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Health And Safety Management

With reference to

Worker Level Employees in Shipping Industry.

Advanced Certificate Course in Human Resource Management

National Institute of Business Management

I would like to express my deep gratitude to lecturer for her guidance and constructive
advises to make my project a successful one.

Special thanks should be given to for his professional guidance and valuable support on
this project. His willingness to give his time so generously has been very much
appreciated. I would also like to thank Assistance managers Nagahawatta, , and
Training assistance managers(Human Resource)Mr. and for their help in collecting
necessary information.

My grateful thanks are also extended to all the staff members in the organization for
enabling me to visit their offices and expressing their true ideas about implementation
of Health and Safety management inside the company.

Finally I would also like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to my mother and father for
encouraging and assisting me to complete the project.


This survey has been done regarding the Health and Safety Management of worker level
employees in shipping industry and it examines planned approaches to health and
safety management in the company Colombo branch.

Safety actions that have been implemented within the company and inside vessels and
cargos that belong to the company, have been surveyed. The current implementations
on Health issues of employees who work inside the company and outside in ships and
cargoes, have been examined during the research.

The manner in which Health and Safety policy is operated in the company is closely
observed, prime concern is to find out whether the elements of a strong Health and
Safety management policy is truly practiced in the company. Ensuring employee’s safety
should be the prime concern in any organization. There for efficient and rigorous health
and safety policy is a must in any company. Especially when it comes to shipping
industry, there must be a strong Health and Safety management as dangers and risks
are possible at anytime. Thus this is an attempt to identify, observe and analyze the
process of Health and Safety implementation in the shipping industry.

List of Content Page no

Acknowledgement 02

Abstract 03

List of Content 04 - 05

Chapter 1

Introduction to theoretical background

1.1 Introduction to Health and Safety Management 06

1.2 Historical Background 06 - 08

1.3 Importance of Health and Safety Management 08

1.4 Elements of Health and Safety Management system 08 - 09

Chapter 2

Introduction to the selected Organization

2.1 Introduction 10 - 11

2.2 Organizational Profile 11 - 12

2.3 Establishment and Expansion 12 - 13

2.4 Vision 13

2.5 Mission 13

2.6 Structure 14

2.7 Economic and Social importance 15 - 16

2.7.1 Economic importance . 15 - 16

2.7.2 Social importance. 16

2.8 Present Functions of the Organization Concerning the 16 - 19
problem area
2.8.1 GAC Health and Safety Management policy. 16

2.8.2 International standard. 16 - 17

2.8.3 Training workers to ensure Health and safety. 17

2.8.4 Drug and Alcohol procedure. 17

2.8.5 Fire action procedure 17

2.8.6 Hazardous substances procedure 17 - 18

2.8.7 Permit to work procedure 18

2.8.8 Personal hygiene and cleanliness procedure. 18

2.8.9 Medical facilities 18

2.8.10 Health and Safety reporting Procedure 18

2.8.11 Implementation of Health and Safety policy. 18 - 19

Chapter 3

3.1 Suggestions 20

3.2 Conclusion 20

References 21



1.1 Introduction to Health and Safety Management

A health and safety management system can be identified as a combination of the

management organizational arrangements, including planning and review, the
consultative arrangements, and the specific program elements that combine to improve
health and safety performance. Specific program elements include hazard identification,
risk assessment and control, contractor health and safety, information and
recordkeeping, and training.

Health and safety at work is an issue affecting all businesses. Implementing an

occupational health and safety system is now a legal requirement in many countries.
Many organizations are implementing an Occupational Health and Safety management
system as part of their risk management strategy to address changing legislation and
protect their workforce.

It promotes a safe and healthy working environment by providing a framework that

allows the organization to consistently identify and control its health and safety risks,
reduce the potential for accidents, aid legislative compliance and improve overall

Occupational Health and Safety management 18001 is the internationally recognized

assessment specification for occupational health and safety management systems. It
was developed by a selection of leading trade bodies, international standards and
certification bodies to address a gap where no third-party certifiable international
standard exists.

It has been designed to be compatible with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001, to help the
organization meet their health and safety obligations in an efficient manner

1.2 Historical Background

Health and safety management systems emerged as a key prevention strategy in the
mid-1980s. The Bhopal disaster is credited as the catalyst for attention to management
systems in the process industries (Sweeney, 1992:89), although the concept of a
systems approach had been evident since the 1960s (Lees, 1980:71). An estimated 2500
people were killed and ten times as many injured by leaking methyl isocyaninem at
Bhopal in December 1984. Issues identified as contributing to the disaster were
inadequate attention to design of plant and process, maintenance and testing of plant
and protective equipment, training and emergency planning, as well as the failure to
implement safety audit recommendations and a lack of attention to the broader
planning issues associated with the location of hazardous plants in residential areas
(Kletz, 1985:198). Following the Bhopal disaster, many enterprises in the high risk
process industries extended the focus of health and safety activity beyond the
traditional emphasis on process technology and technical safeguards towards
management practices, procedures and methods, while attention was directed at
industry level to models for system development and performance measurement
(Sweeney, 1992).

The mid-1980s also saw the appearance of health and safety management systems
beyond the process industries. In Australia, manuals on health and safety management
systems were published by consultancy companies, employer organizations and
governments (Chisholm 1987, Confederation of Australian Industry, 1988, Department
of Labour (Vic), 1988, WorkCover (SA), 1989). However, while the 'systems' terminology
in these manuals was new, the system elements were consistent with the health and
safety programs of previous years. Just how similar or different the new approach to
health and safety was in relation to its antecedents might be tested by tracing the
development of health and safety management systems and exploring the influences
which have shaped them.

The United States literature places the formative period for health and safety
management programs as the 1950s and the 1960s. At this time the concept of health
and safety was presented as being as much a part of the discipline of management as of
engineering (Smith and Larson, 1991:903, Prior, 1981:62). Indeed, Petersen (1988:4)
refers to the 1950s and 1960s as the 'safety management era', characterized by the
incorporation of concepts and techniques from a number of other disciplines.
Management and personnel techniques included policy setting, definition of
responsibilities, and employee selection and placement. Statistical techniques used in
the quality control field were introduced. Ergonomics, or human factors engineering,
was incorporated also into the role of the health and safety professional, alongside new
responsibilities relating to fleet safety, property damage control and off-the-job safety.
Occupational hygiene duties had already filtered into the role of the health and safety
professional following changes in workers compensation law defining compensable
industrial diseases (Petersen, 1988:4).

The developments in health and safety management outlined above are only part of the
story. The changes described may have broadened the role of the health and safety
professional, but at a deeper level there appears to have been little change in the basic

elements of a health and safety program. The genesis of health and safety programs in
the workplace is placed earlier in the century as a response to the need for health and
safety organisation following the introduction of workers compensation legislation
(Grimaldi and Simonds, 1989:16). The three organising principles of the early health and
safety programs, engineering, education and enforcement of rules (Colling, 1990:5)
provided the framework for a seminal work on safety management by H. W. Heinrich
(1959) first published in 1931.

1.3 Importance of Health and Safety Management

Occupational safety and health systems are designed to identify and minimise risks at
the workplace. The effectiveness of such systems also affects business performance,
either in a negative way if these systems are cumbersome or bureaucratic, or positively
if they are well designed and function effectively. To have a positive impact, OSH
systems need to function smoothly, in tune with rather than in contradiction to the
overall management of the company and the delivery of production targets and
deadlines.In the light of this, it pays to remember that it is the legal (and moral) duty of
employers to ensure the protection of workers’ health and safety, as well as consulting
workers and/or their representatives and allowing them to take part in discussions
relating to safety and health at work. Management leadership on safety and health can
support this.

1.4 Elements of a Health and Safety Management System

A health and safety management system will be planned, and have a general policy
statement focused upon relevant objectives, roles and responsibilities.

The visible involvement and commitment of senior management is regarded as a critical

element of all system proposals, accompanied by a key role to clearly assign
responsibilities and monitor performance at the various management levels. Each of the
guidance documents and texts places some emphasis on employee consultative
arrangements, through the work of health and safety representatives or joint health and
safety committees, or through more direct employee involvement mechanisms.
Common specific program elements include the identification and monitoring of hazards
through workplace inspections; the reporting and investigation of incidents; and the
collection and analysis of data to assist the prevention effort. Health and safety policies
and procedures will be formulated and a health and safety training program will be
targetted to managers, supervisors and other employees. Consideration of health and
safety will be planned into design and purchasing arrangements. Further, first aid

arrangements will be organised, as will the provision of medical facilities and health
monitoring appropriate to the health risks at the workplace. Finally, health and safety
management system monitoring and evaluation mechanisms will be in place.



2.1 Introduction

Shipping or carriage of goods by sea has played a significant role in the development of
the human society over the centuries. Presently there are two major types of shipping
services: shipload services, which move goods in bulk for one or more shippers; and
liner services, which carry relatively small shipments of general cargo on a regular
schedule for many shippers. The shipping trade in srilanka has begun to expand,
bringing benefits for consumers across the world through competitive freight costs.
Without shipping, the import and export of goods on the scale necessary for the modern
world would not be possible.
Sri Lanka is fortunate to have the Asian Shipper’s Council headquarters in Sri Lanka. The
headquarters of Asian Shipper’s Council Training Academy will be set up in Sri Lanka
soon. It will cater to the Asian region in developing capacities of personnel in the
shipping industry.
GAC shipping Ltd,is a leading organization established in 1991,which has a long
standing joint venture with McLarens.GAC srilanka own and operate a fleet of 12 supply
boats which provide services to vessels passing by the southern tip of srilanka.GAC were
the pioneers in operating this unique service that offers vessels,crew changes and
spares delivery without the deviation of a port call. The organization offers a full range
of professional shipping, marine and logistics services. With offices in Colombo, Galle,
Hambantota and Trincomalee, GAC srilanka covers all ports in the country and can
handle any type of vessel and cargoes.
Their extensive portfolio of services include loading and discharge of wet and dry bulk,
general cargo and containers, dry dockings, supply of bunker fuel, crew changes, spare
parts and more.
GAC Sri Lanka’s ship supply service enables vessels that ply the busy sea lanes to take
provisions, spares and new crew without diverting from their route. GAC fleet of twelve
modern high speed crafts ensure fast and safe delivery around the clock. It also provides
full service for embarkation and disembarkation of marine security personnel with their
equipment. The GAC fleet is able to provide rapid response to emergencies on board
Transferring bulk liquids and LPG from ship-to-ship is a highly technical operation that
requires not only specialised skills and equipment but also prompt mobility and in-depth
experience dealing with contingency situations. GAC Sri Lanka has exactly what it takes
to deliver ship-to-ship services safely and seamlessly for a wide variety of liquid cargo
such as crude oil, petroleum products and liquefied gas using 100% own equipment.

The company’s support to Oil and Gas Industry, both on-and off-shore, include a full
range of agency and logistic services offered as an integrated and complete package. It
contains initial advice and documentation to facilitate the import and re-export of
specialised marine equipment (rigs, platforms, support vessels) as well as handling and
storage of consignments like drilling tools, machinery, spares and more. As a licensed
customs house agent (CHA) all import and export clearances can be provided in-house.
Gac srilanka’s range of logistics services includes everything from supply chain
management, customs clearance, sea and air freight, warehousing and distribution to
project and event logistics.
The company also provide international moving services. With a network of over 300
GAC offices worldwide, by combining local expertise with the worldwide infrastructure
and resources of the GAC Group including strong relationships with the world’s premier
carriers which enables customers to benefit from favorable rates and gain priority
access to capacity even during peak times.

2.2 Organizational profile

Gac Srilanka is a joint venture between McLarens Srilanka and gulf agency company of
Srilanka.The initial entity of Srilanka was registered on the 19th of February in 1991.GAC
shipping Ltd srilanka was established in January 1993 initially concentrating on vessels
calling at Colombo focused on following co-business areas with the vision to be the
leading shipping and logistics provider in srilanka.GAC began actively from the 1 st of
March 1994 with just twenty three employees.Today however,total number of
employees of GAC Srilanka stands at three hundred and thirty members.In March 1994
GAC marine services private Ltd was established and began srilanka’s first ever ship
supply services.
Initially this unique service was carried out by two fully air conditioned crew supply
vessels GAC ship 1 and GAC ship 2 for crew changes, and delivering of supplies to the
passing vessels.These services cut out the need for the vessel to make expensive and
time consuming diversions from their course. Today GAC Srilanka’s supply boats of fleet
of ten deployed in port of Colombo and Galle,facilitate the armed sea martial export
service for more than two hundred and fifty vessels per month. In 1997 GAC regional
marketing meeting was held in Colombo. In the same year GAC Srilanka opened its new
office in Vauxhall street Colombo, other development included setting up of GAC travels
and tour, the GAC Srilanka’s own travel agency in September 1998,with the
establishment of third base Trincomallee in June 1997.GAC Srilanka secured the full
coverage and all major Srilankan commercial ports.
GAC cargo systems established in March 1999 was later renamed as GAC logistics Ltd.
This is the forwarding arm of the group providing a range of trade related services to

shippers in Srilanka. From January 2001,GAC managed the out sourced shipping
department of Unilever tea division and third party logistics from 3PL solutions July
2001. GAC became the first company in Srilanka to successfully secure the shell
international tender for the managements and maintenance of off-shore instillation of
Cmb ,of shell terminal lanka from August 2000 to July 2010. In December 2004 GAC
shipping faced its biggest challenge when the Tsunami struck and damaged its ships and
hampered operations. GAC however was one of another few companies to recover
immediately and receive operations. In 2008 GAC acquired 50% shares of McLerens
shipping. GAC secured the first ever representation car career handling agency and was
appointed by Hoegh Autoliners . The latest achievement of GAC has been securing the
tender of Keane India in October 2010 as their principle logistic provider for the GAC
and oil exploration project in the North west of Srilanka.
GAC srilanka follows closely the philosophy of GAC group on its commitment to quality,
reliability and complete services that has enable GAC Srilanka to become one of the
countries principle shipping agencies. It is when ordinary people rise above the
expectations and sees the opportunity that milestones are truly reached. Thus GAC
shipping Ltd will sail forward as a team overcoming all obstacles.

2.3 Establishment and Expansion

GAC shipping Ltd, is expanding to meet rising shipping demand. Established since
1956,GAC is a global leading provider of integrated shipping, logistics, marine and
related services worldwide GAC’s 9,000 people are found in nearly 300 offices
worldwide with regional offices in Houston, Cairo, Dubai and Singapore and Cooperate
Headquarters in Dubai.
As the demand for ship supply services off Sri Lanka grows, so too has GAC Sri Lanka.

The company has moved into new, bigger premises at Galle and Trincomalee and
opened a new branch in Hambantota to accommodate increased maritime activities and
better meet its customers’ needs.The strategic location of Galle Port at the southern tip
of the country offers an excellent base for offshore ship supply services. Demand for
such services is set to grow as the government opens up more areas for oil and gas
exploration. The call for more LPG imports and exports of clean products in the Indian
Subcontinent has also resulted in a rise in the demand for ship-to-ship transfer services.

Furthermore, there has been an increase in the movement of security personnel at Galle
due to growing concerns about sea crime in the Indian Ocean. It is to better cater to the
increased demand that the company moved to a new, bigger base in Galle.
The new office, located near the new highway connecting Galle and Colombo,

has helped to reduce the transfer time between the port and Colombo airport by more
than three hours. Its close proximity to the local authorities also helps reduce clearance
times.Its operations are supported by GAC’s own fleet of vehicles, including
environmentally-friendly hybrid cars, as well as a fleet of steel hulled, fully air-
conditioned launches, which operates round-the-clock to manage crew changes, deliver
spares, provisions and mail, and to respond to emergency situations.

The country’s newest port, Hambantota, is home to GAC Sri Lanka’s latest office.
Hambantota encompasses shipbuilding, ship repair, warehousing and bunkering
facilities. Its location on the south-east of the island makes it an ideal option for ships
plying the busy international shipping lanes to and from the Far East. The company now
operates from all Sri Lankan ports.

Established in 1991, GAC Sri Lanka offers a full range of ship agency and related services,
and handles all types of port calls, vessels and cargoes. It covers all ports, terminals,
anchorages, holding areas and repair yards throughout the country.

2.4 Vision

“To provide leadership and innovation in global business and community life by
delivering a flexible portfolio of services built on quality, safety, honesty, vigour and a
commitment to long term business relationships”.

2.5 Mission
“GAC is a worldwide service provider dedicated to building long-term relationships with
customers, staff and suppliers. We are committed to delivering integrated services to
the Shipping, Logistics, Marine and related markets at the highest levels of quality and

2.6 Organizational Structure (Colombo Branch)


Chief Executive Officer


Port Technical General Finance Human Resource

manager manager manager manager

Assistant Human Resource

Skipper manager


Chief Engineer General purpose


Engine Rating

2.7 Economic and Social Importance.

2.7.1 Economic importance

Shipping industry is one of fast growing industries in Srilanka. There are plenty of
economic advantages that our country receives through shipping industry.

GAC shipping Ltd is a giant organization which has planted its branches throughout the
world. In Srilanka,this is a major shipping company that aid for economical development
of the country. The company provides horde of opportunities for investments. First and
foremost it has served to stimulate import and export trade by way of providing surface
transport through which goods are moved by sea on a massive scale.

GAC Sri Lanka offers a full range of ship agency and related services, and handles all
types of port calls, vessels and cargoes. It covers all ports, terminals, anchorages,
holding areas and repair yards throughout the country.GAC is a global leading provider
of integrated shipping, logistics, marine and related services worldwide. Thus all these
services done by the company helps to generate both local and foreign investment to
the srilankan economy. At the same time GAC shipping Ltd is engaging in a massive
service through which srilanka can strengthen commercial relationships between other
countries, GAC has joint ventures with world renown marine companies, thus it is an
indirect mean of bringing foreign exchange to our country.

The company has implemented the world’s best marine technologies in their
operations and day today activities. They have used new technologies and equipments
to fulfill their mission. Ex: Cargoes and vessels of the company are handled using new
technical methods,there is a strong communication medias inside these cargoes ,so that
they can connect with authorities at any time even when vessels are amidst of the
rough sea. Thus the company has introduced world’s best marine techniques,
equipments and new technologies to srilankan marine industry. GAC srilanka has
acquired a fast growth due to the above mentioned strategies they use in the shipping
industry,GAC is giving a very good competition to the other shipping companies in the
country. Thus indirectly it helps for the development of marine industry in our country
as well as it gives a good feedback for economical development.

Sectors depending on the shipping industry include ports, finance and insurance,
brokerage and ship-management services, ship building and repairs, equipment,stores

and provisions, bunker fuel, real estate and telecommunications. Clearly, the more the
company is involved in servicing the country’s external trade the greater these impacts
will be. Also, the higher the percentage of overheads in total shipping costs (e.g. liner
shipping) the higher the impact on the economy.

2.7.2 Social Importance

GAC shipping Ltd, has provided employment opportunities to vast number of people in
our country. Today however, total number of employees of GAC srilanka stands at three
hundred and thirty members. Hence the company has directly contributed to solve
unemployment, which is an uprising problem in our country. At the same time it helps
for the economical development as well.

In every year the company organizes a charity program for both Vesak and Christmas
festivals, they offer donations for people who are in need of charity. In last year, staff
members in the company got together and organized a blood donation campaign, this
program achieved a great success as the GAC staff could make it worthy.

2.8 Present Functions of the Organization Concerning the Problem Area.

2.8.1 GAC Health and Safety Management policy.

GAC has a Group Health and Safety Policy that commits the company to establish a local
Health And Safety Management System that is relevant to their operations and reflects
local laws and local conditions.

The relevant Management Systems cover marine operations and onshore activities as
required. Potential hazards and related adverse impacts to operations, personnel or
damage to the environment are identified through risk assessments carried and the
Health and Safety management procedures that are implemented through the
Management System to control and manage these risks are designed, at a minimum, to
ensure compliance with all relevant and applicable legislative requirement.

2.8.2 International Standard.

The Management Systems also support the applicable international maritime codes and
standards for GAC vessels which cover International Maritime Organization (IMO)
protocols consisting of a Safety Management System as per the International Safety

Management (ISM) Code and the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS)
Code. IMO Code certification for each vessel is provided annually by one of IMO’s
approved auditors.

2.8.3 Training workers to ensure Health and safety.

All workers are trained in Health and Safety requirements as part of the GAC induction
program. Specific workers are responsible for the development, administration and
maintenance of GAC Health and safety management procedures including risk
assessment, safe working practices, vessel standards and codes. Implementation and
performance is monitored through regular internal inspections and audits with
corrective and preventative actions developed and tracked to address non-conformities

2.8.4 Drug And Alcohol procedure.

This is applicable to all worker level employees, including workers on board GAC vessel.
Management must ensure that no one performing any duty on behalf of GAC is
influenced by any substance that can have a negative affect on their performance. If
illegal substances are kept by an employee and detected such must be reported to local
authorities for investigation and the employee must be removed from duty. Also any
employee with a substance abuse must be encourage to seek rehabilitation. This is
procedure aims to protect employee health.

2.8.5 Fire action procedure.

Management must ensure that specific tailored emergency plans are developed and
employees are trained in the fire emergency procedures described in their approved fire
safety and evacuation plans. Employees receive a training in the contents of fire safety
and evacuation plans,their duties as part of new employee orientation and at least
annually thereafter. Records are kept and made available.

2.8.6 Hazardous substances procedure.

Hazardous substances include but is not limited to paints,oil products,cleaning

chemicals,metals,pestisides and biological agents that vary in forms. Hazardous
substances is assessed and suitable control measures put into place to ensure the
correct handling of a hazardous substances as well as to ensure waste minimization
practices through purchasing limited quantities and optimizing usage. All hazardous

substances are handled as per guidance from accompanying Material Data Sheet

2.8.7 Permit to work procedure

Management is responsible for implementing a permit to work system to be used for

jobs which may adversely affect the safety of personnel, the environment or any type of
assets. There is dedicated manager for each permit to work who also sign the
document together with the supervisor for each job. All personnel involved in permit to
work needs to be properly trained on how a job is to be performed and on the risks
involved. For each permit to work there is a risk assessment performed. Management
must identify and list the type of jobs that require a permit to work and set a time frame
how long a permit is valid. A valid permit to work must be posted in the area where a
hazardous job is being performed.

2.8.8 Personal hygiene and cleanliness procedure.

It is noticeable that good housekeeping is maintained at the offices, and on board

vessels in order to ensure employee health. Also toilet and wash rooms are very clean
and soap and hand-driers are provided. Foods and drinks are consumed in dedicated
areas, there is a separate labor team to clean up afterwards.

2.8.9 Medical facilities.

There are number of medical facilities provided by the company to ensure employees
health. Health education is given to employees by the company and medical bills are
payed by the company if an employee is injured or sick.

2.8.10 Health and Safety reporting Procedure.

GAC has a strong reporting culture within their organization.Health and safety
representative needs to have an understanding of root cause analysis in order to best
perform an investigation. Routines are set up on how to continuously keep the company
Health and Safety updated on incidents or accidents, as well as on actions taken to avoid
the same from reoccurring.

2.8.11 Implementation of Health and Safety policy.

Occupational health and safety hazards are closely managed and supporting procedures
are strictly enforced. There are safety committees within the company and on-board

GAC vessels. Health and safety risk assessments are conducted prior to each activity and
procedures, including emergency response procedures, are agreed and amended where
necessary for each identified potential accident or emergency situation. A crisis
management plan has also been developed. All vessels in the company are adhere to
the International Maritime Organization(IMO) and SOLAS (Safety of Life at Seas)

The company’s health and safety policy can be appreciated as foremost concern has
placed upon Health and Safety Management. All other concerns related to Health and
Safety management are implemented well in the company. Their efforts in maintaining
a hazard free life can be appreciated.

But when observing employees work life quality, it is noticeable that they are not fully
satisfied with the job due to same routine work life. According to the interviews that
have been conducted, many employees said that there are hardly any changes in their
jobs. Thus it proves the fact that although the company maintain a regular health and
safety policy with all the components and a high standard, it is a must to pay attention
for these issues that affect employee’s mental condition.

Another problem with related employee health is that many employees are fully
stressed with their works that have been overloaded. Most probably this happen due to
lack of time.


3.1 Suggestions.

 In order to relieve employees from their same routine life,the management can
redesign their jobs.
 Management can organize a program to select the best employee at the end of
the year, so that employees do not feel bored with their jobs.
 A field trip can be organized when there are more complaints about boring work
 More authority and power can be given to employees, hence they will improve
their quality of work life.
 Management can encourage team work when individual find it difficult to finish
their works.
 A proper training can be given to employees who find it difficult to finish off their
 A work shop can be organized in order to teach employees about time
 Fire Safety system of the company will be more effective if safer systems of
work, are implemented like provision of security screens and alarms.

3.2 Conclusion.

This report brings to light the standard and effectiveness of Health and Safety
policy in GAC shipping Ltd. According to the surveys and interviews that have
been conducted, it is obvious that the company practices a high standard Health
and Safety Management policy with regard to the worker level employees.

But there are some issues that have been mentioned in the report such as
problems that affect employee’s mentality. Researcher hope that this project
may benefit to overcome the above mentioned problematic issues trough the
suggestions that have been provided, as a whole this is an evolutionary survey
done by the researcher in order to find out the quality, standard and true
practices of Health and safety policy in GAC shipping Ltd.


Colling, D. (1990) Industrial Safety Management and Technology, Prentice Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Grimaldi, J., Simonds, R. (1989) Safety Management, Irwin, Homewood (5th ed.)

Heinrich, H.W., Petersen, D. and Roos, N. (1980) Industrial Accident Prevention: A Safety
Management Approach, McGraw Hill, New York.

Kletz, T. (1985) What Went Wrong? Case Histories of Process Plant Disasters, Gulf
Publishing Company, Houston.

Lees, F. (1980) Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Butterworths, London.

Petterson, R., and Roberts, F. (1990) "Management Committment Vital for Health and
Safety Committee Success" in Safeguard, November, New Zealand, pp 13-14.

Prior, P. (1985) "Enforcement: An Inspectorate’s View" in Creighton, B & Gunningham, N

(eds.), The Industrial Relations of Occupational Health and Safety, Croom Helm,
Australia, pp 54-60.

Sweeney, J. (1992) "Measuring Process Safety Management" in Plant/Operations

Progress, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 89-98.

GAC shipping Ltd Hand book.