VIII, Division 1 A5.10-88 CopperTubeHandbook, 1980
Section I X
A5.12-80
81.1-1989 M I L Standard
081.20.1-1992 a

*61.20.3-1976(R1991) *MIL-F-1183J-5/87

082.1-84 MSS Standard Practices


ASHRAE Standards
816.1-1989 *SP-6-90
816.3-1985 *SP-9-92 015-92
816.4-1985 *SP-25-1978(R1988) 034-92
816.5-1988 *SP-42-1990
616.9-1986 .SP-43-1982(1991)
0816.10-1992 *SP-45-1992 SAE Specification

-816.11-1991 *SP-51-1991 J 513f-1977


0616.14-1991 *SP-58-1998
616.15-1985 *SP-97-1987
616.18-1984

816.22-1989
0616.24-1991
-616.25-1992
616.28-1986

GENERAL NOTE:Theissue date shown immediately following the hyphen after the number of the standard (e.g., A-36-81a, 616-83, and
SP-6-1980) is the effective date of the issue (edition) of the standard.

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ASME B 3 1 - 5 A 9 4 m 0759670 0543872 33T m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Appendix A

REFERENCED STANDARDS (CONT'D)


Specifications and standards of the following organizations appear in this Appendix:

ANSI American National Standards Institute AWS American Welding Society


11West 42nd Street, New York, New York 10036 P.O. Box 351040
(212) 642-4900 550 N.W. LeJeuneRoad, Miami, Florida 33135
(305) 443-9353
API American Petroleum Institute
1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, District of AWWA American Water Works Association
Columbia 20005 6666 W. Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado
(202) 682-8375 80235
(303) 794-7711
ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers
345 East 47th Street, NewYork,NewYork C DA Copper Development Association
10017 Box 1840
(212) 705-7538 Greenwich Office Park 2
Greenwich, Connecticut 06836
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and (203) 625-8210
Air-Conditioning Engineers
1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, Georgia MIL Department of Defense (DOD) Single Stock
30329 Point
(404) 636-8400 U S . Naval Publications and Forms Center
5801 Tabor Avenue,Philadelphia,Pennsylvania
ASM E The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 19120-5099
345 East 47th Street, NewYork,New York (215) 697-2000
10017
(212) 705-7722 MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the
Valve and Fittings Industry
ASM E Order Department
127 Park Street N.E., Vienna, Virginia 22180
22 Law Drive,Box2300, Fairfield, NewJersey
(703) 281-6613
07007-2300
(201) 882-1167
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale,
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
Pennsylvania 15096
1916 Race Street, Philadelphia,Pennsylvania
(412) 776-4841
19103
(215) 299-5400

(a) Other organizations mentioned inthis section:

EJ MA Expansion Joint
Manufacturers Association
25 North Broadway, Tarrytown, New York 10591
914 332-0040

NIST
National
Institute
of Standards and Technology
Publications available from
Superintendent of Documents
United States Government Printing Office
Washington DC 20402
202 783-3238

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Special Errata
to ASME/ANSI B31.5-1987 Edition
Date of Issuance: June 30, 1993

The Errata correction listed below applies to ASME/ANSI B3151987 Edition.

Page Location Change

27 504.1.2 Correct Eq. (3) to read:

2St
p z -
D, - 2yt

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS


JUNE 1993 345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017 A4087E

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ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31
An American National Standard I

I
The American Societyof
Mechanical Engineers

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92 0759670 0530262 3 2 5 m

AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31

REFRIGERATION
PIPING

ASME B31.5-1992 EDITION

3 The American Society of


Mechanical Engineers
L345 East 47th Street, New York, N.Y. 10017

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Date of Issuance: January 31, 1993

The 1992 Edition of this Code is being issued with an automatic update
service that includesAddenda, Interpretations, and Cases. The next Edition
is scheduled for publication in 1997.
The use of an Addenda allows revisions made in response to public re-
view comments or committee actions to be published on a regular basis;
revisions published in Addenda will become effective 6 months after the
date of issuance of the Addenda.
ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of
technical aspects of the Code. Interpretations are not partof the Code or the
Addenda.
Periodically certain actions of the ASME B3 1 Committee will be published
as Cases. While these Cases do not constitute formalrevisions of the Code,
they can be used in specifications, or otherwise, as representing considered
opinions of the Committee. The Cases are not part of the Code or the
Addenda.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria
for American National Standards. The Consensus Committeethat approved the code or stan-
dard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have
had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for
public review and comment which provides an opportunity for additional public input from
industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device,
or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted
in connection with any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure
anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable Letters Patent,
nor assume any suchliability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advisedthat determina-
tion of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is
entirely their own responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s)affiliated with industry is not
to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
ASME accepts responsibilityfor only those interpretations issued in accordance with govern-
ing ASME proceduresand policies which preclude the issuance of interpretations by individual
volunteers.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Copyright IC) 1993 by


THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

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ASME 831.5 9 2 m O759670 O530264 L T B m

FOREWORD

The need for anationalcode for pressure piping B31.1-1955 American Standard Code for Pres-
became increasingly evident from 1915 to 1925. To sure Piping
meet this need, the American Engineering Standards In 1952, a new section of the Code was published to
Committee (later changed to American Standards As- cover Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Sys-
sociation, then changed to United States of America tems. In 1955, after a reviewby B31 Executive and
Standards Institute, and now known as the American Sectional Committees, a decision was made to develop
National Standards Institute) initiated project B31 in and publish other industry sections as separate code
March 1926, at the request of the American Society of documents of the American Standard Code for Pres-
Mechanical Engineers and with that Society the sole sure Piping.
administrative sponsor. Because of the wide field in- The first edition of Refrigeration Piping was pub-
volved, Sectional Committee B31, later changed to lished as ASA B3 1.5-1962 superseding Section 5 of
StandardsCommittee, was composed of representa- B31.1-1955. This Section was revised in 1966. Follow-
tives of some 40 different engineering societies, indus- ing approval by the Sectional Committee and thespon-
tries, government bureaus, institutes, and tradeassocia- sor, this revision was approved by the United States of
tions. After several years work, the first edition was America Standards Institute on September 8, 1966, and
published in 1935 as an American Tentative Standard designated USAS B31.5-1966. Revision of this Section
Code for Pressure Piping. was approved on April 18, 1974, by the American Na-
In order tokeep the Code abreast of current develop- tional Standards Institute anddesignated ANSI B31.5-
ments in piping design, welding, stress computations, 1974.
new dimensional and material standards andspecifica- In December 1978, the American NationalStan-
tions, and increases in the severity of service conditions, dards Committee B31 was reorganized as the ASME
revisions, supplements, and new editions of the Code Code for Pressure Piping, B31, Committee under pro-
were published as follows: cedures developed by the AmericanSociety of Mechan-
ical Engineers and accredited by the American Na-
tional Standards Institute. The Code designation was
B3 1.1-1942 American StandardCodeforPres- also changed to ANSVASME B31.
sure Piping The 1983 and 1987 Editions preceded this Issue.
B31.la-1944 Supplement 1 Addenda from 1989 have been included in this 1992

o B3 1.lb-1947 Supplement 2
B3 1.1-1951 American StandardCode for Pres-
sure Piping
B31.la-1953 Supplement 1 to B31.1-1951
Edition. Refrigerant design pressures and refrigerant
classifications in this Edition refer to ANSWASHRAE
15-1989. Revisions to agree with ANSVASHRAE 15-
1992 will be included in the next Addenda.

...
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ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31

OFFICERS
R. E. Feigel, Chairman
L. E. Hayden, Vice Chairman
R. W. McGinnis, Secretary

COMMITTEE PERSONNEL
P. A. Bourquin, Wolff & Munier International, Hawthorne, New York
A. J. Breugelmans, Lyndhurst, New Jersey
J. D. Byers, Mobil Research & Development, Princeton, New Jersey
L. F. Clynch, CONOCO Mid-Continental Division, Ponca City, Oklahoma
R. E. Feigel, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut
D. M. Fischer, Sargent & Lundy, Naperville, Illinois
P. D. Flenner, Consumers Power Co., Jackson, Michigan
P. H. Gardner, Hercules Inc., Wilmington, Delaware
R. W. Haupt, Pressure Piping Engrg Associates Inc., Foster City, California
L. E. Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
R. R. Hoffmann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of Columbia
B. P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts
W. B. McGehee, Houston, Texas
W. V. Richards, Lincolnshire, Illinois
G. W. Spohn, 111, Dixie Constructors, Inc., Gaffney, South Carolina
D. H. Wade, Texas Utilities Electric Co., Dallas, Texas

B31.5 REFRIGERATION PIPING SECTION COMMITTEE


W. V. Richards, Chairman, Lincolnshire, Illinois
K.K. Kyser, Jr., Vice Chairman, Frick Co., Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
V. Lucas, Secretary, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, New York
R. A. Appleton, Refrigeration Systems Co., Columbus, Ohio
D. J. Chada, Pipefitters Local No. 455, Saint Paul, Minnesota
A. Cohen, Copper Development Association Inc., Greenwich, Connecticut
R. E. Dolheimer, York International Corp., York, Pennsylvania
P.C. DuPernell, Lancaster, New York
M. S. Jones, Tidewater Marine Co., New Orleans, Louisiana
T. M. Miller, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, New York

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S. P. Soling, York, Pennsylvania


D. Stouppe, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut

B31 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE


D. M. Fischer, Chairman, Sargetlt & Lundy. Naperville, Illinois
R. W. McGinnis, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
L. E. Hayden, Jr., Victaulic Company of America, Easton, Pennsylvania
R. R. Hoffmann, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, District of Columbia

B31 MATERIALS, FABRICATION, AND EXAMINATION TECHNICAL


COMMITTEE
P. D. Flenner, Chairman, Consumers Power Co., Jackson, Michigan
R. W. McGinnis, Secretary, ASME, New York, New York
P.C. DuPernell, Lancaster, New York
T. E. Estilow, Swagelok Co., Wilmington, Delaware
D. G. Hopkins, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Newark, Delaware
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Assoc. Inc., Evans, Georgia
D. W. Rahoi, CCM 2000, Rockaway. New Jersey
R. I. Seals, Berkeley, California

B31 MECHANICAL DESIGN TECHNICAL COMMITTEE


R. W. Haupt, Chairman, Pressure Piping Engrg. Associates Inc., Foster City, California
R. W. McGinnis, Secretav, ASME, New York, New York
J. P. Breen, O’Donnell & Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1. Finnie, University of California, Berkeley, California
J. A. Graziano, Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, Tennessee
B.P. Holbrook, Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, Massachusetts
W. J. Koves, UOP Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois
P.L. Lin, Wisconsin Public Service Corp., Kenauwee, Wisconsin
G. Mayers, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, Maryland
T. Q. McCawley, Charlotte, North Carolina
E. Michalopoulos, Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co., Hartford, Connecticut
J. C. Minichiello, ABB lmpell Corp., Lincolnshire, Illinois
A. D. Nance, A. D. Nance Assoc. Inc., Evans, Georgia
T. W. Pickel, Jr., Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc.. Oak Ridge, Tennessee
P. S. Rampone, Hart Design Group, Smithfield, Rhode Island
E. C. Reed, Babcock & Wilcox Co., Barberton. Ohio
R. Robleto, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, Texas
M. J. Rosenfeld, Kiefner & Associates, Inc., Worthington, Ohio
R. A. Schmidt, Ladish Co., Russellville. Arkansas
Q. N. Truong, M. W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas
E. A. Wais, Wais and Associates, Norcross, Georgia
G. E. Woods, Kingwood, Texas

B31 CONFERENCE GROUP


M. E. Bajandas. Inspecciones Bajandas. Hato Ray, Puerto Rico
R. Beaucamp, Department of Labor, Lincoln, Nebraska

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J. E. Brennan, Boiler/Piping & Steam Engrs., Columbus, Ohio
W. E. Brown, State of Kansas, Overland Park, Kansas
G. Bynog, Texas Department of Labor and Standards, Austin, Texas
R. Coomes, Department of Housing, Buildings, and Construction, Frankfort, Kentucky
Z. C. Cordero, Michigan Department of Labor, Lansing, Michigan
A. W. Diamond, Department of Labour & Manpower, Saint Johns, Newfoundland, Canada
M. P. Fitzpatrick, Department of Labour & Human Resources, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
J. W. Greenawalt, Jr., Oklahoma Department of Labor, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
G. Grodecki, Ministry of Consumer & Commercial Relations, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
A. J. Justin, State of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota
M. Kotb, Des Normes Tech., Montreal, Quebec, Canada
K. T. Lau, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Branch, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
J. T. Little, Industrial Commission of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona
W. T. Malloy, Washington Utilities & Transportation Commission, Olympia, Washington
R. G. Marini, New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission, Concord, New Hampshire
I. W. Mault, Labour and Manpower, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
A. W. Meiring, Department of Fire Prevention and Building Safety, Indianapolis, Indiana
J. W. Morvant, Office of State Fire Marshal, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
R. F. Mullaney, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety Branch, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
W. A. Owen, North Dakota Public Service Commission, Bismarck, North Dakota
W. M. Picardo, Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia
P. Sher, State of Connecticut, New Britain, Connecticut
H. E. Shutt, Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, Illinois
R. L. Smith, Jr., University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina
M. L. Snow, Jr., Brentwood, Tennessee
E. L. Sparrow, Board of Public Utilities, Newark, New Jersey
D. Stursma, Iowa State Department of Commerce, Des Moines, Iowa
R. P. Sullivan, Boiler Division, Augusta, Maine
C. W. Thompson, Department of Labor, Little Rock, Arkansas
J. E. Troppman, Division of Labor/Boiler Inspection, Denver, Colorado
R. W. Vindich, Department of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
L. E. Waldrop, Public Service Commission, Montgomery, Alabama
C. H. Walters, National Board Field Representative, Cornelius, Oregon
M. W. West, Department of Labour, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
T.F. Wickham, Department of Labor, Providence, Rhode Island
R. A. Yeo, Chief Inspector, Nova Scotia, Canada

B31 NATIONAL INTEREST REVIEW GROUP


Aluminum Association -W. W. Pritsky
American Boiler Manufacturers Association - R. J. Fletcher
American Institute of Chemical Engineers - W. C. Carnell
American Iron and Steel Institute -J. R. Pegues
American Petroleum Institute, Division of Refining - H. M. Howarth
American Pipe Fitting Association - H. Thielsch
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers - W. R. Kornblum
American Welding Society
Chemical Manufacturers Association - D. R. Frikken
Compressed Gas Association - M. F. Melchioris
Copper Development Association - A. Cohen
Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association - T.F. Stroud
Edison Electric Institute - R. L. Williams
Hydraulic Institute
International District Heating Association - G. Von Bargen
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry- R. A. Schmidt
Mechanical Contractors Association of America

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National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors- R. E. White


-
National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners D. W. Snyder
National Fire Protection Association- T. C. Lemoff
National Fluid Power Association- H. Anderson
Naval Sea Systems Command
-
Pipe Fabrication Institute L. Katz
Slurry Transport Association- P. E. Snoek
Society of Ohio Safety Engineers -J. M. Holleran
U. S. Coast Guard
Valve Manufacturers Association - R. A. Handschumacher

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CONTENTS

Foreword ...................................................................... ...


111

Personnel ...................................................................... v
Introduction ...................................................................... xv

Chapter I Scope and Definitions


500 General
Statements ...................................................... 1
.
500 1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
500.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter II Design
Part 1 Conditions
and
Criteria .................................................. 5
50 1 Design Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
501.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
501.2 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
501.3 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
501.4 Ambient Influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
501.5 DynamicEffects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
501.6 Weight Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
501.7 ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads .................................. 7
502 DesignCriteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
502.1 General ................................................................. 7
502.2 Pressure-TemperatureDesign CriteriaforPipingComponents .................. 7
502.3 AllowableStresses andOther Stress Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
502.4 Allowances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Part 2 PressureDesign of Piping Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
503 CriteriaforPressure Design of PipingComponents ........................... 26
504 Pressure Design of Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
504.1 Straight
Pipe ........................................................... 26
504.2 Curved Segments of Pipe ................................................. 30
504.3 Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
504.4 Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
504.5 Pressure Designof Flangesand Blanks ..................................... 38
504.7 Pressure Design of OtherPressureContainingComponents .................... 39
Part 3 DesignApplication of PipingComponents Selection and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
505 Pipe ................................................................... 39
505.1 General ................................................................ 39
505.2 NonferrousPipeorTube ................................................. 39
506 Fittings, Bends, andIntersections .......................................... 40

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506.1 Fittings ................................................................ 40


506.2 Bends and Intersections .................................................. 40
506.3 Couplings .............................................................. 40
507 Valv.................................................................. 40
508 Flanges. Blanks. Flange Facings. Gaskets. and Bolting ........................ 41
508.1 Flanges ................................................................ 41
508.2 Blanks ................................................................. 41
508.3 Flange Facings .......................................................... 41
508.4 Gaskets ................................................................ 41
508.5 Bolting ................................................................ 41
Part 4 Selection and Limitations of Piping Jolnb .................................. 41
510 Piping Joints ........................................................... 41
510.1 General ................................................................ 41
51 1 Welded Joints .......................................................... 42
511.1 General ................................................................ 42
51 1.2 Butt Welds .................................. r .......................... 42
511.3 Socket Welds ........................................................... 42
511.4 Fillet Welds ............................................................ 42
511.5 Seal Welds ............................................................. 42
512 Flanged Joints .......................................................... 42
513 Expanded Joints ........................................................ 42
514 Threaded Joints ......................................................... 42
515 Flared. Flarelas. and Compression Joints ................................... 42
517 Brazed and Soldered Joints ............................................... 43
518 Sleeve Coupled and Other Novel or Patented Joints ........................... 43
Part S Expansion. Flexibility. Structural Attachmen% Supports. and Restraints ......... 43
519 Expansion and Flexibility ................................................. 43
519.1 General ................................................................ 43
519.2 Concepts ............................................................... 44
519.3 Properti es .............................................................. 44
5 19.4 Analysis for Bending Flexibility ........................................... 46
520 Design of Pipe Supporting Elements ........................................ 53
520.1 General ................................................................ 53
521 Design Loads for Pipe Supporting Elements ................................. 54
521.1 General ................................................................ 54
521.2 Resilient Variable-Support and Constant-Support Types ....................... 54
521.3 Design Details .......................................................... 55

Figures
502.3.2 Stress Range Reduction Factors ........................................... 26
504.1.1-A Chart for Determining Thickness of Pipe and Closures Under External
Pressure When Constructed of Carbon Steel (Minimum Specified Yield
Strength 24.000 psi to 30.000 psi) ........................................ 28
504.1.1-B Chart for Determining Thickness of Pipe and Closures Under External
Pressure When Constructed of Carbon S t n l (Minimum Specified Yield

504.3.1-A
30.
Strength 000 psi to 38.000 psi) ........................................
Reinforcement of Branch Connections ......................................
29
32
504.3.1-B Extruded Outlet Header Notation .......................................... 34
504.3.1-C Mechanically Formed Tee Connections in Copper Materials .................... 36
504.5.3 Blanks ................................................................. 40
519.4.5-B Bends ................................................................. 51

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519.4.5-C Branchconnections ..................................................... 52

Tables
501.2.4 Minimum Design Pressures ............................................... 6
502.3.1 ksi ...................................................
Allowable Stresses, 10
519.3.1 Thermal Expansion Data ................................................. 45
519.3.2 Moduli of Elasticity ..................................................... 45
519.3.6 Flexibility Factor k and Stress Intensification Factor i ........................ 47
521.3.5 Minimum Size of Straps, Rods, and Chains for Hangers ....................... 54

Chapter III Materials


523 Materiais . General Requirements ......................................... 57
523.1 Acceptable Materials and Specifications ..................................... 57
523.2 Limitations on Materials ................................................. 57
523.3 Deterioration of Materials inService ....................................... 62
524 Materials Applied to Miscellaneous Parts ................................... 62
524.1 Gaskets ................................................................ 62
524.2 Bolting ................................................................ 62

Table
523.1 Acceptable Materials .
Specifications ...................................... 58

Chapter IV Dimensional Requirements


526 Dimensional Requirements for Standard and Nonstandard Piping
Components .......................................................... 63
526.1 Standard Piping Components .............................................. 63
526.2 Nonstandard Piping Components .......................................... 63
526.3 Threads ............................................................... 63

Table
526.1 Dimensional Standards ................................................... 64

Chapter V Fabrication and Assembly


527 Welding ............................................................... 67
527.2 Material ............................................................... 67
527.3 Preparation ............................................................ 67
527.4 Procedure .............................................................. 69
527.5 Qualification ............................................................ 71
527.6 Records ............................................................... 14
527.7 Defect Repairs .......................................................... 74
528 Brazing andSoldering ................................................... 74
528.1 Brazing Materials ....................................................... 74
528.2 Preparation and Procedure ................................................ 74
528.3 Soldering Materials ...................................................... 74
528.4 Soldering Preparation and Procedure ....................................... 75
529 Bending, Hot and Cold .................................................. 75

a 529.1 RadiiofBends ..........................................................

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529.2 P r ~ e d u r e.............................................................. 75
529.3 Heat Treatment ......................................................... 75
530 Forming ............................................................... 75
530.1 I’rcxedure .............................................................. 75
530.2 Heat Treatment ......................................................... 75
53 1 Heat Treatment ......................................................... 75
531.1 Heating and Cooling Method ............................................. 75
53 1.2 Preheating ............................................................. 75
53 1.3 Postheat Treatment ...................................................... 75
535 Assembly .............................................................. 78
535.1 General ................................................................ 78
535.2 Bolting Procedure ....................................................... 78
535.4 Threaded Piping ........................................................ 78
535.5 WeldedJoints .......................................................... 79
535.6 Brazed Sleeve Joints ..................................................... 79
535.7 SolderedSleeve Joint%.................................................... 79
535.8 Flare Type FittingJoints ................................................. 79
535.9 Flareless and Compression T y p Fitting Joints ............................... 79
535.10 Assembly of Hangers .................................................... 79

Figures
527.2.2 Typical Joints With Backing Ring ......................................... 68
527.3.1-A Butt Welding End Preparation ............................................ 68
527.3.1-B Internal Trimming for Butt Welding of Piping Components With
Internal Misalignment .................................................. 68
527.4.4-A Fillet Weld Size ......................................................... 70
527.4.4-B Welding Details for Slip-On and Socket Welding Flanges: Some
Acceptable Types of Flange Attachment Welds ............................ 70
527.4.4-C Minimum Welding Dimensions Required for Socket Welding
Components Other Than Flanges ........................................ 71
527.4.6-A Typical Welded Branch Connection Without Additional Reinforcernent .......... 72
527.4.6-B Typical Welded Branch Connection With Additional Reinforcement ............. 72
527.4.6-C Typical Welded Angular Branch Connection Without Additional
Reinforcement ........................................................ 72
527.4.6-D Some Acceptable Typs of Welded Branch Attachment Details Showing
Minimum Acceptable Welds ............................................ 72
527.4.7-A Acceptable Welds for FlatPlate Closures ................................... 73
527.4.7-B Unacceptable Welds for Flat Plata Closures ................................. 73

Table
531.2.1 HeatTreatment of Welds ................................................. 76

Chapter VI Inspection and Test


536 Inspection .............................................................. 81
537 Tests .................................................................. 81
537.1 the Factory or on tho Premises ............
Tests Before Erection or Assembly at 81
537.2 Preparation for Testing ................................................... 81
537.3 Factory Tests ........................................................... 81
537.4 Field Tests ............................................................. 81

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537.5 Test Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


537.6 Tests for Secondary Coolant Piping . . . . . . . , , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
531.7 Pressure Gages . . . . . . . . . . . .: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
537.8 RepairofJoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Appendices
A Referenced Standards , . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
B Preparation of Technical Inquiries . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

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ASME B3L.5 7 2 m O757670 0530274 0 4 7 m

INTRODUCTION

The ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping consists subsequent Addenda not be retroactive and that,unless
of a number of Sections, each an American National agreement is specifically made between contracting
Standard, which collectively constitutethe Code. parties to use other issues, or the regulatory body hav-
O Hereinafter in this Introduction and in the text of this
Code Section B31.5, when the word “Code” is used
ing jurisdiction imposes the use of other issues, the
latest Code and Addenda, issued 6 months prior to the
without identifying a specific Code Section, it means original contract date for the first phase of activity
this Code Section. covering a piping system(s), be the governing document
The Code sets forth engineering requirements for all design, materials, fabrication, erection, examina-
deemed necessary for safe design and construction of tion, and testing activities for the piping system(s) until
piping systems. While safety is the basic consideration the completion of the work and initial operation.
of this Code, this factor alonewill not necessarily govern Manufacturersand users of piping are cautioned
the final specifications for any pressure piping system. against making use of revisions less restrictive than
The designer is cautioned that theCode is not a design former requirements without having assurance that
handbook. The Code does not do away with the need for they have been accepted by the proper authorities in the
the designer or competentengineeringjudgment. jurisdiction where the piping is to be installed.

m The Codecontains basic reference data andformulas


necessary for design. It is intended to state these re-
quirements in terms of basic design principles to the
fullest possible extent, supplemented with specific re-
Users of this Code are advised that in some locations
legislation may establish jurisdiction over the subject
matter of this Code.
Attention of Code users is directed to the fact that
quirements, where necessary, to obtain uniform inter- the numbering of the Divisions and the text therein
pretation of principle. It contains prohibitions in areas may not be consecutive. This is not the result of edito-
where practices or designs are known to be unsafe. In rial or printing errors. An attempt has been made to
otherareasthe Code contains warnings or “flags” follow a uniform outline of the various Sections. There-
where caution is known to be necessary, but where it fore, the same subject, in general, appears under the
is considered that a directprohibition would be unwar- same number and subnumber in all Sections.
ranted. The Code is under the direction of the ASME Code
The Code includes: for Pressure Piping Committee, B31, organized under
(u) references to material specifications and compo- procedures of the American Society of Mechanical En-
nent standards which are acceptable for Code usage; gineers which have been accredited by the American
(b) references to acceptable dimensional standards National Standards Institute.
for the elements comprising piping systems; The Committee is a continuing one and is organized
(c) requirements for the pressure design of compo- to keep the Code current with new developments in
nent parts and assembled units; materials, construction, and usage. Addenda are issued
(d) requirements for the evaluation and limitation of periodically. New Editions are published at 3 to 5 year
stresses, reactions, and movements associated with intervals.
pressure, temperature, and external forces, and for the When no Section of the ASME Code for Pressure
design of pipe supports; Piping specifically covers a piping system, at his discre-
(e) requirements for the fabrication, assembly, and tion the user may select any Section determined to be
erection, of piping systems; and, generally applicable. However, it is cautioned that sup-
(j7 requirements for examination, inspection, and plementary requirements to the Section chosen may be
testing of piping systems. necessary to provide for a safe piping system for the
It is the intent of the Code that this Edition and intended application. Technical limitations of the vari-

xv

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ous Sections, legal requirements, and possible applica- materials or alternative constructions. Proposed Cases
bility of other Codes or Standards are some of the are publishedin MechanicalEngineering forpublic
factors to be considered by the user indetermining the review. In addition, the Case will be published as part
applicabiIity of any Section of this Code. of a Case Supplement issued to the applicable Code
The Committee has established an orderly procedure Section.
to consider requests for interpretation and revision of A Case is normally issued fora limited period, after
Code requirements. To receive consideration, inquiries which it may be renewed, incorporated in the Code, or
must be in writing and must give full particulars (see allowed to expire if there is no indication of further
Mandatory Appendix covering preparation of techni- need for the requirements covered by the Case. How-
cal inquiries). ever, the provisions of a Case may be used after its
The approved replyto an inquiry will be sent directly expiration or withdrawal, provided that the Case was
to the inquirer. In addition, the question and replywill effective on the original contract date or was adopted
be published as part of an Interpretation Supplement before completionof the work and that the contracting
issued to the applicable Code Section. parties agree to its use.
A Case isthe prescribed formof reply to aninquiry Requests for interpretations or suggestions for revi-
when study indicates that theCode wording needscla- sions should be addressed to the Secretary, ASME B3 1
rification or when the reply modifies existing require- Committee, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY
ments of the Code or grants permission to usenew 10017.

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A S I E 831.5 92 m 0759670 0530276 7LT m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 500-500.2

CHAPTER I
SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

500 GENERAL STATEMENTS (b) water piping;


(c) piping designed for external or internal gage pres-
This Refrigeration Piping Code is a Section of the
sure not exceeding 15 psi regardless of size.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code for
Pressure Piping, B31. This Section is published as a 500.1.5 Piping includes pipe, flanges, bolting, gas-
separate document for simplicity and convenience of kets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of
Code users. The users of this Code are advised that in other components, such as expansion joints, strainers,
some areas legislation may establish governmental ju- and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, sepa-
risdiction over the subject matter covered by the Code. rating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling
The owner of a complete piping installation shall have flow, and pipe supporting fixtures and structural at-
the overall responsibility for compliance with this tachments. It does not include pressure vessels, com-
Code. pressors, pumps, or heat exchangers including coil
It is required that theengineering design specify any type, but does include all connecting refrigerant and
special requirements pertinent to theparticular service secondary coolant piping starting at the first joint adja-
involved. For example, the engineering design shall not centtosuchapparatus. It does not include support

e for any service specify a weld quality lower than that


stipulated in para. 527.4.2(d) forthe Code-required
visual examination quality and for the types of welds
involved; but where service requirements necessitate
structures.

500.2 Definitions
added quality and more extensive nondestructive ex- For convenience in reference, some of the morecom-
amination, these are to be specified in the engineering mon terms relating to piping are defined inthis subdivi-
design and any revision thereto, and when so specified, sion.
the Code requires that they be accomplished. arc welding - a group of welding processes wherein
coalescence is produced by heating with an electric
arc@), with or without the application of pressure and
with or without the use of filler metal
500.1 Scope automatic welding - welding with equipment which
performs the entire welding operation without constant
500.1.1 This Code prescribes requirements for the observation and adjustment of the controls by an oper-
materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, ator. Theequipment may or may not perform the load-
and inspection of refrigerantand secondary coolant ing and unloading of the work.
piping for temperatures as low as -320°F (whether
backing ring -backing in the form of a ring generally
erected on thepremises or factory assembled) except as
specifically excluded in the following paragraphs. used in the welding of piping
base metal - the metal tobe welded, soldered, brazed,
500.1.2 Users are advised that other piping Code or cut
Sections may provide requirements for refrigeration brazedjoint - a joint obtained by the joiningof metal
piping in their respective jurisdictions. parts with alloys which melt at temperatures higher
500.1.3 This Code shall not apply to: than 8WF, but less than the melting temperatures of
(a) any self-contained or unit systems subiect to the the jointed parts
requirements of Underwriters' Laboratories or other brine - a secondary coolant which is a solution of a

O nationally recognized testing laboratory;

1
salt and water

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A S I E B3l1.5 923 E 07591170 05302377 85b M

500.2 ASME J331.5-1992 Edition

butt joint -a joint between two members lying ap- range for a proper period of time, followed by cooling
proximately in the same plane to below that range
compressor- a specific machine, with or without ac- -
normalize a process in which a ferrous metal is
cessories, for compressing a given refrigerant vapor heated to a suitable temperature above the transforma-
-
design pressure see para. 501 tion range and is subsequently cooled in still air at roam
engineeringdesign - the detaileddesigndeveloped temperature
stress-relief heat treatment -uniform heating of a
fromprocess requirements and conforming to Code
requirements,includingallnecessarydrawings and structure orportion thereof to a sufficient temperature
specifications, governing a piping installation below the critical range to relieve the major portion of
equipmentconnection - an integral part of such the residual stresses, followed by uniform cooling
equipment as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and high side- the parts of a refrigerating system sub-
pumps,designed for attachment to pipe or piping jected to condenser pressure
components joint design - the joint geometry together withthe re-
face of weld - the exposed surface of a weld on the side quired dimensions of the welded joint
from which the welding was done joint penetmtion -the minimum depth a groove or
filler metal- metal to be added in making a welded, flange weld extends fromits face into a joint, exclusive
brazed, or soldered joint ‘
of reinforcement
fillet weld - a weld of approximately triangular cross limited charge system - a system in which, with the
section joining two surfaces approximatelyat right an- compressor idle,the internal volume andtotal refriger-
gles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, comer joint, ant charge are such that the design pressure will not be
or socket joint exceeded by complete evaporation of the refrigerant
charge
fullfillet weld -a fillet weld whose size is equal to the
thickness of the thinner member joined low side - the parts of a refrigerating system subjected
fusion -see weld to evaporator pressure
-
gas metal-arc welding (GMA W) an arc welding pro- -
manual welding welding whereinthe entire welding
cess wherein coalescence is produced by heating with operation is performed and controlled by hand
an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) -
mechanicaljoint a joint obtained by joining of metal
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely parts through a positive holding mechanicalconstruc-
from an externally supplied gasor gas mixture. (Some tion
methods of this process are called MIG orCOz weld- miter joint- two or more straight sections of pipe
ing.) matched and joined on a plane bisecting the angle or
gas tungsten-arc welding (GTA W)-an arc welding junction so as to produce a change in direction
processwhereincoalescenceisproducedbyheating peening - the mechanical workingof metals by means
with an arc between a single tungsten (nonconsumable) of impact blows
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from a
pipe -a tubular component, usually cylindrical, used
gas or gas mixture. Pressure may or may not be added. for conveying fluid and normally designated “pipe” in
(This process is sometimes called TIG welding.) the applicablespecification. It alsoincludessimilar
gas welding- a group of welding processes wherein components designated “tube.”
coalescence is produced by heating witha gas flame or Types of welded pipe, according to the method of
flames, withor without the application of pressure, and manufacture, are defined as follows:
with or without the use of filler metal (a) electric-resistance welded pipe -pipe produced
groove weld - a weld made in the groove between two in individual lengths, or in continuous lengths from
members to be joined coiled skelp and subsequently cut into individual
heat aflected zone -that portion of the base metal lengths,having a longitudinal or spiral butt joint
which has not beenmelted, but whosemechanical wherein coalescence is produced by the heat obtained
properties or microstructures have been altered bythe from resistance of the pipe to the flow of electric cur-
heat of welding, brazing, or cutting rent in a circuit of which the pipe is a part, and by the
heat treatment application of pressure
annealing, full- heating a metal to a temperature (6) furnace butt welded pipe, continuouswelded
above a critical temperature and holding above that -pipe producedin continuous lengths from coiled

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ASME B3151992 Edition 500.2

skelp and subsequently cut intoindividual lengths, hav- which serve such purposes as mixing, separating,
ing its longitudinal butt joint force welded by the me- snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow,
chanical pressure developed in rolling the hot-formed pipe supporting fixtures, and structural attachments.
skelp through a set of round pass welding rolls postheating - the application of heat to an assembly
(c) electric-fusion weldedpipe - pipe having a longi- after a welding, brazing, soldering, or cutting operation
tudinal or spiral butt jointwherein coalescence is pro- preheating- the application of heat to the base metal
duced in the preformed tube by manual or automatic immediately before a welding, brazing, soldering, or
electric-arc welding. The weld may be single or double cutting operation
and may be made with or without the use of filler metal. premises -the buildings and that part of the grounds
Spiral welded pipe is also made by the electric-fusion of one property, where an installation would affect the
welded process with either a lap joint or a lock-seam safety of those buildings or adjacent property
joint.
pressure vessel, general - see Section VIII, Division 1,
(d) electric-flash welded pipe - pipe having a longi- ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (hereinafter
tudinalbuttjoint wherein coalescence is produced, referred to as the ASME BPV Code)
simultaneously over the entire area of abutting sur-
pressure vessel, refrigerant -any refrigerant contain-
faces, by the heat obtained from resistance to the flow
ing receptacle of a refrigerating system, otherthan
of electric current between the two surfaces, and by the
evaporators (each separate section of which does not
application of pressure after heating is substantially
exceed Y2 CU ft of refrigerant containing volume),
completed. Flashing andupsetting are accompanied by
evaporator coils, compressors, condenser coils, con-
expulsion of metal from the joint.
trols, headers, and piping. (See ANSVASHRAE
(e) double submerged-arcweldedpipe - pipe having 15.)
a longitudinal buttjoint produced by at least two
passes, one of which is on theinside of the pipe. Coales- refrigerant and refrigerant mixtures - the fluid used
cence is produced by heating with an electric arc orarcs for heat transfer in a refrigerating system which ab-
between the bare metal electrode or electrodes and the sorbs heat during evaporation at low temperature and
work. The welding is shielded by a blanket of granular, pressure, and releases heat during condensation at a
fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and higher temperature and pressure. They are classifìed
filler metal for the inside and outside welds is obtained into the following safety groups based on the indicated
from the electrode or electrodes. criteria:
pipe supporting elements - pipe supporting elements Group I - negligibly toxic and nonflammable
consist of fixtures and structural attachments.They do Group 2 - toxic
not include support structures and equipment, such as Group 3a - high flammability
stanchions, towers, building frames, pressure vessels, Group 36 - moderate flammability
mechanical equipment, and foundations. Group 4a -refrigerant mixtures with high flam-
fixtures -fixtures are elements which transfer the mability under some leakage situations
load from the pipe or structuralattachmenttothe Group 4b -refrigerant mixtures with moderate
supportingstructure or equipment. They include flammability under some leakage situations
hanging type fixtures, suchas hanger rods, spring
refrigerating system - a combination of interconnect-
hangers, sway braces, counterweights, turnbuckles,
ing refrigerant containing parts constituting a closed
struts, chains, guides, and anchors, and bearing type
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated
fixtures, such as saddles, bases, rollers, brackets, and
for the purpose of extracting heat
sliding supports.
reinforcement of weld -weld metal in excess of the
structural attachments - structural attachments are
specified weld size
elements which are welded, bolted, or clamped to the
pipe, such as clips, lugs, rings, clamps, clevises, straps, root opening - the separation between the members to
and skirts be joined, at the root of the joint
root penetration - the depth a groove weld extends
piping- means the pipe or tube mains for intercon- into the root of a joint measured on the center line of
necting the various parts of a refrigerating system. the root cross section
Piping includes pipe, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves,
fittings, the pressure containing parts of other compo- seal weld - any weld used primarily to provide a spe-
nents, such as expansion joints, strainers, and devices cific degree of tightness against leakage

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ASME 831.5 92 m 0759b70

500.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

sccondaty coolan1 - any liquid used for the transmis- submerged arc welding (SA W)- an arc welding pro-
sion of heat without a change in its state andhaving no cess wherein coalescence is produced by heating an
flash point, or a flash point above 150°F as determined arc@+) between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and
by ASTM D 93 the work. The arcis shielded by a blanket of granular
self-containedsystem -a complete factory-made and fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and
factory-tested system in a suitable frame or enclosure filler metal is obtained from the electrode and some-
which is fabricated and shipped in one or moresections times from a supplementary welding rod.
and in which no refrigerant containing parts are con- tack weld -a weld made to hold parts of a weldment
nected in the field other than by companion flanges or in proper alignment until the final welds arc made
block valves throat of a jllet weld
-
semiautomatic arc welding arc welding with equip- theoretical- the distance from the beginning of the
ment which controls only the filler metal feed. The root of the jointperpendicular to thehypotenuse of the
advance of the welding is manually controlled. largest right-triangle that can be inscribed within the
shall -where “shall” or “shall not” is used for a provi- fillet-weld cross section
sion specified, that provision is intended to be a Code
actual- the shortest distance from the root of a
requirement
fillet weld to its face
1 -
shielded mral-arc welding (SMA W! an arc welding
-
toe of weld the junctionbetween the face of the weld
process wherein coalescence is produced by heating
with an electric arc between a covered metal electrode and the base metal
and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposi- tube -see p i p
tion of the electrode covering. Pressure is not used and undercut- a groove melted into the base metal adja-
filler metal is obtained from the electrode. cent tothe toe or root of a weld and left unfil!ed by weld
.rhould - “should” or “it is recommended” is used to metal
indicate provisions which are not mandatory but rec- weld -a localized coalescence of metal wherein coa-
ommended good practice lescence is produced by heating to suitable tempera-
size of weld ture, with or without the application of pressure, and
groove weld - the joint penetration (depth of chamf- with or without the use of filler metal. The filler metal
ering plus the root penetration when specified) has a melting point approximately the same as the base
fillet weld- a weldof approximately triangular metals.
cross section joiningtwo surfaces approximately at welder -one who is capable of performing a manual
right angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, or or semiautomatic welding operation
comer joint
welding operator-one who operates machine or auto-
slag imAusion -nonmetallic solid material entrapp matic welding equipment
edinweld metal or betweenweld metal and base
metal welding procedues -the detailed methods and prac-
soldered joint - a gas-tight joint obtained by the join- tices including all jointwelding procedures involved in
ing of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys the production of a weldment
which melt at temperatures not exceeding 8009: and wddmenr- an assembly whose component parts are
above 4WF joined by welding

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ASME B31.5 92 m O759670 0530280 340 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 501-501.3.1

CHAPTER II
DESIGN

PART 1 pressure and temperatureshall be that condition which


CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA results in the greatest required pipe thickness and the
highest component rating.
501 DESIGN CONDITIONS
501.1 General 501.2.4 Minimum Design Pressure. Minimum
Paragraph 501 defines the temperatures, pressures, design gage pressure shall be not less than 15 psi, and
and various forces applicable to the design of piping except as noted in para. 501.2.5, shall be not less than
systems. It also states considerations that shall be given the saturation pressure of the refrigerant at the follow-
to ambient and mechanical influences and various load- ing temperatures:
ings. (a) low sides of all systems: 80°F;
(b) high side of water or evaporatively cooled sys-
tems: 105°F
Pressure
501.2 (c) high sides of air cooled systems: 125°F
Corresponding pressures are given in Table 501.2.4
501.2.2 Internal Design Pressure for refrigerants in common use.
(a) The piping component shall be designed for an
internal pressure representing the most severe condi-
tion of coincident pressure and temperatureexpected in 501.2.5 Minimum Design Pressure for Specific Ser-
normal operation or standby (including fluid head) and vice
also shall allow for shipping conditions considering (a) Design pressure for either high or low side need
possible loss of external pressure. The most severe con- not exceed the critical pressure of the refrigerant unless
dition of coincident pressure and temperature shall be the system is intended to operate at these conditions.
that condition which results in the greater required (b) When components of a system are protected by
piping component thickness and the highest compo- a pressure relief device, the design pressure of the pip-
nent rating. ing need not exceed the setting of the pressure relief
(b) Any piping connected to components other than device.
piping shall have a design pressure no less than the (c) In a compound system the piping between stages
lowest design pressure of any component to which it is shall be considered the low side of the next higher stage
connected. compressor.

501.2.3 External Design Pressure. The piping com-


ponent shall be designed for an external pressure repre- 501.3 Temperature
senting the most severe condition of coincident pres-
In this Code, metal temperature of piping in service
sure and temperature expected during shutdown or in
is considered to be the temperature of the fluid con-
normal operation (including fluid head) considering
veyed.
possible loss of internal pressure. Refrigerant piping
systems shall be designed to resist collapse when the 501.3.1 BrittleFracture. Consideration must be
internal pressure is zero absolute and theexternal pres- given to a reduction in impact strength occurring in
sure is atmospheric. This is to permit drying the pipe some materials when subjected to low temperatures.
by evacuation. The most severe condition of coincident Notch effects should be avoided. See para. 523.2.

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ASME B3L.5 92 W 0759670 0530283 287 W

TabIe 501.2.4

TABLE 501.2.4
MINIMUM DESIGN PRESSURES
Minimum Design Gage Pressures, psi
Hiah Side
Water or
Group Low Evaporation Air
[Note (113 Refrigerant Name Chemical Formula Sie Cooled
Cooled

1 R-11 Trichlorofluoromcthane CCI,F 15 15 21


1 R-12 Dichlorodifluoromethane CCI,F2 85 127 169
1 R-13 Chlorotrifluoromcthane CCIF, 521 547 547
1 R-13B1 Bromotrifluoromethane CBrF, 230 321 410
1 R-14 Tetrafluoromethane CF4 529 529 529

2 R-21 Dichlorofluoromethanc CHCI,F 15 29 46


1 R-22 Chlorodifluoromethane CHCIF, 144 211 278
2 R-30 Methylene chloride CH2C12 15 15 15

2 R-40 Methyl chloride CH,CI 72 112 151

1 R-113 Trichlorotrifluorocthane CCI,FCCIF, 15 15 15


1 R-114 Dichlorotetrafluorocthane CCIF,CCIF, 18 35 53
1 R-115 Chloropentafluoroethane CCIF2CF, 123 181 238
[Note (211 R-123 Dichlorotrifluoroethane CCI,HCF, 15 15 18
[Note (211 R-134a Tetrafluoroethane CF,CFH, 87 135 185
3b R-142b 1-Chloro-1, C!,iCCIF, 37 63 90
1-Difluoroethane
3b R-152a 1,l-Difluoroethane CH,CHF, 76 120 164
3a R-170 Ethane C2Hb 618 695 695

3a R-290 Propane 129 188 244

1 R4318 Octafluorouclobutane C4F8 34 59 85


1 R-400 ... CCI,F,/C,CI,F4 No data available
1 R-500 Dichlorodifluoromethane, CC12F,/CH,CHF2 102 153 203
73.8%, and ethylidene
fluoride, 26.2%

1 R-502 Chlorodifluoromethane, CHCIF,/CCIF,CF, 162 232 302


48.8%, and chloropenta-
fluoroethane, 51.2%
1 R-503 R-23 (40.1%) & CHF,/CCIF, 521 547 547
R-13 (59.9%)
3a R-600 N-butane C4HIrl 23 42 61

3a R-600a Isobutane (2 methyl propane) CHCCH,), 39 63 88


2 R-611 Methyl formate HCOOCH, 15 15 15

2 R-717 Ammonia NH, 139 215 293


1 R-744 Carbon dioxide c02 955 1058 1058
2 R-764 Sulfur dioxide so2 45 78 115

3a R-1150 Ethylene '2"4 732 732 732

3a R-1270 Propylene 160 229 295

GENERAL NOTE: Selection of higher design pressure may be required to satisfy actual shipping, operating, or standby conditions.

NOTES:
(1)I t shall be the responsibility of the owner to establish the refrigerant group for refrigerants used which are not listed above according to
ANSVASHRAE 34.
(2) No classification assigned as of this date.
6

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ASME 831.5 7 2 m 0759670 0530282 L13 m

M M E B3151992 Edition 501.4-502.2.5

501.4 Ambient
Influences 501.7 ThermalExpansionandContractionLoads
O 501.4.1 In the design of refrigeration piping systems,
consideration mustbe givento theinfluence of ambient
When a piping system is prevented from free thermal
expansion and contraction as a result of anchors and
temperature. restraints, thrusts and moments are set up which must
be taken into account as required by paras. 502 and
501.4.2 FluidExpansion Effects (Increased Pres-
5 19. Consideration must be given to stresses developed
sure). Consideration must begiven to expansion of liq-
inside pipe walls by large rapid temperature changes of
uid refrigerant trapped in or between closed valves and
the contents.
a means provided to prevent overpressure.

502 DESIGN CRITERIA

501.5
Dynamic Effects 502.1 General

501.5.1 Impact. Impact forces, including hydraulic Paragraph 502 pertains to ratings, stress values,
shock and liquid slugging, caused by either external or stress criteria, design allowances, and minimum design
internal conditions shallbe considered in the design of values, andformulatesthe permissible variations to
piping components. these factors used in the design of piping.
501.5.2 Wind. The effect of wind loading should be
taken into account in the design of exposed piping as 502.2 Pressure-Temperature Design
Criteria
for
described in ANSI A58.1. Piping Components
501.5.3 Earthquake (SeismicForces). Piping sys- 502.2.1 Components Having Specific Ratings. Pres-
tems located in regions where earthquakes are a factor sure-temperature ratings for certain piping compo-
shall be designed for a horizontal force in conformity nents have been established and are contained in some
with good engineering practice using governmental of the standards listed in Table 526.1.
data asa guide in determining the earthquake(seismic 502.2.3 Ratings: Normal Operating Conditions. For
force). However, this force is not to be considered as normal operation the design pressure and design tem-
acting concurrently with lateral wind force. perature shall be within the pressure-temperature rat-
501.5.4 Vibration. Piping shallbe arranged and sup- ings for all components used.
ported with consideration to vibration (see para. 521.- 502.2.4 Ratings:AllowanceforVariations From
3.5). Normal Operation. It is recognized that variations in
501.5.5 Discharge Reactions. Piping systems shall be pressure and temperature inevitably occur, and there-
designed, arranged, and supported so as to withstand fore the piping system shall be considered safe for occa-
reaction forces due to let down or discharge of fluids. sional operation for short periods at higher than the
design pressure or temperature.
Either pressure, or temperature, or both, may exceed
the design values if the stress in the pipe wall calculated
by the formulas using the maximum expected pressure
501.6
Weight
Effects
@ The following weight effects combined with loads
and forces from other causes shall be taken into ac-
during thevariation does not exceed the S value allow-
able for the maximum expected temperature during the
variation by more than thefollowing allowances for the
count in the design of piping. periods of duration indicated:
(a) up to 15% increase above the S value during
501.6.1 LiveLoads, The live load consists of the
10% of the operating period;
weight of the fluid transported, andsnow and ice loads,
(b) up to20% increase above the S value during 1%
if the latter will be encountered.
of the operating period.
501.6.2 DeadLoads. Dead loads consist of the
502.2.5ConsiderationsforLocalConditions and
weight of the piping components and insulation, and
Transitions. When two lines that operate at different
other superimposed permanent loads.
pressure-temperature conditions are connected, the
501.6.3 Test Loads. The test load consists of the valve segregating the two lines shall be rated for the
weight of the test fluid. more severe condition. When a line is connected to a
O 7

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ASME 831.5 9 2 m 0759b70053028305T W

502.2.5-502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992Editi~n

piece of equipment which operates at a higher pres- Chapter II, where the jointfactor E need not be consid-
sure-temperature condition than that of the line, the ered.
valve segregating the line from the equipment shall be The stress values in the tabla aregrouped according
rated for at least the operating condition of the equip- to temperature, and in every case the temperatureis the
ment. If, however, the valve is a sufficient distance from metal temperature. Allowable stresses for materials not
the pipe or piece of equipment operating under the listed shall not exceed those determined using the basis
more severe service condition, with the result that the in (b) below for ferrous materials and in (c) below for
temperature of this valve wouldbe lower than themore nonferrous materials.
severe service condition, this valve maybe rated for the @)The basis of establishing basic allowable stress
most severe coexistent pressure-temperature condition values for ferrous materials in this Code is as follows.
to which it will be actually subjected in normal opera- The mechanical properties for materials as devel-
tion. However, the piping between the more severe con- oped by the ASME BPV Code were used for establish-
ditions and the valve shall be designedto withstand the ing stress values.
operating conditions of the equipment or piping to At 100°F and below, an allowable stress value was
which it is connected. established at the lower value of stress obtained
from using 25% of the specified minimum tensile
502.2.6 Standards and Specifications. Where there
strength at room temperature, or 62.5% of the spe-
are manufacturers’ standards of long standing, as is the
cified minimum yield strength for 0.2% offset at
case for flanges, valves,and fittings for certain rzfriger-
room temperature.
ants, these shall be permitted for the particularrefriger-
At temperatures above 1 O O T but below W F , al-
ant service listed by the manufacturer.
lowable stress values were established that did not
502.2.7 Use of Criteria. The design conditions exceed 62.5% of the average expected yield strength
mentioned in para. 501 determine the thickness of for .O.Wh offket at temperature, or did not exceed
metal or other material required in the piping sys- 25% of the average expected tensile strength at tem-
tem. This thickness can be determined by one of perature.
three methods: For structuralgrade material quality
a factor of 0.92
(a) by a combination of allowable stresses for the shall be applied.
materials at the various temperatures and mathemati- (c) The basis for establishing basic allowable stress
cal formulas which link together the design condition values for nonferrous materials in this Code is as fol-
and the thickness of metal or other material required; lows.
(6) by a pressure-temperature rating for theindivid- The basic allowable stress values for temperatures
ual components; over 1009: are determined as the lowest of the follow-
(c) by an outrightrequirement that certain standard- ing when the tensile and yield strengths are obtained
ized components be used or not be used. from standard short-timetests made at thetemperature
under consideration:
(Z) one-fourth of the tensile strength as adjusted to
502.3 Allowable Stresses and Other Stress
minimum;
Limits (2)two-thirds of the yield strength as adjusted to
502.3.1 Allowable Stress Values minimum;
(a) The allowable stress values to be used for design (3) the stress producing a creep rate of 0.01% in
calculations shall conform to Table 502.3.1unless oth- lo00 hr; and
erwise modified by requirements of this Code. (4) the stress producing rupture in 100,OOO hr.
For pipe and tubewhich do notcontain longitudinal At 1009: and below, an allowable stress value was
or spiral joints, the Table shows the basic allowable established at the lowest value of stress obtained by
stress S. It is the allowable hoop stress. using one-fourth of the specified mínimum tensile
For pipe and tube which do contain longitudinal or strength at room temperature, or two-thirds of SF-
spiral joints, the Table shows the product SE of the cified minimum yield strength at room temperature.
basic allowable stress S and the longitudinal or spiral The tensile strengthand yield strengtharead-
joint factor E. SE is the allowable hoop stress. justed to minimum by multiplying the test results by
For materials for which Table 502.3.1 shows longitu- the ratio of the minimum specified or expected ten-
dinal or spiral joint factors E, divide the SE value sile or yield strength to the actual room temperature
shown in the Table above by the joint factor E to get tensile or yield strength for the lot of material under
the allowable stress S for Code computationsin Part 5, test.

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ASIE B 3 L - 5 9 2 m 0759670 0530284 T96 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 502.3.1-502.4.1

The creepandstress-rupturestrengthsaredeter- the number of cycles of temperature change


mined by plotting the results of the creep and stress- from minimum to maximum temperature ex-
rupture tests in the manner described in “Interpreta- pected to be encountered [see Note (2)].
tion of Creep and Stress-Rupture Data” by Francis B.
NOTES:
Foley, Metal Progress, June 1947, pp. 951-958. (1) Applies to essentially noncorrosive services. Corro-
(d)Allowable stress values in shear shall be 0.80 of sion can sharply decrease cyclic life. Corrosion resistant
the values obtained from para. 502.3.1 andTable materials should be used where a large number of major
stress cycles is anticipated.
502.3.1, and allowable stress values in bearing shall be (2) If the range of temperature changes varies, equiva-
1.60of the values obtained frompara. 502.3.1 and lent full temperature cycles may be computed from the
Table 502.3.1. equation:
(e) When steel materials of unknown specifications N = NE + r l N , + r2 !V2 + . . . + rrr N n
are used at a temperature not exceed
to 400°F for struc-
tural supports and restraints, theallowable stress value where

m shall not exceed 12.0 ksi.


&J For compnentsnot having established pressure-
temperature ratings,allowable stress values may be ad-
justed in accordance with para. 502.2.4 for other than
NE=

N,, N2,
number ofcyclesoffull

culated
. . .,
temperaturechange
TE for which expansion stress SE has been cal-

= number of cyclesoflesser temperature change


normal operation. AT,, AT2, . . . , AT,r
r , . r 2 , . . . , rrr
502.3.2Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to = ATl/ATE. AT2/ATE, . . .AT,,/ATE
= ratio of any lesser temperature cycle to that for
Sustained Loads and Thermal Expansion or Contrac- which S, has been calculated
tion
(a) Internal Pressure Stresses. The calculated stress (d)The sum of the longitudinal stresses (in the cor-
due tointernal pressure shall not exceed the allowable roded condition)dueto pressure, weight, andother
stress values given in Table 502.3.1 except as permitted sustained external loading shall not exceed S,. Where
by paras. 502.3.2(b), (c), and (d). the sum of these stresses is less than S,, the difference
(b) External Pressure Stresses. Stress due toexternal between S , and this sum may be added to the term in
pressures shall be considered safe when the wall thick- parentheses in Eq. (1).
ness of the piping component and means of stiffening In calculating the longitudinal pressure stress, con-
meet the requirements of paras. 503 and 504. sider the internal pressure as acting only on the area
(c) Allowable Stress Range for Expansion Stresses in established by the internal diameter.
Systems Stressed Primarily in Bending and Torsion. The 502.3.3
Limits of Calculated Stresses Due to
expansion stress range S, (see para. 519.4.5) shall not Occasional Loads
exceed the allowable stress range SA given by Eq. (1): (a) Operation. The sum of the longitudinal stresses
produced by pressure, live and dead loads, and those
produced by occasional loads, such as wind or earth-
quake, may not exceed 1.33 times the allowable stress
where values given in Table 502.3.1. It is not necessary to
S, = basic material allowable stress at minimum consider wind andearthquake as occurringconcur-

O (cold) normaltemperature (use S , not SE


from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1)
S, = basic material allowable stress at maximum
rently.
(b) Test. Stresses due to test conditions are not sub-
ject to the limitations of para. 502.3 of this Code. It is
(hot) normal temperature (use S , not SE from not necessary to consider other occasional loads, such
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1) as wind andearthquake,asoccurringconcurrently
with the live, dead, and test loads existing at the time
NOTE: Does not include abnormal conditions, such as
exposure to fires.
of test.

f = stress-range reduction factor for cyclic condi-


tions [see Note (l)] for total number N of full
502.4 Allowances
temperature cycles over total number of years
during which system is expected to be in active 502.4.1 Corrosion and Erosion. When corrosion or
operation (read or interpolate from Fig. erosion is expected, an increase in wall thickness of the
502.3.2). By full temperature cycles is meant components over that dictated by other design require-

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ASME B3l1.5 92 W 0759b70 0530285 922 W

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Hition

TABLE 502.3.1
ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by loo0 to obtain psi

Grade, Min. Min.


TYP@, Tensile Yield Longitudinal or
Spec. or Strength, Strength, Joint Spiral
Material No. Class ksi ksi Notes Factor

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube

Steel pipe ASTM A 53 A 48.0 30.0 ...


Steel pipe ASTM A 53 B 60.0 35.0 ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 30.0 A 48.0 . I . ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 B 60.0 35.0 ... ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 106 C 70.0 40.0 ... ...
Steel tube ASTM A 179 2b.O C 47.0 ...
Steel tube ASTM A 192 26.0 ... 47.0 ... ...
Steel tube ASTM A 210 A-137.0 60.0 ... ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 333 1 55.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel pipe ASTM A 333 6 60.0 35.0 ... ...
Steel tube ASTM A 334 1 55.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel tube 60.0 ASTM A 334 6 35.0 ... ...
Steel pipe API 5L A 48.0 30.0 ... ...
Steel pipe API 5L B 60.0 35.0 ... ...
Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube
Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

Steel pipe ASTM A 53 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85


Steel pipe ASTM A 53 B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85

Steel pipe ASTM A 135 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.85


Steel pipe ASTM A 135 B 60.0 35.0 *.. 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 178 A 47.0 26.0 m . . 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 178 C 60.0 37.0 ... 0.85

Steel tube ASTM A 214 .. 47.0 26.0 ... 0.85


Steel tube ASTM A 226 .. 47.0 26.0 ... 0.85

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ASME B3L.5 92 m 0759670 0530286 8 6 9 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1
ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 t o obtain psi
For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 250 150 200 300 350 400 No.

Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 ASTM A 53


15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 ASTM A 53

e 12.0

:::i
11.8
11.8
12.0
15.0
17.5
11.8
11.8
12.0
15.0
17.5
11.8
11.8
12.0
15.0
17.5
11.8
11.8
12.0
12.0
15.0
17.5
11.8
11.8
11.8
12.0
15.0
17.5
11.8
11.8
15.0
17.5

11.8
ASTM A
ASTM A
ASTM A
ASTM A
ASTM A
106
106
106
179
192

15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 A ASTM 210

13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 ASTM A 333


15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.015.0 15.0 ASTM A 333
13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.713.7 13.7 ASTM A 334
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 ASTM A 334

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0- 12.0 12.0 API 5L


15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 API 5L

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2


10.2 10.2 ASTM A 53
12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 ASTM A 53

10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 ASTM A 135


12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 ASTM A 135
10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 178
12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 ASTM A 178

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 214


10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 226

11

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ASME B3B.5 7 2 M O75767005302877T5 m

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE Iio2.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by loo0 to obtain psi
Grade, Min. Min.
Type, Tensile Yield or Longitudinal
spec. or Strength, Strength, Joint Spiral
Material No. ksi Class ksi Notes Factor

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

Steel pipe ASTM A 333 1


30.0 55.0 ... 0.85
Steel pipe ASTM A 333 6 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 334 1 55.0 30.0 ... 0.85
Steel tube ASTM A 334 6 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85

Steel pipe ASTM A 587 ...


30.0 48.0 ... 0.85

Steel pipe API 5L A


30.0 48.0 ... 0.85
Steel pipe API 5L B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.85

Electric Fusion Welded Pipe

Steel ASTM A 134 A 570 49.0 30.0 0.80


Gr. 30
Steel ASTM A 134 A 570 52.0 * 33.0 0.80
Gr. 33

Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 45.0 24.0 0.80


Gr. A
Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 50.0 27.0 0.80
Gr. B
Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 55.0 30.0 0.80
Gr. C
Steel ASTM A 134 A 283 60.0 33.0 0.80
Gr. D

Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 45.0 24.0 ... 0.80


Gr. A
Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 50.0 27.0 0.80
Gr. B
Steel ASTM A 134 A 285 55.0 30.0 ... 0.80
Gr. C

Steel ASTM A 139 A 48.0 30.0 ... 0.80


Steel ASTM A 139 B 60.0 35.0 ... 0.80

12

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ASME B3L.5 7 2 W O757670 0530288 631 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

m TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


AtLOWA8LE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 t o obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
0 300 100 150
250 200 400 No.

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 ASTM A 333


12.712.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 ASTM A 333
11.711.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 11.7 ASTM A 334

.2
O 12.812.8

10.210.2
12.8

10.2
12.8 12.8 12.8

10.2
12.8

10.2
ASTM A

ASTM A 587
334

19.210.2 10.2 10,2 10.2 10.2 10.2 API 5L


12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 API 5L

Electric Fusion Welded Pipe

9.0 9.0 , 8.0: %O 9.0 9.Q. 9.0 ASTM A 134

9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 - 9.6 9.6 ASTM A 134

e 8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
8.3

9.2

10.1
ASTM A 134

ASTM A 134

ASTM A 134

11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 ASTM A 134

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 ASTM A 134

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 ASTM A 134

11.0 11.0 11.0 11-0 11.0 11.0 11.0 ASTM A 134

O 9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
9.6
12.0
ASTM A 139
ASTM A 139

O
13

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ASME 831.5 9Z W 0759b70 O530289 578 m

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi
Grade, Min. Min.
TY W, Tensile Yield or Longitudinal
spec. or Strength, Strength, Joint Spiral
Material No. Class ksi ksi Notes Factor

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Fusion Welded Pipe (Cont'd)

Steel A ASTM 211 A 570


30.0 49.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. 30
Steel A ASTM 211 A 570 52.0 33.0 (1) 0.80
Gr. 33

Copper Brazed Tubing

Steel ASTM A 254 CI. I 42.0 28.0


Steel ASTM A 254 CI. II 42.0 28.0

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube

31hNi pipe ASTM A 333 3 65.0 35.0


Cr-Cu-Ni-Al pipe ASTM A 333 4 60.0 35.0 ... ...
2%Ni pipe ASTM A 333 7 65.0 35.0 ... ...
2Ni pipe ASTM A 333 9 63.0 46.0 ... ...
3%Ni tube ASTM A 334 3 65.0 35.0 .. . ...
2%Ni tube ASTM A 334 7 65.0 35.0 ... ...
2Ni tube ASTM A 334 9 63.0 46.0 ... ...

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

31hNi pipe ASTM A 333 3 65.0 35.0 ... 0.85


2 % N i pipe ASTM A 333 7 65.0 35.0 ... 0.85
2Ni pipe ASTM A 333 9 63.0 46.0 ... 0.85

3%Ni tube ASTM A 334 3 65.0 35.0 ... 0.85


2%Ni tube ASTM A 334 7 65.0 35.0 ... 0.85

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Pipe and Tube

18-8 tube AASTM 213 304 75.0 30.0 ...


18-8 tube AASTM 213 304L 70.0 25.0 ... ...

14

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 t o obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding


~~ ~~ ~

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Electric Fusion Welded Pipe (Cont'd)

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 ASTM A 211

9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 ASTM A 211

Copper Brazed Tubing

6.0 5.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 4.7 4.0 ASTM A 254


3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 1.8 2.8 2.4 ASTM A 254

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube

16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3


16.3. 16.3 ASTM A 333
15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0
15.0 15.0 ASTM A 333
16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3
16.3 16.3 ASTM A 333
15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8
15.8 15.8 ASTM A 333

16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3


16.3 16.3 ASTM A 334
16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3 16.3
16.3 16.3 ASTM A 334
15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8 15.8
15.8 15.8 ASTM A 334

Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube

13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8


13.8 13.8 ASTM A 333
13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8
13.8 13.8 ASTM A 333
13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4 13.4
13.4 13.4 ASTM A 333

13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8


13.8 13.8 ASTM A 334
13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8
13.8 13.8 ASTM A 334

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube


Seamless Pipe and Tube

18.8 ... 15.7 ... 14.1 ... 13.0 ASTM A 213


15.7 ... 13.4 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 213

15

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Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition
TABLE N2.3.1 (CONT'D)
ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

Grade, Min. Min.


Type, Tensile Yield Longitudinal or
Spec. or Strength, Strength, Joint Spiral
Material No. ksi Class ksi Notes Factor

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

18-8 tube ASTM A 269 304 75.0 30.0 ...


18-8 tube ASTM A 269 304L 70.0 25.0 ... ...
18-8 tube ASTM A 271 304 75.0 30.0 ... ...
18-8 tube ASTM 304L
A 271 70.0 25.0 ... ...
18-8 pipe ASTM 304
A 312 75.0 30.0 ... ...
18-8 pipe ASTM 304L
A 312 70.0 25.0 ... ...
18-8 pipe ASTM 304
A 376 75.0 30.0 ... ...
18-8 pipe ASTM 304L
A 376 70.0 25.0 ... ...

Welded Pipe and Tube

18-8 tube ASTM A 249 304 75.0 ' 30.0 ... 0.85
18-8 tube ASTM 304L
A 249 70.0 35.0 0.85

18-8 tube ASTM A 269 304 75.0 30.0 ... 0.85


18-8 tube ASTM A 269 304L 70.0 25.0 ... 0.85

18-8 pipe ASTM304


A 312 75.0 30.0 ... 0.85
18-8 pipe ASTM 304L
A 312 70.0 25.0 0.85

18-8 pipe ASTM304


A 358 75.0 30.0 ... 0.80
18-8 pipe ASTM 304L
A 358 70.0 25.0 ... 0.80

18-8 pipe ASTM A 409


304 75.0 30.0 ... 0.80
18-8 pipe ASTM A 409
304L 70.0 25.0 0.80

16

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ASME 831.5 7 2 m 0757670 0 5 3 0 2 7 2 Ob2 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 t o obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding


~

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)


Seamless Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)
18.8 ... ... 14.1 ... 13.0 ASTM A 269
15.7 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 269

18.8 ... ... 14.1 ... 13.0 ASTM A 271


15.7 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 271

18.8 14.1 ... 13.0 ASTM A 312


15.7 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 312

18.7 ... .. . 14.1 ... 12.9 ASTM A 376


15.7 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 376

Welded Pipe and Tube

16.0 ... ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 249


13.3 ... 11.4 *.. 10.2 ... 9.3 ASTM A 249

16.0 ... 12.0 ... 11.0 ASTM A 269


13.3 ... 11.4 10.2 ... 9.3 ASTM A 269

16.0 ... 12.0 11.0 ASTM A 312


13.3 11.4 ... 10.2 9.3 ASTM A 312

15.0 ... 12.0 ... 10.4 ASTM A 358


12.5 ... 10.7 9.6 ... 8.8 ASTM A 358

15.0 ... ... 11.3 ... 10.4 ASTM A 409


12.5 10.7 ... 9.6 8.8 ASTM A 409

17

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ASME 831.5 92 M 0759b70 0530293 T T 9 m

Table 502.3.1 M M E B31.5-1992 a t i o n

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi
Min. Min.
Yield Tensile Copper
Spec. or Copper Strength, Strength,
Material No. NPS Alloy No. Temper ksi
Notes ksi

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

Copper pipe ASTM B 42 incl.


1/i-25+ c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

Copper pipe ASTM B 42 1/a-2% incl. c10200 Drawn 45.0 40.0 (2)
c12000
c12200

Copper pipe ASTM B 42 21/2-12 incl. c10200 Drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200

Red brass pipe ASTM B 43 m . . C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0 ...


Copper tube ASTM B 68 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

Copper tube ASTM B 75 B . . c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...


c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper tube ASTM B 75 ... c10200 Light drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper tube ASTM B 75 ... c10200 Hard drawn 45.0 40.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper tube ASTM B 88 a . . c10200 Drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)


c12000
c12200

Copper tube ASTM B 88 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...


c12000
c12200

18

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ASME B3151992 Edition T a b l e 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

4.8 6.0 5.1 3.0 4.0 ASTM B 42

11.3 11.3
11.3 11.3 4.3 10.3 ASTM B 42

0
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.2 8.5 ASTM B 42

8.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 7.0 ASTM B 43

4.8 6.0 5.1 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 68

6.0 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.8 3.0 4.0 ASTM B 75

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.7 8.2 8.5 ASTM B 75

11.3 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.0


4.3 10.3 ASTM B 75

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.28.7 8.5 ASTM B 88

5.1 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 88

19

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ASME B31.5 92 m 0759b700530295 871 W

Table 502.3.1 ASME BX.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 13023.3 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Copper TellSile Yield
Spec. or Copper Strength, Strength,
Material No. NPS Alloy No. Temper ksi ksi Notes

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

Copper tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 c10200 Light drawn 36.0 30.0 (2)
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 c10200 Hard drawn 45.0 40.0 (21
c12000
c12200
C14200

Copper alloy ASTM B 111 u p t o2 C19200 Annealed 38.0 12.0 ...


Red brass condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to2 C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0 ...
Muntz metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to2 C28000 Annealed 50.0 20.0 ...
Admiralty metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 u p t o2 C44300 Annealed 45.0 15.0 ...
C44400
C44500

Aluminum brass condenser tube ASTM B 111 u p to 2 C68700 Annealed 50.0 18.0 ...
Aluminum bronze condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C60800 Annealed 50.0 19.0 ...
95Cu-5Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C70400 Annealed 38.0 12.0 ...
95CudNi condenser tube ASTM B 111 up to 2 C70400 Light drawn 40.0 30.0 ...
9OCu-1ONi condenser tube ASTM B 111 u p t o2 C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0 ...
80Cu-20Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 u p to 2 C71000 Annealed 45.0 16.0 ...
70Cu-30Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 u p t o2 C71500 Annealed 52.0 18.0 ...
Copper tube ASTM B 280 ... c10200 Annealed 30.0 9.0 ...
c12000
c12200

Copper silicon A pipe ASTM B 315 ... C65500 Annealed 50.0 15.0 ...
90Cu-1ONi pipe ASTM B 466 ... C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0 ..
90Cu-1ONi tube ASTM B 466 ... C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0 ..
70Cu-30Ni pipe ASTM B 466 ... C71500 Annealed 50.0 18.0 ...

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ASME B 3 L - 5 92 m 0759670 0530296 708 m

ASME B31.5-1992Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd)

9.0 9.0 8.7 9.0 9.0 8.5 8.2 ASTM B 111

11.3 11.3 11.0


11.3 11.3 10.3 4.3 ASTM B 111

7.5 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.1 ... ... ASTM B 111

8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 5.0 ASTM B 111

12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 10.8 5.3 ASTM B 111

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 - 9.8 3.5 ASTM B 111

12.0 11.9 11.7


11.8 11.7 6.5 3.3 ASTM B 111

12.5 12.4 11.6


12.2 11.9 10.0 6.0 ASTM B 111

8.0 8.0 ... ... ... ... ... ASTM B 111


10.0 10.0 ... s.. ... ... ... ASTM B 111

10.0 9.7 9.0 9.5 9.3 8.7 8.5 ASTM B 111

10.7 10.6 10.3


10.5 10.4 10.1 9.9 ASTM B 111

12.0 11.6 10.8


11.3 11.0 10.6 10.3 ASTM B 111

6.0 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.0 3.0 ASTM B 280

10.0 10.0 10.0


10.0 10.0 5.0 5.0 ASTM B 315

8.7 8.3 7.8 8.1 8.0 7.7 7.5 ASTM B 466


8.7 8.3 7.8 8.1 8.0 7.7 7.5 ASTM B 466

12.0 11.6 10.8


11.3 11.0 10.6 10.3 ASTM B 466

21

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A S I E 835.592 m 0759b700530297 bY4

Table 502.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 5023.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
copper Tensile Yield
Spec. or Copper Strength, Strength,
Material No. NPS A
oly No. Temper ksi ksi Notes

Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and T u b e

90Cu-1ONi pipe and tube ASTM B 467 u p t o 4% incl. C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0
90Cu-1ONi pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Over 41/2 C70600 Annealed 38.0 13.0

Copper and nickel pipe and tube ASTM B 467 up to 2 incl. C71000 Annealed 45.0 16.0

70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube ASTM B 467 u p t O 4% incl. C71500 Annealed 50.0 20.0
70Cu-30Ni .pipe and tube ASTM B 467 Over 4% C71500 Annealed 45.0 15.0
70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube ASTM B 467 u p to 2 C71500 Welded, drawn, 72.0 50.0
and tempered

Copper tube ASTM B 543 u p t o 31/8 c12200 Light cold 32.0 15.0
worked
Copper tube ASTM B 543 u p t o 3% c12200 Light cold 36.0 30.0
worked

Copper alloy tube ASTM B W 3 u p t o3% C19400 Annealed 45.0 15.0


Copper alloy tube ASTM B 543 u p to 31.4 C19400 Light cold 45.0 22.0
worked

Red brass tube ASTM B 543 u p to 3% C23000 Annealed 40.0 12.0


Red brass tube ASTM B 543 u p to 3% C23000 Light cold 42.0 20.0
worked

Admiralty
ASTM
metal
tube B 543 up to 3 % C44300 Annealed 45.0 15.0
C44400
C44500

Aluminum brassASTM
tube B 543 up to 3% C68700 Annealed 50.0 18.0

95Cu-5Ni
ASTMtube B 543 up to 3 % C70400 Annealed 38.0 12.0

90Cu-1ONi ASTM B W 3 u p t o 3% C70600 Annealed 40.0 15.0


POCu-lONi ASTM B 543 u p to 3% C70600 Light cold 45.0 35.0
worked

70Cu-30Ni ASTM B 543 up to 3'/8 C71500 Annealed 52.0 18.0

22

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ASME 831.5 92 0759b70 0530298 5 8 0

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi

For Metal Temperatures, "F, Not Exceeding


Spec.
100 150 200 350
250 300 400 No.

Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

8.5 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.2 ASTM B 467


7.4 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.4 ASTM B 467

9.1 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.4 ASTM B 467

10.6 9.6 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 ASTM B 467


8.5 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.3 ASTM B 467
15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 14.9 14.7 ASTM B 467

5.1 4.3 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.4 2.5 ASTM B 543

7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.2 7.0 ASTM B 543

8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1 7.8 , 7.3 6.0 ASTM B 543


8.5 8.5 8.3 8.1 7.8 7.3 6.0 ASTM B 543

9 6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
5.9
5.9
4.2
4.2
ASTM B 543
ASTM B 543

8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.3 3.0 ASTM B 543

10.2 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.9 5.5 2.7 ASTM B 543

6.8 6.8 .. ... ... ASTM B 543

8.5 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 ASTM B 543


8.5 8.2 8.1 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 ASTM B 543

9.9 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.0 8.8 ASTM B 543

23

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ASME 831.5 92 W 0759b70 0530299 U17 m

ASME 1$31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by lo00 to obtain psi

Min. Min.
Copper Tensile Yield
Spec. or Coppr Strength, Strength,
Mitterid No. N PS Alloy No. Temper ksi ksi Notes

Seamless Nickel Baso Alloy Pipe and Tube

3003 tube ASrM B 210 ... ... 0 14.0 5.0 ..

3003 tuhe ASTM H 21fI . I . ... H 14 20.0 17.0 (4)

6063 tube ASTM R 210 ... ... Tb 28.0 33.0 (5)


6063 tube A5'TM B ?LO ... ... Tb welded 17.0 ... ...
6061 tube ASTM H 210 ... ... T4 30.G 15.0 r5ï

6061 tube ASTM B 210 ... ... 42.0 35.0 (5)


6061 tube

6061 tube
ASTM I3 210

ASTM B 234
...
_..
...
... T4
24.0

30.0
...
16.0
...
O
6961 tube ASTM B 234 ... ... T6 42.9 35.9 (5)
6061 tube ASTM B 234 ... ... T5 welded 24.0 ... ...
3003 tube or pip^ ASTM B 241 ... ... 14.0 5.0

3003 pipe ASTM B 241 Under 1 .-. H 18 27.0 24.0

3003 pipe AST" B 241 1and over ... H112 14.1) 5.0

5083 tube ASTM B 241 ... ... 0 39.0 16.0 ..


6063 tube ASTM E 241 ... ... T5 22.0 16.0

6063 tube ASTM B 241 ... ... T6 30.0 25.0

6061 tube ASTM B 241 ... ... T4 26.0 16.0

6061 pipe ASTM B 241 1and GV€r ... T6 36.0 35.0 (5)
6061 pipe ASTM B 241 ... ... T6 welded 24.0 ... ...

GENERAL NOTE: Except where specific omi5sionj of stress value; occur in th¡: Table. Section VIII, Division 1, Gf the ASME BPV Code may
be used to supplement this Table for allowable stresse;.

NOTES:
(1)A quality factor of 92% is included for structural grade.
(2) Where brazed construction is employed, stress values for annealed material shall be used.
(3) 850; joint efficiency has been used in determining the allowble stress value for welded tube.
(4) For brazed or welded construction or where thermal cutting ir; employed, stress value for "O" temper material shall be used.
(5)The stress valueá given for this nlzterial are not applicab!e when eithzr brazing welding, or thermal cutting is us?d.

24

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 502.3.1

TABLE 502.3.1 (CONT'D)


ALLOWABLE STRESSES, ksi
Multiply by 1000 to obtain psi
~

For Metal Temperatures, 'F, Not Exceeding

Spec.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 No.

Seamless Nickel Base Alloy Pipe and Tube

17.5 ... 16.4 ... 15.4 ... 14.8 ASTM B 165

16.6 ... 14.6 ... 13.6 ... 13.2 ASTM B 165


17.5 ... 16.4 ... 15.4 ... 14.8 ASTM B 165

16.0 14.6 .. 13.6 ... 13.2 ASTM B 165

Seamless Aluminum Base Alloy Pipe and Tube

3.4 3.4 ASTM B 210

5.0 5.0 ASTM B 210

8.3 8.3 7.4 7.9 3.4 5.5 2.0 ASTM B 210


4.3 4.3 4.2 4.3 3.0 3.9 2.0 ASTM B 210

7.5 7.5 7.4 7.5 6.3 6.9 4.5 ASTM B 210

10.5 10.5 10.5 9.9 8.4 6.3 4.5 ASTM B 210


@ 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.5 4.6 3.5 ASTM B 210

7.5 7.5 ASTM B 234

10.5 10.5 9.9 10.5 6.3 8.4 4.5 ASTM B 234


6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 4.6 5.5 3.5 ASTM B 234

3.4 3.3 ASTM B 241

6.8 6.8 ASTM B 241

3.3 3.3 ASTM B 241


9.8 9.8 ... ... .., ... ... ASTM B 241

5.5 5.1
5.5 5.4 3.4 4.6 2.0 ASTM B 241

0 7.5 6.8
7.5 7.4 3.4 5.0 2.0 ASTM B 241

6.5 6.5 ASTM B 241

9.5 9.5 9.1 9.5 6.3 7.9 4.5 ASTM B 241


6.0 6.0 5.9 6.0 4.6 5.5 3.5 ASTM B 241

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502.4.1-504.1.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition
Cycles per day for 20 yr life [Note (1 11
10 20 4

1
n

8
r9
m
m
I.'y I
8 105 2 3 4
Total number N of cycles during anticipated life

NOTE:
(11 Assuming 365 day per year operation.

FIG. 502.3.2 STRESS RANGE REDUCTION FACTORS

ments shall be provided, consistent with the expected 504 PRESSURE


DESIGN OF
life of the particular piping involved. COMPONENTS
502.4.2 Threading and Grooving. [See definition for 504.1 Straight
Pipe
c in para. 504. l. l(b).]
504.1.1 General
502.4.4 Mechanical Strength. When necessary to (a) The required thickness of straight sections of pipe
prevent damage, collapse, or buckling due to superim- shall be determined in accordance with Eq. (2). (Also
posed loads from supports, backfill, or other causes, the see para. 503.)
pipe wall thickness shall be increased or, if this is im-
practical or would cause excessive local stresses, the t,=t+c (2)
factors that would contribute to damage of the piping
(b)The notations described below are used in the
shall be compensated for by other design methods.
equations for the pressure design of straight pipe.
r, = minimum required thickness, in., satisfying re-
quirements for design pressure and mechani-
PART 2 cal, corrosion, and erosion allowances
PRESSURE DESIGN r = pressure design thickness, in., as calculated
OF PIPING COMPONENTS from EQ. (3) for internal pressure, or in ac-
cordance with the procedures given in para.
503 CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE
DESIGN
504.1.3 for external pressure
OF PIPING COMPONENTS
c = for internal pressure, the sum, in., of the me-
The design of piping components, considering the chanical allowances (thread, groove depth,
effects of pressure, and providing for mechanical, cor- and manufacturers' minus tolerance) plus cor-
rosion, and erosion allowances, shall be in accordance rosion and erosion allowances. (See para. 502.-
with para. 504. In addition, the designs must be 4.1.) For threaded components, the nominal
checked for adequacy of mechanical strength under thread depth (dimension h of ANSI B1.20.1,
other applicable loadings as given in para. 501. or equivalent) shall apply. For machined sur-

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ASME B 3 1 . 5 92 m O759670 0530302 832

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 504.1.1-504.1.3

faces or grooves, where the tolerance is not the internal pressure design thickness t shall be cal-
specified, the tolerance shall be assumed to be culated using Eq. (3).
1/64 in. in addition to thespecified depth of the
cut.
= for external pressure, the sum,in., of corrosion
and erosion allowances plus manufacturer’s
minus tolerance (see para. 502.4.1)
P = internal design pressure (see para. 501.2.2), 2St
psig, or external design pressure (see para. P =
D, - 2yt
501.2.3), psi
D, = outside diameter of pipe, in.
d = inside diameter of pipe, in. (excluding metal NOTE: Thefollowing simpler alternative equation may be employed
which gives somewhat greater pipewall thickness:
required for corrosion or erosion allowance,
manufacturers’ minus tolerance, and any al- Pd
lowance required forthedepth of internal
threads or grooves)
2st
S = applicable allowable hoop stress in accordance P = -
Do
with para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, psi
y = coefficient for materials indicated: for ductile 504.1.3 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure, The
nonferrous materials, use y = 0.4 (see Note); pressure design thickness t for straight pipe under ex-
for ferritic steels, use y = 0.4 (see Note); for ternal pressure shall be determined (see Note) in ac-
austenitic steels, use y = 0.4 (see Note). cordance with the following procedure:
NOTE: If D,/[ in range of 4-6, use y = d/(d + D,) for ‘Step l. Assume a value for t . Determine L / D , and
ductile materials. D, / t .
For cast iron, use y = 0.0. Step 2. For carbon steel materials enter the left hand
A, B = factors forexternal pressure design, from Figs. side of Fig. 504.1.1-A (specified minimum yield
504.1.1-A or 504.1.1-B corresponding to the strength of 24.0 ksi to 30.0 ksi) or Fig. 504. l. 1-B (spe-
design temperature of the pipe. (These figures cified minimum yield strength of 30.0 ksi to 38.0 ksi)
apply only if the pipe material is of carbon at the value of L / D , determined in Step 1. (For other
steel with a minimum specified yield strength materials use the charts in Section VIII, Division 1, of
of 24.0 ksi to 38.0 ksi. D , / t should not exceed the ASME BPV Code).
100. To find factors A and B for other materi- Step 3. Move horizontally to the line representing
als, use the charts inSection VIII, Division 1, D,/t as determined in Step 1.
of the ASME BPV Code.) Step 4. From this intersection move vertically to the
A , = cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring, line for design temperature.
in. Step 5. From this intersection move horizontally to
I, = required moment of inertia of the transverse the right and read the value of factor B .
cross-sectional area of a circumferential stiff- Step 6. Computethe allowable external working
ening ring about its neutralaxis parallel to axis pressure P, using Eq. (4)
of the pipe, in.4
L = design length of pipe section taken as thelarg- B
P, = - (4)
est of the following: D, / t
(a) distance betweenflanges or stiffening
rings; Step Z Compare P, with P. If P, is smaller than
(6) distance between the point of tangency P,a greater value for t must be selected (or the design
on an elbow or cap and a flange or stiffening length L may beshortened by addition of stiffeners; see
ring; or para. 504.1.4 for the design of stiffener rings) and the
(c) the distance between the points of tan- design procedure repeated until a value of P, is ob-
gency of two elbows or caps where there areno tained that is equal to or greater than P.
intermediate flanges or stiffening rings, in. N O T E Where applicable, the method outlined inUG-31 of Section
VIII, Division 1, of the ASME BPV Code is also acceptable for
504.1.2 Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure. For designing pipe underexternal pressure usingappropriate design
metallic pipe with diameter-thickness ratios D,/t > 4, stress values from Subsection C of that Code.

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ASME 831.5 VE! H 0759b70 0530303 7711 W

Fig. 504.1.1-A ASME B31.5.1992 Edition

50 50,000

40 40,000
35 35,000
30 30,000
25 25,000

20 20,000
18 18,000
16 16,000
14 14.000
12 12,000
10 10,000
9. o 9,000
8.0 8.000
7.o 7,000
6.0 6.000
5.0 5.000

4.0 4.000
3.5 3,500
.-CL
Q)

Q 3.0 3,000
ò
Y-
o 2.5 2.500
9
2.0 2.000
C 1.8 1,800
1.6 1,600
¿i 1.4 1,400
1.2 1,200
1.o 1.o00
0.90 900
0.80 800
O. 70 700
0.60 600
0.50 500

0.40 400
0.35 350
0.30 300
0.25 250

0.20 200
0.18 180
0.16 160
O. 14 140
0.12 120
0.10 100
0.09 90
0.08 80
0.07 70
0.06 60
0.05 50
0.01 0 .0.001
m1 o.Ooo1 o. 1
Factor A

FIG. 504.1.1-A CHART FOR DETERMINING THICKNESS OF PIPE AND CLOSURES UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
WHEN CONSTRUCTED OF CARBON STEEL (MINIMUM SPECIFIED YIELD STRENGTH 24,000 psiTO 30,000psi)
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ASME 831.5 7 2 m 0757670 0530304 604 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Fig. 504.1.1-B


50 50,000

O 40
35
30
40,000
35,000
30,000
25 25,000
20 20,000
18 18,000
16 16,000
14 14,000
12 12,000
10 10.o0o
9.0 q.Oo0
8. O 8.000
7.0 7,000
6.0 6,000
5.0 5,000

4.0 4,000
.-mCL
Q 3.5 3,500
3.0 3,000
.c
0 2.5 2,500
9
4
L; 2.0 2,000
1.8 1,800
-ö 1.6 1,600
1.4 1,400
O

a
.
I:
c 1.2 1,200
O

1.0 1
d- 0.90 900
0.80 800
O. 70 700
0.60 600
0.50 500

0.40 400
0.35 350
9.30 300
0.25 250

0.20 200
0.18 180
0.16 160
0.14 140
0.12 120
0.10 100
0.09 90
0.08 80
0.07 70
0.06 60
0.05 50

0.0001 0.00001 o. 1
Factor A

e FIG. 504.1.1-B CHART FOR DETERMINING THICKNESS OF PIPE AND CLOSURES UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
WHEN CONSTRUCTED OF CARBON STEEL (MINIMUM SPECIFIED YIELD STRENGTH 30,000 psi TO 38,000 psi)
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ASME B31.5 92 M 0759b70 0530305 5 4 0 E

504.1.4-504.3.1 AShlE B31.5.1992 Edition

504.1.4 StiffenerRings of Pipe UnderExternal 504.2 Curved


Segments of Pipe
Pressure
504.2.1 Pipe Bends.Pipe afterbending shall conform
(a) Where the use of stiffeners is indicated in para.
to the following.
504.1.3,the required moment of inertia of a circumfer-
ential stiffening ring (all stiffening rings shall extend (alThe minimum thickness after bending shall not
be less than as required for straight pipe in accordance
completely around thecircumference of the pipe) shall
with para. 504.1.
not be less than that determined by Eq. (5). Gaps in
(b) The difference between maximum and minimum
contact between stiffeningrings and pipe walls are per-
diameters for pipe bends subjected to internal pressure
mitted when the design conforms to Section VIII, Divi-
sion 1, of the ASME BPV Code, UG-29. should not exceed 8% of the nominal outside diameter
sf the pipe.
(c) The difference between maximum and minimum
ADO2LL(t -k A,v/L) diameters for pipe bends subjected to external pressure
I, = 14 (5) should not be greater than 8% of the nominal outside
diameter of the pipe.
(dl Bends made with greater flattening than indicat-
The moment of inertia for a stiffening ring shall be
determined by the following procedure: ed above shall meet the requirements of para. 504.7.
Step 1. Assuming that the pipe has been designed 504.2.2 Elbows. Elbows manufactured in accordance
and D,, L ,and t are known, select a member to be used with the standardslisted in Table 526.1 shall be consid-
as a stiffening ring and determine its area A, and mo- ered suitable for use at the pressure-temperature rat-
ment of inertia I . Then calculate B using Eq. (6). ings specified by such standards, and in the case of
standards under which elbows are made to a nominal
pipe thickness, the elbows shall be considered suitable
PD,, for use with pipe of the samenominal thickness unless
B=
t -k A,/L
otherwise stated by the fittings standard. Commercially
manufactured elbows not madein accordance with the
Step 2. For carbon steel materials enter the right standards listed in Table 526.1 shall meet the require-
hand side of Fig. 504.l. 1-A (specified minimum yield ments of para. 504.7.
strength of 24.0 ksi to 30.0 ksi) or Fig. 504.1.1-B(spe-
cified minimum yield strength of 30.0 ksi to 38.0 ksi)
504.3 Intersections
at the value of B determined by using Eq. (6). (For
other materials use the charts in Section VIII, Division 504.3.1 Branch Connections
1, of the ASME BPV Code.) (u) This paragraph gives rules governing the design
Step 3. Follow horizontally to the design tempera- of branch connections to sustain internal andexternal
ture line. pressure in cases where the angle between the axes of
Step 4. Move vertically to the bottom of the chart the branch and of the runis between 45 deg. and 90 deg.
and read the value of factor A. Branch connections in which the smaller angle be-
Step 5. Compute the value of the required I, from tween the axes of the branch and the run is less than
E q . (5). 45 deg. impose special design and fabrication problems;
Step 6. If the required 4, is greater than the I for the the rules given for angles greater than 45 deg. may be
member selected in Step 1,a new member with a larger used as a guide, but sufficient additional strength must
I must be selected and a new J, determined. If the be provided to assure safe and satisfactory service, and
required is smaller than I for the member selected these branch connections shall be designed to meet the
in Step 1, that member will be satisfactory. requirement of para. 504.7.
(6) Stiffening rings may be placed on the inside or (b) Branch connections in piping may be made by the
outside of the pipe and should be in contact with the use of:
pipe. The ring shall be attached to thepipe by intermit- (I) fittings (tees, laterals, crosses, and multiple
tent or continuous welding. The total length of inter- opening headers, qualified as fully reinforced in accord-
mittent weld on each side of a stiffener shall be not less ance with para. 504.7);
than one-half the outside circumference of the pipe for (2)welding outlet fittings, such as forged nozzles,
external rings and not less than one-third of the inside couplings (maximum NPS 3), or adaptors or similar
circumference of the pipe for internal rings. The spac- items having butt welding, socket welding, threaded, or
ing between intermittent welds shall not exceed St. flanged ends for attachment of the branch pipe, such

30

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME B 3 L - 5 9 2 W 0759670 0 5 3 0 3 0 b 487 W

M M E B31.5-1992 Edition 504.3.1

welding outlet fittings beingattached to the main pipe within the limits of pressure-temperature ratings given
I
by welding; or in the standard. (A butt welding fitting made in accord-
(3) by attaching the branch pipe directlyto therun ance with ANSI B16.9 shall be of a nominal thickness
pipe by welding (acceptable methods of making welded not less than the nominal thickness required for the
pipe-to-pipe branch connections are contained in para. adjoining pipe.)
527.4.6) or by threading. (2) the branch connection is made by welding a
(c) Right angle branch connections may bemade by threaded or socket welding coupling or half coupling
attaching the branch pipe directly to the run pipe by directly to the main pipe using an appropriate type of
socket welding provided: minimum size weld (see Chapter V) and the nominal
(1) the nominal sizeof the branch does not exceed diameter of the branch does not exceed NPS 2 pipe size
NPS 2 or one-fourth the nominal sizeof the runwhich- and does not exceed one-fourth the nominal diameter
ever is lesser; of the run. The minimum wall thickness of the coupling
(2) the depth of the socket in the run is at least anywhere in the reinforcement zone shall be not less

e 3/s in. deep with a minimum shoulder of 1/16 in. between


the bottom of the socket and the inside diameter of the
run pipe. [Weld metal may be deposited on the runpipe
to provide the required socketdepth and toprovide any
than that of the branch pipe, and in no case shall the
coupling have a rating less than Class 3000 per ANSI
16.11.
(3) the branch connection is made by welding a
reinforcement required by (d) and (e) below.] threaded, socket, or butt weld outlet integrally rein-
(3) the size of the fillet weld is not less than 1.25 forced branch connection fittingto themain pipe, pro-
times the nominal branch wall thickness. vided the fitting is made from materials in accordance
(d) Right angle branch connections may be made by with Table 523.1 and provided the fitting has demon-
threading the branch pipe directly to therun pipe pro- strated by full-scale internal pressure destructive tests
vided: that the branch fitting isas strong as the main or branch
(1) the nominal sizeof the branch does not exceed pipe. See para. 504.7.
NPS 2 or one-fourth the nominal sizeof the run, which- Ifl Reinforcement of Welded BranchConnections.
ever is lesser; and Additional reinforcementisrequiredwhenitis not

0 (2) minimum thread engagement is 6 full threads


for N P S '/2 and 3/4 branches, 7 for NPS 1 and 1'/2
branches, and 8 for N P S 2 branches. [Weldmetal may
provided inherently in the components of the branch
connection. This subparagraph gives rules governing
the design of branch connections to sustain internal
be deposited on the run toprovide sufficient thickness pressure in cases where the angle between the axes of
for the required thread engagement and to provide any the branch and of the run is between45 deg.and 90 deg.
reinforcementrequired by paras. 504.3.1(d) and (e). (1) Notation. The notations described below are
In interpreting paras. 504.3.1(d) and (e) for connec- used inthe pressure designof branch connections. The
tions threaded directly into therun pipe,no part notations are illustrated in Fig. 504.3.1-A.Note the use
of the branch pipemaybe counted in calculating of subscripts b for branch and h for header. Note also
the reinforcement area, and the value of dl shall be that Fig. 504.3.1-A does not indicate details of con-
taken as the nominal outside diameter of the branch struction or welding.
pipe.] ß = angle between axes of branch and run, deg.
(e) A pipe having a branch connection is weakened b = subscript referring to branch
by the opening that must be made init, and unless the C = corrosion allowance, in.
wall thicknessof the pipe is sufficiently in excess ofthat D, = outside diameter of pipe, in.
required to sustain the pressure, it is necessaryto pro- dl = actual corroded length removedfrom run
vide reinforcement. The amount of reinforcement re- pipe, in.
quired shall be determined in accordance with paras. = [Dob - 2(Tb - C ) ] + sin ß
504.3.1(d) and (e). There are, however, certain branch d, = half-width of reinforcement zone, in.
connections for which no supporting calculations are = dl or [(Tb - C ) i- (Th - C ) + d1/2],
required. It may be assumed without calculation that whichever isgreater, but in any casenot more
a branch connection has adequate strength to sustain than Doh
the internal and external pressure which will be applied h = subscript referring to run or header
to it if: L, = height of reinforcement zone outside of run
( I ) the branch connection is madeby the use of a pipe, in.
+
0 fitting (tee, lateral, or cross) manufactured in accord-
ance with a standard listed in Table526.1andused
= 2.5(z - C ) or 2.5(z - C )
is lesser
t,, whichever

31

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x Reinforcement

Licensed by Information Handling Services


COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Multiply this area by
(2 - sin p) to get
required area I
I

Mill tolerance
Nominal
t - ,!
thickness

GENERAL NOTE:
This figure is merely to illustrate the notation of para. 604.3.I{f) and does not indicate complete welding details,
or a preferred method of construction. For typical weld details, see Fig. 527.4.6-D.

FIG. 5043.1-A REINFORCEMENT OF BRANCH CONNECTIONS


ASME B3L.5 92 m O759670 0530308 25T m

ASME B31.5-1992Edition 504.3.1

t, = nominal thickness or reinforcing ring or sad- Portions of the reinforcement area may be composed
dle, in. of materials other than those of the main run pipe but
= O, if there is no reinforcement pad or saddle if the allowable stress of these materials (see para.
T = actual thickness of pipe, in. (by actual mea- 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1) isless than that for the
surement), or minimum thickness permissible main run pipe, the calculated area for such portions
under purchase specification must be reduced in the ratio of the allowable stress
F= nominal thickness of pipe, in. values before beingcredited to the reinforcement area.
t = pressure design thickness of pipe, in., accord- No additional credit shall be taken for materials hav-
ing to the appropriate wall thickness equation ing higher allowable stress values than for the main
or procedure in para. 504.1. When the branch run pipe.
does not intersect the longitudinal weld of the (4) Reinforcement Zone. The reinforcement zone
run, use S from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.- is a parallelogram whose lengthshall extend a distance
3.1, not SE, in determining t for the purpose d2 on each sideof the center line of the branch pipe and
of reinforcement calculation only. The allowa- whose width shall start at the actual corroded inside
ble stress SE of the branch shall be used in surface of the main run pipe and extend to a distance
calculating t b . L, from the outside surfaceof the main pipe measured
(2) Required Area A , perpendicular to this outside surface.
(a) For internal pressure - the quantity thdl (5) Reinforcement of Multiple Openings. When
(2 - sin P ) is known as the required area; in the case any two or more adjacent openings are so closely
of right angle nozzles, the required area becomes spaced that their reinforcement zones overlap,the two
t h d l ,sq in.The branch connection must be designed so or more openings shall be reinforced in accordance
that reinforcement area defined in (3) below isnot less with (f)(2) above with a combined reinforcement that
than the required area. ha; a strength equal to the combined strength of the .
(b) For external pressure -the reinforcement reinforcement that would be required for the separate
area required for the branch connections subject to openings. No portion of the cross section shall be con-
external pressure need be only 0.5thdl (2 - sin P). sidered as applying to more than one opening, or be

0 (3) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area


shall be the sum of areas A , + A3 + A4 and shall not
be less than the required area.
evaluated more than once in a combined area.
When more than two adjacent openings are to be
provided witha combined reinforcement,the minimum
(a) Area A2 and A 3 . The area lying within the distance between centersof any two of these openings
reinforcement zone [defined in (Q(4) below] resulting should preferably be at least 1Y2 times their average
from any excess thickness available in the main run diameter, and the area of reinforcement between them
pipewall (A2) and branch pipewall (A3) over that shall be at least equal to 50% of the total required for
required by the proper wall thickness equations, i.e., these two openings.
the thickness Th - th - c and T b - tb - c multi- (6) Rings and Saddles. Additional reinforcement
plied by appropriate lengths, i.e., provided in the form of rings or saddles shall not be
appreciably narrower in the transverse direction than
in the longitudinal direction.
(g) Extruded Outlet Headers
(1)The above principles of reinforcement are es-
sentially applicableto extruded outlet headers. An ex-
truded outlet header is definedas a header in which the
outlet is extruded using a die (or dies) which controls
(6) Area A,. The area of all other metal within the radii of the extrusion. The extruded lip at the outlet
the reinforcement zone [defined in (f)(4) below] pro- has a height abovethe surface of the run which is equal
vided by weld metal and other reinforcementmetal prop- to or greater than the radius of curvature of the exter-
erly attached to the run or branch. In computingarea of nal contoured portion of the outlet; i.e., h, 2 r,. (See
weld metal deposits, the minimum dimensions required (3) below for notation and Fig. 504.3.1-B.)
by Chapter V shall be used unlessa definite procedure (2) When the design meets the limitations of ge-
is employed to instruct the welder toprovidespecificlarg- ometry outlined below,the rules herein establishedare
er dimensions, in which case the latter dimensions may valid. These rules cover minimum requirements and
be used in calculations. Deduct mill tolerance from t . are designed to assure satisfactory performance of ex-

e when computing area or reinforcement pad.

33
truded outlet headers subjected to pressure. These rules

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Licensed by Information Handling Services
ASME 831.5 92 0759b70 0530309 5 9 b m

Fig. 504.3.1-B ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

Q r Extru~ion
Limits of of branch
reinforcement I

GENERAL NOTE [aketch (b)] :


Sketch to show method of eneblirhing T,
when the w e r encroacher on the
crotch radius.

Reinforcement
zone

T"
Doh dh

I I GENERAL NOTE [sketch (c)] : Sketch is drawn for condition where K - 1.00.
(C)

Reinforcement
zone

n r LI. I
-oh "h - u +"----a, -aa
' I
I
+-.(
GENERAL NOTE [sketch (dl] : Sketch ir drawn for condition where K -
I

1.00 end d, < db,


Id)
GENERAL NOTE:
This figure ir merely to illustrate the notetiont of para. 604.3.1(g) and does not indicate complete
welding details, or a preferred methodof construction.

FIG. 504.3.1-B EXTRUDED OUTLET HEADER NOTATION

34

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ASME 833.5 9 2

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition


m 07.59670 0530330 908 - 504.3.1

apply only to cases where the axis of the outlet inter- ment area defined in (g)(S) below is not less than the
sects and is perpendicular to theaxis of the run. These required area A , .
rules do not apply to any nozzle in which additional (5) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area
nonintegral material is applied in the form of rings, shall be the sum of areas A, + A , + A, as defined
pads, or saddles. below.
(3) Notations. The notations used herein are illus- (a) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
trated in Fig. 504.3.1-B. Note the use of subscript x for ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
extruded outlet. Refer to (0 above for notations not in the run wall.
listed here.
d , = the design inside diameter of the extruded out- A2 = d.r(Th - th)
let, in., measured at the level of the outside
surface of the run (6) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
h, = height of the extruded outlet, in. This must be ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
equal to orgreater than r, [except as shown in in the branch pipe wall.
sketch (b) in Fig. 504.3.1-BI.
L , = height of reinforcement zone, in. A3 = 2L,(Tb - t b )
= 0.7 m
T, = corroded finished thickness of extruded outlet (c) Area A,. The area lying within the reinforce-
measured at a height equal to r, above the ment zone resulting from any excess thickness available
outside surface of the run, in. in the extruded outlet lip.
d2 = half-width of reinforcement zone, in. (equal to
4 ) A4 = 2r,(Tx - Tb)
r, = radius of curvature of external contoured por-
tion of outIet measured in the plane containing (6) Reinforcement of Multiple Openings. The rules
the axis of the run and branch, in. This is of (f)(5) above shall befollowed except that the re-
subject to the following limitations. quired area andreinforcement area shall be asgiven in
(a) Minimum Radius. This dimension shall para. 504.3.1(g).
not be less than 0.O5Dobexcept that on branch (7) In addition tothe above, themanufacturer
diameters larger than NPS 30 it need not ex- shall be responsible for establishing and marking, on
ceed 1.50 in. the header containing extruded outlets, thedesign pres-
(b) Maximum Radius. For outlet pipe sizes sure and temperature and thisCode Section. The man-
NPS 8 and larger, this dimension shallnot ufacturer’s name or trademark shall be marked on the
exceed O. lOD,, + 0.50 in. For outlet pipe sizes header.
less than NPS 8, this dimension shall not be (h) Mechanically Formed Tee Connections in Copper
greater than 1.25 in. Materials (Type K, L, M)
(c) When the externalcontourcontains (1) These mechanically formed connections shall
more than one radius, the radius of any arc be perpendicular to the axis of the run tube (header).
sector of approximately 45 deg. shall meet the They shall be formed by drilling apilot hole and draw-
requirements formaximumandminimum ing out thetube surface to form a collar having a height
radii. of not less than three times the thickness of the branch
(d) Machiningshallnot be employed in wall. The collaring device shall be such as to assure
order to meet the above requirements. proper fit up of the joint.
(4) Required Area The required area is defined as (2) The inner branch tube end shall conform to the
A l = Kthd, where K shall be taken as follows. shape of the inner curve of the run tube. Insertion of
(a) For Dob/Doh greater than 0.60,K = 1.00. the branch tube shallbe controlled to assure alignment
(6) For Dob/Doh greater than O. 15 and not ex- with specified depth into the collar without extending
ceeding 0.60, into the flow stream so as toprovide internal reinforce-
ment to the collar as illustrated in Fig. 504.3.1-C.
K = 0.6 + =/3D,b/Doh (3) Branches can be formed up to the run tube size.
Manufacturing procedures shall be in accordance with
(c) For Dob/Doh equal to or less than 0.15, K tool manufacturer’s recommendations.
= 0.70. (4) These types of connections may not be used in
The design must meet the criteria that thereinforce- Groups 2, 3, and 4 refrigerant services.

35

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B3L.S 92 W 075967U 0530315 A44 W

504.3.1-504.3.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

t Tb

r 0.12 (3Tb)thinning area

Corrosion allowance -,L


when required
Requiredarea @

Al = required
area, sq in. = thdl A2+Aa+A, ,> Al
AZ = area lying within the reinforcement zone
resulting from any excess thickness available T = actual thickness of tube wall
in the header wall
b = branch
A3 = area lying within the reinforcement zone dl = opening size in header tube
resulting from any excess thickness in the d2 = dl = reinforcement zone
branch tube wall h = header
A, = area lying within the reinforcement zone f = pressure design thickness
resulting from any excess thickness
available in the extruded lip

FIG. 504.3.1-C MECHANICALLY FORMED TEE CONNECTIONS I N COPPER MATERIALS

(5) All joints shall be brazed in accordance with Use of ribs, gussets, and clamps is permissible to
paras. 528.1 and 528,2. stiffen the branch connection but their areas cannot be
(i) Other Designs. Components to which design rules counted as contributing tothe reinforcement area
given in (c) and (d) above are notapplicable shall meet defined in (d)(3) above. Consideration should be given
the requirements of para. 504.7. to stress arising from a temperature gradient between
0) The requirements of the preceding subpara- the piping and gussets during a sudden change in tem-
graphs are designed to assure satisfactory performance perature of the fluid in the piping.
of a branch connection subjected only to pressure. It is not practicable to give definite rules for design
However, in addition, external forces and moments are to accommodate the effects mentioned in this subpara-
usually applied to a branch connection by such agen- graph. The purpose is to call them to the attention of
cies as thermal expansion and contraction, by dead the engineer so that from experience and judgment he
weight of piping, valves and fittings, covering and con- may adequately provide for them.
tents, and by earth settlement. Special consideration Attention i5 especially directed to thedesign of small
shall be given to the design of a branch connection to branches out of large and relatively heavy runs. Ade-
withstand these forces and moments. quate flexibility must be provided in the smaller line to
Where the ratio of branch diameter to run diameter accommodate thermal expansion and othermovements
is large or where repetitive stresses may be imposed on of the larger line.
the connection due to vibration, pulsating pressure,
temperature cycling, etc., it is recommended that the 504.3.2 Openings in Closures
design be rather conservative and thatconsideration be (u) The rules of this paragraph are intended to apply
given to theuse of tee fittings or complete encirclement to openings in closures in which the size of the opening
types of reinforcement. is not greater than one-half of the inside diameter of the

36

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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ASME B33.5 92 0 7 5 9 6 7 0 0530332 7 8 0

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 504.3.2-504.4.1

a closure (as definedin para. 504.4). Larger openings


should be designed as reducers, or in the case of flat
the contour of the closure, and dimensions of the rein-
forcement zone shall be measured parallel to and per-
pendicular tothe closure surface. .
closures, the closure shall be designed as a flange in
accordance with para. 504.5. (JIWhen two or more openings are to be located in
(6) A closure is weakened by an opening and unless a closure, the rules given in para. 504.3.1 for the rein-
the thickness of the closure is sufficiently in excess of forcement of multiple openings shall apply.
that required to sustain pressure, it is necessary to pro- (g) Attention is directed to the general considera-
vide reinforcement. The need for, and amount of rein- tions for the design of branch connections discussed in
forcement required, shall be determined in accordance para. 504.3.1(f) as they are equally applicable to open-
with the subparagraph below except that it shall be ings in closures.
considered that the opening has adequate reinforce- 504.3.3 Miters. When the maximum stress due to
ment if: internal pressure [Eq. (3)] does not exceed 50% of the
The outlet connection is made by welding a threaded allowable hoop stress, miters may be used subject to the
or socket welding coupling or half-coupling directly to following limitations.
the closure (using an appropriate weld as given in Fig. (a) The number of full pressure or thermal cycles
527.4.6-D for branch connections) and if the nominal shall not exceed 7000 during the expected life of the
diameter of the outlet pipe does not exceed NPS 2 and piping system.
does not exceed one-fourth the nominal diameterof the (b) The direction change for any single assembled
closure. The minimum wall thickness of the coupling miter weld should not exceed 45 deg.
anywhere in the reinforcement zone shall not be less (c) The center line distance between adjacent miters
than that of the branch pipe and in no case shall a should not be less than one nominal pipe diameter.
coupling have a rating less than Class 3000 per ANSI (d)Full penetration welds shall be used in joining
B16.11. miter segments.
(c) Reinforcement shall be provided for openings in (e) Miter jointswith greater directionalchanges and

a closures in amount and distribution such that the area


requirements for distribution are satisfied for all planes
passing through the center of the opening and normal
to the surface of the closure.
closer center line distances shallconformtopara.
504.7.
Deflections caused by misalignments up to 3 deg. are
not considered miters.
(d)The total cross section area required for rein-
forcement in any given plane passing through the cen- 504.3.4 Attachments. External and internal attach-
ter of the opening shall be not less than the quantity ments to piping shall be designed so they will not cause
d,t (see Note below) where flattening of the pipe, excessive localized bending
d, = the diameter,in the plane underconsideration, stresses, or harmful thermal gradients in the pipe wall.
of the finished opening in the corroded condi- It is important that such attachments be designed to
tion, in. minimize stress concentrations in applications where
t = the pressure design thickness for the closure the number of stress cycles, due either to pressure or
according tothe equationsand procedures thermal effect, is relatively large for the expected life of

a specified in para. 504.4, in., except that a lesser


thickness may be used where applicable in ac-
cordance with theprovisions contained inSec-
tion VIII,Division 1, ofthe ASMEBPV Code
the equipment.

504.4 Closures
relative to openings in pressure vessel heads 504.4.1 General
NOTE Flat heads that have an opening with a diameter that does (a) The required thickness of closures, considering
not exceed one-half the head diameter as defined in UG-34 may have pressure and mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allow-
a total cross section
of required reinforcement notless than thatgiven ances, shall be determined in accordance with Eq. (7).
by the formula A = 0.5d5t.

(e) The reinforcement area and reinforcement zone r,, = t +c (7)


shall be calculated in accordance with para. 504.3.1
considering thesubscript h andother references to The minimum thickness forthe closure selected,
main run pipe to apply to theclosure rather thanto the considering the manufacturer’s minus tolerances shall
run or header. Likewise, where the closure is curved, not be less than tin.
the boundaries of the reinforcement zone shall follow Closure fittings manufactured in accordance with

37

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504.4.1-504.5.2 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

the standards listed in Table 526.1 shall be considered 504.5 PressureDesign of Flangesand Blanks
suitable for use at the pressure-temperature ratings
specified by such standards, and in the c a e of stan- 504.5.1 General
dards under which closure fittings are made toa nomi- WFlanges manufactured in accordance with the
nal pipe thickness, the closure fittings shall be consid- standards listed in Table 526.1 shall be considered suit-
ered suitable for use with pipe of the same nominal able for use at the pressuretemperature ratings spe-
thickness. Commercially manufactured closures not cified by such standards. Flanges not made in accord-
made in accordance with the standards listed in Table ance with the standards listed in Table 526.1 shall be
526.1 and for which design rules are not given in this designed in accordance with Section VIII, Division 1,
paragraph (para. 504.4) shall meet the requirements of of the ASME BPV Code except that the requirements
para. 504.7. for fabrication, assembly, inspection, and testing, and
(b) The notations described below are used for deter- the pressure and temperaturelimits for materials of this
mining the pressure design of closures: Code shall govern. Also, certain notations used in the
r,,, = minimum required thickness, satisfying re- ASME BPV Code, namely, P. S,, Sb, and S, shall have
quirements for pressure, mechanical, corro- the meanings described in this paragraph instead of
sion and erosion allowances, in. those given in the ASME BPV Code. All other nota-
r = pressure design thickness as calculated for the tions shall be as defined in the ASME BPV Code.
given closure shape and direction of pressure P = internal design gage pressure (see para. 501.2.-
loading from the appropriate equations and 2),psi. (Flanges subject to external pressure
procedures in Section VIII, Division 1, of the should bedesigned for aninternal pressure
ASME BPV Code, in. (Certain symbols used equal to the external design pressure.)
$, = bolt design stress, ksi, at 100°F (from Section
in theseequations, namely, P and S shall have
VIII, Division 1, of the ASME BPV Code)
the meanings described in this subparagraph
instead of those given in ASME BPV Code. Sb = bolt design stress, ksi, at design temperature
(from Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME
All other symbols shall be as defined in the
ASME BPV Code.) BPV Code)
c = the sum of the mechanical allowances, thread
S, = allowable stress, ksi, for flange material or pipe
(from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1)
depth, groove depth, and the corrosion and
(b) The flange designr u l e s presented in (a) above are
erosion allowances, in. (See para. 504.4.)
P = internal design pressure (see para. 501.2.2), not applicable to designs employing flat faced flanges
psig, or external design pressure (see para.
used with full-face gaskets which extend beyond the
501.2.3), psi bolts, usually to theoutside diameter of the flange. The
S = applicable allowable stress in accordance with
forces and reactions in such a joint are very different
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi from those found on ring-gasketed joints,and the
flange should be designed to meet the requirements of
para. 504.7.
504.4.2 Flat Plate Closures. The minimum required
thickness r,,, for a flat plate closure (showninFig.
504.5.2 Blind Flanges. Blind flangesmanufactured in
527.4.7-A) shall be determined in accordance with accordance with the standards listed in Table 526.1
Eq. (7a). shall be considered suitable for use at the pressure-
temperature ratings specified by such standards.
t,,, = d m S -I-C (7a) (u) The required thickness of blind flanges not manu-
factured in accordance with standards in Table 526.1
where shall be calculated in accordance with Eq. (8), consid-
d = inside diameter of pipe, in. ering pressure and mechanical, corrosion, and erosion
C = 0.33 [t,/(r, - c)] but not less than 0.20 allowances. The minimum thickness forthe blind
rr = required or calculated thickness of pipe wall, flange selected, considering manufacturer's minus tol-
in. erance, shall not be less than c,,.
r, = actual or measured thickness of pipe wall, ex-
clusive of corrosion allowance, in. t,=t+c (8)
P = as defined in para. 504.4.1tb)
S = as defined in para. 504.4.1(b) (b)The notations described below are used for the
c = as defined in para. 504.4.l(b) determining of pressure design of blind flanges:

38

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ASME 831.5 9 2 m 0759670 0530314 5 5 3 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 504.5.2-505.2.1

t , = minimum required thickness, in., satisfying re- standards listed in Table 526.1 and for which design
quirements for pressure, mechanical, corro- formulas or procedures are not given in this paragraph
sion, and erosion allowances (para. 504), may be used where they have been proven
t = pressure design thickness, in., as calculated for satisfactory by successful performance under compara-
the given closure shape and direction of pres- ble service conditions. (Where suchsatisfactory service
sure loading from the appropriate equations experience exists, interpolation may be made to other
and procedures in Section VIII, Division 1, of sized components with a geometrically similar shape.)
the ASME BPV Code. (Certain symbols used In the absence of such service experience, the pressure
in these equations, namely P and S , shall be design shall be based on an analysis consistent with the
considered to have the meanings described in general design philosophy embodied in this Code Sec-
this subparagraphinstead of those given in the tion and substantiated by at least one of the following:
ASME BPV Code. All other symbols shall be (a) proof tests (as described in UG-101 of Section
as defined in the ASME BPV Code.) VIII, Division 1, of the ASME BPV Code);
c = sum of the corrosion and erosion allowances, (b) experimental stress analysis.
in.
P = internal design gage pressure (see para. 501.2.-
2), psig, or external design gage pressure (see
para. 501.2.3), psi PART 3
S = applicable allowable stress in accordance with DESIGN APPLICATION
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi OF PIPING COMPONENTS
504.5.3 Blanks SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS
(a) The pressure design thickness of permanent 505 PIPE
blanks (see Fig. 504.5.3) shall be calculated in accord-
ance with Eqs. (8) and (9). 505.1 General
Pipe and tubes conforming to the standards andspe-
cifications listed in Tables 502.3.1 and 526.1 shall be
t =d g g
used within the limitations of temperature and stress
given in para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1 and within the
where additional limitations contained in this Code.
dg = inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat
(plain) face flanges, or thegasket pitch diame- 505.1.1 AdditionalLimitations for Carbon Steel
ter for retained gasketed flanges, in. Pipe. No less than Schedule 80 (ANSI B36.10) wall
P = internal design gage pressure (see para. 501.2.- thickness shall be used for Groups 2, 3, and 4 refriger-
2), psig, or external design gage pressure (see ant liquid lines for NPS 1 Y2 and smaller.
para. 501.2.3), psi No less than Schedule 40 (ANSI B36.10) wall thick-
S = applicable allowable stress in accordance with ness shall be used for Group 1 refrigerant liquid lines
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi NPS6and smaller, Groups 2,3, and4refrigerant
(6) Blanks to be used for test purposes only shall be liquid lines NPS 2 through 6, and Groups 1, 2, 3, and
designed in accordance with Eq. (9), except that P shall 4 refrigerant vapor lines NPS 6 and smaller.
be at least equal to the test pressure and S may be as ASTM A 53 Grade F is not permitted.
great as 95% of the specified minimum yield strength
505.1.2 Additional Limitations for Cast Iron Pipe.
of the blank material. (This applies only if the test fluid
Cast iron pipe shall not be used for refrigerant service.
is incompressible.)

504.7 PressureDesign of OtherPressure 505.2 Nonferrous


Pipe or Tube
Containing Components
505.2.1 Copper, copper alloy, aluminum, or alumi-
Otherpressurecontainingcomponents manufac- num alloy pipe and tubeof any size may be usedfor any
tured in accordance with the standards listed in Table refrigerant service where compatible with the refriger-
526.1 shall be considered suitable for use at the pres- ant used and when selected in accordance with the
sure-temperature ratings specified by such standards. design rule in para. 504.1 and allowable stress values in
Pressure containing components not covered by the Table 502.3.l.

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ASME B33r.5 92 m 0759670 05303L5 49T M

505.2.2-507 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

FIG. 504.5.3 BLANKS

505.2.2 Soft annealed copper tubing larger than 506.2 Bends and Intersections
1Ys in. O.D. shall notbe used for field assembledrefrig-
Bends, miters, and extruded branch connections may
erant piping, unless it is protected from mechanical
be used when they are designed in accordance with the
damage.
principles in Chapter II, Part 2.

506.3 Couplings
506 FITTINGS, BENDS,
AND
INTERSECTIONS Couplings made of cast or malleable iron shall not be
used on pipe containing flammable or toxic fluids.
506.1 Fittings
506.1.1 General. If fittings complying with applica-
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the limita- 507 VALVES
tions specified in this Code. (u) Valves complying with the standards listed in
Other fittings, including those exceeding the rangeof Table 526.1 may be used in accordance with the limita-
sizes inthe standardslisted in Table 526.1, may be used tions listed in the specific standards and in this Code.
provided the designs meet the requirements in para. (6)Refrigerant gate valves,ballvalves, and plug
504. cocks shall notbe used in liquid refrigerant lines unless
consideration is given tothe expansion of liquid
506.1.2 Bell and SpigotFittings. Bell and spigot trapped in the valve cavities when the valve or cock is
fittings shall not be used for refrigerant service. closed.

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ASME B3305 72 O757670 0530336 326

ASME B3151992 Edition 508-510.1

e 508

508.1
FLANGES,
BLANKS, FLANGE
FACINGS, GASKETS, AND BOLTING
Flanges
operating gage pressure exceeds 720 psi.Confined com-
pressed-sheet-asbestos gaskets are not limited as to
pressures provided the gasket material is suitable for
the temperature.
508.1.1 General, If flanges complying with applica- The useof metal or metal-asbestos gaskets is not
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1 limited as to pressures.
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the limita-
tions specified in this Code.
Other flanges, including those exceeding the range of 508.5 Bolting
sizes in the standardslisted in Table 526.1, may be used
provided the designs meet the requirements of para. 508.5.1 General. If bolts, nuts, and washers comply-
504. ing with applicable standards and specifications listed
in Tables 523.1 and 526.1 are used, they shall be used
508.1.2 Screwed Flanges.Screwed flanges are subject within the limitations specified in this Code and shall
to restrictions on threaded joints established in para. also be subject to the requirements of Chapter III and
514(e). paras. 508.3 and 508.5.2(a) and (b).
508.5.2 Bolting for Cast Iron Flanges
508.2 Blanks (a) Classes 25 and 125 cast iron integral or screwed
companion flanges may be used with a full-face gasket
Blanks shall conform to design requirements in para.
or with a flat ring gasket extending to the inner edge of
504.5.3.
the bolts. When using a full-face gasket, the bolting
may be alloy steel (ASTM A 193). When using a flat
508.3 Flange
Facings ring gasket, the bolting shall be of carbon steel equal to
or less than ASTM A 307, Grade B. Materials other
Flange facings complying with standards listed in than carbon steels may be used provided the physical
Table 526.1 are suitable for use under this Code. Other properties are equal to or less than the requirements of

a special facings may be used provided they meet the


requirements of para. 504.7.
Class 150 steel flanges may be bolted to cast iron
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components
ASTM A 307, Grade B.
(b) When bolting together two Class 250 cast iron,
integral, or screwed companion flanges having 1/16 in.
raised faces, the bolting shall be of carbon steel equal
having either Class 125 cast integral or screwed flanges. to or less than ASTM A 307, Grade B. Materials other
If such construction isused, it is preferred that the than carbon steels may be used provided the physical
1/16 in. raised face on steel flanges be removed. If the properties are equal to or less than the requirements of
raised face is removed and a ring gasket extending to ASTM A 307, Grade B.
the inner edge of the bolt holes is used, or if the raised
face is not removed, the bolting shall be carbon steel not
stronger than ASTM A 307, Grade B. If a full-face
gasket is used, the bolting may be alloy steel (ASTM A
PART 4
193).
Class 300 steel flanges may be bolted to cast iron SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components OF PIPING JOINTS
having either Class 250 cast iron integral or screwed 510 PIPING JOINTS
flanges, without any changein the raised face on either
flange. If such constructionis used, the bolting shall be 510.1 General
carbon steel not stronger than ASTMA 307, Grade B. The type of piping joint used shall be suitable for the
pressure-temperature conditions, and shall be selected
giving consideration to joint tightness and mechanical
508.4 Gaskets
strength under the service conditions (including ther-
Gaskets shall be made of materials which are not mal expansion and vibration) and to the nature of the
injuriously affected by the nature of the fluid nor its fluid handled with respect to corrosion, erosion, flam-
temperature. mability, and toxicity.
Önly metallic or asbestos-metallic gaskets shall be The following limitations are in addition to applica-
used on flat or raised face flanges if the expected normal ble requirements in other portions of this Code Section.

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511-515.2 ASME B315-1992 Edition

511 WELDED JOINTS 512 FLANGED JOINTS


511.1 General Flanged joints shall meet the requirements of para.
508.
Welded joints may be used with any materials for
which it ispossible to qualify welding procedures,
welders, and welding operators in conformance with
Chapter V. 513 EXPANDED JOINTS
Expanded joints may be used where experience or
tests have demonstrated that the joint
is suitable for the
511.2 Butt Welds
conditions and where adequate provisions are made in
Butt welds shall be made in accordance with the the design to prevent separations of the joints.
applicable requirements of Chapter V and para. 500.
When backing rings are used inservices where their use
will result in severe corrosion or erosion, the backing
514 THREADED JOINTS
ring should be removed and the internal joint ground
smooth. In such services where it is impractical to re- falThreaded joints may be used within the limits
move the backing ring, consideration shall be given to stated in (b) through (0 below.
welding the joint without backing rings, or consumable (b) When used, all pipe threads shall be taper pipe
inserts may be used. threads where the tightness of joint depends upon the
seating of the thread. Straight threads on pipe joints
which depend upon a seating surface other than the
511.3 Socket Welds thread are allowed within the limitations of para. 518
if the thread root is no deeper than a standard pipe
511.3.1 Socket welds shall be made in accordance
thread and if the thread is sealed from the contained
with the applicable requirements of Chapter V and
fluid.
para. 500. Dimensions of socket welding piping joints
(c) Threaded joints shall not be used for Group 3 or
shall conform to ANSI B163 for flanges and ANSI
4 fluids, unless suitably seal welded or brazed.
B16.11 for fittings, and the weld dimensions shall be
not less than the minimum dimensions shown in Figs.
(dl Threaded joints larger than NPS 1 should not be
used for Group 3 or 4 fluids.
527.4.4-B and 527.4.4-C.
(e) Threaded joints larger than NPS 6should not be
511.3.2 Socket welded connections inserted directly used for salt brines.
into thewall of the run pipe shall bein accordance with fl Pipe with a wall thickness less than ANSI B36.10
requirements of para. 504.3.1(c). Standard Weight or Schedule 40 up to NPS 6 and
Schedule 30 in NPS 8, 10, and 12 should not be
511.3.3 Drains and bypasses may be attached to a threaded.
fitting or valve by socket welding, provided the socket
depth, bore diameter, and shoulder thickness conform
to the requirements of ANSI B16.5.
515 FLARED,
FLARELESS,
AND
COMPRESSION JOINTS
511.4 Fillet Welds 515.1
Fillet welds shall be made in accordance with the In selecting and applying flared, flareless, and com-
applicable requirements of Chapter V and para. 500. pression type tube fittings, the designer shall consider
Fillet welds shall not have dimensions less than the the adverse effects on the joints of such factors as as-
minimum dimensions shown in Figs. 527.4.4-B, sembly and disassembly, cyclic loading, vibration,
527.4.4-C, and 527.4.6-D. shock, thermal expansion andcontraction,and the
problem of frost growth between the tube and fitting.
511.5 Seal Welds
515.2
Seal welds may be used to avoid joint leakage; how-
ever, they shall not be considered as contributing any Piping joints using flared. flareless, or compression
strength to the joint. (See also para. 527.4.5.j fittings may be usedwithin the limitations of applicable

42

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ASME 833.5 7 2 O757670 0530338 I T 9 U

ASME B3151992 Edition 515.2-519.1.2

standards orspecifications listed in Table 526.1 and the 518 SLEEVE COUPLED AND OTHER
following requirements. NOVEL OR PATENTED JOINTS
(a)Fittings and their joints shall be suitable for the
tubing with which they are to be used with considera- Coupling type, mechanical gland type, andother
tion to minimum tubing wall thickness and method of patented or novel type joints maybeused provided
adequate provisions are made to prevent separation of
assembly recommended by the manufacturer.
the joints andprovided a prototype jointhas been sub-
(6) Fittings shall not be used inservices which exceed
jected to performance tests to determine the safety of
the manufacturer’s maximum pressure-temperature
the joint undersimulated service conditions. When vi-
recommendations.
bration, fatigue, cyclic conditions, low temperature,
thermal expansion, or hydraulic shock are anticipated,
515.3 the applicable conditions shall be incorporated in the
tests.
For piping joints using flared, flareless, or compres-
sion fittings for which there are noapplicable standards
or specificationslisted in Table 526.1, the engineer shall
determine that the type of fitting selected is adequate PART 5
and safe for thedesign conditions and that itmeets the EXPANSION, FLEXIBILITY, STRUCTURAL
requirements of paras. 515.2(a) and (b) and the follow- ATTACHMENTS, SUPPORTS,
ing requirements. AND RESTRAINTS
(a)The pressure design shall meet the requirements
of para. 504.7. 519 EXPANSION AND FLEXIBILITY
(6) A suitable quantity of the type and size of fitting 519.1 General
to be used shall meet successful performance tests to
determine the safety of the joint under simulated ser- The following clauses define the objectives of piping
vice conditions. When vibration, fatigue, cyclic condi- flexibility analysis and alternative ways in which these
can be realized.

a
tions, low temperature, thermal expansion, hydraulic
shock, or frost growth are anticipated, the applicable 519.1.1 Objectives.Piping systems shall be designed
conditions shall be incorporated in the test. to have sufficient flexibility to prevent thermal expan-
sion from causing:
(a)failure of piping or anchors from overstress or
overstrain;
517 BRAZED AND SOLDERED JOINTS (b) leakage at joints; or
(c) detrimental distortion of connected equipment
(a)Brazed and soldered socket type joints may be
(pumps, turbines, or valves) resulting from excessive
used with the following limitations for the attachment
thrusts and moments.
of valves, fittings, and flanges to nonferrous pipe and
tubing. 519.1.2ExpansionStrains. Expansion strains may
(I) Soldered joints shall not be used for piping be taken up in two ways, either primarily by bending
containing Group 2, 3, or 4 refrigerants or any other or torsion in which case only the extreme fibers at the
toxic or flammable fluid. critical location are stressed to the limit, or by axial
(2) Bores and depths of sockets of brazed and sol- compression and tension in which case the entire cross-
dered fittings shall conform to thedimensions in ANSI sectional area over theentire length is substantially
B16.18 or ANSI B16.22. Depths of sockets for brazed equally stressed.
fittings only may conform to MIL-F-1 183H. (a) Bending or torsional flexibility may be provided
(3) Brazed socket type jointsmay be used provided by the use of bends, loops, or offsets; or by swiveljoints,
it is determined that the fittings are adequate and safe ball joints, corrugated pipe, or expansion joints of the
for the design conditions in accordance with the re- bellows type permitting angular movement. Suitable
quirements listed in paras. 515(a) through (d) for flared anchors, ties, or other devices shall beprovided as nec-
and flareless fittings. essary to resist end forces from fluid pressure, fric-
(4) The piping systems should be kept free of flux tional, or other resistance to jointmovement and other
and other foreign materials. causes.
(5) Solder hints shall not be used for temperatures (b) Axial flexibility may be provided by expansion
in excess of those given in ANSI B16.22. joints of the slip-joint or bellows types. Pipe running

43

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519.1.2-519.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

from anchors to the joints must be guided where neces- for materials of relatively low ductility. In addition, it
sary to keep the pipe from bowing because of end forces helps assure minimum departurefrom as-erected
originating in the jointfrom fluid pressure, friction, and hanger settings. Inasmuch as the life ofa system under
deformation of the bellows. Anchors must be adequate cyclic conditions depends primarily on thestress range
for these forces plus the farce arising from friction in rather than the stress level at any one time, no credit
the guides. For design and selection of expansion joints for cold spring is givenfor stress rangecalculations. In
of the bellows type, reference to the Standards of the calculating end thrusts and moments where actual re-
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association is recom- actions at any one time rather than their range are
mended. considered significant, cold spring is credited. (See
para. 519.4.6.)
519.2 Concepts 519.2.4 Local Overstrain, All the commonly used
methods of piping flexibility analysis assume elastic
Concepts peculiar to piping flexibility analysis and
behavior of the entire piping system. This assumption
requiring special consideration are explained in the fol-
is sufficientlyaccurate for systems where plastic strain-
lowing paragraphs.
ing occurs at many points or over relatively wide re-
519.2.1StressRange. As contrasted with stresses gions, but fails to reflect the actual strain distribution
fromsustainedloads (such as internalpressure or in unbalancd systems where only a small portion of
weight), stresses caused by thermal expansion in sys- the piping undergoes plastic strain, or where, in piping
tems stressed primarily in bending and torsion are per- operating in the creep range, the strain distribution is
mitted to attain sufficient initial magnitude to cause very uneven. In these cases, the weaker or higher
local yielding or creep. The attendant relaxation or stressed portions will be subjected to strain concentra-
reduction of stress in the hot condition leads to the tions due to elastic followup of the stiffer or lower
creation of a stress reversal when the component re- stressed portions. Unbalance can be produced:
turns to thecold condition. Thisphenomenon is desig- (a) by use of small pipe runs in series with larger or
nated as self-springing of the line and is similar in effect stiffer pipe withthesmall lines relatively highly
to cold springing. The amount of self-springing de- stressed;
pends on the initial magnitude of the expansion stress, (b) by local reduction in size or cross section, or local
the material, the temperature, and the elapsed time. use of a weaker material;
While the expansion stress in the hot condition tends (c) in a system of uniform size, by use of a line confi-
to diminish with time, the arithmetic sumof the expan- guration for which theneutral axis (actually, the
sion stresses in the hot andcold conditions during any wrench axis) is situated close to the major portion of
one cycle remains substantiallyconstant.Thissum, the Iine with only a very small portionprojecting away
referred to as the stress range, is the determining factor from it absorbing most of the expansion strain.
in the thermal design of piping. Conditions of this type should preferably be avoided,
particularly where materials of relatively low ductility
519.2.2 Expansion Range. In computing the stress
are used; if unavoidable, they should be mitigated by
range, the full thermal expansion range from the mini-
the judicious application of cold spring.
mum to maximummetaltemperaturenormally ex-
pected during installation and operation shallbe used,
whether the piping is cold sprung or not. Linear or
Properties
519.3
angular movements of the equipmentto which the gip-
ing is attached shallbe included. For values of the unit The following paragraphs deal with materials and
thermal expansion range, refer to para. 519.3.1. geometric properties of pipe and piping components
Wheresubstantialanchor or terminal movements and the mannerin which they are to be used in piping
are anticipated as a result of tidal changes (unloading flexibility analysis.
dock piping) or wind sway (piping attached to slender
towers), these effects shall be considered analogous to 519.3.1 Unit Thermal Expansion Range. The ther-
terminal movements caused by thermal expansion. mal expansion range e (in./100 ft) shall be determined
from Table 5 19.3.1 as the algebraic difference between
519.2.3 Cold Spring. Cold spring is recognized as the unit expansion shown for the maximum normal-
beneficial in that it serves to balance hotand cold operating metal temperature and that for the minimum
stresses without drawing on the ductility of the mate- normal-operating metal temperature. For materials not
rial, for which reason it is recommended in particular included in this Table, reference shall be made to au-

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A S I E B3L.5 72 m 0759670 0530320 857 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Tables 519.3.1, 519.3.2

TABLE 519.3.1
THERMAL EXPANSION DATA

Linear Thermal Expansion, in./100 ft


Temperature Range, "F, 70 to
Material -325 -150 - 50 70 200 300 400

steel;
Carbon carbon moly steel -2.37 - 1.45 -0.84 0.00 0.99 1.82 2.70
Nickel steel (31hNi) -2.37 - 1.43 -0.81 0.00 1.00 1.80 2.61
Nickel steel (9Ni) -2.27 -1.43 -0.81 0.00 0.98 1.77 2.57

Austenitic stainless steels -3.85 -2.27 -1.24 0.00 1.46 2.61 3.80
Cast iron ... ... . . 1.64
. 0.00 0.90 2.42
Monel (67Ni-30Cu) -2.62 -1.79 -0.98 0.00 1.22 2.21 3.25

(99.90Cu)
Copper Alloys C12000 and C12200 -3.70 -2.28 -1.28 0.00 1.51 2.67 3.88
Red brass (85Cu) Alloy C23000 -3.88 -2.24 -1.29 0.00
2.76 1.52 4.05
Copper-nickel (90Cu-lONi) Alloy C70600 "4.10 -2.26 -1.29 3.77
0.00 2.62 1.49

Copper-nickel (70Cu-30ND Alloy C71500


Aluminum
-3.15
-4.68
-1.95
-2.88
. -1.13
-1.67
0.00
0.00
1.35
2.00
5.39
2.46
3.66
3.59

Copper silicon (3Si) Alloy C65500 -4.21 -2.31 - 1.32 0.00 1.51
3.88 2.67

TABLE 519.3.2
MODULI OF ELASTICITY

E = Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Tabulated Values by lob)


Temperature, "F
Material -325 -150 -50 300
70 200 400

steels
Carbon with carbon content 0.30 or less 30.0 29.2
27.427.727.928.7 27.0
Cast iron *.. ... ... 13.4 13.2 12.9 12.6
Monel (67Ni-30Cu) 26.4 26.8 26.1 26.0 26.0
25.6 25.8

(99.90Cu)
Copper Alloys C12000, C12200 16.0 16.2 16.3
17.516.5 16.5 16.8
'

Red brass (85Cu) Alloy C23000 17.7 18.2 15.8 16.417.5 16.6 17.0
Copper-nickel (90Cu-lONi) Alloy C70600 19.6 20.2 18.8 18.2 18.8 17.7 17.4

Copper-nickel
21.0 (70Cu-30Ni)
21.2 21.5Alloy21.8
C71500
21.8 22.8 22.8
Aluminum 10.8 11.0 11.3 10.6
10.2 10.4 9.5
Copper silicon (3Si) Alloy14.2
13.7 C65500 14.7 15.3 16.6
15.3 15.8

GENERAL NOTE: Refer to National Bureau of Standards Publication 101.

45

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ASME B31.5 92 W 0759b70 0530321 793 m

519.3.1-519.4.4 AShlE B31.5-1992 Edition

thoritative source data, suchas publications of the Na- 519.4.2 Adequate flexibility may generally be as-
tional Bureau of Standards. sumed to be available in systems which:
(a) are duplicates of successfully operating installa-
519.3.2 Moduli of Elasticity. The cold andhot tions or replacements of systems with a satisfactory
moduli of elasticity, E, and E,,, respectively, shall be service record;
taken from Table 519.3.2 for the minimum and maxi- (b) can be readily adjudged adequate by cornparision
mumnormal-operatingmetaltemperatures in Table with previously analyzed systems;
519.3.2. For materials not included in these Tables, (c) are of uniform size, have no more than two points
reference shall be made to authoritative source data, of fixation and no intermediate restraints,are designed
such as publications of the National Bureau of Stan- for essentially noncyclic service (less than 7000 total
dards. cycles), and satisfy the following approximate criterion:
519.3,3 Poisson’s Ratio. Poisson’s Ratio is the ratio
of the unit deformationat right angles to the direction DI’ 30x4
€ -
of the load to the unit deformation in the direction of (L - W)? - E,
the load, and may be taken as 0.3 at all temperatures
for all metals. However, more accurate data may be where
used if available. D = nominal pipe size, in.
519.3.4 Allowable Expansion Stress Range. The al- Y = resultant of movements to be absorbed by
lowable basic expansion stress range Sadand permissi- pipeline, in.
ble additive stresses shall be as specifiedin paras. U = anchor distance(length of straight line joining
502.3.2(c) and (d) for systems primarily stressed in anchors), ft
bending or torsion. ’ L = developed length of piping between anchors, ft
S, = allowable stress range, psi, include stress range
519.3.5Dimensions. Nominal dimensions of pipe reduction factor f where more than 7000 cy-
and fittings, and cross-sectional areas, moments of iner- cles of movement are anticipated during the
tia, and section moduli based thereon shall be used in life of the installation (see Fig. 502.3.2)
flexibility calculations, including the permissible addi- E, = modulus of elasticity of the piping material in
tive stresses. the cold condition, psi
519.3.6 Flexibility and StressIntensificationFac- 519.4.3 Methods of Analysis. Systems which do not
tors. Calculations shall take into account stress inten- meet the requirements of para. 519.4.2 shall be
sification factors found to exist in components other analyzed by a method appropriate to the hazard en-
than plain straight pipe. Credit may be taken for the tailed by failure of the line, the importanceof maintain-
extra flexibility of such components. In the absence of ing continuous service, the complexity of the layout,
more directly applicable data, the flexibility and stress and strainsensitivity of the pipe material. Simplified or
intensification factors shown in Table 519.3.6 may be approximate methods may be applied without correc-
used. For piping components or attachments (such as tion only if they are used for the rangeof configurations
valves, strainers, anchor rings or bands) not covered in for which their adequate accuracy has been demon-
the Table, suitable stress intensification factors may be strated. Accompanying any flexibility calculation,
assumed by comparison of their significant geometry there shallbe an adequate statementof the method and
with that of the components shown. any simplifying assumptions used.
519.4.4StandardAssumptions. Standard assump-
tions specified in para. 519.3 shall be followed in all
519.4
Analysis for Bending Fiexibility cases. In calculating the flexibility of a piping system
The following paragraphs establish under what cir- between anchor points, the system shall be treated as
cumstances and in what manner piping flexibility anal- a whole. The significance of all parts of the line and of
yses are to be made where the system primarily derives all restraints. such as solid hangers or guides, including
its flexibility from bending or torsional strains. intermediate restraints introduced for the purpose of
reducing moments and forces on equipment or small
519.4.1 Formal calculations or model tests shall be branch lines, and also therestraint introducedby support
required only where reasonable doubt exists as to the friction, shallbe recognized. Not only the expansion of
adequate flexibility of a system. the line itself, but also linear and angular movements

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ASME B 3 1 9 5 9 2 W 0759670 0530322 b2T W

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 519.3.6

TABLE 519.3.6
FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i

Stress Intensification
Factor Flexibility Flexibility
Characteristic
Factor i; ìO
Description h k [Note ( U 1 [Note (2)l Sketch

Welding elbow or pipe bend tR


- 1.65 0.9 0.75
~ -
[Notes (3), (41, (5), (6), (711 ,.z h h '~'3 h 2,'3

- @e:nd radius

Closely spaced miter bend


[Notes (31, (4), (51,(711,
S < r (1 +t a n 01

Widely spaced miter bend


1.52 0.9
- 0.75
(71, [Notes (31, (4), -
S 2 r (1 + tan 0) h 2/3 h 2,''3

Welding tee
t 0.9
per A N S I B16.9 4.4-
r
1 0.75i0 + 0.25 -
h 2/,
[Notes (31, (413

e Reinforced fabricated
tee with pad or saddle
[Notes (3), (41, (911
(t + %T)
t '" r
1 0.75i0 + 0.25
?"
f

T
P d saddle
~

Unreinforced
fabricated
tee [Notes (31, ( 4 ) l
t
-
r
1 0.75i0 + 0.25
c
3

0
I 47
Notes to Table follow on p. 50

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ASME 831.5 72 M O757670 0530323 5bb M

Table 519.3.6 ASME B31.5-1992Edition

TABLE 5193.6 (CONT'D)


FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i
Stress Intensification
Factor Flexibility Flexibility
Factor Characteristic
k
ii
N o t e (1)l
G
[Note (211 Sketch
Description h

Butt welded joint, reducer, ... 1 1.0 ...


or welding neck flange

Double-welded slip-on .. 1 1.2 ...


flange

Fillet welded joint (single- ... 1 1.3 ...


welded), socket welded
flange, or single-welded
slip-on flange

Lap flange (with ANSI 1 1.6 ...


816.9 lap-joint stub)

Threaded pipe joint, ... 1 . 2.3 m . .

or threaded flange

Corrugated straight pipe, or ... 5 2.5 ...


corrugated or creased bend
[Note (1011

Notes to Table follow on p. 50

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A S I E 8 3 3 . 5 7 2 W 0757670 05303244T2 m

ASME B3151992 Edition Table 519.3.6

TABLE 519.3.6 (CONT’D)


FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR i

l .O0

0.75
G
ô
r
o
m
.!- 0.50
i
ô
o
0.375 ‘
1 End flanged C1 =

2 Ends flanged C1 = h1l3


0.25
Chart B

Notes to Table follow on next page

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ASME B3115 92 W 0759670 0530325 339 m

Table 519.3.6 ASME B313.1992 Edition

TABLE 519.3.6 (CONT'D)


NOTES:
(1) ln-plane.
(2) Out-of-plane.
(3) For fittings and miter bends the flexibility factors k and stress intensification factors i i n the Table applyto bending in any plane and shall
not be less than unity; factors for torsion equal unity.
(4) Both factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy center lines in the sketches) for curved and miter elbows and to the
intersection point for tees. The values of k and i can be read directly from Chart A by entering with the characteristic h computed from
the equations given where
R = bend radius of welding elbow or pipe bend, in.
r = mean radius of matching pipe, in.
t = nominal wall thickness, in., of: part itself for elbows and curved or miter bends; matching pipe for welding tees; run or header for
fabricated tees (provided that if thickness is greater than that of matching pipe, increased thickness must be maintained for at
least one run outside diameter to each side of the branch outside diameter).
B = one-half angle between adjacent miter axes,deg.
S = miter spacing a t center line, in.
T = pad or saddle thickness, in.
(5) Where flanges are attached to one or bothends, the values of k and i in theTable shall be corrected by the factors C given below, which
can be read directly from Chart B, entering with the computed h: one endflanged, hlrb 2 1; both ends flanged, hqf3 2 1.
( 6 ) The engineer is cautioned that cast butt welding elbows may have considerably heavier walls than that of the pipe with which they are
used. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thicknesses is considered.
(7) In large-diameter thin-wall elbows and bends, pressure can significantly affect the magnitude of flexibilityand stress intensification factors.
To correct values obtained from the Table for the pressure effect, divide:
(a) flexibility factor k by

(b) stress intensification factor i by

where
P = gage pressure, psi
E, = cold modulus of elasticity, ksi
( 8 ) Also includes single-miter joint.
(9)When T > llht, use h L- 4.05 t h .
(10)Factors shown apply to bending; flexibility factor for torsion equals 0.9.

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ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 519.4.4-519.4.6

Mt where
i; = inplane stress intensification factor from Table
519.3.6
i, = outplane stress intensification factor from
Table 519.3.6
M; = inplane bending moment, in.-lb
M, = outplane bending moment, in.-lb
Z = sectional modulus of pipe, in.
(c) The resultant bending stresses S, to be used in
Eq. (24) for branch connections shall be calculated in
accordance with Eqs. (26) and (27) with moments as
shown in Fig. 519.4.5-C.
(1) For header (Legs 1 and 2),

Sb =
+
d ( i i M i > 2 (ioMOl2
Z (26)

(2) For branch (Leg 3),

V ( i ; ~ +i )(ioMo)2
~
S, = (27)
z e
FIG. 519.4.5-B BENDS

where
S b = resultant bending stress, ksi

of the equipment to which it is attached shallbe consid- Z , = effective section modulus for branch of tee,
in.
ered.
= m,2ts
519.4.5 Flexibility Stresses r, = mean branch cross-sectional radius, in.
(a) Bending and torsional stress shall be computed ts = effective branch wall thickness, in. (lesser of
using the as-installed modulus of elasticity E, (E, = t h and i , t b )
Ec at installation temperature) and then combined in th = thickness of pipe matching run of tee or header
accordance with Eq. (24) to determine the computed exclusive of reinforcing elements, in.
stress range S,, which shall not exceed the allowable t b = thickness of pipe matching branch, in.
stress range SA in para. 502.3.2. i, = outplane stress intensification factor
i; = inplane stress intensification factor
(d) Allowable stress range SA and permissible addi-
tive stresses shall be computed in accordance with
where paras. 519.2.1 and 519.2.2.
Sb = resultant bending stress, psi
S, = torsional stress, psi
519.4.6 Reactions. The reactions (forces and mo-
= M,/2Z
ments) R h and R, in the hot and cold conditions, re-
M , = torsional moment, in-lb
spectively, shall be obtained from the reaction range R
Z = section modulus of pipe, in.3
derived from the flexibility calculations, using Eqs. (28)
(b) The resultant bending stresses S b , psi, to be used
and (29):
in Eq. (24) for elbows and miter bends shall be cal-
In the design of anchors and restraints and in the
culated in accordance with Eq. (25), with moments as
evaluation of some mechanical effects of expansion on
shown in Fig. 519.4.5-B.
terminal equipment (such as pumps, heat exchangers,
etc.) either reaction range R (see definition below) or
instantaneous values of reaction forces and moments in
the hot orcold condition may beof significance. Deter-

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Leg 1

Qo

FIG. 519.4.5-C BRANCH CONNECTIONS

mination of the latter may be complicated by the diffi- E, = modulus of elasticity in the cold condition,
culty of performing the desiredcold spring and by hi
other factors. Thus their determination may imply an Eh = modulus of elasticity in the hot condition,
elaborate engineering calculation, the basis of which ksi
should be clearly set forth. In the absence of a better R = range of reaction forces or moments corre-
procedure, in thecase of one material uniform-temper- sponding to the full expansion range based
ature two anchor systems without intermediate con- on E,, lb or in.-lb
straints, the hot and cold reactions may
be estimated by R,, RI,= maximum reaction forces or moments es-
the formulas: timated to occur in the cold and hot condi-
tions, respectively, lb or in.-lb
SE = maximum computed expansionstress range
at any point in the line, ksi (see paras. 519.-
2.1 and 519.2.2)

519.4.7 Reaction Limits. The computedreactions


R , = CR or C , R , whichever is greater (29) shall not exceedlimitswhichconnectedequipment,
specificallystrain sensitive components,such as pumps,
compressors, valves,strainers, t a n k , and pressure ves-
where
sels, can safely sustain.
C = cold spring factor varying from zero for no
cold spring to one for 100% cold spring 519.4.8 Movements. Calculation of displacements
NOTE: Factor % appearing in Eq. (28) accounts for and rotations at specificlocationsmay be required
observation that specified cold spring cannot be fully where clearance problems are involved. In cases where
assured, even with elaborate precautionv.
small-size branch lines attached to stiff main lines are
C, = estimatedself-spring or relaxationfactor; to be calculatedseparately, the linearand angular
use zero if value becomes negative movements of the junction point mustbe calculated or
= 1 - shE,/sEEh estimated for proper analysis of the branch.

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ASME B 3 L - 5 7 2 m O757670 0530328 048 m

520 DESIGN OF PIPE SUPPORTING (b) An increase in allowable stress of 20% shall be
ELEMENTS allowed for short-time overloading conditions.
(c) For requirements pertaining to springs, see para.
520.1 General
521.3.2.
Loads on equipment supporting,bracing, guiding, or (d)For requirements pertaining toanchorsand
anchoring piping include, in addition to weight effects, guides, see paras. 521.1.3 and 521.1.4.
loads due to service pressure and temperatures, vibra- (e) The principles in para. 502.3.l(d) arenot applica-
tion, wind, earthquake, shock, erection contingencies ble to design of springs.
(including testing), thermal expansion and contraction, &I Pipe support and hanger components conforming
and differential settlement of foundations, allas defined to the requirements of para. 502.3.1 may have an in-
in para. 501. The design of all elements supporting or crease in their working stress to 80% of minimum yield
restraining pipe shall have regard to thedegree of prob- strength at room temperature for the period of hydro-
ability of concurrence of loads and whether they are static testing. This applies only to supports that have
sustained or tend to relax themselves as defined in para. been engineered by the designer and not to standard
519.2.1. catalog items unless they have been carefully analyzed
by the designer.
520.1.1 Objectives.Supporting elements shall be de-
signed to prevent the loadings and deflections due to 520.1.4 Materials - Steel. All equipment for per-
the influences delineated in para. 520.1 from causing: manent supports and restraints shall be fabricated from
(a) piping stresses in excess ofthose permitted in this durable materials suitable for the service conditions.
Section of the Code; Unless otherwise permitted in para. 520.1.5, steel shall
(6) leakage at joints; be.used for pipe supporting elements. All materials
(c) detrimental distortion of connected equipment shall be capable of meeting the respective standard spe-
(such as pumps, turbines, valves, etc.) resulting from cifications given in Table 523.1 with regard to the tests
excessive forces and moments; and physical properties.
(d)excessive stresses in the pipe supporting (or re- Parts of supporting elements which are subjected
straining) elements themselves; principally to bending or tension loads and which are
(e) resonance with imposed vibrations; subjected to working temperatures for which carbon
&I excessive interference with the thermal expansion steel is not recommended shall be made of suitable
and contraction of a piping system which is otherwise alloy steel, or shall be protected so that the temperature
adequately flexible; of the supporting members will be maintained within
(g) unintentional disengagement of the piping from their temperature limits.
its supports;
520.1.5 Materials Other Than Those in Para,
(h) excessive piping sag in systems requiring drainage
520.1.4. Cast iron may be used for roller bases, rollers,
slope.
anchor bases, brackets, and parts of pipe supporting
520.1.2 Allowable Stresses in Piping. The design of elements upon which the loading will be mainly that of
piping-support elements shallbesuch that the sus- compression. Malleable or nodular iron castings may
tained piping stresses shall not exceed the allowable be used for pipe clamps, beam clamps, hanger flanges,
value as defined in paras. 502.3.2(d) and 523.2.2(0(4). clips, bases, swivel rings, and parts of pipe supporting
elements. Treated wood may be used for pipe support-
ing elements which are primarily in compression when
520.1.3Allowable Stresses in Piping Supportand the metal temperatures areat orbelow ambient temper-
Restraint Components ature.
(a) The allowable stress for the base material of all
Materials other than thoselisted in Table 523.1 may
parts of supporting and restraint assemblies shall not be employed to take advantageof their superiorproper-
exceed the appropriate S value taken from para. 502.-
ties, in specialty items such as constant support hang-
3.1 and Table502.3.1 including Notesexcept as permit- ers. In such cases, allowable stresses shall be deter-
ted in 520.1.3(b). It is not necessary to include joint
mined in accordance with the principles given in para.
factors.
502.3.1.
The allowable stressshall be reduced 25% for
threaded members and for welds in support assemblies 520.1.6 Protective Coatings
or for attachments to piping. For threaded members (a) Under conditions causing mild corrosion, such as
stresses shall be based on the root area of the threads. atmospheric rusting, which are not of an intensity to

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520.1.6-521.2 MME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 5213.5
MINIMUM SIZES O F STRAPS, RODS, AND CHAINS FOR HANGERS

Nominal Minimum Stock Size, in.


Pipe Size Component (Steel) Exposed to Weather Protected from Weather

1 and smaller Strap I;á thick %b thick X 314 wide


Above 1 Strap 114 thick V.. thick >E 1 wide

2 and smaller Rod 3/e diameter 318 diameter


Above 2 Rod 112 diameter 11z diameter

2 and
Chain
smaller 3/1b diameter or %b diameter or
equivalent area equivalent area
Above 2 Chain 318 diameter or % diameter or
equivalent area equivalent area

All sizes Bolted %6 thick; 3/íb thick; bolts


clamps bolts 31s diameter 31a diameter

GENERAL NOTE: For nonferrous materials, the minimumstock area shallbeincreasedby the ratio of
allowable Stresses of steel to the allowable stress of the nonferrous material.

warrant the use of corrosion resistant materials, a dura- liquid if the possibility of these lines containing liquid
ble protective coating, such as hot-dipped galvanizing, is remote and provided the lines are not subjected to
weather resistant paint, or other suitable protection, hydrostatic tests.
should be applied to all parts afterfabrication or after
installation. 521.13 Restraints, suchas anchors andguides, shall
(b) Under any conditions, exposed screw threads on be provided where necessary to control movement or to
parts of this equipment where corrosion resistant mate- direct expansion and/or other effects into those por-
rials are not used shall be greased immediately after tions of the system which are adequate to absorb them
fabrication. Paints, slushes, or other suitableprotective for the purpose of protecting terminal equipment and/
coatings may be used instead of grease. or other (weaker) portions of the system. The effect of
friction in other supportsof the system shall be consid-
520.1.7 Threaded Components. Threads shall be in ered in the design of such anchors and guides.
accordance with ANSI B1.l,except that other thread
forms may be used to facilitate adjustment underheavy 521.1.4 Anchors or guides for expansion joints of the
loads. All threaded adjustments shallbe provided with corrugated orslip-type (or variants of these types) shall
lock nuts or be locked by other positive means. Turn- be designed to resist end forces from fluid pressure and
buckles and adjusting nuts shall have the full length of frictional or other applicable resistance to joint move-
thread in service. Means shall be provided for deter- ment, in addition to other loadings.
mining that full length of thread is in service.
521.2 Resilient
VariableSupport and
Constant-Support Types
521 DESIGN LOADS FOR Reactions or load calculations for resilient or con-
PIPE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS stant effort type supports, such as springs or weight
loaded supports andbraces, shall be based on themaxi-
521.1 General mum working conditions of the piping. However, the
521.1.1 Forces and moments at pipe supporting ele- support shall be capable of carrying the total load
ments caused by thermal expansion or contraction under test conditions, unles additional support ispro-
shall be determined as necessary. vided for the test period. The amount of variation that
can be tolerated shall be determined by incorporating
521.1.2 Weight calculations for gas, vapor, or safety the change in supporting effect in the flexibility analysis
valve discharge piping should not include the weight of or shall be based on such considerations as bending

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ASME 831.5 9 2 I075967005303307Tb I

ASME B3151992 Edition 521.2-521.3.5

effect, control of piping elevation, allowable terminal the load. Preheating, welding, and postheating shall be
reactions, etc. in accordance with the rules of Chapter V.
(g) See MSS SP-58 for typical design details.
521.3.2 Spring Supports. Spring type supports shall
521.3
Design Details be provided with means to prevent misalignment, buck-
ling, or eccentric loading of the spring, and to prevent
521.3.1 General
unintentional disengagement of the load. Materials
(a)Hanger Rods. Safe axial loads for threaded
shall bein accordance with the provisions of paras.
hangerrodsshall be based ontherootarea of the
520.1.4 and 520.1.5. Constant support spring hangers
threadsand subject to 25% reduction in allowable
shall be designed to provide a substantially uniform
stress as in para. 520.1.3(a). Pipe, straps, or bars of
supporting force throughout the range of travel. All
strengthand effective area equal tothe equivalent
spring elements shall be provided with means of adjust-
hanger rod may be used instead of hanger rods. See also
ment for the pipe position in the operating andnonope-
para. 521.3.5 and Table 521.3.5.
rating condition. Means shall be provided to prevent
(b) Chains. Chain may be used for pipe hangers and
overstressing the spring due toexcessive deflections. It
shall be designed in accordance with para. 521.3.1(a).
is desirable that all spring hangers be provided with
(c) Sliding Supports. Sliding supports (or shoes) and
position indicators.
brackets shall be designed to resist the forces due to
friction in addition to the loads imposed by bearing. 521.3.3 Counterweights. Counterweights when used
The dimensions of the support shall provide for the instead of spring hangers shall be provided with stops
expected movement of the supported piping. to prevent overtravel. Weights shall be positively
(d) At point of support subject to horizontal move- secured. Chains, cables, hanger and rocker arm details,
ment, the movement shall be provided for by the swing or 'other devices used to attach the counterweight load
of long hanger rodsor chains or by the use of trolleys, to the piping, shall be subject to requirements of para.
rollers, sliding or swinging supports. 521.3.1.
(e) Covering on insulated piping shall be protected
521.3.4 Hydraulic Type Supports. An arrangement
from damage at all hanger locations. Saddles, bases, or
utilizing a constant hydraulic head may be installed to
suitable shields properly constructed andsecured to the
give a constant supporting effort. Safety devices and
covered pipe shall be used at points of roller, base, and
stops shall be provided to support the load in case of
trapeze support.
hydraulic failure.
&J Lugs, plates, angle clips, etc., used as part of an

assembly for the support or guiding of pipe may be 521.3.5 Sway Bracesor Vibration Dampeners.Sway
welded directly to the pipe provided the material is of braces and vibration dampeners may be used to limit
good weldable quality and the design is adequate for the movement of piping due to vibration.

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ASME B33.5 92 m 0759670 0530333 632 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 523-523.2.4

CHAPTER III
MATERIALS

523 MATERIALS - GENERAL ~ ~~~~~~~


(e) One set of impact-test specimens with the notch
REQUIREMENTS in the weld metal and one set with the notch at the
523.1 Acceptable
Materials and Specifications fusion line, shall be made for each range of pipe thick-
ness that does not vary by more than Y4 in. over and
The materials used shall conform to the specifica- under the tested thickness for each material specifica-
tions listed in Table 523.1 or shall meet the require- tion used on the job.
ments of this Code for materials not so established. The following materials are exempted from the
Reclaimed pipe and piping components may be used requirements for impact testing.
provided they are properly identified as conforming to (1) Impact tests are not required for aluminum;
a specification listed in Table 523.1 and otherwise meet Types 304 or CF8, 304L or CF3, 316 or CFSM, and
applicable requirements of this Code. 321 austenitic stainless steel; copper; red brass; copper-
nickel alloys; and nickel-copper alloys.
523.2 Limitations on Materials (2) Impact tests are not required for bolting mate-
rial conforming with A 193, Grade B7, for use at tem-
523.2.1 General. The materials listed in Table 502.- peratures above - 50°F.
3.1 shall notbe used at design temperatures above those (3) Impact tests arenot required for bolting
for which stress values are given in the Table. The materials conforming with A 320, Grades L7, L10, and
materials shall not be used below -20"F, unless they L43, at temperatures above - 150°F or above
meet the impact test requirements of para. 523.2.2. -225°F for A 320, Grade L9.
(4) Impact tests arenot required for ferrous
523.2.2 Impact Tests, Materials subject to tempera-
materials used in fabricating a piping system for metal
tures below -20"F, except for those exempted in (f)
temperatures between-20°F and - 150°F provided
below, shall be impact tested as required by UG-84 of
the maximum circumferential or longitudinal tensile
Section VIII, Division 1, ofthe ASME BPV Code, with
stress resulting from coincident pressure, thermal con-
the following substitution for UG-84(b)(2).
traction, or bending between supports does not exceed
(a) A welded test section shall be prepared from a
40% of the allowable stress for the materials as given
piece of plate, pipe, or tubing for each material specifi-
in Table 502.3.1. See paras. 502.3.2, 5 19, and 520.
0I
cation certified by the manufacturer in accordance with
UG-84(e).
(6) If the material to be used is not certified, test
sections shall be prepared from each piece of pipe, 523.2.3 Cast Iron and Malleable Iron.Cast iron and
plate, or tubing used. malleable iron shall not be used for piping components
(c) One set of impact-test specimens shall be taken in hydrocarbon or otherflammable fluid service at tem-
across the weld (the metal tested is the weld metal) with peratures above 3WF, nor at gage pressures above 300
the notch in the weld, and one set shall be taken simi- psi. Cast iron or malleable iron shall not be used at
larly with the notch at thefusion line (the metal tested temperatures below - 150°F.
is the base metal).
(d) Impact test specimens shall be cooled to a tem-
perature not higher than the lowest temperatureto 523.2.4 Nodular Iron.Nodular iron shall not be used
which the pipe, plate,
" - or tubing may be subjected in its
"
for piping components at gage pressures above lo00 psi
operating cycle. or at temperatures below - 150°F.

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ASME 835.5 V;! m 0759b70 0530332 579

Table 523.1 AShIE B31.54992 Edition

TABLE 523.1
-
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
Component Specification Material

Bolting ASTM A 193 Alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature
service
ASTM A 194 Carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high pressure and high
temperature service

ASTM A 307 Carbon steel externally threaded standard fasteners


ASTM A 320 Alloy steel bolting materials for low-temperature service
ASTM A 325 High strength bolts for structural steel joints
ASTM A 354 Quenched and tempered alloy steel bolts, studs, and other externally
threaded fasteners

ASTM B 2 1
ASTM B 98

ASTM B 211
Naval brass rod, bar, and shapes
Copper-silicon alloy rod, bar, and shapes

Aluminum alloy bars, rods, and wire


e
Fittings, valves, flanges ASTM A 47 Malleable iron castings
ASTM A 48 Gray iron castings

ASTM A 105 Forgings, carbon steel, for piping components


ASTM A 126 Gray iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
ASTM A 181 Forgings, carbon steel for general service
ASTM A 182 Forged or rolled alloy steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and
parts for high temperature service
ASTM A 197 Cupola malleable iron

ASTM A 216

ASTM A 217
Carbon steel castings suitable for fusion welding for high temperature
service
Martensitic stainless steel and alloy steel castings for pressure
containing parts suitable for high temperature service
a
ASTM A 234 Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate
and elevated temperatures
ASTM A 278 Gray iron castings for pressure containing parts for temperatures up
to 650'F (345'C)

ASTM A 350 Forgings, carbon and low alloy steel, requiring notch toughness testing
for piping components
ASTM A 351 Austenitic steel castings for high temperature service
ASTM A 352 Ferritic and martensitic steel castings for pressure containing parts
suitable for low temperature service
ASTM A 395 Ferritic ductile iron for pressure retaining castings for use at elevated

e
temperatures

ASTM A 403 Wrought austenitic stainless steel pipe fittings


ASTM A 420 Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low
temperature service

ASTM A 522 Forged or rolled 8% and 9% nickel alloy steel flanges, fittings, valves,
and parts for low temperature service

ASTM A 743 Castings, iron-chromium, iron-chromium-nickel, nickel base, corrosion


resistant, for general application
ASTM A 744 Castings, iron-chromium-nickel, nickel base, corrosion resistant, for
severe service

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ASME B3L.5 72 W 0757670 0530333 4 0 5 W

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 523.1

TABLE 523.1 (CONT’D)


ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS
Material Component Specification

Fittings, valves, flanges ASTM B 16 Free-cutting brass rod, bar, and shapes for use in screw machines
(cont’d) ASTM B 21 Naval brass rod,bar, and shapes
ASTM B 26 Aluminum alloy sand castings
ASTM B 61 Steam or valve bronze castings
ASTM B 62 Composition bronze or ounce metal castings
ASTM B 85 Aluminum alloy die castings

ASTM B 124 Copper and copper alloy forging rod, bar, and shapes
ASTM B 179 Aluminum alloys in ingot form for sand castings, permanent mold
castings, and die castings

ASTM B 247 Aluminum alloy die and hand forgings


ASTM B 283 Copper and copper alloy die forgings (hot pressed)

ASTM B 361 Factory made wrought aluminum and aluminum alloy welding fittings

ASTM B 584 Copper alloy sand castings for general applications

AWWA Cl10 Gray iron and ductile iron fittings 2 in. through 48 in. for water and
other liquids

Steel pipe ASTM A 53 Pipe, steel, black and hot dipped, zinc coated, welded and seamless
[Note (1)l

ASTM A 106 Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temperature service
ASTM A 134 Pipe, steel electric-fusion4arc) welded (sizes NPS 16 and over)
ASTM A 135 Electric-resistance welded steel pipe
ASTM A 139 Electric-fusion4arc) welded steel pipe (sizes 4 in. and over)

ASTM A 211 Spiral-welded steel or iron pipe

ASTM A 312 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe


ASTM A 333 Seamless and welded steel pipe for low temperature service
ASTM A 358 Electric-fusion welded austenitic chromium-nickel alloy steel pipe for
high temperature service
ASTM A 376 Seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station
service

ASTM A 409 Welded large outside diameter light-wall austenitic chromium-nickel


alloy steel pipe for corrosive or high temperature service

ASTM A 587 Electric-welded low carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry

API 5L Line pipe

Nonferrous pipe ASTM B 42 Seamless copper pipe, standard sizes


ASTM B 43 Seamless red brass pipe, standard sizes

ASTM B 165 Nickekopper alloy (UNS N04400) seamless pipe and tube

ASTM B 241 Aluminum alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded tube

ASTM B 302 Threadless copper pipe


ASTM B 315 Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube
ASTM B 345 Aluminum alloy seamless extruded tube and seamless pipe for gas and
oil transmission and distribution piping systems

ASTM B 466 Seamless copper-nickel alloy pipe and tube


ASTM B 467 Welded copper-nickel pipe

59

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Table 523.1 ASME B31.5-1992 Edition

TABLE 523.1 (CONT'DI


-
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
Component Specification Material

Steel tube ASTM A 178 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler tubes
ASTM A 179 Seamless cold-drawn low carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser
tubes
ASTM A 192 Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high pressure service

ASTM A 210 Seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes


ASTM A 213 Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and
heat exchanger tubes
ASTM A 214 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser
tubes
ASTM A 226 Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes
for high pressure service
ASTM A 249 Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger and
condenser tubes
ASTM A 254 Copper brazed steel tubing
ASTM A 269 Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general
service
ASTM A 271 Seamless austenitic chromiumnickel steel still tubes for refinery
service

ASTM A 334 Seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel tube, for low temperature
service

Nonferrous tube ASTM B 68 Seamless copper tubing, bright annealed


ASTM B 75 Seamless copper tube
ASTM B 88 Seamless copper water tube

ASTM B 111 Copper and copper alloy seamless condenser tubes and ferrule stock
ASTM B 165 Nickel-copper alloy (UNS N044001 seamless pipe and tube

ASTM B 210 Aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes


ASTM B 234 Aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes for condenser and heat
exchangers
ASTM B 280 Seamless copper tube for air conditioning and refrigeration field
service

ASTM B 315 Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube

ASTM B 466 Seamless copper-nickel pipe and tube

Steel and iron pipe ASTM A 36 Structural steel

ASTM A 240 Heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel stainless Steel plate,


sheet, and strip for pressure vessels
ASTM A 283 Low and intermediate tensile strength carbon steel plates, shapes, and
bars
ASTM A 285 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, low and intermediate tensile
strength

ASTM A 353 Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, 9% nickel double-normalized and
tempered

ASTM A 515 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for intermediate- and
higher-temperature service

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ASME B3L.5 7 2 0757670 0530335 2 8 8 m

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition Table 523.1

TABLE 523.1 (CONT'D)


ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS

Material Component Specification

Steel and iron pipe 516ASTM


A Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for moderate- and
(cont'd) lower-temperature service
ASTM A 553 Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, quenched and tempered 8 % and
9 k nickel
ASTM A 570 Hot rolled carbon steel sheets and strip, structural quality

ASTM A 611 Steel, cold rolled sheet, carbon structural

Nonferrous plate ASTM B 96 Copper-silicon alloy plate, sheet, strip, and rolled bar for general
purpose and pressure vessels

ASTMB152 Copper,sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar


ASTM B 171 Copper alloy condenser tube plates

ASTM B 209 Aluminum and aluminum alloy sheet and plate


ASTM B 248 General requirements for wrought copper and copper alloy plate,
sheet, strip, and rolled bar

Welding electrodes and ASME SFA-5.1 or Carbon steel covered arc welding electrodes
rods for steel and iron AWS A5.1
ASME SFA-5.2 or Iron and steel oxyfuel gas welding rods
AWS A5.2
ASME SFA-5.4 or Corrosion resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered
AWS A5.4 welding electrodes
ASME SFA-5.9 or Corrosion resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel bare and
AWS A5,9 composite metal cored and stranded arc welding electrodes and
welding rods

Welding electrodes AWS A5.3 Aluminum and aluminum alloy covered arc welding electrodes
for nonferrous metals
ASME SFA-5.6 or Copper and copper alloy covered electrodes
AWS A5.6
ASME SFA-5.7 or Copper and copper alloy bare welding rods and electrodes
AWS A5.7
ASME SFA-5.10 or Aluminum and aluminum alloy bare welding rods and electrodes
AWS A5.10

AWS A5.12 Tungsten arc welding electrodes

Solder and brazing metal


ASTM
32B Solder metal

ASME SFA-5.8 or Brazing filler metal


AWS A5.8

Springs ASTM A 125 Steel springs, helical, heat treated

Chains ASTM A 413 Carbon steel chain (welded)


ASTM A 466 Weldless carbon steel chain
ASTM A 467 Machine and coil chain (welded)

61

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523.2.5-524.2 A W E B31.5=1992Edition

TABLE 523.1 (CONT'D)


-
ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
Component Specification Material

Bars ASTM A 663 Steel bar,


carbon, merchant quality, mechanical properties
ASTM A 675 Steel bars,
carbon, hot wrought,
special quality, mechanical properties

ASTM B 221 Aluminum alloy extruded bars,


rods,
shapes, and tubes

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) For specific edition of specifications referred to in this Code,see Appendix A and subsequent addenda.
(b) All ASME SFA specifications appear in Section II, Part C, of the ASME BPV Code.
NOTE:
(1) Excluding Grade F (see para. 505.1.1).

523.2.5 Clad and Lined Materials. Clad and lined 523.3 Deterioration of Materials in Service
materials may be used in accordance with the applica-
ble requirements in Part UCL of Section VIII, Division The selection of materials to resist deterioration in
service is outside the scope of this Code. It is the re-
1, of the ASME BPV Code.
sponsibility of the engineer to select materials suitable
for the conditions of operation.

523.2.6 Nonmetallic Pressure Containing Compo.


nents. Nonmetallic pressure containing components, 524 MATERIALS APPLIED TO
such as plastics, glass,carbon, rubber, or ceramics, may MISCELLANEOUS PARTS
be used even if not specifically listed in this Code. If
stress data arenot available for establishment of allow- 524.1 Gaskets
able stresses, the components may be qualified per para. Limitations on gasket materials are covered in para.
504.7. Consideration shall be given to the suitability of 508.4.
the material for the service temperature, its resistance
to deterioration from the service fluidor environment,
524.2 Bolting
its flammability, its resistance to shock, its creep, and
its proper support and protection from mechanical Limitations onbolting materials are coveredin
damage. paras. 508.5 and 523.2.2.

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ASME B 3 L - 5 92 0759670 0530337 O50

CHAPTER IV
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS

S26 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS


FOR STANDARD AND
NONSTANDARD PIPING
COMPONENTS
526.1 Standard Piping Components
Dimensional standards for piping components are
listed in Table 526. l . Also, certain material specifica-
tions listed in Table 523.1 contain dimensional require-
ments which are requirements of para. 526. Dimen-
sions of piping components shall comply with these
standards and specifications unless the provisions of
para. 526.2 are met.

526.2 Nonstandard
Piping
Components
The dimensions for nonstandard piping components
shall, where possible, provide strength and perform-
ance equivalent to standardcomponents, except as per-
mitted under para. 504. For convenience, dimensions
shall conform to those of comparable standard compo-
nents.

526.3 Threads
The dimensions of all piping connection threads not
otherwise covered by a governing component standard
or specification shall conform to the requirements of
O applicable standards listed in Table 526.1.

a 63

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ASME 835.5 92 m 0759670 0530338 T97 m

Table 526.1 ASME B31.51992 Edltion

TABLE 526.1
DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS
Standard Designation

Bolting

Square and Hex Bolts and Screws ............................................... ANSI 818.2.1


SquareandHex Nuts ...................................................... ANSI 818.2.2

Fittings. Valves. Flanges. and Gaskets

Cast Iron PipeFlanges and Flanged Fittings. Classes25. 125.250. and 300 ....................... ANSI B16.1
Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings. Classes 150 and 300 ................................... ANSI 816.3
Cast-Iron Threaded Fittings. Classes 125 and 250 ...................................... ANSI 816.4
Steel PipeFlanges and Flanged Fittings ............................................ ANSI 816.5
Wrought Steel ButtweldingFittings .............................................. ANSI B16.9
Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Ferrous Valves ................................ ANSI 816.10

Forged Steel Fitting. Socket Weld and Threaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.11


Ferrous PipePlugs.Bushings. and Locknuts With PipeThreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.14
Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings. Classes 125 and 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.15
CastCopper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI B16.18

Wrought CopperandCopper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.22


BronzePipeFlanges and Flanged Fittings. Classes 150 and 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.24
Buttwelding Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI B16.25
Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Welding Elbows and Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 816.28

Gray-Iron and Ductile-Iron Fittings. 2-Inch Through 48-Inch for Water and Other Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/AWWA
Cl10
Gate Valves 3 Through 48 Inch NPS for Water and Sewage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/AWWA
C500

Refrigeration Type Fittings ................................................... ANSI/SAE J513

Flanged and Butt-Welded-End Steel Gate and Plug Valves for RefineryUse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API 600
Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . API 601

Fittings. Tube. Cast Bronze. Silver Brazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-F-1183E

Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges
of Valves and Fittings .................................................... MSS 5p-6
Spot Facing for Bronze. Iron. and Steel Flanges....................................... MSS 5p-9
Standard Marking System for Valves. Fittings. Flanges. and Unions ............................ MSS 5p-25
Class 150 Corrosion-Resistant Gate.Globe.Angle. and CheckValves With Flanged and Buttwelding Ends ....... MSS 5p-42
Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-weldingFittings ........................................ MSS 5p-43
Bypass and Drain Connection Standard ............................................ MSS 5p-45

Class 150LW Corrosion-Resistant Cast FlangesandFlanged Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSS 5p-51


Pipe Hanger and Supports-Materials Design and Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/MSS
S P-58

Pipe and Tube

...........................................
Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe ANSI 836.10
Stainless Steel Pipe ....................................................... ANSI 836.19

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A S I E B3l1.5 72 m O757670 0530337 9 2 3

ASME B3151992 Edition Table 526.1

TABLE 526.1 (CONT'D)


DIMENSIONAL STANDARDS

Standard Designation

Miscellaneous

Unified Screw Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI 61.1


Pipe Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI
B1.20.1
Dryseal Pipe Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI
81.20.3

Mechanical Refrigeration, Safety Code for ........................................... ANSI/ASHRAE


15
Number Designation for Refrigerants .............................................. ANSI/ASHRAE
34
~ ~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ .~ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~

GENERAL NOTE: For specific edition of specifications referred t o in this Code,see Appendix A and subsequent Addenda.

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ASME 831.5 9 2 0759670 0530340 645 m

ASME B3151992 Edition 527-527.3.1

CHAPTER V
FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY

WELDING
527 (3) If piping component ends are bored for fitting
backing rings, such boring shall not result in a finished
527.2 Material
wall thickness after welding less than the minimum
527.2.1 Filler Material,All filler material shall com- design thickness plus corrosion and erosion allowances.
ply with the requirement of Section IX, ASME BPV Where necessary, weld metal may be deposited on the
Code. inside of the piping component to provide sufficient
material for machining to insure satisfactory seating of
521.2.2 Backing Rings. The use of backing rings is
the rings.
not mandatory; however, when used, they shall con-
form to the following requirements. (Also see para. (4) If the piping ends areupset, they may be bored
511.2.) to allow for a completely recessed backing ring, pro-
(a) Ferrous Rings. Backing rings shall be made from vided the remaining net thickness of the finished ends
material of good weldable quality, and the sulfur con- is not less than the minimum design thickness plus
tent shall notexceed 0.05%. The backing ring material corrosion and erosion allowance.
should preferably be of the same chemicalcomposition (6) Cleaning. Surfaces for welding shall be clean and
as the parts tobe joined. shall be free from rust, scale, or other material which
Backing rings may be of the continuousmachined, or is detrimental to welding. Galvanizing must be
split band type. Some acceptable split types are shown removed from the weld zone of galvanized carbon steel.
in Fig. 527.2.2. (c) Alignment. Misalignment of the inside surfaces of
(b) Nonferrous and Nonmetallic Rings. Backing piping components to be joined by butt welding may
rings of nonferrous or nonmetallic materials may be result from out-of-roundness, outside diameter toler-
used provided they have no effect on the weld or the ance, wall thickness tolerance, or from the inclusion in
contained fluid. The satisfactory use of such materials the piping of components having wall thicknesses diff-
shall be determined by the qualification of the welding erent from the wall thicknesses of most of the compo-
procedure. nents.
The inside surfaces of piping componentsto be
joined by butt welding shall be aligned so that the
misalignment at any point on the inside circumference
527.3 Preparation
does not exceed 1/16 in. or one-fourththe nominal
527.3.1 Butt Welds thickness of thecomponent with the thinnest wall,
(a) End Preparation whichever is smaller [see Fig. 527.3.1-B sketch (a)].
(1) Oxygen or arccutting is acceptable only if the Whereit is impossible to adheretothis limit by
cut is reasonably smooth andtrue andall slag is cleaned moving one component relative to theother, alignment
from the flame cut surfaces. Discoloration which may shall be obtained by internally trimming the compo-
remain on theflame cut surface is not considered to be nent extending internally - by building up with weld-
detrimental oxidation. ing, by expanding, or by swaging. It is preferred that
(2) Butt welding end preparation dimensions con- these methods of adjustment be applied tosuch an
tained in ANSI B16.25 or any other angles which meet extent that the adjoining internal surfaces are approxi-
the requirements of the welding procedure are accept- mately flush [see Fig. 527.3.1-B sketch (b)].
able. (For convenience the basic bevel angles taken However, internal trimming shall not be applied to
from ANSI B16.25 are shown in Fig. 527.3.1-A.) such an extent that it results in a piping component

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Figs. 527.2.2-527.3.1-B ASME B31.5=1992Edition

(a) PE Wall T h i c k n m 3/16 in.

(a) Split Backin0 Ring

\r-.tlOdeg. 2 1 W.

PE Wall Thicknerer Above


n 7/8 in.

12 deg. t 2-112 dw.

(b) Split Backing Ring and Knock-Off Spacer Pins


b / 1 6 in. f: 1/32 in.

FIG. 527.3.1-A BUTI' WELDING END


PREPARATION

(dl Split Nub Typs Backing Ring

GENERAL NOTES:
(a) Usual width of rings varyfrom 3/8 in. for small pipel L Internal
and tubes to 1 in.for large piper and tubes. miwlignrnsnt
(b)Usual spacing at bottom of welds variea from 3/32 in.
to 7/32 in. depending on diameterand thicknet#.

FIG. 527.2.2 TYPICAL JOINTS W I T H BACKING


RING FIG. 5273.1-B INTERNAL TWMMING FOR BUTT
WELDING OF PIPING COMPONENTS WITH
INTERNAL MISALIGNMENT

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ASME 831.5 7 2 m O757670 0530342 414

ASME B3151992 Edition 527.3.1-527.4.6

wall thickness less than the minimum design thickness (3) Cracks. None permitted.
plus corrosion and erosion allowance. Alignment shall (4) Incomplete Penetration. The total joint pene-
be preserved during welding. tration shall not be less than the thinner of the two
Spacing. The root opening of the joint shall be as components being joined, except to the extent that in-
given in the welding procedure specification. complete root penetration is permitted for girth welds
only. The depth of incomplete root penetration at the
527.3.2 Fillet Welds. Piping components which are weld root of girth welds shall not exceed %Ir in. or
joined by means of filletwelds shall be prepared in one-half the thickness of the weld reinforcement,
accordance with applicable provisions and require- whichever is smaller. The total length of such incom-
ments of para. 527.3.1. Details of typical fillet weldsare plete root penetration or at the root shall not exceed
shown in Figs. 527.4.4-A, 527.4.4-B, and 527.4.4-C. 1Y2 in. in any 6 in. of weld length.
(5) Lack of jksion. None permitted.
527.4 Procedure
0 527.4.1 General. No welding shall be done if the weld
area iswet or exposed to high wind or at a metal
527.4.4 Socket and Fillet Welds. Fillet welds may
vary from convex to concave. The size of a fillet weld
temperature below 32°F. is determined by the leg length of the largest inscribed
right angle triangle as shown in Fig. 527.4.4-A. Typical
527.4.2 Butt Welds fillet weld details for slip-on flanges and socket welding
(a) Butt joints not made in accordance with the stan- components are shown in Figs. 527.4.4-B and 527.44-
dards and specifications listed in Table 502.3.1 may be C. The limitations as to imperfections of these socket
made with a single-V, double-V, or other suitable type and fillet welds shall be as set forth in para. 527.4.2td)
of groove, with or without backing rings. for butt welds.
(b) Tack welds shall be made by a qualified welder or
shall be removed. Tack welds which are not removed
shall be made with a filler metal which is the same or 527.4.5 Seal Welds. Where seal welding of threaded
equivalent to theelectrode to be used for the first pass. joints is performed, external threads shall be entirely
Tack welds which have cracked shall be removed. Be- covered by the seal weld. Seal weldingshall be done by
fore assemblies are transferred from a location of fit-up qualified welders.
to a location of welding, all joints shall have been ade-
quately tack welded or partially welded, so as to pre- 527.4.6 Welded Branch Connections
vent the cracking of these welds or the distortion of the (a) Figures 527.4.6-A,527.4.6-B, and 527.4.6-C
assembly during such transfer. Piping which is to be show typical details of branch connections, with and
welded in place shall be properly aligned and ade- without added reinforcement. However, no attempt has
quately supported during tackwelding and subsequent been made to show all acceptable types of construction
welding in order to avoid the cracking of welds. and thefact that a certain type of construction is illus-
(c) If the external surfaces of the two components are trated does not indicate that it is recommended over
not aligned, the weld shall be tapered between the sur- other types not illustrated. Whenever possible, branch
faces. connections shall be made in such a manner that the
(d)The welding shall be such as to assure that the longitudinal seam of welded pipe is not pierced.
following requirements are met. (6) Figure 527.4.6-D shows basic types of weld at-
(1) The external surface of butt welds shall be free tachments used in the fabrication of branch connec-
from undercuts greater than Y32 in. deep, or one-half tions. The location and minimum size of these attach-
the weld reinforcement, whichever is smaller. ment welds shall conform to the requirements of this
(2) The thickness of weld reinforcement shall not paragraph. Welds shall be calculated in accordance
exceed the following considering the thinner compo- with para. 504.3.1 but shall be not less than the sizes
nent being joined: shown in Fig. 527.4.6-D.
Pipe Wall Reinforcement The notations and symbols used in this paragraph
Thickness, in. Thickness, in. and in Fig. 527.4.6-D are as follows:
t, = 0.7t,, and not less than Yi in. except on thin
and under '/i 6
Over V4 through V 2 3/32
material 1.4t,, is acceptable
Over V 2 through I t,, = nominal thickness of branch wall less corro-
Over 1 sion allowance, in.

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527.4.4-BFigs. 527.4.4-A, M I E B31.5-1992 Edition

Theoretical throat
Surface of vertical member

Convex fillet weld C


omfillet weld
Size of weld *
Surface of
t ~ j i z e of weid

GENERAL NOTE:
The size of an equal leg fillet weld is the l e g length of the l a f g e s t inscribed right i r o r c e l e s triangle. Theoretical throat - 0.707 x rire of weld.

(a) Equal Lag Fillet Wald

,Theoretical throat
rThwretical throat

GENERAL NOTE:
The size of an unequal l e g fillet weld is the l e g length of the largest right triangle whichcan be inscribed within the fillet c r w tection.

lb) Unequal Log Fillet Wald

FIG. 527.4.4-A FILLET WELD SIZE

is smaller ir rmaller 4 1116 spproximetely


in.
before welding
Front
Beck
and
Face
Weld
Back
and Wald
(a) Slip-On Flange (b) Sockrt W d d i q F l a w

GENERAL NOTE: r1 - nominal pipe w a l l thickness.

FIG. 527.4.4-B WELDING DETAILS FOR SLIP-ON AND SOCKET WELDING FLANGES; SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF
FLANGE ATTACHMENT WELDS

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ASME B3151992 Edition 527.4.6-527.5.1

Ht , , min. pipe wall thickness not be less than 0.7tmi,,[see Fig. 527.4.6-D sketch (e)].
The weld at the outer edge joining the outer reinforce-
ment to the run (header)shall also be a fillet weld with
a minimum throat dimension of 0.9,.
(e) When rings or saddles are used, a vent hole shall
be provided (at the side and not at the crotch) in the
ring or saddle to reveal leakage in the weld between
branch and main run and to provide venting during
welding and heat treating operations. Ringsor saddles
may be made in more than the one piece if the joints
between the pieces have adequate strength and if each
piece is provided with a vent hole. A good fit shall be
provided between reinforcing rings or saddles and the
parts to which they are attached.
527.4.7 Welded Flat Plate Closures. Figures
FIG. 527.4.4-C MINIMUM WELDING DIMENSIONS 527.4.7-A and 527.4.7-B show acceptable and unac-
REQUIRED FORSOCKET WELDING COMPONENTS ceptable welds for flat plate closures in pipe. See para.
OTHER THAN FLANGES 504.4.2 for nomenclature.
527.4.8 Heat Treatment for Welds. Heat treatment
of welds shall be in accordance with para. 531.

t, = nominal thickness of reinforcing element (ring


or saddle), in. (t, = O if there is noadded
527.5 Qualification
reinforcement.)
tmin= t,, or t,, whichever is smaller 527.5.1 General
(c) Branch connections (including specially made (a) The qualification of welding proceduresand
integrally reinforced branch connection fittings) which welders performance for both ferrous and nonferrous
abut the outside surface of the run (header) wall, or materialsshall be in accordance with Section IX,
which are inserted through an opening cut in the run ASME BPV Code, or with AWS welding procedure,
(header) wall, shall have opening and branch contour AWS D10.9 Level AR-1 for refrigerant piping, Level
where necessary to provide a goodfit and shall be AR-1 or AR-3 for nonvolatile brine piping.
attached by means of fully penetrated groove welds. (b) General Requirements
The fully penetrated groove welds shall be finished with (1) The following rules shall apply to thequalifica-
cover fillet welds having a minimum throat dimension tion of welding procedures andwelder performance for
not less than t, [see Fig. 527.4.6-D sketches (a) and all types of manual, semiautomatic, and automatic arc
(b)]. The limitations as to imperfection of these groove and gas welding processes.
welds shall be as set forth in para. 527.4.2(d) for butt (2) Each employer is responsible for the welding
welds. done by personnel of its organization andshall conduct
(d) In branch connections having reinforcement pads the tests required in Section IX, ASME BPV Code, or
or saddles, the reinforcement shall be attached by welds AWS D10.9, to qualify the welding procedures used in
at the outer edge and at the branch periphery as fol- the construction of weldments constructed under this
lows. Code Section and toqualify welders and welding opera-
(1) If the weld joining the added reinforcement to tors who apply these procedures, andthe employer
the branch is a fully penetrated groove weld, it shall be shall maintain records thereof.
finished with a cover filletweld having a minimum (3) To avoid duplication of qualification tests of
throat dimension not less than t,; the weld at theouter procedures, welders or welding operators, the proce-
edge, joining the added reinforcement totherun dures, welders, or welding operators qualified as re-
(header), shall be a fillet weld with a minimum throat quired above by one employer may be accepted by
dimension of OSt, [see Fig. 527.4.6-D sketches (c) and another employer on piping using the same or anequiv-
(41 alentprocedure wherein the essential variables are
(2) If theweld joining the added reinforcement to within the limits established in Section IX, ASMEBPV
the branch is a fillet weld, the throat dimension shall Code, or AWS D10.9. The contractor, fabricator, or

71

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ASME B3L.5 9 2 m 0759b70 0530345 L27 m

Figs. 527.4.6-A-527.4.6-B M M E B31.5-1992 Edition

FIG. 527.4.6-A TYPICAL WELDED BRANCH


CONNECTION WITHOUT ADDITIONAL
REINFORCEMENT

FIG. 527.4.6-B TYPICAL WELDED BRANCH


CONNECTION WITH ADDITIONAL
REINFORCEMENT

GENERAL NOTE:
Weld dimensions may be larger than the minimum values
FIG. 527.4.6-C TYPICAL WELDED ANGULAR shown here.
BRANCH CONNECTION WITHOUT
ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT
FIG. 527.4.6-D SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF
WELDED BRANCH ATTACHMENT DETAILS
SHOWING MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE WELDS

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ASME B3151992 Edition Figs. 521.4.1-A, 521.4.7-B

Greater of: 2 X required pipe thickness,


or 1.25 X actual pipe thickness, but need
45 deg. min. not exceed required min. thickness of
45 deg. min. 2tm I
closure.
thickness
Y"v

min.

Pipe may project beyond weld.


Closure may be beveled
(45 deg. mqx.) beyond weld.

FIG. 527.4.7-A ACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT PLATE CLOSURES


For other acceptable welds, see ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1.
For nomenclature see para. 504.2.2.

Incomplete penetration

FIG. 527.4.7-B UNACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT PLATE CLOSURES

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ASME B3lr.5 92 M 0759b70 0530347 T T T

527.5.1-528.3.1 ASME B31.5-1992Edition

purchaser may accept or reject qualification tests made 528 BRAZING AND SOLDERING
by others. An employer or code examiner accepting the
528.1 Brazing Materials
qualification tests of welders or welding operators by
another employer shall clearly indicate in his record of 528.1.1 FillerMetal. The filler metal used in brazing
such welders or welding operators, the employer by shall be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting
whom the welders or welding operators were qualified point above 840°F and below that of the metal being
and the dates of such qualification. By so doing the joined. The filler metal shall melt and flow freely with
employer accepts the responsibility for the welder's the desired temperature range and,in conjunction with
workmanship. a suitable flux or controlled atmosphere, shallwet and
(c) Perfornrance RequaliJicatìon. Renewal of a Per- adhere to the surfaces to be joined. Brazing material
formance Qualification is required: containing other than residual phosphorous as an im-
(I) when a welder haw not used the specific process purity is prohibited on joints madeof ferrous materials.
(within the essential variables sf the ASMEBPV Code,
Section IX,or AWS D10.9) ta weld either ferrous or
528.1.2 Flux. Fluxes that are fluid and chemically
active at the brazing temperature shall be used when
nonferrous piping materials for a period of 6 months or
necasary to prevent oxidation of the filler metal and
more provided that the welder has been continually
the surfaces to be joined and to promotefree flowing of
welding during that period; or
the filler metal.
(2) when there is a specific reason to question his
ability to make welds that meet the Performance Qua-
lification requirements. Renewal of qualification under
stipulation (1) above need be made in only a single pipe
528.2 Preparation and Procedure
wall thickness.
528.2.1 Surfaceand Joint Preparation. The surfaces
to be brazed shall be clean and free from grease, oxides,
527.6 Records paint, scale, and dirtof any kind. Any suitablechemical
or mechanical cleaning method may be used to provide
The employer shall maintain a record, certified by
a clean wettable surface for brazing. The procedure for
him, and available to thepurchaser or his agent and the joints covered in para. 517 shall be as outlined in the
inspector, of the procedures used and the welders or
Copper Tube Handbook,published by the Copper De-
welding operators employed by him, showing the date
velopment Association.
and results of procedure and performance qualifica-
tions and the identification symbol assigned to each 528.2.2 Joint Clearance. The clearance between sur-
performance qualification. The identification symbol faces to be joined shallbe not greater than0.004 in. (or
shall be used to identify the work perf'ormed by the a diametral clearance of 0.008 in.).
welder or welding operator,andaftercompletinga
528.2.3 Heating. The joint shall be brought uni-
welded joint, he shallidentify it as his werk by applying
formly to brazing temperature in as short a time as
his assigned symbol for permanent recordin a manner
possible to minimize oxidation.
specified by his employer.
528.2.4 Procedure Qualification. The qualification
of brazing procedures andbrazing operators shall be in
527.7 Defect Repairs accordance with the requirements of Part QB,Articles
All defects in welds requiring repair shall be removed
XII and XIII,Section IX,ASME BPV Code.
by flame or arc gouging, grinding, chipping. or machin-
ing. All repair welds shall be preheated and postheated
as originally required and the basic principles of the 528.3 Soldering
Materials
same welding procedure initially used shall be em-
ployed as far as applicable. This recognizes that the 528.3.1 Solder. The solder metal used in soldering
cavity of the weld may not be of the same contour or shall be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a solidus
dimensions as the original joint. between 4WF and 8 W F , and below that of the metal
Preheating may be required on certain alloy materi- being joined. The solder shall melt and flow freely
als of the air hardening type in order toprevent surface within the desired temperature range and, in conjunc-
checking or crackingadjacenttothe flame or arc tion with a suitable flux, shall wet and adhere to the
gouged surface. surface to be joined.

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ASME B3105 9 2 0759670 0 5 3 0 3 4 8 9 3 6 H

ASME B31.5-1992 Edition 528.3.2-531.3.1

528.3.2 Flux. Fluxes that are fluid and chemically 530 FORMING
active at the soldering temperature shall beused to
530.1 Procedure
prevent oxidation of the solder or filler metal and the
surfaces to be joined and to promote the free flowing of Piping components may be formed by any suitable
the solder. method, including hot or cold pressing, rolling, forging,
hammering, spinning, or drawing. Forming shall be
done within a temperature range consistent with mate-
528.4 Soldering
Preparation and Procedure rial characteristics and end use. Postheattreatment
528.4.1 Surface Preparation. The surfaces to be sol- may be used to achieve this result.
dered shall be clean and free from grease, oxides,paint,
scale, and dirt of any kind. Any suitable chemical or 530.2 Heat Treatment
mechanical cleaning method may be used to provide a
clean wettable surface for soldering. Heat treatment shall be in accordance with paras.
531.1, 531.3.2, 531.3.3, and 531.3.5.
528.4.2 Joint Clearance, The average clearance be-
tween surfaces to be joined shall be not greater than
0.004 in. (or a diametral clearance of 0.008 in.). 531 HEAT TREATMEhT
528.4.3 Heating.The joint shall be brought tosolder- 531.1
Heating and Cooling
Method
ing temperature in as short a time as possible to mini-
mize oxidation without localized underheating or over- Heat treatment may be accomplished by a suitable
heating. heating method which will provide the required metal
temperature, metal temperature uniformity, and tem-
528.4.4 Procedure, Solderers shall follow the proce- perature control, suchas an enclosed furnace, local fuel
dure as outlined in the Copper Tube Handbook pub- firing, electric resistance, or electric induction. Cooling
lished by the Copper Development Association. may be accomplished in a furnace, in air, with the aid
of local thermal control,with the application of heat or
insulation, or in any other manner required to achieve
the desired cooling rate.
529 BENDING, HOT AND COLD
529.1 Radii of Bends 531.2 Preheating

Pipe and tube may be bent to any radius which will 531.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the qualified
result in a bend surface free of cracks and substantially procedure specification, preheating for welds in materi-
free of buckles. Out of the roundness and minimum als shall be as stipulated in Table 53 1.2.1 (see Section
finished thickness of bend shall be such that design IX, ASME BPV Code, for P-Numbers of materials).
requirements of para. 504 are met. This shall not pro- 531.2.2 When welding dissimilar metals having diff-
hibit the use of bends designed as creased or corru- erent preheat requirements, the preheat temperature
gated. shall be that established in the welding procedure spe-
cification.
0 529.2 Procedure 531.2.3 The preheat temperature shallbe checked by
use of temperature indicating crayons, thermocouple
Pipe and tube may be bent by any hotor cold method pyrometers, or other suitable methods to assure that
permissible by radii and material characteristics of the the required preheat temperature is obtained prior to
sizes being bent. Bending shall be done within a tem- and maintained during the welding operation.
perature rangeconsistent with material characteristics
and end use. Postheat treatmentmay be used to achieve
this result. 531.3 Postheat
Treatment
531.3.1 Unless other postheat treatment is stipulated
in the welding procedure to meet the requirements of
529.3 Heat Treatment
para. 531.3.2, postheat treatment for the welds (except
Heat treatment shall be in accordance with paras. seal welds of threaded jointsfor P-Nos. 1 and 3 materi-
531.1,
531.3.2,
531.3.3, and 531.3.5. als) shall be as stipulated in Table 53 1.2.1. Seal welds

75

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TABLE 531.2-l
HEAT TREATMENT OF WELDS

Postheat ‘eatment Reqr rin


- ement C(4), (5)l

Licensed by Information Handling Services


ASME I
BPV Preheai kquired I Time Cycle Other Limiting, Maximum,
Code, Min. Min. Min. Wall Temp., “F i- h&n. I Min. Time, hr. or Approx. Lower
Section IX, Wall Temp., ‘F & Other :(6), (71, (813 !I of Wall 1 Within Contingent Conditions or Critical
P-Nos. cm, (211 (3) 1(l), (2)l Min. Max. x11, (211,~ Range Other Temp., ‘F

COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers


1 Mild steel None Not Over 44 in. 1100-1200 No preheat for 0.3OC
required , maximum or 0.65
maximum C equivalent
per applicable material
specification (9)
d
1 Mild steel 411 walls 175 Over Y in. 1100-1200 Preheat required above
0.3OC maximum and
above 0.65 maximum C
equivalent as per
applicable material
specification (9).

3(10) Carbon moly 911 walls 175 Over VZ in. 1200-1300 Brinell hardness 215 ,400
%f&%$Jlo maximum (11) P/2 Cr-%hMo)

4(10) Cr-‘MLlo Up to 34 in 300 Over VIZ in. or over 4 in. 1300-1400 Lower preheat ,430
1%Cr-MM0 3ver 34 in. 400 nominal size; over 0.1X temperatures may apply Kr-V2Mo)
maximum for inert gas ,430 zb
tungsten-arc root pass (I%Cr-XMo)
welding. Brine11 hardness m
215 maximum (11). m
2
5(10) Z%Cr-Mo Up to % in 300 Over % in. or over 4 in. 1300-1425 Lower preheat 480 -7
3ver 3k in. 400 nominal size; over 0.15C temperatures may apply (2%&r-Mo)
maximum for inert gas
tungsten-arc root pass
welding. Brinell hardness
241 maximum (11).
5Cr--1/ZMo Up to VI in. 300 All walls 1300-1425 1 Lower preheat 1515
$5