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WELDING NECK FLANGE

A welding neck flange (“WN”)features a long tapered hub that can be welded with a pipe.

This flange type is used, normally, in high-pressure and high/low temperatures applications
that require an unrestricted flow of the fluid conveyed by the piping system (the bore of the
flange matches with the bore of the pipe).

The absence of pressure drops prevents negative effects as turbulence and erosion/corrosion
of the metals in the proximity of the flanged joints.

The tapered hub allows a smooth distribution of the mechanical stress between the pipe and
the weld neck flange and facilitates the execution of radiographic inspections to detect
possible leakages and welding defects.

The dimension of the flange (NPS and the pipe schedule) shall match the dimension of the
connecting pipe.

A welding neck flange is connected to a pipe by a single full penetration V-shaped butt
weld. The dimension and weights of ASME weld neck flanges are shown in this article.

LONG WELDING NECK


Long weld neck flanges (“LWN”) are similar to weld neck flanges, with the exception that
the neck (tapered hub) is extended and acts like a boring extension.

Long weld neck flanges are generally used on vessels, columns or barrels. These flange
types are available also in the heavy barrel (HB) and equal barrel (E) types.

SLIP ON FLANGE

A slip-on flange is connected to the pipe or the fittings by two fillet welds, one executed
inside and one outside the cavity of the flange.

The bore size of a slip-on flange is larger than the outside diameter of the connecting pipe,
as the pipe has to slide inside the flange to be connected by the execution of a fillet weld.

Slip-on flanges are also defined “Hubbed Flanges” and they are easy to recognize due to
their slim and compact shape.

The dimensions and weights of slip-on flanges ANSI/ASME are available on this page.

WELD NECK VS SLIP ON FLANGE


Flanged joints made with slip-on flanges are, in the long run, a bit more fragile than
connections made with welding neck flanges (in similar service conditions). This seems due
to the following facts:

 a welding neck flange features a tapered hub, absent in a socket weld flange, which
distributes the mechanical stress between the pipe and the flange more evenly
 a welding neck joint as only one welding area instead of two (socket weld flange).

Another advantage of the welding neck flange is that it can be connected either to pipes and
fittings, whereas socket weld flanges suit pipes only.

THREADED FLANGE

Threaded flanges are joined to pipes by screwing the pipe (which has a male thread,
generally NPT per ASME B1.20.1) onto the flange, without seam welds (in certain cases,
though, small welds are applied to increase the strength of the connection).

Threaded flanges are available in sizes up to 4 inches and multiple pressure ratings,
however, they are used, mostly, small size piping in low pressure and low-temperature
applications, like water and air utility services.

Threaded flanges are also a mandatory requirement in explosive areas, such as gas stations
and plants, as the execution of welded connections in such environments would be
dangerous.

Consult this article, to find about the dimension of ANSI/ASME threaded flanges.

SOCKET WELD FLANGE


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Socket weld flanges are connected to pipes using a single fillet weld executed on the outer
side of the flange (different from the slip-on flange type that requires two welds).

According to ASME B31.1, to execute a flanged connection using a socket weld flange, the
pipe shall be at first inserted in the socket of the flange until it reaches the bottom of the
flange, then it should be lifted by 1.6 mm and finally welded.

This gap shall be left to allow proper positioning of the pipe inside the flange socket after
the solidification of the weld.

Socket Weld Flanges are used for small-size and high-pressure piping that do not transfer
highly corrosive fluids.

This due to the fact that these flange types are subject to corrosion in the gap area between
the end of the pipe and the shoulder of the socket.

Their static strength of socket weld flanges is similar to slip-on flanges’, but their fatigue
strength is higher due to the presence of a single, instead of double, fillet weld.

Sizes and weights of socket-weld flanges (ASME/ANSI) are reported here.