AbstractThe charge coupling between the front and back gales of tive to silicononsapphire (SOS) in the fabrication of mono
thinfilmsilicononinsulator (SOI: e.g., recrystallizedSi on ;3iO2) lithiccircuitscomprisingadvantageousdielectricallyisolated
MOSFET’s is analyzed, and closedform expressions for the threshold
devices [ 3 ] . Thesilicononoxide (hereinafter termed SOI)
voltage under all possible steadystate conditions are derived. The ex
pressions clearly show the dependence of the linearregion channe! con technology furthermore has the flexibility to possibly enable
ductance on the backgate bias and on the device parameters, inchding the
fabricationof
radiationhardened
nonplanar
(“three
those of the back siliconinsulator interface. The analysis is supported dimensional”) integrated circuits [4] .
by currentvoltage measurements of laserrecrystallized SO1 MOSFET’s. Because SO1 films are thin,the electrical propertiesof
The results suggest how the backgate bias may be used to optimize the MOSFET’s fabricated in them are typically influenced by the
performance of the SO1 MOSFET in particular applications.
charge coupling betweenthefrontandback gates. Forex
ample,the(frontgate)threshold voltage VTf differs con
I. INTRODUCTION siderably from that of the bulk counterpart and depends on
the bias and properties of the back gate. Although much em
HE RECENTLY demonstrated [ 11 , [2]dramaticim
T provement in the quality of polycrystallinesilicon (poly
silicon) films yielded byzonemelting recrystallization has
phasis hasbeen placed onthe recrystallization technology,
little work has been done on the characterization of the elec
trical properties of SO1 MOSFET’s.
spurred new interestinsilicononinsulator (SOI) integrated Worley [ 5 ] derived an analytic modelfor VTf of the SOS
circuits and devices. This new technology provides an alterna transistor in which similar charge coupling occurs. However
his model,which is unnecessarily complex, pertains only to
Manuscript received November 1, 1982; revisedApril 8 , 1983. This
workwassupportedbythe NavalResearchLaboratoryunderCon the usual SOS case in which the back siliconsurface is de
tract N0001482K2067 monitored by G. E. Davis and the University pleted. Sano et al. [6] developed a rigorous numerical model
of Florida throughits
CenterofExcellence Program in Physical for VTf of the SO1 MOSFET that illustrated important para
Electronics.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Uni metric dependences. However because no analytic expressions
versity of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. were derived, their illustrationswere limitedand provided
little physical insight. Furthermore, their model is not useful !GI Polyrilicon or Metal
where Esf is the electric field at the frontsurface edge 'Jf the Because $sb is virtually independent of VGb for this condi
depletion region, t b is the film thickness, and NA is the Coping tion, so i s V T f .
density in the film, assumed for now to be uniform,
Applying Gauss' theorem to the front surface, we get B. Inverted BackSurface
When the backsurface is inverted, $sb 2 4 ~ .Thenthe
1 threshold voltage for this case is given by (6) as
$of =   Qff  Qcf) (4)
Cof
where Cof = eo/tof is the frontgate oxide capacitance, Qff is
the fixed charge density at the front SiSi02 interface, and
Qcf is the frontsurface carrier charge density, which i:? our AS is @ f , V i f is independent of V G b , again because $& is
VTf analysis representsinversioncharge. We have notex virtually invariant for this condition.
plicitly in (4) accounted forfastsurface statesatthefront
interface since they can be implicitly accounted for by modi C. Depleted BackSurface
fying Q f f in a stronginversion analysis. At the back surface When the back surface is depleted, $sb is strongly dependent
on V G b ; its value ranges fromabout zero to 245~between
1.
'
 $ob =  (€sEsf  qNA t b Q f b  qNsb $sb Qcb.1 ( 5 )
cob
the onsets of accumulationand inversion, respectively. The
values of V G b (v&and vi$,) corresponding to these onsets
when the front surface is inverted ($sf N 2 @ B ) are defined by
where C o b = e o / t o b , Q f b , and Qcb are the backgate counter
(7) with Qcb 0 (<<  Q b )
parts of Cof, Q f f , and Qcf respectively, and N s b is the fast
surfacestate density assumed to be uniformly distributed. over
the energy gap. We explicitly account for N s b in ( 5 ) besause
thesurfacestate charge will vary with V G b , In ( 5 ) we have
implicitly expressed the electric field at the backsurface edge
of the depletion region as (Esf  qNA t b / e , ) .
We relate VGf to $sf and $& by combining (l), (3), and (4) The dependence Of V T f On V G b for V G b < V G b < v k b iS
obtained by combining (6) and (7) to eliminate $ab and letting
$sf = 2 @ B , QCf N 0, and Qcb 2: 0. The result is
(6 1
where V i E = @Ls Qff/Cof is the frontgate (bulk MOSI'ET)
flatband voltage, c b = e s / t b is the depletion capacitance. and
Qb = qNA t b is the depletionregion areal charge der sity.
Similarly we relate V G b to $sf and $$b by combining (2): (3), I
and ( 5 ) Thus as VGb increases from v& to V G b (an increase of
2@j3 (1 t ( c b t c s b ) / c o b ) ) , VTf decreases linearly with V G b
from v+ to V& (a decrease of 2 @ B ( C b j c o f ) ) . The entire de
pendence of VTf on V G b for the SO1 MOSFET (nchannel)
with its film body completely depleted is plotted in Fig. 3.
47) The discontinuities in the slope of the plot are unreal because
where V& = @hs & , / C o b is the backgate (bulk MOSFET) the transitions from one surface charge condition to another
flatband voltage and c s b = qN&. Equations (6) and (7) arc the are not abrupt aswas implicitly assumed in the analysis. Ac
two key relations that describe the charge coupling between tually the surface potential corresponding to inversion and ac
the front and back gates when the film body is completely de
pleted. Combining them leads to the description of the (front
gate) threshold voltage VTf in terms of V G b and the device

cumulation differs from 2@B and zero, respectively, by a few
thermal voltages (nkT/q where n 5) depending on the degree
of inversion and accumulation. These differences,whichcan
parameters. We now detail the description of VTf forcach be evaluated by numerically solving Poisson's equation in the
possible steadystate charge condition at the back surface. film [7], however are typically small relative to the variation
in surface potential between inversion and accumulation, and
A. Accumulated BackSurface hence do not significantly affect the VTf( V G b ) characteristic.
When the backsurface is accumulated, $sb is virtually This is tantamount to the fact that the effective widths of the
pinned at zero. We define the threshold condition [9] of the inversion and accumulation layers (across which the nkT/q is
front surface by = 2@B where @B = (kT/q) ln(NA /ni) is the dropped) are typically much smaller than t b [7], which was
filmbody Fermi potential; then Qcf = 0 (<<  Q b ) , and ( 6 ) assumed in the derivation of (3).
LIM AND FOSSUM: THRESHOLD
VOLTAGE O F THINFILM SO1 MOSFET'S 1247
A . Case I: 2 2Xd(max)
i'
tb
In this case the film body can never be completely depleted
by any combination of V Gand ~ V G b , Consequently there is
no charge coupling between the front and back gates, and VTf
is given by the bulkMOSFET theory [9]
B, Case11: t b
I I i In this case the film body is necessarily completely depleted
I I
atthethresholdcondition of the front gate, irrespective of
"2b VbFB VIGb V G b . Thus V T and
~ its dependence on V G are ~ given directly
by the results of Sections 11A,11B, and 11C, whichare
Fig. 3. Theoretical dependence of V p on VGb for a completelyde
pleted SO1 MOSFET. For reference, the correspondingbulk MOSFET plotted in Fig. 3. Note that V T can~ exceed V T f o . This is the
threshold voltage V T given
~ ~in (14) is indicated. case when the electric field at the back .surface is sufficiently
positive (same direction as E,f), for example, when the back
The simplifying assumptionsunderlyingour analysis were surface is accumulated. Then since the integral of the electric
made to enable the derivation of closedform expressions for field over the depleted film at threshold is fixed at about 2rpB,
VTf that could be used in an SO1 MOSFET model amenable E,f will increase as tb decreases, and hence VTf can become
to computeraided circuit simulation. In addition to the as very high.
sumption discussed above, we also neglected in ( 2 ) the possible
potential drop in the silicon substrate [ 8 ] . If the substrate is
c. Case 111; Xd(mm) < t b < 2xd(max)
ptype and lowly doped (lo1' ~ m  and ~ ) if &/4 is high In this case thedepletionconditionofthe film body at
(5 X 10" cm'),whichare typically the case [l 11, then threshold depends on V G b . To describe thisdependence,
b < VGb < l'Gb, vis6vis, when VTf varies with v G b ,
A I we first define l'& as the value of V G b above which the film
for V G
the substrate surface is inverted [ 121 , and hence the potential is completelydepletedwhenthefront surface is inverted.
drop is fixed at about twice the Fermi potential of the sub Recognizing that the depletionregion widthextendingfrom
strate. This means that the l'Tf(VGb) characteristic in Fig. 3 theback surface at l'Gb = V& is [ t b  Xd(max)], we can
would simply shift to the left by this drop. For typical values write [9]
of tob ( 1 pm), this drop is much less than ( V k b  l'&,),but
for thinner tob it is not. If the substrate is nt pe, the surface
is typically accumulated for v&, J
< l'Gb < l'Gb, and the PO
tential drop is negligible.
I U =
1
I
I
I
I I
I
I
'sb
(1 +I 2&  'd
imaxl
'ob 'ob
VFe
Note that IBc could be expressed in the form of(20) with the
backgate parameters and voltage substituted for p n f , Cof, VTf,
and VGf. The backgate counterpart to VTf could further be the equivalentexpression (29) follows from (28) when we
characterized as was VTf using the analysis described in Sec note from (9) and (14) that
tions I1 and 111.
Because of IBc and its dependence on VGfimplied by our
analysis, V& cannot be determined from the direct extrapola
tion of (20) with sufficientaccuracy to measure the depen and hence that (VTbo  Vgb) can be expressed similarly. Thus
dence of VTf on V G b . Furthermoretheconductanceprop if pnf and &b are known, then measuring (AID4 AID^) im
erties ofthe MOSFET’s measured are influencedby grain plies, via (29), (VTfo V&), which reflects the influence of
boundaries in the laserrecrystallized (po1y)silicon film. Grain VGb on VTp
1250 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON
DEVICES, VOL. ED30, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1983
# /f 1
 (12), when VGb is fixed such that the film body is completely

L
,=4; depleted (e.g., VGb = 0 for the devices used in our measure
 .
I ,//
*ID3 ments), that
'11.0 P

AID441
2  Calculated
'4 2
       _  cb
;p_ +
9 = *ID 1  vTf
I 
c5 (3 1)
?
ti '*
 Measured
dQfb Cof (cb cob t csb> '
P 06
$  Hence for the devices measured, in which csb is significant,
a
0 
d ~ ~ ~ / d N ( ~0.08 / q ) v cm2. Consequently varia
~ X~ 10l'
tions in (Qfb/q)larger than IO" cm' produce considerable
25
0 20 15 /10# 5 VGb(VI0 5 10 15 20 25 changes in V T . As evidenced by (3 l), this sensitivity is more
pronounced in devices with thinner t b ,
Fig. 7. Calculatedandmeasured AID versus VGb for a fourtcrminal In most cases the sensitivity of ID to the backgate prop
laserrecrystallized SO1 MOSFETreflectingthedependence of vTf erties is undesirable, and processes like a deepboron implant
on VGb. in the nchannel MOSFETare used to suppress it. However
there may be applications in which the frontbackgate charge
We have plotted in Fig. 7 the measured dependence oi' AZD coupling can be exploited to improve the MOSFET perfor
on VGb,which resulted when VGf = 'SI v was used to invert mance. As indicated in Fig. 3 it is possible to bias the back
and accumulate the frontsurface. As predicted by our anslysis, gate (VGb N V$b) such that VGf can simultaneously turn the
AZD saturates when VGb is sufficiently low or high. For com back and front channels on and off. In this case, when the device
parison we plot also inFig. 7 the calculated (estimated) is on (VGf> V&), ZD is enhanced by ZBC as well as by an ef
AZD (VGb)dependence obtained from (23)(27). For the cal fective reduction in VTf dueto V G b ,which increases the
culations, g,f and gmb were estimated for linearregion 1, I ~ V G ~frontchannel
, conduction. When the device is off (VGf <<
V G b ) measurements,and VTf and Vrb were evaluated using V&), the leakage is low because VTb is increased above V$b,
our analysis, the same measurements,andestimated device which implies that the back channel is off. The frontchannel
parameter values [ l l ] . The fact that the theoretical an'l ex leakage is thus concomitantly further reduced because of an
perimental curves in Fig. 7 have the same basic shape suI).?orts effective increase in VTf.
our analysis. We note that the fast surface states at the back
SiSi02 interface (Nsb N 3 X lo1' cm?/eV [ I I ] )stretchout VI. SUMMARY
the AZD ( V G ~ curve ) along the VGb axis. Thisstretchout, The charge coupling between the front and back gates of
which is described by AZD,, reflects variation in the charge of thinfilm uniformly doped SO1 MOSFET's has been analyzed,
the surface states resulting from change in VGb,i.e., in $ s t . and closedformexpressions forthethreshold voltage VTf
An obviousdiscrepancy betweenthe calculatedand .ne& under all possible steadystateconditions have been derived.
suredresults plotted in Fig. 7 is the difference betweer the The expressions clearly show the dependence of channel con

respective values of (AZD4 AIDI). This difference implies a ductance in the linear region on the backgate bias VGb and on
discrepancy betweenourtheoreticalandexperimental esti the device parameters, including the fixed charge density Qfb
mations of (VTfo V;f) based on (30) and (29), respectildy. and the fast surfacestate densityNsb at the back SiSi02 inter
The measurementsyield 0.21 V whereas the theory predicts face. Thethreshold voltage ofannchannel SO1 MOSFET
0.14 V. Because the grain boundaries tend to reduce ZD [ L5], having a deep boron implant that negates the influence of the
they are probablynotthe cause of this discrepancy. More back gate was also described.
plausible reasons are thenonuniform N A (x) and/orurcer The analysis, which characterizes directly the linearregion
tainty in rb. Approximating the actual NA (x) by a step pro (strong inversion) drain current I D , was supported in essence
file or assuming about a 10percent thinner t b will remove the bymeasurements of this current inlaserrecrystallized SO1
discrepancy [ 121 . MOSFET's [ 1 1] . Although the VTf( V G b ) dependence cannot
The theoretical and experimental results plotted inFig. 7 be measured directly,measurements of changes in ZD pro
imply that in typical SO1 MOSFET's the charge condition of duced by variationsin VGb yieldedresults that are basically
the back surface, which is defined by VGb and the propelties in agreement with the theoretical predictions. This novel ex
of the SiSi02 interface, can significantlyaffect the concluc perimentalmethod can begenerally used to characterize
tion properties of the front surface, and vice versa. We note VTf( V G b ) of thinfilm SO1 MOSFET's.
that the backgate influence on ID is even stronger for thinner An nchannel MOSFET was assumed in the analysis, but the
silicon films and for lower doping densities in the film as irn corresponding results for pchannelMOSFET'scan be easily de
plied by Figs. 4 and 5. rived analogously. Hence the analysis can provide a basis for
The variations in V T f and I D discussed above, which result optimizing the performance of SO1 CMOS integrated circuits.
from changes in the backsurface charge condition, can be For example it describes how a negative V G b , despite reducing
inducedbyvariationsin V i B , Le., Q f b , as well as in V,;b. the currentdrive capability in nchannel MOSFET's, could be
Hence the resultsindicatehow well Q f b must be controlled used to diminish the sensitivity of V T to ~ Q f b andtothe
across an SO1 wafer to ensure acceptable chip yield. To ex silicon film parameters, e.g., thickness, all of which may vary
IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ED30,
ELECTRON
DEVICES,
VOL. NO. 10, OCTOBER 1 9 8 3 1251
AbstractOptical projection printing using partially coherent illumi margins of different object shapes and sizes, the effects of high versus
nation is simulated for one micrometer and half micrometer objects low degrees of coherence, single versus dual wavelength, as well as long
representative of typical mask patterns such as contact holes, rectangu wavelength high NA versus shortwavelengthlow NA were studied using
lar bars and openings, intersections of perpendicular lines, and adjacent the 1pm rectangular opening.
lines of unequal lengths. The image intensity distributions in absorp
tionless photoresists on nonreflective substrates are plotted as sets of
constantintensitycontours.For each patternandillumination, an I. INTRODUCTION
exposuredefocus (ED) diagram is generated by evaluating the com
bined exposure and defocus tolerance yielding linewidths within
percent of the mask linewidth. Besides comparing the image and
t2.5
I
N A TYPICAL optical projection system, the illuminationis
deliberately set t o an optimum degree of coherence so that
ED
the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the fundamental
Manuscript received October 7, 1982; revised April 5, 1983. spatial frequency corresponding to the minimum feature in an
A. C. Liu is with Harvard University, Cambridge,MA. He was formerly IC circuit is increased at the expense of the higher spatial fre
a summer student at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, York quencies. Therefore, in order to quantitatively study the opti
town Heights, NY 10598.
B. J. Lin is with the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, York cal images produced by a projection lens, partially coherent
town Heights, NY 10598. illuminationhas tobeincluded. Partially coherent imaging
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