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Feminism is the belief in the social,

political, and economic equality of the


sexes. Feminist activism is the struggle
for that equality.

Sexism as defined by Webster’s


Dictionary is “the unfair treatment
of people because of their sex.”
On the contrary, feminism is
defined by “the belief that men and
women should have equal rights
and opportunities.” Unlike sexists,
feminists are not trying to mistreat
men, but rather receive equal
compensation, opportunities and
treatment
Core beliefs :

 Sexism exists
 Sexism against women (misogyny) is
enduring, pervasive, systemic, cultural,
and ingrained
 Men and women should have equal
rights and opportunities
 Women are intellectual equals and
social equals to men
 Women should be recognized and
treated as equals to me

Patriarchy

As cultures and societies de-


emphasize gender as a basis for
decision making by, for example,
allowing women to get educated, make
financial decisions, control their fertility,
and own property, positive results like
better educated, healthier children
result.

Patriarchy describes ongoing wage


discrimination, the motherhood
penalty, likability gap, socialization to
deference, under-representation in positions of power and influence, lesser
average net worth, and so on.
By fighting patriarchy, feminists are helping men and women. and workplace-
related deaths as stemming from an essential view of gender which leads to
gendered expectations, which result from patriarchy.
‘I don’t want to be remembered as the girl who was shot. I want to be remembered as
the girl who stood up.’
On October 9, 2012, a gunman boarded Malala’s school bus in Pakistan, asked her
name and shot her three times in the head. Her crime? Speaking out about education
for girls. Fear lost and bravery triumphed. A figurehead of our time, the shooting of
Malala was a watershed moment, propelling a teenage girl into an overnight
stateswoman for equal rights. In 2013, Time magazine listed Malala Yousafzai as one
of ‘The 100 Most Influential People in the World’. On 10 October 2014, Malala co-
received the Nobel Peace Prize. Lest we forget, she is still only 17 years old.
Coco Chanel

‘The most courageous act is still to think for yourself. Aloud.’


Coco Chanel didn’t just challenge the gender norms of the time through her own
personal life and career – her clothes set the female body free and redesigned it’s
sillhouette. Men’s clothes became women’s too: breton tops, crewneck sweaters,
trousers, flat heels and suits. Her own figure – boyish frame, cropped hair and tanned
skin – fast became a fashionable rejection of the traditional feminine ideal. Not only
that, her dresses flipped two fingers up to restrictive corsets. Vogue quickly dubbed
her little black dress ‘the garçonne’ (little boy look)
Marie Curie: Facts & Biography

A portrait of Marie Curie, taken about 1903 when she was awarded her first Nobel Prize.
Credit: Public domain

Marie Curie was a physicist and chemist and a pioneer in the study of radiation. She and her
husband, Pierre, discovered the elements polonium and radium. Together, they were awarded
the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, and she received another one, for Chemistry, in 1911.
Her work with radioactive materials doomed her, however. She died of a blood disease in
1934

In June 1903, Marie was the first woman in Europe to earn a doctorate in physics. In
November of that year the Curies, together with Henri Becquerel, were named
winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions to the understanding of
atomic structure. The nominating committee objected to including a woman as a
Nobel Laureate, but Pierre insisted that the original research was Marie’s. In 1911,
after Pierre’s death, Marie was awarded a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her
discovery of the elements polonium and radium.

Marie continued to do research in radioactivity. When World War I broke out in 1914,
she suspended her studies and organized a fleet of portable X-ray machines for
doctors on the front.After the war, she worked hard to raise money for her Radium
Institute, including a trip to the United States. But by 1920, she was suffering from
medical problems, likely due to her exposure to radioactive materials. On July 4,
1934, she died of aplastic anemia, a blood disease that is often caused by too much
exposure to radiation.

The Curies received another honor in 1944 with the discovery of the 96th element on
the Periodic Table of the Elements, which was named curium.
Marie Curie quotes

“Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to


understand more so that we may fear less.”

"Be less curious about people and more curious about ideas."

"One never notices what has been done; one can only see what remains to be
done."
Catherine the Great

1762-1796

Catherine the Great is remembered as one of the


greatest reformers of Russia. During her reign,
Catherine continued the reforms begun by Peter the
Great that ultimately led to the emergence of Russia
onto the worldwide stage of politics.

Catherine was a German princess whose original


name was Sophie Augusta Fredericka. She was born
on April 21, 1729 at Settin, Pomerania to Johanna
Elizabeth and the Prince Christian Augustus. On
August 21, 1744 Catherine married Peter III, the
Grand Duke of Holstein and heir apparent to the Russian throne, in the biggest
ceremony ever performed in Europe. Peter III was crowned ruler of Russia in
1761. Peter proved to be a very unpopular and inept sovereign and was
murdered in June of 1762 in a coup staged by the Imperial Guards. Catherine
was named empress and ruled for more than thirty years.

Catherine proceeded to "Westernize" Russia. However, unlike Peter the Great,


Catherine scorned force and instead focused on pursuing individualistic
endeavors. Her reforms went even farther after a failed peasant revolt in 1773 led
by Yemelian Pugachev threatened Eastern Russia. As a result, Catherine the
Great instituted several drastic reforms within the Russian society. First, she
established the Free Economic Society (1765) to encourage the modernization of
agriculture and industry. Second, she encouraged foreign investment in
economically underdeveloped areas. Third, Catherine relaxed the censorship law
and encouraged education for the nobles and middle class.

During Catherine's reign, Russia also achieved great military success and gained
large tracts of land. Following two successful wars against the Ottoman Empire,
Russia annexed Crimea, which gave it access to the Black Sea. In addition,
Russia's control over Poland and Luxembourg allowed it to annex three separate
tracts of land.

By the time of her death on Nov. 17, 1796, Catherine the Great had pushed
Russia into the modern era. Moreover, Russia entered the modern era as a
dominant player in the world.
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