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# Tutorial Solar Energy

## 1. LCT = 10, F = 29.68N or +29.68

local longitude = 82.27W, longitude of standard time zone meridian= 75W
N = 31 +22 = 53, D = 0

d = – 10.866

## LC = (local longitude – longitude of standard time zone meridian)/15

LC = [(82.27) – 75]/15
= 0.4847 hour

## x = 360(N – 1)/365.242 (degrees)

x = 360(53 – 1)/365.242 = 51.2537

EOT = 0.258 cos x – 7.416 sin x – 3.648 cos 2 x – 9.228 sin 2 x (minutes)
EOT = 0.258 cos (51.2537) – 7.416 sin (51.2537) – 3.648 cos 2(51.2537)
– 9.228 sin 2(51.2537) (minutes)
EOT = – 13.8414 (minutes)

LCT = ts – EOT/60 + LC + D
ts = LCT + EOT/60 – LC – D
ts = 10 – 13.8414/60 – 0.4847 – 0 = 9.2846
w = 15 (ts – 12) = 15 (9.2846 – 12) = – 40.731

## a = sin–1(sin d sin F + cos d cos w cos F)

a = sin–1{sin (–10.866) sin (29.68) + cos (–10.866) cos (– 40.731) cos
(29.68)}
a = 33.588

## cos A = (sin d cos F – cos d cos w sin F)/cos a

cos A = {sin (–10.866) cos (29.68) – cos (–10.866) cos (– 40.731) sin
(29.68) }/cos (33.588)
cos A = –0.639 < 0
A = 129.72 sin w <0, A =129.72

## 2. A Pyranometer has sensitivity of 8.22μV／W.m-2. What is the solar irradiance

for a measurement of 5.3 mV? (644.8 W/m2)

## Solar irradiance = 5.3 x 10-3 / 8.22 x 10-6 W/m2

= 644.8 W/m2

sin(a   )
I direct _ tilted  I direct _ H
sin a
3.
sin (67  32)
 850   912 W/m 2
sin67
4. I = 650 W/m2, A = 10 m2, V = 50 volt, I = 15 A
Pout = VI = 750 W
Plight = 650 W/m2×10 m2 = 6500 W
 = 750/6500 = 0.11538 or 11.538%

5.
(i) Design the electrical configuration of the solar panels and batteries
by specifying the number of solar panels and batteries required.

Solution:
Solar insolation = 5kWh/day
Average panel output = 125W at rated
Num. of panels = 3 x 10,000Wh/day  (5 hour/day × 125 W/panel x 0.60 x
0.9)  = 89 panels
Since the system voltage is 24V, but each panel produces only 17Vmp and
even num of panels will be needed. Therefore num of panels = 90.

Assuming battery discharging efficiency 90% and battery maximum depth
of discharge 50% and maximum 3 operation days

Storage = 10,000×3/(0.9) = 33,333 Wh
Num of batteries= (33,333Wh)/(400Ah×2V) = 42 (Rounded off to the next
whole number)
Since the system voltage is 24V and each battery provides 2V the number
of batteries is exactly to 48 (12 series, 4 parallel)  `

## To load with state of

discharge controller

90 panels in
45 parallel, Solar
2 series Charger 4 parallel group of
12-series batteries