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CHAPTER 7

ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

In Environmental safety is a discipline and specialty that studies and


implements practical aspects of environmental protection and safety at work.

7.1 Information on Ingredients

Chemical Identity : Sodium Hydroxide (liquid)

Trade Names : Caustic soda, lye

Synonyms : Hydrate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

CAS Number : 1310-73-2

Minimum Percentage : 48%

7.2 Hazards Identification

Hazard identification is part of the process used to evaluate if particular


situation, item, thing, etc., may have the potential to cause harm.

7.2.1 Hazard Statements

1. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.


2. May cause respiratory irritation.

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3. Harmful if swallowed.
4. Very toxic to aquatic life.
5. May be corrosive to metals.

7.2.2 Precautionary Statements

1. Prevention avoids breathing dust, fume, gas, mist, vapours, and spray.
2. Wash hand thoroughly after handling.
3. Wear protective gloves, protective clothing, eye protection, face
protection.
4. Avoid release to the environment.

7.2.3 Response

1. If inhaled, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position


comfortable for breathing.
2. If eye irritation persists, get medical advice.
3. If on skin (or hair), remove immediately all contaminated clothing, rinse
skin with water, immediately call a poison centre or doctor.

7.2.4 Storage

1. Store in corrosive resistant container with a resistant inner liner.


2. Store locked up.

7.2.5 Disposal

Dispose of container in accordance with applicable local, regional,


national, and or international regulations.

7.3 First Aid Measures

First aid measures are the medical attention that is typically administered
immediately after an injury or illness occurs.

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7.3.1 Inhalation

1. Remove to fresh air.


2. Give artificial respiration if not breathing.
3. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen.
4. No mouth to mouth or mouth to nose resuscitation.

7.3.2 Skin contact

1. Wash skin with soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes.
2. Thoroughly clean and dry contaminated clothing before reuse, destroy
contaminated shoes.

7.3.3 Eye contact

1. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.


2. Most important symptoms, both acute and delayed highly corrosive and
can cause severe pain.
3. Causes blisters and burns, corrosive to the eyes with a danger of retina
and chorea.

7.4 Fire Fighting Measures

Fire fighting measures is the set of practices intended to reduce the


destruction caused by fire. It include those that are intended to prevent ignition
of an uncontrolled fire, and those that are used to limit the development and
effects of afire after it starts.

7.4.1 Special Protective Actions for Fire-fighters

Do not breathe fumes. Respirator with independent air-supply and


airtight garment is required. Containers close to fire should be removed

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immediately or cooled with water. Do not allow contaminated extinguishing
water to enter the soil, groundwater or surface waters.

7.4.2 Accidental Release Measures

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures,


evacuate all unprotected personnel. Put on protective equipment. Avoid direct
contact with skin, eyes and clothing. Ensure adequate ventilation/exhaust
extraction.

7.4.3 Methods and Material for Containment and Cleaning Up

Contain and recover liquid when possible. Do not flush residues to the
sewer. Residues can be diluted with water or neutralized with dilute acid such as
acetic, hydrochloric or sulphuric. Absorb neutralized residue on clay,
vermiculite or other inert substance and package in a suitable container for
disposal according to applicable regulations.

7.5 Handling and Storage

Material handling is the protection, storage and control of materials and


products throughout manufacturing, warehousing, distribution, consumption
and disposal.

7.5.1 Precautions for Safe Handling

1. Use protective equipment


2. Provide adequate ventilation.
3. Avoid inhalation of vapours produced by the industries.
4. Change contaminated or soaked clothing immediately.
5. Wash hands after handling.
6. Use work methods which minimize aerosol production.
7. Keep away from foodstuffs, drinks and tobacco.

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7.5.2 Suitable and Non suitable Packaging Material

Stainless steel - nickel, polyethylene - polypropylene, glass -


stoneware/porcelain. Lead, aluminium, copper, zinc, bronze, tin. Minimum
storage temperature - 25°C for 50% solution, 20°C for 30% solutions. Mild
steel tanks must be stress relieved if storing material above 40°C for
concentrations of 30% or higher concentrations.

7.6 Personal Protective Equipment

Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.


Final choice of appropriate protection will vary according to methods of
handling, engineering controls and risk assessments undertaken.

7.6.1 Hand Protection

Nitrile, butyl rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or neoprene gloves with


long sleeves.

7.6.2 Eye Protection

Safety glasses with side shields, goggles or full-face shield.

7.6.3 Skin Protection

Appropriate protective clothing to protect against possible skin contact.


Causes severe burns and serious eye damage.

7.7 General Safety Rules

The purpose of this general safety instruction is to define the minimum


safety requirements which prevention and protection measures must satisfy in
order to ensure the protection of persons from risk to their health and safety
arising, or likely to arise, from the effects of hazardous chemical agents that are
present at the workplace.

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7.7.1 Location of Safety Manual

This safety manual has been prepared for use by the operating personnel
of the company. Each employee shall be given a copy of this manual. This
manual is consistently updated to cover areas relating to the safe operation of
wastewater treatment plants.

7.7.2 Safety Meetings

Safety meetings shall be held on a quarterly basis on the first day of each
quarter. The company shall provide a program suitable for the season and
discuss any current regulations or changes that may have occurred since the last
meeting. Personnel should offer input and dissipate information regarding the
safe operation of municipal sewage systems.

7.7.3 Housekeeping

1. Materials and supplies used at a plant site should be stored in a neat and
orderly manner at the site to prevent them from falling off of shelves onto
moving equipment.
2. Spare parts used in the operation of a wastewater treatment plant should
be kept in a neat and orderly manner with the item labelled to indicate on
what piece of equipment the spare part is used.

7.7.4 Fire Prevention and Control

1. Paper and other combustible materials shall not be allowed to accumulate


in blower buildings or other structures in order to prevent them from
getting into the machinery or causing a fire.
2. Flammable liquids such as gasoline and diesel fuel shall not be stored in
blower buildings, chlorine rooms, or other structures where they may
cause a fire or leak onto the floor causing hazardous working conditions.

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