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PRECALCULUS REVIEW

1. INTERVAL. Represent the following sets using interval notation.


(a) {x | x > 2 but x < 12}
(b) {x | x ≤ −4 or x > 4}
(c) {x | −5 ≤ x < 9}
(d) {x | x ≤ 0} ∪ {x | x ≤ 7}
(e) {x | x > −4} ∩ {x | x ≤ 0}
(f) {x | x < k} , where k ∈ Z.

2. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION. Simplify the following expressions.


x3 − x2 − x + 10
(a)
x2 + 3x + 2
x3 + 8
(b) 4
x − 16
9 − x2
(c) √
x−3
x − 16
(d) √
x−4
 
2 −1/3
(e) x 2/3 2

(2x) + x − 8 x
3
2 −2/3 1/3
(f) [x + 5] (x − 4) + 2 (x + 5) (x − 4)

3. EQUATION. Solve the following equations.


(a) 25y 2 − 30y − 7 = 0
(b) x2 + 40x = 150

(c) 2x + 5 = 5 − x
3x x+4
(d) =
x+2 x
6 6
(e) + =4
x+2 x−2
1 4 4x + 4
(f) − =
2x + 5 2x − 1 (2x + 5)(2x − 1)
4. INEQUALITY. Solve the following inequalities.
(a) 2x2 + x ≥ 15
(b) 2 3
x−1 ≥ x+2
(c) 16x < 24x − 9
2

(d) |−3x + 2| > 8


(e) x+2
x−4 >3
(f) 2 − 3 |x + 1| ≥ −5
(1−x)(x+3)
(g) (x+1)(2−x) ≤0
2
(h) (x − 2) > 1

5. TWO DIMENSIONAL COORDINATE SYSTEM.


(a) Find the distance between points A(−3, 2) and B(7, 1). What are the slope and the midpoint of the line segment
AB ?
(b) What is the equation of the line passing through point (−4, 1) and has a slope of −3?
(c) What is the equation of the line passing through points (−3, 2) and (2, −4)? Sketch the line.
(d) What is the equation of the line with slope of 2 and y-intercept 43 ?

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(e) Find the slope, the x-intercept and the y-intercept of the line 3x + 2y − 12 = 0.
(f) Are the lines x + 2y = 3 and y = 4−x
2 parallel or perpendicular?
(g) Find the point of intersection of the lines 4x + 3y = 6 and 3x + 5y = −1.
(h) Lines X and Y , which are perpendicular to each other, intersect at (1,  2). If Line X is 2x − y = 4, what is the
equation of Y ?
(i) What are the radius and the coordinates of the center of the circle x2 + (y − 3)2 = 4? Sketch the circle.

(j) If the circle has diameter 5 and is centered at point (2, −3), what is its equation?
(k) The equation of a circle is x2 + 2x + y 2 − 6y = 6. Find the center and length of the radius of the circle.
(l) Find the equation of the circle with center at (1, −2) and is tangent to the line x = −4. Sketch the circle.
(m) Find the points of intersection of the parabola y = 6 − x2 and the line y = 3 − 2x.
(n) Let C be the circle centered at (2, −5) and tangent to the xaxis. Find the equations of C and the line that is
tangent to C at (5, −1).

FUNCTIONS
1. Denition: A set S of ordered pairs of real numbers is called a relation . The set of all rst components of the ordered
pairs in S is called the domain of S while the set of all the second components is called the range of S .
2. Denition: A function f can be equivalently dened as a mapping or association between two sets X and Y , denoted
by f : X → Y , where each element x ∈ X corresponds to one and only one element y ∈ Y . X is the domain of f while
Y is the co-domain of f . We may represent the function f simply as y = f (x), where x is viewed as the independent
variable while y as the dependent variable . We may also say that y is the image of x under f while x is the
pre-image of y . The set of all possible values of x is called the domain of the function f while the set of all possible
values of y is called the range of f . As a relation, no two distinct ordered pairs in f must have the same rst component.
3. Examples: Identify which of the following relations are functions.

(a) {(1, 0), (2, −1), (3, 6), (0, −2)} (j) {(x, y) | y = |x|}
(b) {(1, 0), (2, −1), (1, −1), (1, −2)} (k) {(x, y) | x = |y|}
√ √
(c) (1, 0), (2, 0), (− 3, 0), ( 2, 0) (l) (x, y) | x2 + y 2 = 1
 

(d) (−1, 1), (−1, −1), (−1, 0.5), (−1, 32 ) (m) (p, q) | (p − 2)2 + (q + 3)2 = 4
 

(e) {(x, y) | y = 2x, x ∈ Z} (n) (s, t) | t = 1s




(f) {(x, y) | y = x + 1} (o) (x, y) | y = x2




(g) {(x, y) | x = 1} (p) (x, y) | y = x − 3


(h) {(x, y) | y = 1} (q) {(x, y) | x ≤ y}


(i) (x, y) | y 2 = x (r) (u, v) | (u − 2)2 + (v − 1)2 > 9
 

4. Examples: Referring to the examples in (4), sketch the graph and determine the domain and range of (a), (d), (e), (h),
(l), (q), (r).
5. Remark: (Vertical Line Test ) Any vertical line intersects the graph of the function at most once. Any relation that
fails this test is not a function.
6. Denition:
The zeros of a function f are the values of x for which f (x) = 0.

7. Examples: If f (x) = 2x2 − x − 3 and g(x) = x + 2 and h(x) = 2−3x
x+4 , nd

(a) the zeros of f , g , and h.


√ 
(b) f (0), f (2a + h), f 3 , g(−2), g(14), g t4 − 2 , and h a+2
.
 
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8. Denition: An algebraic function is one formed by a nite number of algebraic operations on the identity function
and constant function. A function that is not algebraic is called transcendental function . Examples of transcendental
functions are exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.
9. Some Basic Types of Algebraic Functions
(a) Linear Function: f (x) = mx + b, where m and b are constants.
i. f (x) = 2x − 1 ii. y = −4 (a constant function) iii. f (x) = x (the identity function)

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(b) Quadratic Function: f (x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a, b, and c are constants, and a 6= 0.
i. g(x) = (x − 1)2 ii. y = x2 − x − 2 iii. f (x) = (3 − x)(1 + 2x)
(c) Polynomial Function: f (x) = an x +an−1 x
n n−1
+· · ·+a2 x2 +a1 x+a0 , where the coecients a0 , . . . , an are constants.
i. f (x) = x4 − 2x + 1 ii. y = x7 + 4x5 − x3 − 10x
(d) Rational Function is a function expressed as a ratio of two polynomial functions
x2 −9 x2
i. f (x) = 1
x−1 ii. g(x) = x+1
2−x iii. y = 1
x2 iv. y = x+3 v. r(x) = x2 −1
(e) Absolute Value Function is a function involving absolute value.
i. f (x) = |x| ii. y = |2x − 3| iii. h(x) = − |1 − x|
(f) Square Root Function is a function involving square root.
√ √ √ √ √
i. f (x) = x − 3 ii.y = − x − 3 iii. g(t) = 2 − t iv. r(t) = 4 − t2 v. p(t) = t2 − 4

10. Denitions: (Operations on Functions) If f and g are functions, then

(a) The sum of f and g , denoted as f + g , is a function dened by (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x).
(b) The dierence of f and g , denoted as f − g , is a function dened by (f − g)(x) = f (x) − g(x).
(c) The product of f and g , denoted as f g , is a function dened by (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x).
f (x)
(d) The quotient of f and g , denoted as f /g , is a function dened by (f /g)(x) = g(x) , provided g(x) 6= 0.
(e) The composition of f and g , denoted as f ◦ g , is a function dened by (f ◦ g)(x) = f (g(x)).

Note : For (a) - (d), the domain of the resulting function is the intersection of the domains of f and g , except that in
(d) the value of x for which g(x) = 0 is excluded. For (e), the domain contains all the x in the domain of g such that
g(x) is in the domain of f .

11. Examples: If f (x) = 2x − 3, g(x) = 2 − x, and h(x) = 4 − x2 , nd f + h, 3f − g 2 , f h, h/g , h ◦ g , h ◦ h, and g ◦ h.