Sei sulla pagina 1di 19

OCCUPATIONAL STRESS

Safety and Health Officer


NIOSH

copyright@NIOSH 2005 1
Objective
 State definition of occupational stress

 Discuss the sources of stress at the


workplace

 List at least 5 effects of occupational


stress

 Discuss practical methods of reducing


stress at the workplace
copyright@NIOSH 2005 2
Scope

 Definition of occupational stress


 Who is at risk of occupational stress
 Stress reaction
 Effects of stress to the organisation
 Sources of stress at work
 Stress reducing methods
 Action plan to reduce stress

copyright@NIOSH 2005 3
Introduction
Employee perception towards stress

 “We do not have stress here”

 “Stress is something that cannot be avoided in our


business. If you cannot overcome it, you will not
achieve the target”

 “It’s not our fault. Employees bring their stress to the


workplace – we cannot do anything about it.
copyright@NIOSH 2005 4
Introduction
Fact
1. Stress results in mental suffering for the worker

2. Stress is detrimental to the company

3. Stress requires money

4. Stress is related to heart attacks, gastritis and other


diseases

copyright@NIOSH 2005 5
Introduction
Stress requires money
1. 40 million loss man days annually are stress related
(UK)

2. Stress results increased alcohol intake, absenteeism -


700 million pounds/year

3. The cost of the loss of an executive to heart attack


due to stress is equivalent to USD 600,000 (Xerox,
USA)

4. Compensation paid out for stress related cases totals


15% of all compensation cases (USA)
copyright@NIOSH 2005 6
Definition of Stress

 Stress is pressure that is felt by an individual


and his/her reaction as a result of it

 Increase in stress for an individual may be


too much for him to bear

copyright@NIOSH 2005 7
Who are at risk of occupational
stress?

 Everyone is susceptible to stress


 Personality type A
 Those dealing with public i.e. police,
nurses etc.
 Working mothers
 Employees with monotonous work

copyright@NIOSH 2005 8
Occupational Stressors

S – Support
T - Task
R - Role
E - Environment
S - Shift work
S – Security and change
O - Organisation
R – Rules and regulations

copyright@NIOSH 2005 9
Stress Model
Short term Long term
reaction reaction
Primer
towards towards
assessment
Occupation stress stress
Secondary
physiology physiology
assessment
psychology psychology

behaviour behaviour

Internal sources External sources


•Skills to contain and handle problems * Job control
•Skills to control emotions * Social support
•Occupational skills
•Social skills
Reaction towards stress
Reaction Short term Long term

Physiology High – pulse, blood Psychosomatic


pressure, adrenalin and symptoms, high blood,
cortical levels gastritis

Psychology Mental fatigue, Depression, nervous,


frustration, anger, bluntness, dissatisfied
distracted

Behaviour Non-consistent work Increase intake of


performance, lack of nicotine, alcohol, pills,
concentration, absenteeism, change of
mistakes, work
Effects of stress towards the
organisation
 Non-harmonious working relationship

 Low morale

 Reduced quality

 Reduced productivity

 Increased absenteeism, late to work


copyright@NIOSH 2005 12
Effects of stress towards the
organisation
 Increased rate of accidents

 Increased rate of diseases

 Increased turnover

 Increased number of workers wanting to


resign

copyright@NIOSH 2005 13
General principles to
overcome stress

1. Tackle the source, not the symptoms


2. Accept that stress is an organisational
problem and not an individual one
3. Settle ‘taboo’ problems
4. Involve everyone
5. Realistic approach, do not try too many
methods at one time

copyright@NIOSH 2005 14
Stress intervention
approach
Organisational Individual approach
approach  Eliminate the source of
 Identify stress stress
 Action

 Action example: counseling

example:
review management style,
work rotation
copyright@NIOSH 2005 15
AAAbc’s Stress Management
(Individual approach)

 `Alter it’
 `Avoid it’
 `Accept it’
- Develop defense
- Change perception of stress

copyright@NIOSH 2005 16
Intervention strategies for
individual stress
 Monitoring of stress symptoms (stress journal)

 Increase defense and analysing source of


stress
- Social skills, assertive training, problem solving

copyright@NIOSH 2005 17
Intervention strategies for
individual stress
 Accepting stress and changing reactions
- Cognitive behaviour technique

 Lowering level of sensitivity to stress


- Healthy lifestyle, relaxation, praying, meditation

copyright@NIOSH 2005 18
Action plan
1. Establish discussion groups
2. Evaluate current situation
 Group problems
 Identify source
 Evaluate existing solutions
3. Establish policies and programmes
4. Implement policies and programmes
5. Monitor and evaluate policies and
programmes
copyright@NIOSH 2005 19