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Department of Education
Region 10
Division of Bukidnon
DANGCAGAN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Poblacion, Dangcagan, Bukidnon

In partial Fulfilment of

The Subject Practical Research 1

The Effects of Gender Sensitive


Seating Arrangement in
Grade 11 – STEM – Zara

October 30, 2018

Submitted by: GROUP 2

Submitted to: JEFF REY D. MORALES


Practical Research 1 - Teacher
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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


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Student seating is one of the easiest, most cost-effective classroom management

tactics available to teachers. As an antecedent intervention, seating arrangements may help to

minimize or eliminate problem behavior without the need for consequence interventions (e.g.,

differential reinforcement or punishment). For example, Krantz and Risley (1977) showed

that simply seating students away from others was nearly as effective in increasing on-task

behavior as the systematic use of differential reinforcement and delivery of tangible

rewards. Wheldall and Lam (1987) found that on-task behavior doubled when students were

seated individually rather than in groups.

Seating assignments can position a student closer to the instructor, making it easier to

see and hear the professor. Seating proximity to the instructor can encourage attentive

behavior, classroom engagement, and discussion participation. Seating type may also

influence the learning environment by providing more comfort, better visibility, or improved

movement.

Learning competency is very important to a student, and seating arrangement plays a

vital role in it. Bad seating arrangement causes discomfort, lack of attentiveness,

uncooperativeness and the in worst case dishonesty or in other words cheating. But one

specific aspect of seating arrangement that catches the researchers` attention was the effects

of seating arrangement according to sex; all male row, all female row and alternate sex row in

learning.

Learning capability assessment is very important in determining and evaluating the

students` understanding level with regards to gender sensitive seating arrangements. In the

study, the learning capability of the students were investigated in G-11 STEM of Dangcagan

National High School. Results of these studies gives information to the teachers about the

effectiveness of this method and possible future references.


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At present, the effectiveness of this seating arrangement has not been assessed.

Because it is important to know the effectiveness of method, this study was conducted.

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to assess the different seating arrangements

effectiveness in Grade-11 STEM.

Specifically, this aimed to:


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1. Evaluate the positive effect of gender sensitive seating arrangement.

2. Evaluate the negative effect of gender sensitive seating arrangement.

3. Determine what is more effective in seating arrangement between gender sensitive

and non-gender sensitive seating arrangement.

Significance of the Study

The results of the study would provide baseline information on which is more

effective way of seating arrangement in Grade-11 STEM of Dangcagan National High

School.
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This study will be of great value to the school and eventually to the community.

More importantly, an assessment and monitoring scheme on the students learning

improvements would be beneficial to all soft science enthusiasts.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study was limited only to the learning competency in different seating

arrangements of Grade-11 STEM students in Dangcagan National High School which was

conducted last October 15, 2018.


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The analysis of the effectiveness was limited only to the positive and negative effect

of the two seating arrangements.

Hypothesis of the Study

To test the better and much more effective seating arrangement between gender

sensitive and non-gender sensitive seating arrangement.


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Ho: The gender sensitive is much more effective than non-gender sensitive seating

arrangement.

HA: The non-gender sensitive is much more effective than gender sensitive seating

arrangement.

Definition of Terms

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors,

skills, values, or preferences.


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Seating arrangements are a main part in a teacher’s plan for classroom management.

Not only do the teachers need to consider the physical arrangement of the room but also the

nature of the students involved. The considerations in arranging the physical environment of

the room is teaching and learning can occur as efficiently as possible.

Competency is the ability to do something successfully or efficiently.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Introduction
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A student's educational experience is often much more than just tests, quizzes and

homework. It is also influenced by a number of environmental factors. One of those factors is

how the classroom is prepared. Depending on the district and the liberty given, teachers can

have a huge impact on the students with some simple changes. For example, if a teacher

wants their room to be calm and soothing, they can use colors to their advantage. Hanging

posters or painting their walls in blues and greens makes for a relaxing environment. Wacky?

Try some tropical colors. If they desire a more warm and homey feel they can choose primary

colors or earth tones for their classroom ("Eight secrets of class design," 1997). Although

some of these changes might be outside the teacher's jurisdiction, the design of the room in

terms of posters and materials is often under their control. Teachers could advocate having

carpeting installed if it is not currently. The color of this carpeting could have a profound

effect on the students to either excite or relax them (Hawkins, 1997). Even lighting could be

considered. Most lighting in schools today is done through fluorescent lamps, presumably

because of the low cost to operate, long lifespan and bright light they produce. If a bulb that

produces a cooler color temperature is used, it can create a cooler feel to the room. A more

neutral lamp would allow for a fuller spectrum of colors to emerge and could warm up the

color palette of the classroom (Hawkins, 1997). The environment the teacher chooses will

very likely have an effect on the students, and the teacher's awareness of these principles can

either help or hurt their success.

It has been suggested that a student's success within the classroom can be attributed to

their individual learning styles coinciding with the classroom's style of teaching.

A disconnect between learning and teaching styles has been attributed to misbehaviors and

poor performance (Baum, Renzulli and Hebert, 1995). This indicates that environmental

changes can be solve, at least partially, some types of bad behavior as well as improve a

student's performance in the class.


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Numerous studies have shown that a student sitting in the front of the class will

outperform students seated in other areas of that class. This has been shown to be true

regardless of a student's preference. Although some students would prefer to sit towards the

back, when they are brought up to the front, performance increases markedly (Totusek and

Staton-Spicer, 1982). It is believed that the front of the room offers fewer distractions which

allow the student to be more focused on the teacher. This research would indicate that a

student's performance in the classroom is not based solely on their natural academic ability.

Rather, their environment plays at least some part in their success or failure of a subject.

Classroom Ecology

The physical arrangement of most classrooms reveals much about the learning

process. From lecture halls, to smaller and more personal classrooms, they all look relatively

the same. A series of desks or chairs neatly organized with a desk or podium at the front. It

does not take much imagination to picture students filing in, sitting down, opening notebooks

and sitting mute during the class hour while the instructor stands behind his podium or paces

in front of the room. Sanders (1958) found teachers and administrators often did not take

advantage of innovative furniture arrangements. Even if portable chairs were used, they

rarely moved from the fixed rows that students and teachers alike were accustomed to. "The

sanctity with which straight rows are regarded makes it almost inevitable that departures from

them will be considered subversive" (Becker, 1973, p.515). Even when Rolfe (1961)

compared participation in classrooms which had either stationary or moveable seating, he

found that the movable seating, despite it being easier and more convenient to teach, yielded,

a pattern of teaching and use of space that changed very little. Virtually all experimental

classroom designs have occurred at the elementary level (Becker, 1973). When a person
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walks into a classroom today, they are reminded of the traditional schools of old. On the

contrary, there are a number of advocates for different shaped seating arrangements, such as

the horseshoe or circular arrangements. In addition to the arrangements undergoing change,

the furniture itself is under modification. A company named the 101 Group is developing

furniture that takes on multiple tasks. The idea, according to president and owner Burnett

Nelson is "to design the classroom of the future-a classroom that will allow the teacher or the

instructor to be a facilitator instead of a lecturer. That means the furniture is moveable and

has many functions" (Gite, 1998, p.l). Nelson's firm designs and manufactures tables with

tops that are reversible, one side being magnetic and one having Legos®.

Importance of Seating Arrangement

Dunne (2001) writes about the relationship between classroom seating arrangements

and classroom management. She does not take a stance on the most successful seating

arrangement as she argues that teachers need to consider a seating arrangement that works

with the space they have and the student desks they need. She argues that it is important for

the seating arrangements to allow the teacher to walk between the student desks. She further

notes that a successful seating arrangement is a method of classroom management.

Bonus & Riordan (1998) conducted a research on changing and improving classroom

seating arrangements to help children stay on task and reduce distractions. They concluded

that the causes of students having trouble staying on task were related to seating arrangement,

seating proximity to the teacher, ability levels, and lesson taught. The leading factor in off-

task behavior was noted to be the seating arrangements. Hastings and Schwieso (1995) argue

that primary classrooms often have cluster seating, whereas the student tasks are primarily

individual and not conducive to cluster seating.


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Weinstein & Evertson (2006) state about the contribution of students in the decision

making that it can vary from selecting a signal for being quiet to the choice of sitting with a

friend when the seating arrangements are changed. They also quote (Morine & Dershimer

1985) indicating that seating arrangements can “impact students’ opportunities to learn and

support engagement in academic tasks.”

Room arrangement affects the learning process, student behavior, and student

engagement thus has been validated by a number of researches past and present including

hose of Florman, 2003; Lackney & Jacobs, 2002; Proshansky & Wolfe, 1974; Richards,

2006; Susi, 1989 and Weinstein, 1977.

The concept is further supported by Lackney and Jacobs (2002) who conclude that

various physical dimensions have been researched, and out of them classroom furnishings’

arrangement appears to be the most salient dimension for supporting curricular objectives

efforts.

Classroom Seating as an Agent of Consolidating Discipline

When it comes to the disciplinary aspect of the classroom then it is advised by many

writers that the seating arrangement of the classroom is to be one of the most important

factors to be carefully planned. Classroom management experts and experienced educators

believe that the decisions teachers make about whether students will be allowed to select their

own seats and about the physical arrangement of the classroom can have an impact on

classroom discipline.

Many writers have stressed the necessity of a proper and suitable seating arrangement

of the class. According to Pitner (2009) how the teacher organizes the seating arrangement of
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the classroom definitely has an effect on the school year. If a classroom is organized for

efficient work habits and access for all students, then there will be fewer problems during the

academic year.

It is worth asserting that the seating arrangement has to be suited to achieve the best

with regards to meeting the needs of:

 Behaviour

 Ability

 Task

 Time of day

 Size of group

Weinstein & Evertson (2006, p.189) support the research of Zeidner (1998) who

states that one of the “Relatively unsevere” strategies of maintaining discipline in the

classroom is “rearranging a student’s seating position”.

Effects of Seating Arrangement

The debate of what effects can a seating arrangement have on the students is long

discussed by many educators and researchers. The students of a classroom do take the
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seating of the room seriously as it has to be the location of the student which decides the

participation and contribution level of the student itself.

Participation and Motivation

Researchers have suggested that students seated in front rows are likely to participate more

than the ones on other seats. Then comes the question of assigned seats; some researchers

believe that students should be assigned seats as students tend to pick seats with partners who

they are likely to converse with for disruptions.

Sommer as mentioned in McCorskey & MCVetta (1978) also found that the students

in the front rows participated more than the ones at the back. On the contrary Koneya (1976)

argues that in his research the students in the front row did not participate and rated low rated

in speaking and that their participation did not increase even after being placed in the front

rows.

Learning

The seating arrangement of the classroom does have an effect on the learning of the

students as Proshansky & Wolfe (1974, p. 559) proclaim:


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“Effective arrangement and management of space can facilitate the learning process,

while the unplanned, ineffective use of space can result in unforeseen and unexpected

interference, and possibly even serve to instigate interpersonal conflicts”.

Ridling (1994, p.10) believes that “seating arrangement influences participation,

thinking, and appropriate comments, which in turn can have a positive effect on learning.”

Behaviour

The aim of the research is to amend the students’ behaviour through seating

arrangements. Frank Susi (1989, p. 37) argues that, “the physical environment must be

planned to address both education and behavioural priorities.” Furthermore (Weinstein, 1977,

p. 260) reiterates that “It is essential for teachers to examine both the practical and symbolic

ramifications of their designs to ensure that the setting and the curriculum are as compatible

as possible”. In support Lackney and Jacobs (2002) stress that teachers are “placemakers”

who are responsible for creating effective teaching and learning spaces.

Interactions

Seating arrangement can have an effect on improving interaction between students

and student –teacher interaction as well. Koneya,(1976, p.266) conducted a study evaluating
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the link between seating proximity and verbal interaction and determined that, “location is a

very likely determinant of an individual’s interaction rate”

Another researcher Weinstein (1979, p. 580) also noted that proximity plays a role in

student behaviour and concentration, and she focused on the ‘action zone,’ an area in the

front of the classroom where students are more engaged. Bovard (1951) pointed out that

grouped seating leads to increased interaction and liking of one another.

Academic Progress

The academic progress of the students is no doubt then to be effected due to good or

bad seating arrangements. A suitable and successful seating arrangement according to Dunn

& Dunn (1975, p. 38) can result in “increased academic achievement, improved self-esteem,

a liking for learning, improved basic skills, stimulated creativity, and gradually increasing

learner-independence”.

Thus it can be stated with authority that altering of seating arrangement accrues

numerous positive benefits to learning and management in the classroom.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY
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This chapter presents the methods and procedures which will be used in the study. It

includes the research design, locale of the study, participants, sampling procedure, research

instrument, data gathering procedures, and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

The study was descriptive design to determine the effects of seating arrangement in

Grade 11 STEM – ZARA. This qualitative research determined the outcomes of seating

arrangement by using a Likert Scale. It also covered by terms such as learning, seating

arrangements, and competency, therefore, we have used different terms in searching for

materials.

This study has administered survey questionnaires in Grade 11 STEM – Zara a senior

high section in Dangcagan National High School. The purpose of the survey questionnaire

was to attain the desired objectives of the study and to find the effects of gender sensitive

seating arrangement and to examine whether the seating arrangement really affects the

learning competences.

Locale of the Study

This research was conducted in Grade 11 STEM – Zara at Dangcagan National High

School, Dangcagan, Bukidnon to resolute the effects of seating arrangement in learning

competences.

Respondents and Sampling Procedure


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The sample was selected among the Grade 11 STEM – Zara students. The researchers

used Slovin's formula to calculate and estimate the sampling size. It is computed as n = N /

(1+Ne2). Where n = no. Of samples, N = total population, e = error margin / margin of error .

The sample was represented by 10 students. The samples were selected randomly in terms of

gender because the main objectives of this research were to identify whether the seating

arrangement give an impact towards the effects of learning competences of the students.

Research Instrument

In order to explore and gather data, the researchers employed one research instrument.

It was done using survey questionnaires.

The respondents were asked to rate each item on a five-point Likert Scale ranging 1

(Strongly Disagree) and 5 (Strongly Agree). This study used questionnaire to achieve more

reliable and comprehensive picture. In this sense, questionnaire for students would be

directed to Grade 11 STEM – Zara students from Dangcagan National High School. We have

only one type of questionnaire and that was close type question.

Statistical Treatment of the Data


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The researchers accumulated a wealth of data (given 20 items with multiple parts).

The interpretation was based on the following scheme:

Table 1. Mean Interpretation

Numerical Rating Description Rating Description


5 Strongly Agree This is a rating given to the
statement where provisions
are exceedingly exercised as
always.
4 Somewhat Agree This is a rating given to the
statement where provisions
are over the average are often
exercised.
3 Agree This is a rating given to the
statement where provisions
where it is moderate level or
sometimes practiced.
2 Somewhat Disagree This is a rating given where
provisions are not often
exercised.
1 Strongly Disagree This is a rating given where
provisions are not
exceedingly exercised or
practiced.

The student responses were tallied and analyzed using the scheme above to determine

the interpretation according to the 5- point Likert Scale.

CHAPTER IV
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RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION

This chapter presents the results and discussion of the study. There were 10

questionnaires that floated to 10 Grade 11 STEM – ZARA respondents. The researchers used

Slovin's formula to calculate and estimate the sampling size. It is computed as n = N /

(1+Ne2). Where n = no. Of samples, N = total population, e = error margin / margin of error.

Table 1. Total Mean of Each Respondents

No. of No. of Items Total Mean


Respondents

1 20 3.65

2 20 3.6

3 20 4.1

4 20 3.75

5 20 4.2

6 20 3.7

7 20 3.9

8 20 3.95

9 20 3.5

10 20 4.1

Total Average 3.845

The above table represents the total mean of each respondents.

Table 2. Total Standard Deviation Percentage


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No. of Items N Total Standard Deviation


Percentage

1 10 0.6

2 10 1.2206

3 10 1.07703

4 10 0.66332

5 10 0.63246

6 10 0.9

7 10 1.16619

8 10 0.67082

9 10 0.83066

10 10 0.45826

11 10 0.64031

12 10 0.83066

13 10 1.4

14 10 1.22066

15 10 1.00499

16 10 1.07703

17 10 1.1

18 10 0.66332

19 10 1.04403

20 10 0.66332

Total Average 0.89319

The above table represents the total standard deviation percentage of each questions

answered by the respondents.


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The table above shows the result of the answers of the students from Grade 11

STEM – ZARA. The table proves that the seating arrangement in Grade 11 STEM – ZARA

affect student’s learning competencies.

Based on the data, 12 /12 of the positive parameters passed the above average test. On

the other hand 8/8 of the negative parameters passed the above average test. Based on the

results, cheating was considered as the most rated factor that affects students learning

competencies. Cheating was the most agreed factor by the students and mostly exercise in the

class. According to the data gathered, the most rated factors are merely positive effect to

student’s learning competencies and are exercised by the students. Among the 20 factors that

were given to the respondents, 12 factors of it are belonged to strongly agree, agree, and

somewhat agree, the remaining factors are rated as often and not exercise by the students in

the class.

Based on the result, the positive effects of a gender sensitive seating arrangement are

good relationship among same sex (10), respect will be observe within the opposite sex(10),

easy to communicate with the same sex (10), celebrating each other`s success (10), borrowing

of necessities are more easier with the same sex (10) , developing good relationship (10) , can

express more feelings (10), teamwork will be observed (10) , more comfortable (9) ,

generosity occurs (9) and no feeling of awkwardness towards opposite sex (8).

The negative effects of a gender sensitive seating arrangement are cheating (10) ,

improper use of cellphones (10) , teasing (10) , laziness (9) , back stabbing (9) , having

different worlds (9) , being noisy (8) , bullying (6) and the results gathered showed that there

is a significant difference of seating arrangement between gender sensitive and non-gender

sensitive seating arrangement. The gender sensitive seating arrangement causes rampant
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cheating activity on class which is voted 10 out of 10, 7 of them strongly agreed, 2 agreed and

1 somewhat agreed. This data is voted not only in one sex but from both male and female.

Graph 1. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO

THEIR GENDER

GENDER

Male

50 % 50 %
Female

The graph above represents the number of respondents according to their gender.

Where, there are five males and five females in total of ten respondents. Which conclude that

there is an equal basis of the gathered data. It also proves that the data gathered has no biased

because it does not base on unequal repondents but in equal respondents according to their

gender.

Therefore, the results are based on the equal number of respondents according to

gender and it is accurate because it is not biased.


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Graph 2. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO

THEIR AGE

AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

10 %

16 years old

50 % 17 years old
40 %
18 years old

The graph above shows the number of respondents according to their age. Where,

there are five respondents having the age of sixteen ( 16 ), four respondents having the age

of seventeen ( 17 ) and one respondent having the age of eigthteen ( 18 ) , in total of ten

respondents.

Based on the data gathered, most of the students have childish behavior and really

affect their performance in the class. By this unpleasant behaviour, students may think many

things, like doing good and bad things inside the class. Also, because only a year is difference

between the age of the respondents, what others do, it will be done by the whole class.

Therefore, this data also affect the students behaviour in the class, it can be positive or

negative. It really reflected the results , cheating is the highest rated factor, so we can say that

it is done by all the students in the class.


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Graph 3. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO

THEIR FATHER’S OCCUPATION

FATHER'S OCCUPATION

10 %

10 %
Farmer
40 %
Carpenter
Unemployed
20 % DOLE Employee
Deceased
20 %

The graph above shows the number of father’s occupation of the respondents. Where,

there are four respondents whose father is a farmer, two respondents whose father is a

carpenter and unemployed, one respondent whose father is a dole employee and one

respondent’s father is deceased.

Based on the graph, 40% of the respondent’s father’s occupation is a farmer, wherein

it can affect student’s behavior, it is because their father doesn’t have time for them. As well

as the others, their father does not have time for them because they are busy in their work. On

the other hand, respondents with father’s who are unemployed and is deceased, also affect

their performance in school. For the unemployed fathers, they might not give student’s needs

directly because of lack of money. That is why students feel uncomfortable to their father and

will do bad things in the classroom. For the deceased father, it might be that the student did

not get over on what happen to his / her father and affect his/ her behaviour inside the class.
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However, behind all these negative effects there are also positive effects. To those

respondent’s father who have jobs, they can directly give the needs of their child, that is why

their child really give importance to their studies and do good things inside the class. For the

father’s who are unemployed, because thay have time to their child and mold a close

relationship, they will bring it in school.

Over all, fathers who are employed and unemployed plays a great role on students

performance inside the classroom.


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Graph 4. DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO

THEIR MOTHER’S OCCUPATION

MOTHER'S OCCUPATION

10 %

Housewife/Housekeeper
20 %
Farmer
Domestic Helper
70 %

The graph above represents the number of mother’s occupation of the respondents.

Where, there are seven respondents whose mother is a housekeeper, two respondents whose

mother is a farmer, and one respondent whose mother is a domestic helper.

Based on the graph the highest percentage of mother’s occupation is housewife or

housekeeper wherein it merely affects the behaviour of a student towards their school

performance maybe because of their parents cannot give full support and doesn’t have enough

money to provide thier children’s need.On the other hand a respondent’s whose mother is a

domestic helper may cause longingness of thier mother that can also affect to thier

performance where they cannot concentrate and focus. For those respondents whose mother is

a farmer can cause their children not interested in going school because of insecurities.
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Even so, there are many negative effects but still there are always positive effects

behind it.Some students will do good in their studies they do not allow theirselves to be

affected about their situation.Therefore, those mothers who are employed and unemployed

plays a great influenced on students performance inside the classroom


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CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations of the research.

The study was conducted to 1) evaluate the positive effect of gender sensitive seating

arrangement 2) evaluate the negative effect of gender sensitive seating arrangement 3)

determine what is more effective in seating arrangement between gender sensitive and non-

gender sensitive seating arrangement.

The study was done using one research instrument. It was done using survey

questionnaires. The survey questionnaire was floated in the Grade 11 STEM – ZARA only at

Dangcagan National High School. The sample were all senior high STEM students on the

said school. The total sample size was 10 students.

The result of the gathered data showed that the gender sensitive seating arrangement in

Grade 11 STEM – ZARA at Dangcagan National High School affect student’s learning

competencies positively and negatively.

Based on the result, the positive effects of a gender sensitive seating arrangement are

good relationship among same sex (10), respect will be observe within the opposite sex(10),

easy to communicate with the same sex (10), celebrating each other`s success (10), borrowing

of necessities are more easier with the same sex (10) , developing good relationship (10) , can

express more feelings (10), teamwork will be observed (10) , more comfortable (9) ,

generosity occurs (9) and no feeling of awkwardness towards opposite sex (8). The negative

effects of a gender sensitive seating arrangement are cheating (10) , improper use of

cellphones (10) , teasing (10), laziness (9) , back stabbing (9) , having different worlds (9),

being noisy (8) , bullying (6) and the results gathered showed that there is a significant
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difference of seating arrangement between gender sensitive and non-gender sensitive seating

arrangement.

After a careful study and analysis of the results it can be concluded that seating

arrangements can be used for the development of learning and also to control discipline

problems. Efforts should be made on part of the teachers and the school administration in

order to bring about the desired changes.

The research proves that there is a relevant need of a reorientation in the approach to

the seating strategies for the teachers where they are guided towards using the seat alteration

system as a decisive factor. The present administrative schema for seating arrangment does

not cater to promote creativity and learner autonomy.

There rises a need to rectify these aspects as teaching should be flexible and should

make room to implement diverse and multiple methodologies for seating. Our teachers need

to enhance their classroom management knowledge through training in order to take

significant attempts to create a disciplined and academically profound classroom.

The research will be helpful for the administration and teachers of school to have a

more flexible approach towards the seating plans of a class. The study will help future

researchers in their study for efficient classroom management targeting enhancement of

learning and discipline.


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Considering the results obtained, the following are recommended:

1. A larger number of respondents, to have a more specific and accurate findings.

2. To have different method in researching and finding the results, in order to have a

different/clearer point of view regarding the study.

3. Complete a full-scale assessment to obtain a more thorough and accurate picture

on the effects of gender sensitive seating arrangement


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LITERATURE CITED

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seating preferences or location related to course performance? Journal of

Economic Education, 35(3), 2 1 5-23 1

BLEVINS W. BUILDING FLUENCY (2001), Lessons and strategies for reading

success. New York: Scholastic Professional Books;

BURDEN, P. R. (1 995). Classroom management and discipline: method to facilitate

cooperation and instruction. White Plains, NY: Longman.

CARBO, M., & HODGES, H. (1 988). Learning style strategies can help students at risk.

Teaching Exceptional Children, 20(4), 55-58.

HASTINGS, N., & SCHWIESO, J. (1995). Tasks and tables: The effects of seating

arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms. Educational Research,

37(3), 279-29 1.

HAWKINS, H. L. (1 997). Good classroom design improves learning. School Planning and

Management, 36(4), 10-12.

KRANTZ P.J, RISLEY T.R. (1977) Behavioral ecology in the classroom. In: O'Leary D.K,

O'Leary S.G, editors. Classroom management: The successful use of

behavior modification (rev. ed., pp. 349–366) New York: Pergamon;. (Eds.)
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KRANTZ AND RISLEY (1977) Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive

Behavior of Fifth Grade Students During Independent Seatwork

RIDLING, Z. (1 994, APRIL). The effects of three seating arrangements on teacher 's use of

selective interactive verbal behaviors. Paper presented at the annual meeting , of

the American Educations Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

THOMAS, BECKER AND ARMSTRONG (1968). Effects of Various Seating Arrangements

on Disruptive Classroom Behavior.

WHELDALL AND LAM (1987) Differential Effects of Seating Arrangements on Disruptive

Behavior of Fifth Grade Students During Independent Seatwork

(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405935/?fbclid=IwAR1ZLnAKL6

OR xJ7SXvXs9pakhaXmZkCUHkd-Bzij5SKFUM08E1TyuNZpxEI)
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APPENDICES