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The study aims to produce alternative charcoal

using dried leaves of Santol which serves as the main

contributor to its effectiveness. This was conducted

in two comparisons: using of (1) cassava starch (2)

and laundry starch. The dried leaves of Santol are

pulverized with mortar and pestle. Along with the

laundry starch, we created a viscous mixture out of it

and molded it into briquettes. Then, we repeated the

same procedures but of using cassava starch. The

researchers found out that there are differences

between laundry starch and cassava starch in terms of

its role as an adhesive. The use of laundry starch

instead of cassava starch is way more effective. Also,

the alternative charcoal is found easier to make

compared to wood charcoal in terms of its process.

These findings suggested the potential of Santol dried

leaves as an alternative charcoal. This alternative

charcoal will then make a difference in our socio-

economic factors since it is somehow environment-



A. Background of the Study

Sandoricum koetjape, commonly known as Santol or

cotton fruit (locally called “Kra-tond”), is a medium-

sized tropical fruit grown in Southeast Asia. Santol

is probably native to Indochina and Peninsular

Malaysia, and has been introduced to India, Borneo,

Indonesia, Mauritius, the Andaman Islands and the

Philippines where it has become naturalized.

Charcoal, which is obtained as a residue when

carbonaceous material is partially burned or heated

with limited access of air. The process can take days

and burns off volatile compounds such as water,

methane, hydrogen and tar, and leaves about 25% black

lumps and powder of the original weight. The quality

of charcoal is defined by various chemical

characteristics, although properties are interrelated,

but they are measured and appraised separately.

Regarding the quality of charcoal, better charcoal is

made by cutting down trees, setting fire to the trunk,

and covering it with soil. The trees carbonize over 5-

10 days. The environmental impact is worsened because

hardwood trees (those that grow most slowly) make the

highest smokes and quality charcoal.

A very significant solution to this is the making

of charcoal out of dried leaves of Santol. It can

lessen wood charcoal consumption of poultry farms,

households and other domestic businesses. It can also

help mitigate carbon dioxide emission in the

atmosphere. It can lessen the cutting of trees from

the country’s forests. It can also avoid deforestation

because deforestation causes soil erosion, increasing

vulnerability to flooding and causing lower crop

yields from farms. It put abandoned biomass and agro-

forestry wastes into good use. For every ton of

briquettes, about 88 trees are conserved. And lastly,

charcoal briquettes made out of dried leaves of Santol

are environmental-friendly.

B. Statement of the Problem

The main objective of this study is to determine

the effectiveness of the dried leaves of Santol as an

alternative for charcoal.

1. What is the chemical composition of Santol


2. How effective is Santol leaves on the

production of charcoal?

3. What are the advantages of charcoal made out of

dried Santol leaves?

C. Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis: The use of the dried leaves of Santol

has no significant effect on the production of


Alternative Hypothesis: The use of the dried leaves of

Santol has a significant effect on the production of


D. Significance of the Study

This study is significant in a way that it

provides accessible and available charcoal through the

use of dried Santol leaves. This study is

environmental- friendly because it can lessen the

cutting down of trees and it avoids deforestation. It

can also lessen our dependence to wood charcoal.

E. Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study is focused only in the making of

charcoal through the use of the dried leaves of Santol

tree. This component will lessen our consumption to

wood charcoal, thus, making it expense-free and



A. Materials

- Dried leaves of Santol

- Laundry starch

- Water

- Mortar and pestle

- Cauldron

- Stove

- Bowl

- Spoon

- Molder

B. Procedures

1. Prepare all the materials needed in the making of

charcoal out of Santol leaves.

2. Separate the dried leaves of Santol from its stems.

3. Put the Santol dried leaves in the cauldron and

place the cauldron in the stove.

4. Cook the Santol dried leaves until it becomes dark

and brittle.

5. Put the burnt Santol dried leaves into the mortar.

6. Pulverize the burnt Santol dried leaves using the


7. Put the laundry starch in the bowl and add an ample

amount of water then mix with a spoon.

8. Add the mixture to the pulverized Santol dried


9. Mix the pulverized Santol dried leaves with the

mixture until it becomes viscous.

10. Mold it to form briquettes.

11. Dry it under the heat of the sun.


Using dried leaves of Santol as an alternative

charcoal is a success. All the ingredients we used are

organic and went well altogether in the process of making

charcoal. Laundry starch is more effective than cassava

starch. We were able to produce thicker and more

unbreakable briquettes with the use of laundry starch.

Considering its smoke release, it did not ignite when we

made charcoal with cassava starch. Fortunately, the outcome

with laundry starch is its total opposite. Its appearance

looked more like cement than charcoal. Its size is half the

size of wood charcoal by measuring it horizontally. We also

tried the charcoal we made in cooking – we boiled an egg.

We were able to cook an egg but we consumed a lot of

charcoal considering its size. But overall, the dried

leaves of Santol as an alternative charcoal are effective

about 90%.


A. Summary

This study aimed to find out the feasibility of

Santol dried leaves as alternative charcoal used in

cooking. In the experiment, we added more dried leaves

because it is the most important contributor in the

making of charcoal. Materials we used are laundry

starch, an ample of water, mortar and pestle,

cauldron, stove, bowl/basin, spoon, molder, and most

especially, the dried leaves of Santol. We found that

the laundry starch is more effective than the cassava

starch. When the charcoal briquettes are being burnt,

it released a lot of smoke after a few minutes of


B. Conclusion

Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate

extract of the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape Merr.

(Meliceae) resulted in the isolation of two Limonoids.

The compounds have been identified as their

corresponding acetate derivatives (1) and (2). The

structures have been established as 2a-

acyloxysandoricin by analysis of NMR spectral data

especially 2D NMR. Santol leaves is as effective as

wood in producing charcoal. Both may differ in terms

of its process and composition but the researchers

found out that Santol leaves definitely has a

potential in producing charcoal. It will also help us

to resolve environmental problems. It is eco-friendly

and the ingredients used are organic. The researchers

conclude that the charcoal made out of Santol dried

leaves can now be used for cooking as it was somehow

found effective.

C. Recommendations

Based on the conducted experiment, we recommend

the following for further improvements:

1. You should use large amounts of dried leaves and

laundry starch so that the charcoal cannot be easily

broken. Consider the following:

a. Its appearance

In the experiment, the charcoal briquettes we

made looked like cement because of its grayish


b. Its size

The charcoal made of the dried leaves of Santol

should be large enough for consumption since it is

an alternative for wood charcoal.

2. You should not pulverize the dried leaves of Santol

in making charcoal.

We tested the charcoal on and off fire. With

fire, it ignites. Without fire, it stops igniting.

Charcoal should be igniting at least even if it was

not set on fire.


The making of charcoal out of the dried leaves of

Santol is a success and indeed effective.


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