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The pressure exerted by a fluid at rest is known as hydrostatic pressure

we see in the fig. force exerted by fluid normal to the object. This force
per unit area is called pressure
𝑃= 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

SI unit of pressure is N/m2 or Pascal

Hydrostatic Pressure at a point in side a liquid

Consider a cylinder in liquid as shown

P1 is the pressure at top face of cylinder
P2 is the pressure at bottom face of cylinder
h is the height of cylinder

Pressure P1= or 𝐹1 = 𝑃1 × 𝐴

Pressure P2 = or 𝐹2 = 𝑃2 × 𝐴
Weight of Liquid= mg …………………𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦(𝜌) = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑚 = 𝜌 × 𝑉
= 𝜌 × 𝑉 × 𝑔 … … … … … … . 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 × ℎ
== 𝜌 𝑔 𝐴 ℎ

Now condition of equilibrium of forces Upward force= downward force

𝑃2 × 𝐴 + 𝜌 𝑔 𝐴 ℎ = 𝑃1 × 𝐴

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 𝜌 𝑔 ℎ

𝑃 = 𝜌𝑔ℎ
P is the total pressure exerted on the cylinder
This shows that hydrostatic pressure increases linearly with depth. It is for this reason that
the thickness of the wall of a dam has to be increased with increase in the depth of the dam.

Note that the expression shows that hydrostatic pressure does not depend of the areas
of the cylinder. Pressure does not depend upon shape of the versel.
Atmospheric Pressure
We know that the earth is surrounded by an atmosphere upto a height of about 200 km. The
pressure exerted by the atmosphere is known as the atmospheric pressure.

When a body is immersed in liquid , a upward force is exerted by the
fluid on the body. This upward force is called buoyant force. This
buoyant force is invented by Archimedes.
He states that when an object is submerged
partially or fully in a fluid, the magnitude of the buoyant force on it is
always equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Example: Hot air Ballon: hot air has less density than cold air, a net
upward buoyant force on the balloon makes it to float.


Pascal’s law, which states that when pressure is applied at any part of an enclosed liquid, it is
transmitted without change to every point of the liquid as well as to the walls of the
This law is also known as the law of transmission of liquid

This is the closed tube when we apply pressure P1 at A then

according to pascal law it will be same at B point means
Application of Pascal law
1. Hydraulic Lift
2. Hydraulic Jack
3. Hydraulic Brake
Hydraulic lift:
It is a simple device based on Pascal’s law and is used to lift
heavy loads by applying a small force.
The basic arrangement is shown
Pressure P1. Act on smaller piston of area
Pressure P2 act on larger piston area where load may be placed

As per pascal law


𝐹1 𝐹2 𝐹1 ×𝐴2
= or 𝐹2 =
𝐴1 𝐴2 𝐴1
It is clear from Eqn. that force F2 > F1 by an amount equal to the ratio (A2/A1).
Surface tension is the property of any liquid by virtue of which tries to minimize its free
surface area. As a result, the surface of a liquid acts like a stretched membrane

Surface tension of a liquid is measured as the force acting per length on

an imaginary line drawn tangentially on the free surface the liquid.

Surface tension S = Force/Length

Its SI unit is N/m2 and its dimensional formula is [MT-2 ].

It is a scalar quantity.
.Surface tension of a liquid depends only on the nature of liquid and independent of the
surface area of film or length of the line .
Small liquid drops are spherical due to the property of surface tension.

Adhesive Force
The force of attraction acting between the molecules of different substances is called
adhesive force, e.g., the force of attracts acting between the molecules of paper and ink,
water and glass, etc.

Cohesive Force
The force of attraction acting between the molecules of same substan is called cohesive
force. e.g., the force of attraction acting between molecules of water, glass, etc.
Cohesive forces and adhesive forces are van der Waals’ forces.

These forces varies inversely as the seventh power of distance between the molecules

Molecular Range
The maximum distance upto which a molecule can exert a force of attraction on other
molecules is called molecular range.
Molecular range is different for different substances. In solids and liquids it is of the order of
10-9 m.
If the distance between the molecules is greater than 10-9 m, the force of attraction between
them is negligible.

Surface Energy
If we increase the free surface area of a liquid then work has to be done against the force of
surface tension. This work done is stored in liquid surface as potential energy,
This additional potential energy per unit area of free surface of liquid is called surface

Surface energy (E) = S x &ΔA

where. S = surface tension and ΔA = increase in surface area.
Angle of Contact
The angle subtended between the tangents drawn at liquid surface at point of contact of solid
surface inside liquid, is called of contact.

Angle of contact depends upon the nature of the liquid and solid contact and the medium
which exists above the free surface of liquid.
When wax is coated on a glass capillary tube, it becomes water-proof.
The angle of contact
If θ is acute angle, i.e; θ <90°, then liquid meniscus will be
concave upwards. Eg. Water with glass
If θ is 90°, then liquid meniscus will be plane.
If θ is obtuse, i.e; θ >90°, then liquid meniscus will be
convex upwards. Eg. Mercury in glass tube
If angle of contact is acute angle, i.e; θ <90°, then liquid will wet the surface.
If angle of contact is obtuse angle, ie; θ > 90°, then liquid will not wet the surface.
Angle of contact increases with increase in temperature of Angle of contact decreases on
adding soluble impurity to a liquid.
Angle of contact for pure water and glass is zero. For ordinary water Angle of contact for
pure water and glass is zero. For ordinary water and glass is 8°. For mercury and glass is
140°. For pure water silver is 90°. For alcohol and clean glass θ = 0°.
The phenomenon of rise or depression of liquids in capillary tubes is known as capillary
action or capillarity. The rise of liquid surface is caleed capillary rise and fall of liquid
surface is called capillary depression. It is expressed in mm or cm of liquid
Expression for capillary rise
A glass tube as shown in fig
H= height of liquid in the tube
𝜎 = surface tension of liquid
𝜃 = angle of contact between glass tube and water
Weight of Liquid = mg …………………𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦(𝜌) = 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑚 = 𝜌 × 𝑉

= 𝜌 × 𝑉 × 𝑔 … … … … … … . 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 𝐴 × ℎ
== 𝜌 𝑔 𝐴 ℎ
= 𝜌𝑔ℎ

Surface tensile force= 𝜎 × 𝜋𝑑 × 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃

For equilibrium
𝜎 × 𝜋𝑑 × 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝜌𝑔ℎ


𝜃 for water and clean glass is 0 so cos(o)=approximate 0

Then rise of water is ℎ=

If θ < 90°, h is positive, i.e., liquid rises in a capillary tube.

If θ > 90°, h is negative, i.e., liquid falls in a capillary tube.
Rise of liquid in a capillary tube does not violate law of conservation of energy.

Viscosity : is the property of fluid which offer the resistance to the movement of one layer of
fluid to the adjacent lower layer of the fluid