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English for Academic Purposes

Written by:

Hj. St. Noer Farida Laila, M.A Muhammad Basuni, M.Pd Nanik Sri Rahayu, M.Pd

Edited by:

Susanto, M.Pd

Pre-Intermediate Level

F o r

I s l a m i c

U n i v e r s i t y

2008
2008

Published by IAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS

Laila, St. Noer Farida, et.al

English for Academic Purposes /St.Noer Farida Laila, Muhammad Basuni, Nanik Sri Rahayu -IAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS 2014 189 hlm.; 18.5 x 23 cm ISBN 978-602-8079-41-9

1. Bahasa Inggris

I. Judul

The right of St. Noer Farida Laila, Muhammad Basuni, and Nanik Sri Rahayu to be identified as authors of this Work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act. All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers.

English for Academic Purposes

© IAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS 2014

First Published 2008 Printed in Tulungagung, Indonesia Cover by Yoyo’ IAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS Jalan Mayor Sujadi Timur 46 Tulungagung 66221 East Java, Indonesia

Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement In the name of Allah the most beneficent and most merciful. Let's pray to Allah

In the name of Allah the most beneficent and most merciful. Let's pray to Allah SWT (glory be to Him, and He is the High) to bless Prophet Muhammad SAW (peace be upon him) and his family. Further, may Allah SWT bless the Khulafaa' Rashidoon and the Sahaba of the Prophet as well as the Followers and the Followers of the Followers till the day of judgment. This new edition of English book at pre-intermediate level for the students of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung facilitates the students with some interesting activities as well as various topics on Islam and education. Besides, it also challenges the lecturers as well as the students to go immerse more actively and creatively in the learning process. The outstanding remark of this new book is that it provides the three language skills speaking, reading and writing, and is enriched with vocabulary exercises. Therefore, a conducive, active and autonomous English learning will be made possible here. Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to the writers and those who are involved in this work. May Allah SWT bless and reward their good deed. Amen.

Tulungagung, 1 Nopember 2014 M

Dr. Maftukhin, M.Ag Rector of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung

Preface

Preface In the name of Allah the most beneficent and most merciful. The author wishes to

In the name of Allah the most beneficent and most merciful.

The author wishes to thank all those colleagues who contributed in making this book available to the readers. Special thanks to Dr. Susanto, M.Pd and his men in the Language Center, State Islamic College of Tulungagung for their tremendous help in publishing this new book for the students of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung. May Allah bless and reward them. Thanks and appreciation go to Dr. Maftukhin, M.Ag, the Rector of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung, and unforgettably Prof. Dr. H. Imam Fuadi, M.Ag the Vice Rector for Academic Affairs. Without them, this publication may not be possible for the students. May Allah bless them. Amen. Last but not least, may Allah SWT bless and love all those who contributed their time, effort, energy, wealth, wisdom, goodwill, editing, typing, proofreading and their Du'a.

Tulungagung, 1 Nopember 2014 M

The Writers

LIST OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement …………………………………………….…………….………………

……

……

iii

Foreword …………………………………………………………………….….……………

List of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………

iv

v

UNIT. I :

A.

Communication: Greetings and Introductions …………………….……

1

B.

Key Structures: Sentence Patterns in English …

……

4

C.

Reading Comprehension: Muhammad ………………………….…

……

8

UNIT. II:

A.

Communication: Expressing Numbers ………………………………….…

13

B.

Vocabulary; Mathematics ………………………………………………………

16

C.

Key Structure: The Present Continuous and Simple …………………

17

D.

Reading Comprehension: The Oldest and Largest Profession;

Teaching …………………………………………………… …………

…….………

22

UNIT. III:

A.

Communication: Learning to ask for information …………………

….

27

B.

Key Structure: Definite and Indefinite Article ……………………….…

33

C.

Reading Comprehension: An Approach to the Study of Religion

…………………

………………………………………………………………

36

UNIT. IV:

A.

Communication: Expressing Time …

…………………………

…………

41

B.

Key Structure: The Simple Past ……………………………………

…….

44

C.

Reading Comprehension: The Outspread of Islam in Java ………….

47

UNIT. V:

A.

Communication: Expression of Date ……………………………

………….

53

B.

Key Structure: Modal Auxiliary …………………………………………………

56

C.

Reading Comprehension: The Institution of Family………………….…

63

UNIT. VI:

A.

Communication: Exclamations ………….……………………….…………….

67

B.

Key Structure: Past Continuous………………………………

…… ……

.

69

C.

Reading Comprehension: Mathematics and Astronomy ……………

72

UNIT. VII:

A.

Communication: Expressing Certainty and Doubt ………………………

79

B.

Key Structure: The Perfect Tense ……………………………………….……

82

C.

Reading Comprehension: Principles of Islamic Banking ……………

88

UNIT VIII:

A.

Communication: Making A Phone Call ………………………………………

93

B.

Key Structure: Modal Auxiliary …………………………………………

…….

97

C.

Reading Comprehension: Zakat First Universal Welfare System ………… ……

……………………………………………………………………………

102

UNIT. IX:

A.

Communication: Asking About Other’s Plan

…………………….……

107

B.

Key Structure: The Simple Future ….……………………………………

110

C.

Reading Comprehension: American and British English Differences

……………………………………………………………………………………

……

116

UNIT. X:

A.

Communication: Agreement And Disagreement ……………….…

……

121

B.

Key Structure: Comparison of Adjective …

……………………….………

123

C.

Reading Comprehension: Al-Kindi …

…………………….……

…………

127

UNIT XI :

A.

Communication: Request ……………………………

…………….…… ……

131

B.

Grammar Focus: Elliptic Structure …….…

……

133

C.

Reading Comprehension : Teacher ……………………………………………

136

UNIT XII:

A. Communication: Conversational Opening……………………………….…

141

B. Grammar Focus: Impersonal it …………

…………………………………

143

C. Reading Comprehension: Zakat …….…………………………

…………

146

UNIT XIII:

A. Communication: Invitation …………………

……………………………

….

151

B. Grammar Focus: Conditional Sentence………

……………………….…

153

C. Reading Comprehension: Arabic Transliteration .……………

157

UNIT XIV:

A. Communication: Apologies ……………………

…………………

…………

161

B. Grammar Focus: Past Perfect Tense

……………………………

…….

163

C. Reading Comprehension: English Vocabulary

………………………….

167

UNIT XV:

A. Communication: Suggestion

………

……………………………

………….

173

B. Grammar Focus: Modal Perfect ………………

………………………………

175

C. Reading Comprehension: Al Ushul ……………………

……….……………

178

Bibliography ……………………………….……………………………………

……………………

viii

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, LG., Practice and progress, Yogyakarta, Kanisius, 1975. Alexander, LG., Question and Answer, Yogyakarta, Kanisius, 1980. Azar, Schrampfer Betty, Fundamental of English Grammar, Jakarta, Bina Rupa Aksara, 1993. Binhamp, Philip, How to say it, Yogyakarta, Kanisius, 1974. Darwis, Djamaluddin, English for Islamic studies, Jakarta, Raja Grafindo Persada, 2001. Hornby, AS, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, London, Oxford University Press, 1987. Kon, T.S., Practical English Usage 4, Jakarta, Bina Rupa Aksara, 1991. Lindell, Anne, Intensive English for Communication, Jakarta, Bina Rupa Aksara. Murphy, Raymond, English Grammar in use, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986 Watcyn, Peter Jones, Test your vocabulary, Gelatik, 1991.

English for Academic Purposes pre-intermediate level is primarily developed and designed for the students of Islamic universities as a self study reference and practice book, yet which can be used for classroom work. This book covers at least five important aspects of language learning: speaking, reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary. The outstanding remark of this book is that the reading passages served to the learners encompass various topics; from the Islamic issues into topics in general discussion. Therefore, expectedly, this book will be useful to broaden the studentshorizon as well as their language skill.

the students ’ horizon as well as their language skill. Published by STAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS 9

Published by STAIN TULUNGAGUNG PRESS

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LISTENING SECTION

UNIT I

A. COMMUNICATION: GREETINGS AND INTRODUCTIONS

1. GREETINGS

a. Formal conversation:

Rina

Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss.

Rina

Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss.

: Good morning, Mr./Mrs./Ms./ Miss …. : Hello, Rina. How are you? : I am fine, thank you. How are you? : I am fine too.

b. Informal conversations:

Rina

: Hi, Anto. How are you doing?

Anto

: Pretty good. How about you?

Rina

: Oh. I am O.K.

Rina

: Excuse me. I am late for my next class

Anto

: Bye, Rina. See you later.

Rina

: So long.

c. Other greetings :

Hello

How are you?

Good bye.

Good morning

How are you doing?

So long.

Good afternoon

How do you do?

See you later.

Good evening

Good night.

2.

INTRODUCTIONS

a. Formal introduction

Mr. Ahmad

: DR. Azhari, I would like you to meet my friend, Said

DR. Azhari

Umar. Umar this is DR. Azhari. : How do you do?

Umar

How do you do? I am glad to meet you.

b. Informal introductions:

Amir

: Mrs. Rina, this is Emma

Mrs. Rina

: Hello Emma. I am glad to meet you.

Emma

: I am happy to meet you too.

Amir

: Emma, this is Umar.

Emma

: Hi, Umar.

Umar

: Hi, Emma.

Emma

: Hello. My name is Emma Amalia

Rina

: Hello. I am Rina Ahmad.

Emma

: Where are you from?

Rina

: I am from Surabaya

Susan

: Hi. I am Susan. I am a waitress.

Ed.

What is your name? : Hi. My name is Eddy.

Susan

: What is your occupation?

Ed

: I am a clerk.

3.

Communicative Activity 1

Let‟s practice greetings.

a. Greet your teacher.

b. Greet your classmates

c. Greet your close friend

d. Greet your parents.

4. Communicative Activity 2. Let‟s practice introductions.

a. Introduce your friend to your teacher.

b. Introduce one classmate to another classmate

c. Practice a formal introduction.

d. Introduce yourself to your teacher

e. Introduce your classmate to a classmate.

5. Put these words in the blanks. Then practice the conversation!

Nice

Hello

Hi

thanks

How

Meet

right

fine

this

Sandi

: a)

,

Marta

 

Marta : b)

,

Sandi! c)

are

you?

Sandi

Marta : I'm all f)

: I'm d)

,

e)

, thanks.

And you?

Sandi

: Marta, g)

is Anna

Anna

: Hello, Marta. h)

to meet you.

Marta : Nice to i)

you too

6.

Communicative Activity

Interviewing a classmate.

a. Write questions to get these facts about a classmate.

b. Work with a partner. Ask your partner the questions. Write the answers on a piece of paper.

c. Introduce your partner to the class. Tell the class about your partner‟s answers to the questions.

A. Full name

:

B. Birthday

:

C. City, country

:

D. Occupation outside class

:

E. Reasons for studying English :

F. Plans for the future

:

B. KEY STRUCTURE: SENTENCE PATTERNS IN ENGLISH

1. Normal Sentence Pattern in English

Subject

Verb

Complement

Modifier

She and I

Ate

A pizza

Last night

We

Studied

English

Last week

a. Subject: The subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice; it is the person or thing that does the action of the sentence, and it normally precedes the verb. NOTE: Every sentence in English must have a subject. (In the case of commands, the subject is understood) 1) The subject may be a single noun. Coffee is delicious

2)

3)

Milk contains calcium The subject may be a noun phrase. A noun phrase is a group of words ending with a noun. (It cannot begin with a preposition) The book is on the table The new, red car is John's. In some sentences there is not a true subject. However, it and there can often act as pseudo-subjects and should be considered as subjects when rules call for moving the subject of a sentence. It is a nice day There were many students in the room.

subjects when rules call for moving the subject of a sentence. It is a nice day

b. Verb: The verb follows the subject; it generally shows the action of the sentence. Note: Every sentence must have a verb.

1)

The verb may be a single word.

2)

John drives too fast They hate spinach The verb may be a verb phrase. A verb phrase consists of one or more auxiliaries and one main verb. The auxiliaries always precede the main verb. John is going to Miami tomorrow Jane has been reading that book.

c. Complement: A complement completes the verb. It is similar to the subject because it is usually a noun or a noun phrase; however, it generally follows the verb when the sentence is in the active voice. Note: every sentence does not require a complement. The complement cannot begin with a preposition. A complement answers the question what? or whom?

John bought a cake yesterday

(What did John buy?)

Jill was driving a new car They called me yesterday

I saw her last night

(What was Jill driving?) (whom did they call?) (whom did I see?)

d. Modifier: A modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action. Very often it is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. Note: every sentence doesn't require a modifier. A modifier answers the question when? Where? Or how?

John bought a book at the bookstore.

(where)

He was driving very fast

(how)

I

saw him yesterday

(when)

Note: a modifier of time usually comes last if more than a

present.

Example:

Jill was swimming in the pool yesterday

modifier is

Exercise 1: Subject - Verb - Complement - Modifier Identify the subject, verb, complement, and modifier in each of the following sentences. Remember that not every sentence has a complement or a modifier. Example:

Johan / is buying / a new hat / in the store.

Subject verb phrase complement

modifier of place

1. George is cooking dinner tonight

2. Henry has visited the president

3. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today

4. Paula should have bought gasoline yesterday

5.

Trees grow

6. It was raining at seven o‟clock this morning

7. She opened a checking account at the bank last week

8. She opened her book hurriedly

9. Paul was watching television a few minutes ago.

10. Betty is driving her car very fast.

Exercise 2:

Arrange each group of words in the sentences bellow correctly!

1. the film - I - enjoyed - yesterday

2. the news - listened to - I - carefully

3. well - the man - the piano - played

4. games - played - yesterday - in their room - the children - quietly

5. Quietly - the door - he - opened

6. before lunch - the letter - in his office - quickly - he - read

7. this morning - the book - I - from the library - borrowed

8. we - at home - stay - on Sundays.

9. a new school - built - they - in our village - last year

10. the match - at four o‟clock – ended

Exercise 3:

Find the elements in the following sentences that form the basic sentence pattern NOUN + VERB. Write them on a separate sheet of paper. Example:

After a long wait, the gleaming glass doors of the new department store finally opened to the public. Answer: The doors opened

1.

The 6.40 express train from Jakarta at long last arrived at the crowded station.

2. A small but vicious dog at our neighbour's house noisily and persistently barked all night.

3. The securely wrapped package of spare parts for the tractor came yesterday by registered mail.

4. In spite of our best efforts, all essential works in the rubber tire factory stopped completely

5. A very famous musician from the conservatory played for one hour yesterday.

6. That very popular tourist hotel will soon open for the summer season

7. The engineering students in Prof Mahdi's class busily studied for their examination all night

8. Dr. Sherly, the well-known physicist at the research laboratory, is lecturing tonight at the auditorium

9. The jumbo jet airliner, after a long delay, finally landed safely at the airport.

10. A very strange thing happened on the way to work.

C. READING COMPREHENSION

Muhammad

Muhammad was born in or about the year 570.He was born into a family belonging to a clan of Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca, a city in the Hijaz region of northwestern Arabia. Originally the site of the Ka'bah, Mecca had become an important center of sixth-century trade. As a result the city was dominated by powerful merchant families among whom the men of Quraysh were preeminent.

Muhammad's father, 'Abd Allah ibn'Abd al-Muttalib, died before the boy was born; his mother, Aminah, died when he was six. The orphan was consigned to the

care of his grandfather, Abdul Mutalib, the head of the clan of Hashim. After the death of his grandfather, Muhammad was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. As was customary, Muhammad as a child was sent to live for a year or two with a Bedouin family. This custom had important implications for Muhammad. He endured the hardships of desert life, acquired a taste for the rich language so loved by the Arabs, and learned the patience and forbearance of the herdsmen.

About the year 590, Muhammad entered the service of a widow named Khadijah as a merchant actively engaged with trading caravans to the north. Sometime later Muhammad married Khadijah, by whom he had two sons - who did not survive - and four daughters.

During this period of his life Muhammad travelled widely. Then, in his forties he began to retire to meditate in a cave on Mount Hira outside of Mecca, where the first of the great events of Islam took place. One day, as he sat in the cave, he heard a voice of the Angel Gabriel, which ordered him to: “Recite: In the name of thy Lord who created, Created man from a clot of blood.” Three times Muhammad pleaded his inability to do so, but each time the command was repeated. Finally, Muhammad recited the words of what are now the first five verses of the 96th surah or chapter of the Quran.

At first Muhammad divulged his experience only to his wife and his immediate circle. But as more revelations enjoined him to proclaim the oneness of God universally, his following grew, at first among the poor and the slaves, but later also among the most prominent men of Mecca. The revelations he received are all incorporated in the Quran, the Scripture of Islam.

Not everyone accepted God's message transmitted through Muhammad. Even in his own clan there were those who rejected his teachings, and many

merchants actively opposed the message. The opposition, however, sharpen Muhammad's sense of mission and his understanding of exactly how Islam differed from paganism. Because the Quran rejected polytheism and emphasized man's moral responsibility, it presented a grave challenge to the worldly Meccans

Glossary:

Site (N) Was consigned to (V) Desert (N) Forbearance (N) Herdsmen (N) Retire (V) Pleaded (V) Clan (N) Grave (N) Endured (V)

: A place where a building was situated. : Was given to : Large area with very little water and vegetation : Tolerance : persons who look after a herd of animals : go away to somewhere quiet or private : repeated urgent request : Large family forming a close group : dead : suffered

1. Comprehension exercise

Answer the following questions based on the passage above!

a. Where and when was Muhammad born?

b. Why was Mecca dominated by powerful merchant families?

c. Was Muhammad an orphan? Explain briefly!

d. For what purposes was Muhammad sent to live with a Bedouin family?

e. Who was Khadijah?

f. When did Muhammad receive the first revelation?

g. What was the first teaching proclaimed by Muhammad?

h. Did all Muhammad‟s families receive his teachings?

i. Why were almost all Meccan people opposed to Muhammad‟s teaching?

j. What are the main teachings of Muhammad opposed by the people?

2. Vocabulary exercises. Find the part of speech and the meaning of these verbs, and construct good sentences using those verbs.

a. pre-eminent

b. responsibility

c. acquire

d. polytheisms

e. engaged with

f. event

g. divulged

h. enjoined

i. revelation

j. custom

k. worldly

l. paganism

m. oneness

n. incorporate

o. forbearance

3. Writing Activity Write 5 sentences about the following topics:

a. Al-qur‟an

b. Bible

c. Torah

d. Prophetic traditions

e. Pilgrimage

UNIT II

A. EXPRESSING NUMBERS

1. Here is a list of cardinal numbers.

0 Zero

11 eleven

59 fifty-nine

1 One

12 twelve

60 sixty

4

Four

20 twenty

76 seventy-six

10

Ten

50

fifty

99 ninety-nine

100

one hundred (a hundred)

319 three hundred nineteen

101

one hundred one

 

483

four hundred eighty-three

111

one hundred eleven

620

six hundred twenty

150

one hundred fifty

 

999

nine hundred ninety-nine

200

two hundred

1,000 one thousand ( a thousand)

5,000,000 five million

 

1,000,000,000 one billion

Note: A comma can be used when there are more than three numbers, such as

1,000

2. Here is a list of ordinal numbers

first

(1 st )

 

second

(2

nd )

third

(3

rd

)

fourth

(4

th

)

fifth

(5 th

)

sixth

(6 th

)

seventh

(7 th )

eighth

(8 th

)

ninth

(9 th

)

tenth

(10 th )

eleventh

twelfth

fifteenth

nineteenth

twentieth

twenty-first

twenty-second

twenty-third

thirtieth

forty-fourth

(11 th ) (12 th )

)

(19

(15

)

(20 th ) (21 st )

(22

(23

(30

(44 th )

)

)

th

th

nd )

rd

th

We use ordinal numbers :

a. For dates :

December 25 th December twenty-fifth

b. For floors in a building : the classroom is on the third floor

c. As an adjective :

She is Amir‟s second wife My first article has been published.

3. Telephone numbers and Addresses

a. Telephone numbers are usually read in single digits. The number 0 (zero)

is pronounced like the letter o (ow).

Area Code 0313

o, three, one, three

887-9603

eight, eight, seven; nine, six, o, three

321513

three, two, one, five, one, three

0817413166

o, eight, one, seven, four, one, three,

one, six, six.

b. Addresses can be read in group of two or more numbers. The number 0 (zero) is pronounced o (ow). A number ending in 00 (zero, zero) are read as hundred.

46 Major Sujadi Street 823 Panjaitan Street

forty-six. eight; twenty-three.

1500

Ahmad Yani Street

fifteen hundred

2341

Kenwood.

Twenty-three; forty-one.

5100

Main Street

Fifty-one hundred

1201

Sudirman Street

twelve; o, one.

4.

Exercises on numbers

a. Counting

1)

Count by twos from 2 to 40

2)

Count by threes from 3 to 39

3)

Count by fives from 5 to 100

4)

Count by nines from 9 to 90.

5)

Count by fifties from 50 to 1,000.

b. Complete the questions with are or is, and then answer each question!

1)

What

your

name?

 

2)

What

your parent‟s name?

3)

you

married?

 

4)

How old

you?

5)

What

your

address?

6)

What

your

phone number?

7)

What

your

job?

8)

How many books

 

there in our library?

9)

Where

the place of Mount Kelud?

10)

the teachers paid properly?

c. Read the following sentences!

1)

My telephone number is Area Code 0355-791669

2)

Your hand phone number is 08883546732

3)

My address is 279 Main Street Birmingham

4)

Your address is 1209 Sudirman Street Jakarta.

5)

Santi‟s phone number is Area Code 423. 774-9845

B. VOCABULARY: Mathematics

Activity : Simple arithmetic, decimals and fractions

a. Study the way we write and say these examples.

ADDITION

 

SUBTRACTION

+ Three plus two equals five

3

2

=

5

8

Eight minus one equals seven

-

1

=

7

MULTIPLICATION

DIVISION

 

4

x

25

=

100

12

:

2

=

6

four times twenty-five equals one

Twelve divided by two equals six

hundred.

 

Two into twelve equals six

DECIMALS 3.2 = three point two

FRACTIONS ½ = one half or a half 1/3 = one third or a third ¾ = three fourths or three quarters 1/4 = a quarter

4.25

= four point two five

0.86

= zero point eight six

 

b.

Work each problem and write it as a sentence!

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

10 + 7 4 x 5 36 : 3 19 8

610 : 10 550 x 2

1.5 + 2.25 =

2.5

½

= Ten plus seven equals seventeen

=

=

=

=

=

-

1.3

+ ¼

=

=

5 : ½

=

C. KEY STRUCTURE THE PRESENT: CONTINUOUS AND SIMPLE

Study the following sentences! The present continuous:

a. I am still having breakfast He is sleeping right now What are you doing?

b. Helmi is walking to school tomorrow I am leaving for Jakarta next week

The simple present:

c. He always has breakfast at 6 o‟clock The earth goes round the sun Do you ever read in bed?

d. We want to leave now They understand the problem now

Note:

1. The present continuous is used to indicate present time/now (examples a.) and future time (examples b.). It is composed by using the following rule:

Subject + am/is/are + verb ing…….

Here are some more examples:

The secretary is typing the letter now

(present time)

I am taking five courses this semester

We are flying to Medan tomorrow (future time)

(future time)

I am going to the library this afternoon

(present time)

.

2. The simple present tense is used to indicate things in general or a habitual action (examples c.). It is composed by the following rule :

Subject + verb (1) + …….

Here are some more examples:

They always swim in the evening (habitual action) Mark usually walks to school (habitual action) Nurses look after patients in hospitals (general things) Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius (general things) 3. The words “always, forever, or constantly” can be used in present continuous

tense to complain, i.e., to express annoyance, anger, etc. Example: Mariam is always leaving her dirty shock on the floor for me to pick up!.

4. The simple present tense is usually not used to indicate present time (now). However, it is usually used to indicate present time (now) with stative verbs; verbs that describe states or conditions that exist, and not describe activities that are in progress (examples d.). Here is the list of the stative verbs:

Know

believe

hear

see

smell

wish

Understand

hate

love

like

want

sound

Have

need

appear

seem

taste

own

Here are some more examples:

The coffee tastes delicious. Your cough sounds bad.

John hates smoke. I believe you.

The verbs listed above are almost never used in the present or past continuous. However, the verbs have, taste, smell, appear and see are commonly used in the progressive form with a different meaning. Compare the following sentences:

Existing state/condition:

I have a car The food tastes good Those flowers smell good I see a butterfly He appears to be asleep

Sentence patterns:

The present continuous:

Johan is talking in the phone

I am going to a party tonight

Mariam is not reading a novel

I am not attending a meeting

Are you talking to me? Isn‟t she attending a seminar?

Activity in progress:

I am having trouble The chef is tasting the food Diana is smelling the roses Doctor is seeing a patient The actor is appearing on the stage

The simple present:

He usually goes to campus by bus I study for two hours every night She does not go to campus by bus I don‟t take biology this semester

Does she take Arabic this semester? Don‟t you write a novel this year?

Exercise 1:

Chose either the simple present or present continuous in the following sentences!

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. After three days of rain, I am glad that the sun (shine)

again

Something

We

He

They

(smell)

very good

(eat)

dinner at seven o‟clock tonight

(practice)

the piano every day

(drive)

to school tomorrow

today

6. Please be quiet. I (try)

7. Look. It (begin)

to concentrate.

to

rain. Unfortunately, I (have, not)

my umbrella with me.

8. Zahara (tutor, often) afternoon, she (teach)

9. Every morning the sun (shine)

(wake)

me up.

other

students in her English class. This

Andi reading comprehension.

in my bedroom window and

10. Amir is a student in Oxford University, but he (go, not)

to

campus right now because it‟s summer. He (attend)

college

from

September

to

May

every

year,

but

in

the

summers he (have, usually)

 

a

job

at

the

post

office.

In

fact,

he

(work)

there

this summer.

 

Exercise 2:

Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple.

1. Are you hungry?

Do you want

something to eat?

(you/want)

2

Jimmy is interested in politics, but he

to a political party.

(not/belong)

3.

Don‟t put the dictionary away. I

it. (use)

4. Don‟t put the dictionary away. I

5. Who is that man? What

6. Who is that man? Why

7. George says he is 80 years old but nobody

8. She told me her name but I

9. Let‟s go out. It

10. Julia is very good at language. She

11. Hurry up! Everybody

12. The river Nile

13. Look at the river. It usual.

14. We usually

it. (need) ? (he/want) at me? (he/look)

him. (believe) it now. (not/remember)

now. (not/rain)

four languages very well. (speak)

(wait) for you.

into the Mediterranean.

(flow)

(flow)

very fast today much faster than

(grow)

vegetables in our garden but this year

we

(not/grow) any.

15. 'How is your English?' 'Not bad. It

16. Normally

I

(finish)

(improve) slowly'.

work at 5.00, but this week I

17. My parents

(work)

until 6.00 to earn a bit more money.

(live)

in Amsterdam. They were born there and

have never lived anywhere else. Where

(your parents/live?)

18. Sari

(look)

for a place to live. She

until she finds somewhere.

(stay) with her sister

19. “What

(your

father/do?)”

“He

(not/enjoy)

20. “Can you drive?” “I

this one very much.

(learn). My father

is

an

architect

but

he

(teach) me.

Exercise 3: Complete the following with your own words!

Rika

: I really don‟t know if I can stand to have Sari for a roommate one more day.

She‟s driving me crazy.

Santi

: Oh? What‟s wrong?

Rika

: Well, for one thing she‟s always

Santi

: Really?

Rika

: And not only that. She‟s forever

Santi

: That must be very inconvenient for you.

Rika

: It is. And What‟s more, she is constantly

Santi

Can you believe that? And she‟s always : I think you are right. You need to find a new roommate.

D. READING COMPREHENSION

The oldest and largest profession: teaching

Every one of us is a teacher in one way or other in everyday life. We all teach and we all learn throughout our lives. A great many relationships in ordinary life depend on teaching and learning: parents and children, husband and wife, managers and employees, and so on. However, in real-life school, it is not always easy to become a teacher. First of all, there are some people who should never take the charge of a classroom, and there are others who seem to be perfect for the work. “Born teachers” we call them. The task of teachers is central to education. Teachers must transmit to new generations the cultural heritage of a society the knowledge, skills, customs, and attitudes acquired over the years. They must also try to develop in their students the ability to adjust to a rapidly changing world. The task of teachers has increased in complexity. There are many more students enrolled and they present a broader range of ability, backgrounds and interests. Besides, school and university curriculum have become increasingly specialised. This places new demands upon the competency of teachers. They often need intensive preparation in a subject field.

Teachers are also “instrument of society”. They are responsible to the community. Their contacts with the community usually extend to the parents of their students and to the neighbourhood of the town. In the deprived areas, students may lack good food, clothing, shelter and the incentive to learn. The successful teachers find ways to build the self image of such students so that they can develop in themselves a strong interest in learning.

Glossary Heritage (noun) To enrolled (verb) Deprived (adj.) Lack (verb/noun) Shelter (noun)

: What is handed on to a person from his : to become a member of… : underprivileged. : have less than enough of… : something that gives protection or safety.

ancestors

1. Comprehension exercises

Answer the following questions based on your understanding of the passage!

a. Is teaching at school more difficult than teaching in every day life? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

b. Are there “born teachers”? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

c. What are the tasks of teachers? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

d. Give the reasons why the task of teachers has become more complex? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

e. Are teachers responsible to the community? Why? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Before each of the following statements, write “T” for true, “F” for false, and “NC” for not clear according to the passage. a. Every one has taught at a school in one way or other b. The job of a teacher has become more and more difficult. c. Teachers must adapt themselves to the changing world. d. Children in poor surrounding have less interest in learning e. All teachers are “born teachers.” f. Teachers should only deal with the students at school. g. Education is more important than food and shelter. h. The hardest work of a teacher is motivating his students.

2. Vocabulary exercise

a. The items in column B are illustration or examples of the concept or ideas in column A. Match the illustration/example with the concept/idea.

A

B

1. Cultural heritage

a. Neighbours who respect and help each other

2. Lack

3. Deprived

b. Borobudur, Prambanan, .

4. Enrolled

c. There are 45 students, but there are only 40 chairs in the classroom

5. Shelter

d. Some one tries to become a new member of a school.

e. State of not having the normal benefits of adequate food.

b. Find the part of speech and the meaning of the following words, and then construct them in good sentences.

a) Ordinary

b) Employee

c) Charge

d) Transmit

e) Acquire

f) Intensive

g) Contact

h) Extend

i) Interest

j) Community

k) Demand

l) Neighbourhood

m) Range

n)

Lack

o)

However

c.

Fill in the box below with the correct part of speech of the following words.

noun

Verb

adjective

adverb

sharp

ability

adjust

enrol

rapidly

strong

deprive

responsibly

development

successful

3. Writing activity Write down five things about:

a. What a teacher should and shouldn't do outside the classroom

b. What a teacher should and shouldn‟t do in the classroom

c. What a student should and shouldn't do in the classroom

d. What a student should and shouldn‟t do outside the classroom.

UNIT III

A. COMMUNICATION : LERNING TO ASK FOR INFORMATION

Study the following conversation!

Situation: Mrs. Helen and Mrs. Santi are on their way to a meeting. Mrs. Helen asks about women‟s activities. Notice to the words in italic!

Mrs. Helen

Mrs. Santi : Quite a lot. All wives of civil servants automatically become members of a national organisation called Dharma Wanita. Mrs. Helen : If it is a national organisation, it must be very large. How is it managed? Mrs. Santi :We have regional and sectoral chapters each with its own

: Do many women here take part in women’s organisations?

officers. : What are the activities?

Mrs. Helen

Mrs. Santi : Different chapters have different activities. These are purely

social for some. Mrs. Helen : That must be quite an organisation!

1. Structure Focus The dialogue above shows us that people use questions to find out things or to ask for information. Different kinds of information use different types of questions.

a. Yes/No questions Usually we make questions by putting the first auxiliary verb (AV) before the subject (S). Study the following:

AV

+

S

+

V

Do

you speak

Chinese?

Does

he

live

here?

Are

you speaking English?

Did

she come to the doctor?

Was

he

attending the meeting?

b. Other questions look for other types of information. The following questions show us that different kinds of information use different types of question words; who, what, when, where, why, which, whom, whose, and how.

TO ASK ABOUT

 

WE USE:

A thing

What is that under the table? What happens at midnight on May 4 th ? Which book is yours?

A time

When is your next exam?

A place

Where do you usually go on idul adha days?

A reason

 

Why do you always wear blue?

A person

 

Who is your favourite movie star? Who lives in that strange house?

The

way

you

do

How do you remember their names?

something

 

A

period of time

 

How long does the program last?

The number of time you do something

How often do you see Mariam?

The cost of something

How much is this?

Note:

1)

We use what if there are many possible answers.

2)

What is your name? We use which if there are only a few possible answers

Which girl’s name begins with J and ends with E?

c. We can make compound questions by using WHAT, WHICH and HOW :

Question: What type/kind/sort of food do you like?

Answer

: I like Italian food

Question:What time does the train leave?

Answer

: It leaves at six o‟clock

Question: What colour is your car?

Answer

: It is green.

Question: Which one do you like best?

Answer

: I really like the yellow one

Question: How far is your home from here?

Answer

: It is about 2 kilometres

Question: How long is your lecture?

Answer

: It is about one and a half hour

Question: How fast is your computer?

Answer

: It is very fast

Question: How many cigarettes do you smoke?

Answer

: 20 a day

Question: How old are you?

Answer

: I am seventeen years old

2. Communicative Activity.

Using the cues given to you, carry out the following conversation.

a. Student A : Ask student B where she/he is going today. Student B : Tell A you are planning to go to Taman Safari. Student A : Tell B you think it is a fine idea. Student B : Ask A whether she/he has gone to Taman Safari Student A : Say yes. Student B : Ask when and how. Student A : Tell B your experience.

b. Student A : Ask B if she/he is interested in going to mountain climbing. Student B : Say you are interested. Student A : Invite B to the mountain climbing. Student B : Ask A when. Student A : Give the day and time. Student B : Ask A what should be prepared Student A : Make plans with B. Student B :Agree. Thank A. Student A: Take leave of B Student B : Respond.

3. Structure Activity: Asking Questions a. Read the following paragraph, and then ask information-seeking questions as you are cued. The Women‟s International Club is an organisation of women with different nationalities who live in Jakarta. It was founded on March 11, 1950. Its aim is to foster friendship and mutual understanding among women of different nations. The club holds regular general meetings. In addition, there are meetings for different interest groups. These interest groups include education, culture and social welfare groups. This club also has an annual bazaar for the purpose of raising funds. These funds are used for social welfare purposes and for scholarships which the club awards to needy but deserving students.

Now,

International Club.

Example: What What

a. Who

b.

c. Where

d.

e. What kind of meetings

f. What

g. What

h. How often

i.

j. Who

following

the

cues

given

below,

ask

questions

Women‟s

International Club?

is

the Women‟s International Club?

members of the Club?

founded?

When

What

members come from?

club have?

club‟s aim?

some of the interest groups?

the purpose of the bazaar?

club have a bazaar?

funds used for?

get scholarships from the club?

What

about

Women‟s

b. Construct correct questions based on the underlined words/expression below.

1. Indonesia has as much as 17,000 islands. So, it is called „nusantara‟.

2. The president delivered an important speech in front of farmers.

3. The thief escaped quickly when the police came to catch him yesterday.

4. The mayor of the city has awarded the innovative citizens in his office.

5. It takes more than 10 hours to go to Jakarta from here by car or train.

6. The water has flooded the city because the trees have been cut off massively.

7. Indonesia is well-known from its diversity of culture, language, and race.

8. The girl in red blouse is presenting a memorable song beautifully.

9. I prefer to have a Genio to a BMW as my daily means of transportation.

10. The car parked in front of this office is the student‟s car.

B. KEY STRUCTURE

DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES

Study the following sentences:

I bought a bag and an eraser yesterday.

The bag is black.

The eraser is red.

Mexico is the largest city in the world.

New Year's Day is the first day of the year

The postman delivers the letters.

'A, an and the are called articles.

1. A and an are called indefinite articles. They are used to indicate something which has not been identified or something we mention for the first time. We use A before a singular noun or an adjective that begins with a consonant sound; a kitchen table, a good idea. We use an, the alternate form of A before a singular noun or an adjective that begins with a vowel sounds; an early class, an ostrich feather. A has the meaning of “one” and it may occur with countable nouns in phrases such as a thousand people and a hundred dollars. A and an can never be used with uncountable nouns.

2. The is called definite article. It is used to indicate something that has been identified or has been mentioned previously. The is used with countable and uncountable nouns. We also use the to refer a special or particular thing, superlatives, and ordinal numbers, etc. Do not use the with plural and uncountable nouns to talk about things in general e.g. I hate modern art. The is normally used with the following place names: seas, mountain groups, rivers, hotels, cinemas, theatres. The is not normally used with continents, town, streets, lakes, the principal buildings of a town e.g. Canterbury or Cambridge, individual mountains and most countries e.g. Australia or France (except for those countries which include a common noun like Union, Republic or States e.g. the USSR or the USA.

Exercise 1

Put "a", "an", or "the" where necessary, otherwise leave the space empty

1. Would you like to have….cup of tea and ….cake?

2.

3. I bought …piece of …

4. This is not ….book I want. That is….one I want. It is on …

5. ……empty vessel makes ….most noise.

6. I live in ……semi detached house at ….end of ….Orchid road.

7. My father is in

8. ….axe is ….useful weapon. You can use it to chop ….wood or to kill… wild animals like …cavemen used to do.

9. We can't play ….football today. …ground is flooded after ….rain.

by bus in

10. He walks to ……school in ….morning, but he comes … ….afternoon.

I can hear …

noise.

I think there is….man at …

cloth

door.

yesterday. It cost Rp 25.000,-

top

meter.

of…

shelf.

hospital

now. He met with ….accident on …

Friday.

home

Exercise 2 Put "a", "an", or "the" where necessary, otherwise leave the space empty

1. She opened……present which he sent her and was pleased to see ….beautiful

watch in it.

2. ……water in…well is so clear that we could see ….bottom of it clearly.

3. "To have ….axe to grind" is …

4. My friend collects ……postcards,…

5. ….hotel that you were telling about is….good one. You have to pay only ten dollars ….a day for …

of mud on….axle.

6. If you look at….bottom of ….car, you will see …

idiomatic expression

stamps and….butterflies.

lot

Get…cloth and clean it.

7. You can't go out without … umbrella! You'll get wet in…rain. Come, I'll give you…lift to… station.

8. I've already written

letter

you

told

me

to

write,

but

I

can't

find

….envelope or….stamp.

9.

10. I hurt my leg in….football match….last Saturday. I went to see ….doctor after….game. ….doctor told me it was ….bad sprain.

11. "Ox" is ….general name for ….animal which looks like ….bull. …plural of "ox" is …

12. In

days people used to tell ….time by …hourglass. Nowadays we

weather

today is fine. We can't go for ….picnic at seaside.

old

tell….time by …

clock

or watch.

13. Eskimo lives in …igloo. You will be surprised to know that ….igloo is built of ….snow; and ….roof of igloo is round.

14. upside down, it looks like …."w".

friend of his on….Sunday. When he came

stomach-ache and had to see …

15. My father had… home, he had …

"a"

is…first letter of ….English alphabet;…

lunch

bad

with …

old

"z"

is ….last. If you run …."m"

doctor.

Exercise 3

1. Yesterday I found …egg in ….nest. I took …egg ….home and show it to my

mother. She said that it was….biggest she had ever seen.

2. Take …chair and make yourself at …home. My brother will be back in half …

3. Singapore is…island situated near …

equator,

lying to…. South of….west

Malaysia. Singapore is linked to west Malaysia by…

4. Chile is ….longest country in ….world. It lies between ….range mountain called …Andes and….South Pacific Ocean.

5.

Mecca is …

holy

city of…Muslims. …. Muslim who has gone on ….pilgrimage

to …

Mecca

is known as …."Hajji" or …."Hajjah".

6. Last night she had …

bad

headache. I gave her …

aspirin

and …glass of

7.

8.

water. After ….while she felt better and went to…

round ….earth. … by …

up…

helped down by …rest of….men.

earth

is round, so is sun. …earth moves round ….sun, and….moon moves

stars

can be seen at….night, but sometimes they are hidden

week

ago some men went to climb …Mt.Semeru. On ….way

mountain,

one of ….men had…fall. He injured his leg and had to be

9. … has ….aunt who is living in that city. He has written … her of their coming visit there.

10. Russia is ….largest country in ….world; it occupies …

three

boys have planned to visit ….Kuala Lumpur during….holidays. John

letter to her, telling

half of… Europe and

….third of ….Asia. It has ….population of 210 million. It is commonly known

as …

USSR,

which in full means ….Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

C. READING COMPREHENSION

An Approach to the Study of Religion

There is a crucial question about the study of religion. The question is “Is it possible to study religion scientifically?” Religion is a social phenomenon as are politics, economics, psychology, anthropology, and the like. The social sciences can be studied scientifically, so can religion. Religion is a universal phenomenon and is the most important ingredient in the study of human life. There are two approaches to the study of religion. These approaches are linked through the unbroken line of the two extremes. The first approach is normative and the other is descriptive. The normative approach is based on the criteria of what is true and good and what is bad, what one ought to do and ought not to do. This is based on the personal internal experiences of the

religion founder or the messenger in contact with the divinity; the transcendental experience. This approach can be looked at two ways. The first one is theology, that is an attempt to give a systematic traditional expression of religious experience. In Islam it is called the ‘aqa’id, something which must be accepted and believed. The second way is religious ethics or moral behaviour: how to act with one‟s fellow man. The second approach is descriptive which is based on intellectual curiosity rather than on belief. There are a number of disciplines which will help in understanding religion. The first is the history of religion; looking at religious behaviour historically. The second is the psychology of religion; understanding the mental process and feeling of religious people. The last is the sociology of religion; trying to understand how religious groups organized themselves, the role of religious institutions, religious leaders, law and the state. Using the descriptive approach, it is possible to study religion scientifically.

Glossary :

Crucial (adj.) Extreme (noun.) Curiosity (noun) Ingredient (noun) Divinity (noun)

Transcendental experience (noun)

experience

: very important : condition as different from another as possible : inquisitiveness

: any of the qualities of which something is made. : God or theology

beyond

:

going

the

limit

of

human

1. Comprehension exercises 1. Answer the following questions according to the passage. a. What is the answer to the question about the possibility of studying religion scientifically?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

b. Why is the study of religion important for the study of human life? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………

c. What approaches can be used for the study of religion? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

d. What is the link between these approaches? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

e. What is the first approach? Explain briefly! …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

f. What is the basis of the approach? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

g. There are two ways in this approach. What are they? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

h. What is the second approach to the study of religion? Explain briefly! …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

i. What disciplines are used in studying religion through this approach? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

j. What is the sociology of religion? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

2. Fill in the blank by referring to the description in the passage.

a. The topic talks about…………

b. According to the writer, religion is considered as………, like…….

c. The different between the two approaches in studying religion is…

d. Define the technical terminology below:

1) religion 2) the normative approach 3) the descriptive approach

:……………………………………………………….…

:………………………………………………………….

:………………………………………………………….

4) theology 5) religious ethics : ………………………………………………………… 6) sociology of religion :……………………………………………………

7) psychology of religion :…………………………………………………….…… 8) history of religion :…………………………………………………….…… e. According to Islam, religion is not only a social phenomenon but also a guide for humanity. Explain briefly!

:………………………………………………………….

2. Vocabulary Exercise A. Find the part of speech and the meaning of these verbs, and construct good sentences using those verbs.

a) Approach

b) Scientifically

c) Founder

d) Curiosity

e) Disciplines

f) Unbroken

g) Normative

h) Extreme

i) Attempt

j)

Ingredient

B. Fill in the blank using the listed words from the passage.

Disciplines

psychology

mentally

history

Ingredient

‘aqa’id

approaches

Criteria

ethics

intellectual

curiosity

a. As teachers, we have to study…….……of learning because it will help us to know how students learn.

b. What……………………………….do we use to cook soup?

c. In teaching different subjects we have to use different………………………….

d. In society there is a certain………………………….…

e. What…………………………………………………

f. What must be believed in Islam is called………………………………………

g. In order to develop the teaching-learning process the teacher should stimulate…………………………………among the students.

h. By studying……….…we can look at the events which happened in the past.

i. Fasting in Islam is not only abstinence from eating and drinking, but

which

we have to follow.

……do

we use to select students?

more importantly achieving health physically and……………………………

in

… studying religion.

j. There are a number of……………………………………….…

3. Writing activity Work in pair. Choose one of the following topics and write in a short paragraph!

a. The importance of studying Islamic education

b. The importance of studying Islamic law

c. The importance of studying Islamic mysticism

d. The importance of studying Islamic art

UNIT

IV

A. COMMUNICATION: EXPRESSING TIME

1.

Time

a. Time is expressed by the words hours, minutes, and seconds.

One day has 24 hours. One hour has 60 minutes. One minute has 60 seconds.

b. There are two ways of telling time between hours we can use past for the first 30 minutes of the hour, and use to for the remaining 30 minutes and the following hour. 10: 05 five minutes past ten or five past ten

1)

10: 20 twenty minutes past ten or twenty past ten 10: 15 a quarter past ten 10: 30 a half‟ past ten 10: 40 twenty minutes to eleven or twenty to eleven 10: 45 a quarter‟ to eleven 10:50 ten minutes to eleven or ten to eleven

2)

We can also use two numbers; the first for the hour and the second for the minutes. 10:05 ten-five 10:20 ten-twenty 10:40 ten-forty 10:55 ten-fifty-five

c.The expression A.M. (ante meridiem) means in the morning. The expression P.M (pos meridiem) means in the afternoon or evening. 5:00 A.M. five in the morning 3.00 P.M. three in the afternoon

7:00 P.M

seven in the evening

2. Prepositions of time

Read these sentences carefully. Pay close attention to the phrase in italic!

a. Phrase with at:

I always leave home at 8 o’clock.

I begin work at 9 o’clock

I often get home at night

I am very busy at the moment

b. Phrase with in:

I am going out now. I‟ll be back in ten minutes or in half an hour The Second World War began in 1939 and ended in 1945 Many tourists come here in summer. They usually come in July and in August. I‟ll see you in the morning. I can‟t see you in the afternoon or in the evening

c. Phrase with on:

I shall see him on Wednesday. I am not free on Thursday.

My sister will arrive from England on April 27 th . He will return on May

5 th .

d.

Other phrases:

The shops are opened from 9 to 5 It rained heavily during the night He will not arrive until 10 o’clock.

Exercise 1:

Read the following time in two ways!

Example : 4:20

twenty past four four-twenty

1:05

5.30

8:45

2:10

6:40

9:53

3:25

7:45

12:00

Exercise 2:

Supply the correct words in the following sentences!

a. Saturday,

b. He ran a hundred meters

c. I can‟t see him

d. My birthday is

e. The days are very short

f. We arrived at the village late

I always go to the Market

thirteen seconds.

the moment. I am busy January 15 th . I was born December

1972.

night. We left early

morning.

g. I shall see him

winter.

Exercise 3:

Write sentences using the following:

1. begin / 3 o‟clock

4. bought / 1960

the

2. children / school / morning 3. go for a walk / evening

5. went / mosque / Friday 6. come / June 15 th .

Exercise 4:

Write the answers!

a. What time does your English lecture start?

b. What time does it finish?

c. What time does your campus open every day?

d. What time do stores open in your city? What time do they close?

e. What time do banks open? What time do they close?

B. KEY STRUCTURE: THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE

Study this example and notice to the verbs in italic.

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) was an Islamic philosopher, jurist and physician. He lived from 1126 to 1198. He started his education in Islamic law. Under Al- Mohad ruler, he wrote his famous commentaries on Aristotle. Finally, he became a royal physician and chief judge of Cordoba.

Comments:

1. Was/lived/started/wrote/became are all past simple. Very often the past simple ends in ed (regular verbs), but many verbs are irregular (doesn‟t end in –ed).

2. The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past. Here are some more examples. Notice to the words in italic! John went to Spain last year. Mark washed the dishes after dinner.

We drove to the grocery store this afternoon. Maria did her home work last night.

3. In questions and negatives we use : did/didn‟t + verb (1)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I enjoyed

Did you enjoy? Did she see? Did they go?

I didn't enjoy She didn't see They didn't go

She saw

They went

4. The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were:

They went 4. The past of be (am/is/are ) is was/were: I was angry when they

I was angry when they were late Was the weather good when you were on holyday? They weren’t in the seminar because they were busy

Exercise 1:

Read what Helmy says about a typical working day:

“I usually get up at 4.00 o’clock. I have a big breakfast at 7 o’clock. I walk to work

which takes me about half an hour. I start work at 8.30. I never have lunch. I

finish work at 5 o’clock. I am always tired when I get home. I usually cook a meal

in the evening. I don’t usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 o’clock. I always sleep

well.”

Yesterday was a typical working day for Helmy. Write what he did or didn‟t do yesterday!

1.

2.

3.

He got up

He

He

at 4 o‟clock

a big breakfast

to

work

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

It

He

He

He

He

He

He

He

He

tired

when

to get to work at 8.30

lunch

5 o‟clock home meal yesterday evening

at

a

out

at

well

yesterday evening 11 o‟clock

last night.

Exercise 2:

A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask her about it. Write your questions!

1. Where did you go

(where/go?)

?

2. (go alone?)

?

3. (food/good?)

?

4. (how long/stay there?)

?

5. (stay/at a hotel?)

?

6. (how/travel)

 

?

7. (the weather/fine?)

?

8. (what do/in the evening)

?

9. (meet anybody interesting?)

?

10.

(travel/expensive)

?

Exercise 3:

Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.

a. The film wasn‟t very good. I

b. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I

very much. (enjoy) her. (disturb)

c. I was very tired, so I

d. The bed was very comfortable. I

to bed early (go) very

well (sleep)

e. Santi wasn‟t very hungry, so she

anything (eat)

f. We went to Dani‟s home, but he

at home (be)

g. It was a funny situation but nobody

(laugh)

h. The window was open and the bird

i. The hotel wasn‟t very expensive. It

into the room. (fly)

very much. (cost)

j. I was in a hurry, so I

k. It was hard work carrying the bags. They

time to phone you. (have)

very heavy. (be)

C. READING COMPREHENSION

The Outspread of Islam in Java

Islam was introduced to the population of Java in the eleventh century and began to outspread in the thirteenth century. The part of Java which first came into contact with Islam was the coasts of Ampel and Giri, the eastern- most part of the Java. Islam was brought there by Sufi preachers. Islamization process in Java was carried out further by the Wallis. In Indonesia, these Walliullahs are known as the motivators of religious activities. The Nine Wallis (Wali Songo) built mosques and religious school compounds (pondok pesantren) in which they lived. The best known mosque built is the Demak mosque. It is regarded as the symbol of the emergence of Islam in Java. The Islamization process in Java was running well during the reign of the Kings of Demak which lasted for more than a half century. The effort continued after the transfer of power from Demak to Pajang in 1568. The effort to intensify the propagation of Islam among common people all over

Java started when the centre of Islamic power moved again from Pajang to Mataram in 1588, especially under the reign of Sultan Agung. The Dutch, who came to Indonesia in 1596, were worried about the rapid process of Islam in Java as they realized that the Moslems‟ leaders prepared cadres for the struggle against them. The Dutch then adopted various tactics and took several measures to suppress the Moslems. But their efforts to subdue Islam were not successful. On the contrary, the Moslems in Indonesia became more determined to drive out the Dutch from their motherland. When the Japanese took over in 1942, the Moslems‟ struggle for independence did not lose momentum. The Moslem leaders were in the front line in fighting against the Japanese when the war of independence broke out in 1945. Glossary :

reign (noun) : rule emergence (noun) : rise lasted (verb) : go on / continue in existence

common (adj.)

worried (adj.) : feel uneasy

adopted (verb)

suppress (verb) : subdue took over (verb) : took control.