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Choose the appropriate options to complete the sentences

1. The Amazon in Brazil is ---- longest river in ---- South America.

the / -

- / the


the / the

a / the
2. Last summer we went on ---- cruise in the Caribbean. Among ---- Islands we visited
were Bermuda and the Bahamas.

- / the

a / the

the / an

the / -

3. There was little information at the airport. ---- people seemed to have ---- idea about
what time the flight was likely to leave.

Many / any

A lot of / any

Only a few / some

Few / no

Any / no
4. ---- teachers prefer a class that is fairly consistent in having pupils of the same level.





5. ---- of what he said was very sensible.



A few


6. ---- drawings is different.

Each one of the

Very few


All of

7. The report concludes sadly that ---- students have ---- knowledge of nuclear physics.

some / a lot of

both / whole
none / any

every / no

all / little

8. ---- his friends speaks any English.

Both of




Neither of

1. the / -
2. a / the
3. Only a few / some
4. Most
5. Much
6. Each one of the
7. all / little
8. Neither of

Fill in the blanks with a, an, the articles. Put x where no article is necessary.
Separate answers with a comma and a space as needed.

1. ---- Tower of London is ---- popular tourist attraction.

The, a

2. Newcastle is ---- town in ---- north of ---- England.

a, the, x

3. ---- Princess lives in ---- palace in ---- London.

4. ---- Buckingham Palace is where ---- Queen of England officially lives.

5. She bought ---- expensive necklace at ---- Harrods.

6. They went for ---- stroll around ---- St James' Park.

7. The supermarket is in ---- Kendell Street opposite ---- Lloyds Bank.

8. ---- hotel where they held their wedding reception was called ---- Grand Hotel.

9. Anna was born in ---- Italy but she lives in ---- U.S.A. now.

10. The convict is in ---- prison on ---- outskirts of town.

11. His favourite newspaper is ---- Guardian.

12. ---- Gatwick Airport is in ---- southern England.

13. ---- Duchess of York opened ---- new hospital in ---- center of London.

14. He went on ---- expensive holiday to ---- Bahamas.

15 ---- Statue of Liberty is in ---- New York.

16 ---- National Park was opened ---- last week by ---- mayor.

17 ---- expedition to ---- South Pole needs a lot of careful planning.

18. ---- Odeon cinema is in ---- Appleton Street just past ---- library.

19. Last month I saw ---- film and then went to ---- concert. ---- film was brilliant but --
-- concert was boring.

20. There are three cars parked outside: ---- Mercedes, ---- Jaguar and ---- Fiat. Mine is
---- Fiat.

21. ---- Harrods is a huge department store near ---- Kensington Gardens.


1. The, a
2. a, the, x
3. The, a, x
4. x, the
5. an, x
6. a, x
7. x, x
8. The, the
9. x, the
10. x, the
11. the
12. x, x
13. The, a, the
14. an, the
15. The, x
16. The, x, the
17. An, the
18. The, x, the
19. a, a, The, the
20. a, a, a, the
21. x, x

Comparing Primary and Secondary Sources: Pre-Test

Name _______________________________________
Primary Sources
Secondary Sources
The Constitution of the United States Social Studies textbook
Coin found at Jamestown Picture of Reenactors at Jamestown
Comic book about Title page of a book written
Jamestown by John Smith in 1608Comparing Primary and Secondary Sources: Post-Test
Name ______________________________
Part II - Directions: Label each picture as either a primary or secondary source. Then, explain why
you believe the picture is either a primary or secondary source.

Social Studies textbook

The Constitution of the United
Coin found at Jamestown
Picture of Reenactors at Jamestown
Comic book about Jamestown
Title page of a book written
by John Smith in 1608
Part III – Directions: Answer the following questions on the lines provided.

Secondary Sources: Post-Test (Modified)

Name ______________________________
Part I - Directions: Fill in the blank.
1. ____________________ sources are the records and artifacts made by people who saw or took
part in an event.
2. A ____________________ source is a record of an event made by someone who was not there
at the time.
Social Studies textbook
Coin found at Jamestown

Directions: Label each picture as either a primary or secondary source.

Picture of Reenactors at Jamestown

Comic book about Jamestown
Title page of a book written
by John Smith in 1608
The Constitution of the United StatesThe Constitution of the United States Social Studies textbook
Coin found at Jamestown Picture of Reenactors at Jamestown
Comic book about Title page of a book written
Jamestown by John Smith in 1608Comparing Primary and Secondary Sources: Pre-Test

Name _____Answer Key__________________________

Primary Sources
The Constitution of the United States
Coin found at Jamestown
Title page of a book written by John Smith in 1608
Secondary Sources
Social Studies Textbook
Picture of Reenactors at Jamestown
Comic book about JamestownComparing Primary and Secondary Sources: Pre-Test
Name _____Answer Key__________________________
Part I: (1 point each) 2 points total
1. Primary sources
2. Secondary source
Part II: (1 point for label, 1 point for reasoning) 12 points total
(The explanations will vary, but should match the definition of either primary or secondary source)
3. Primary
4. Secondary
5. Primary
6. Secondary
7. Secondary
8. Primary

A piece of the original Magna Carta signed by King John in 1215 (Primary)

The Mona Lisa - Painted by Leonardo da Vinci in 1506 (Primary)

A book about the Tudors written in 1999 (Secondary)

A mug made in 2013 (Primary)

A cartoon of Napoleon made in 1975 (Secondary)

Roman Coins made by the Romans in AD45 (Primary)

A Poster of a Van Gogh Painting made in 1975 (Secondary)

Look at the sentences below. There is a gap in each sentence. Try to make a word to fit into the gap
using the word in capitals at the end of the sentence. You may need the opposite, or an adjective, or
adverb, so read each sentence carefully.

John's tooth was very so he has to go to the dentist. PAINpainful

I like that shop assistant. She's very . HELPhelpful

I had to handle the machine carefully, as it was very
. BREAKbreakable

Jen was eating a very apple and obviously enjoying
it. CRUNCHcrunchy

Don't forget to your shoelaces before taking them off. TIEuntie

6. I wasn't very happy with the hotel we were staying in. In fact I was
very .SATISFYdissatisfied

I asked Martin to my pencil for me. SHARPsharpen

He gave us a great deal of before the
exam. ENCOURAGEencouragement

That is a terrible song. It is completely . TUNEtuneless

What a shirt! Green, yellow and purple! COLOURcolourful

Exercise 2
The next ones are a little more difficult.

I'm afraid that your behaviour is just not . ACCEPTacceptable

There's a mistake on the bill. I think they have us for the wine. It
can't have cost £40! CHARGEovercharged

It's most to try and cook a whole chicken on the
barbeque. PRACTICALimpractical

Have you seen that old film "The of the Long-distance
Runner"? LONELYloneliness

He had following the thread of the argument and so lost all interest in
what was going on. DIFFICULTdifficulty
Your place at the university is on your getting a band 7 in your

Many young people today have a much higher income than their
parents had. DISPOSEdisposable

Although it wasn't all his fault, I do think he is to blame. PARTpartly

This latest energy report highlights the total of our oil

There was a about the timing of the lecture and a number of students
failed to turn up at the right time. UNDERSTANDmisunderstanding

Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content is conveyed to the
audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. By contrast, in musical
theater an actor's dramatic performance is primary, and the music plays a lesser role. The drama in opera is
presented using the primary elements of theater such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the
opera, or libretto, are sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from
a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.

1. It is pointed out in the reading that opera ----.

A) has developed under the influence of musical theater

B) is a drama sung with the accompaniment of an orchestra

C) is not a high-budget production

D) is often performed in Europe

E) is the most complex of all the performing arts

2. We can understand from the reading that ----.

A) people are captivated more by opera than musical theater

B) drama in opera is more important than the music

C) orchestras in operas can vary considerably in size

D) musical theater relies above all on music

E) there is argument over whether the music is important or the words in opera

3. It is stated in the reading that ----.

A) acting and costumes are secondary to music in musical theater

B) many people find musical theater more captivating than opera

C) music in musical theater is not as important as it is in opera

D) an opera requires a huge orchestra as well as a large choir

E) opera doesn't have any properties in common with musical theater

Passage 2 - Dolphins
Dolphins are regarded as the friendliest creatures in the sea and stories of them helping drowning sailors have
been common since Roman times. The more we learn about dolphins, the more we realize that their society is
more complex than people previously imagined. They look after other dolphins when they are ill, care for pregnant
mothers and protect the weakest in the community, as we do. Some scientists have suggested that dolphins have
a language but it is much more probable that they communicate with each other without needing words. Could any
of these mammals be more intelligent than man? Certainly the most common argument in favor of man's
superiority over them that we can kill them more easily than they can kill us is the least satisfactory. On the
contrary, the more we discover about these remarkable creatures, the less we appear superior when we destroy
4. It is clear from the passage that dolphins ----.

A) don't want to be with us as much as we want to be with them

B) are proven to be less intelligent than once thought

C) have a reputation for being friendly to humans

D) are the most powerful creatures that live in the oceans

E) are capable of learning a language and communicating with humans

5. The fact that the writer of the passage thinks that we can kill dolphins more easily than they can
kill us ----.

A) means that they are better adapted to their environment than we are

B) shows that dolphins have a very sophisticated form of communication

C) proves that dolphins are not the most intelligent species at sea

D) does not mean that we are superior to them

E) proves that Dolphins have linguistic skills far beyond what we

previously thought
6. One can infer from the reading that ----.

A) dolphins are quite abundant in some areas of the world

B) communication is the most fascinating aspect of the dolphins

C) dolphins have skills that no other living creatures have such as the
ability to think

D) it is not usual for dolphins to communicate with each other

E) dolphins have some social traits that are similar to those of humans


Naval architects never claim that a ship is unsinkable, but the sinking of the passenger-and-car ferry Estonia in the
Baltic surely should have never have happened. It was well designed and carefully maintained. It carried the
proper number of lifeboats. It had been thoroughly inspected the day of its fatal voyage. Yet hours later, the
Estonia rolled over and sank in a cold, stormy night. It went down so quickly that most of those on board, caught
in their dark, flooding cabins, had no chance to save themselves: Of those who managed to scramble overboard,
only 139 survived. The rest died of hypothermia before the rescuers could pluck them from the cold sea. The final
death toll amounted to 912 souls. However, there were an unpleasant number of questions about why the Estonia
sank and why so many survivors were men in the prime of life, while most of the dead were women, children and
the elderly.
7. One can understand from the reading that ----.

A) the lifesaving equipment did not work well and lifeboats could not be

B) design faults and incompetent crew contributed to the sinking of the

Estonia ferry

C) 139 people managed to leave the vessel but died in freezing water

D) naval architects claimed that the Estonia was unsinkable

E) most victims were trapped inside the boat as they were in their cabins
8. It is clear from the passage that the survivors of the accident ----.

A) helped one another to overcome the tragedy that had affected them

B) were mostly young men but women, children and the elderly stood little

C) helped save hundreds of lives

D) are still suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder

E) told the investigators nothing about the accident

9. According to the passage, when the Estonia sank, ----.

A) there were only 139 passengers on board

B) few of the passengers were asleep

C) there were enough lifeboats for the number of people on board

D) faster reaction by the crew could have increased the Estonia's

chances of survival

E) all the passengers had already moved out into the open decks


Erosion of America's farmland by wind and water has been a problem since settlers first put the prairies and
grasslands under the plow in the nineteenth century. By the 1930s, more than 282 million acres of farmland were
damaged by erosion. After 40 years of conservation efforts, soil erosion has accelerated due to new demands
placed on the land by heavy crop production. In the years ahead, soil erosion and the pollution problems it causes
are likely to replace petroleum scarcity as the nation's most critical natural resource problem.
10. As we understand from the reading, today, soil erosion in America ----.

A) causes humans to place new demands on the land

B) is worse than it was in the nineteenth century

C) happens so slowly that it is hardly noticed

D) is the most critical problem that the nation faces

E) is worse in areas which have a lot of petroleum production

11. The author points out in the passage that erosion in America ----.

A) has damaged 282 million acres ever since settlers first put the prairies
and grasslands under the plow

B) has been so severe that it has forced people to abandon their


C) occurs only in areas with no vegetation

D) can become a more serious problem in the future

E) was on the decline before 1930s

12. It is pointed out in the reading that in America ----.

A) petroleum is causing heavy soil erosion and pollution problems

B) heavy crop production is necessary to meet the demands and to

prevent a disaster

C) soil erosion has been hastened due to the overuse of farming lands

D) water is undoubtedly the largest cause of erosion

E) there are many ways to reduce erosion

1. B
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. D
6. E
7. E
8. B
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. C