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energies

Article
Admittance Reshaping Control Methods to Mitigate
the Interactions between Inverters and Grid
Ling Yang 1 , Yandong Chen 2, * , An Luo 2 and Kunshan Huai 3
1 School of Automation, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
2 College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
3 Guangzhou Power Supply Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510620, China
* Correspondence: yandong_chen@hnu.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-151-1626-8089

Received: 20 May 2019; Accepted: 19 June 2019; Published: 26 June 2019 

Abstract: With the increasing impedance coupling between inverters and grid caused by the
phase-locked loop (PLL), traditional three-phase inverters suffer from the harmonic distortion or
instability problems under weak grid conditions. Therefore, the admittance reshaping control
methods are proposed to mitigate the interactions between inverters and grid. Firstly, a dynamics
model of traditional inverter output admittance including main circuit and PLL is developed in the
direct-quadrature (dq) frame. And the qq channel impedance of the inverter presents as a negative
incremental resistance with the PLL effect. Secondly, two admittance reshaping control methods are
proposed to improve the system damping. The first reshaping technique uses the feedforward point
of common coupling (PCC) voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second reshaping
technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance. The
proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin, but also ensure the system
dynamic response speed. And the total harmonic distortion of steady-state grid-connected current is
reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control parameters is depicted.
Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the proposed control methods.

Keywords: distributed generation; weak grid; inverter; impedance coupling; admittance reshaping

1. Introduction
With the increasing prevalence of renewable energy systems, the systems are connected to the
utility grid by multiple transformers and long transmission lines because of the distributed locations
of renewable energy generations [1,2]. Therefore, the utility grid shows the feature of the weak grid
where the grid impedance cannot be ignored [3]. Grid-connected inverters are the important part,
which transfer renewable energy to the weak grid [4,5]. Under the weak grid condition, the impedance
coupling between inverters and grid may cause harmonic distortion or instability problems [6,7].
There are two impedance-based analysis methods to analyze the interaction stability between
inverters and weak grid [8–11]. On the one hand, References [8,9] proposed the sequence impedance
model by the harmonic linearization modeling method, which is represented by a diagonal
matrix, including the positive sequence and negative sequence components. On the other hand,
References [10,11] developed the dq impedance model by transforming three-phase variables into a
rotating dq reference frame. The phase-locked loop (PLL) effect can be explained through linearizing
the transitions between the system and the control dq frame. By the generalized Nyquist criterion,
dq impedances can be utilized to analyze system stability considering the PLL effect. The following
conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system stability
is caused by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance coupling
between inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system instability.

Energies 2019, 12, 2457; doi:10.3390/en12132457 www.mdpi.com/journal/energies


Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 18
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 18

conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system
conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system
stability is caused by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance
stability
couplingisbetween
Energies 2019, caused
12, 2457 by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance
inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system
2 of 18
coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system
instability.
instability.
The impedancereshaping
The impedance reshapingtechniques
techniqueswere were used
used to to mitigate
mitigate thethe interactions
interactions between
between inverters
inverters and
The impedance reshaping techniques were used to mitigate the interactions between inverters
and
grid.grid. References
References [12,13]
[12,13] presented
presented the virtual
the virtual impedance
impedance or active
or active dampingdamping
methodsmethods
underunder
the weak the
and grid. References [12,13] presented the virtual impedance or active damping methods under the
weak grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance
grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance or the output filter parameters.or the output filter
weak grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance or the output filter
parameters.
However, only However, only
the current the current
control loop of control loopisof
the inverter the inverter
considered. is considered.
Reference Reference
[14] proposed [14]
a special
parameters. However, only the current control loop of the inverter is considered. Reference [14]
proposed a special regulator
regulator replacement method with replacement
consideration methodof thewith
PLL,consideration of the PLL,
which can effectively improvewhich
systemcan
proposed
effectively aimprove
special regulator
system replacement
stability by method the
adjusting withPLL
consideration
bandwidth. ofHowever,
the PLL, ifwhichthe can
PLL
stability by adjusting the PLL bandwidth. However, if the PLL bandwidth is small, it may weaken
effectively improve system stability by adjusting the PLL bandwidth. However, if the PLL
bandwidth
the dynamicisperformance
small, it mayof weaken the dynamic
the system when the performance
load changes of abruptly
the system when
[15]. the load[16]
Reference changes
used
bandwidth is small, it may weaken the dynamic performance of the system when the load changes
abruptly [15]. Reference [16] used multiple resonance compensators to enhance
multiple resonance compensators to enhance the amplitude of the inverter output impedance at specific the amplitude of the
abruptly [15]. Reference [16] used multiple resonance compensators to enhance the amplitude of the
inverter output impedance at specific harmonic frequency. However, the process
harmonic frequency. However, the process of selecting control parameters is unknown in this control of selecting control
inverter output impedance at specific harmonic frequency. However, the process of selecting control
parameters
method [17].is unknown in this control method [17].
parameters is unknown in this control method [17].
Motivated
Motivated by by the
the above
above limitations,
limitations, admittance
admittance reshaping
reshaping control
control methods
methods areare proposed
proposed in in this
this
Motivated by the above limitations, admittance reshaping control methods are proposed in this
paper. The
paper. The strong
strong points
points of
of the
the proposed
proposed methods
methods are are given
given below:
below: On the premise
On the premise of of ensuring
ensuring the the
paper.
system The strongresponse
points ofspeed,
the proposed methods aresystem
given phase
below:margin.
On the premise of ensuring the
system dynamic
dynamic response speed, it can
it can increase
increase the
the system phase margin. Furthermore,
Furthermore, aa specific
specific
system dynamic response speed, it can increase the system phase margin. Furthermore, a specific
design methodofofcontrol
design method control parameters
parameters is depicted.
is depicted. This This
paperpaper is organized
is organized as follow:
as follow: Section 2Section
presents 2
design method of control parameters is depicted. This paper is organized as follow: Section 2
presents the admittance
the admittance model andmodel and analysis
a stability a stability analysis
of the of thecontrol
traditional traditional control
method; method;
Section Section
3 proposes two 3
presents the admittance model and a stability analysis of the traditional control method; Section 3
proposes two admittance reshaping control methods, designs the
admittance reshaping control methods, designs the control parameters and comparatively analyzes control parameters and
proposes two admittance reshaping control methods, designs the control parameters and
comparatively
system stability;analyzes
Section 4system
providesstability;
experimentalSection 4 provides
results to proveexperimental
the validity ofresults to prove
the proposed the
control
comparatively analyzes system stability; Section 4 provides experimental results to prove the
validity
methods;ofFinally,
the proposed control methods;
the conclusions Finally, the
are summarized conclusions
in Section 5. are summarized in Section 5.
validity of the proposed control methods; Finally, the conclusions are summarized in Section 5.
2. Admittance
Admittance Model of Three-Phase Grid-Connected System
2. Admittance Model of Three-Phase Grid-Connected System
2.1. System
2.1. System Description
Description
2.1. System Description
Figure 1
Figure 1 presents
presents the
the system
system structure,
structure, which which includes
includes the the inverter
inverter subsystem
subsystem and and the
the grid
grid
Figure U
subsystem. 1 dcpresents
is the the system
DC-side structure,
voltage. u , u which
and u includes
are the the inverter
inverter subsystem
output voltage, and
filter the grid
capacitor
subsystem. Udc is the DC-side voltage. uinv inv, uC1 C1and upcc are the inverter output voltage, filter capacitor
pcc
subsystem.
voltage Udc is the DC-side coupling
voltage. u(PCC)
inv, uC1voltage.
and upcc uare the inverter outputZgvoltage, filter capacitor
voltage and andpoint point of of
common
common coupling (PCC) voltage. g is the ug grid
is the voltage. is the grid
grid voltage. Zg isimpedance.
the grid
voltage
The and point of common
inductance-capacitance-inductance coupling (LCL)(PCC) voltage.
filter is u g
constituted is theby grid
the voltage.
inverter-side Z is the grid
g inductor L1 ,
impedance. The inductance-capacitance-inductance (LCL) filter is constituted by the inverter-side
impedance.
grid-side The inductance-capacitance-inductance
inductor L and filter capacitor C . R and (LCL)
R are filter is
parasitic constituted
resistances byofthe
L inverter-side
and L . i is
inductor L1, grid-side2 inductor L2 and filter 1capacitor L1 C1.L2RL1 and RL2 are parasitic resistances 1 of2L1 L1
and
inductor
the
L L 1 ,
2. iinverter-side
grid-side inductor L
inductor inductor
L1 is the inverter-side
2 and filter
current. icurrent. capacitor
g is the grid-connected
C 1 . R L1 and R
current. iC1
ig is the grid-connected L2 are parasitic
is the ifilter
current. resistances
capacitor
C1 is the
of L 1 and
current.
filter capacitor
L2. iL1 is the inverter-side inductor current. ig is the grid-connected current. iC1 is the filter capacitor
current.
current.

Figure 1. Three-phase grid-connected system.


Figure 1. Three-phase grid-connected system.
2.2. Admittance
2.2. Admittance Model
Model ofof Traditional
Traditional Control
Control Method
Method
2.2. Admittance Model of Traditional Control Method
The diagram
The diagram ofof the
the PLLPLL description
description is is shown
shown in in Figure
Figure 2, whereTTPLL
2, where is the proportional integral
PLL is the proportional integral
(PI) The diagram
controller of of the
PLL,
(PI) controller of PLL, TPLL T PLL= k
PLL = kppll
+
descriptionk
ppll + kipll
/s,
iskshown in Figure 2, where T PLL is the
is the proportional coefficient ofofPLL
/s, kppllppll
ipll is the proportional coefficient proportional
PLL integral
PIcontroller,
PI controller, and
and
(PI) controller of PLL, T = k + k /s, k is the proportional coefficient of PLL PI controller, and
kkipll isthe
theintegral
integralgain
gainofofPLL
PLLPI PIcontroller.
controller. Because
Because of of the
the PLL
PLL dynamics,
dynamics, there
there are
are two
two dq
dq frames
frames inin
PLL ppll ipll ppll
ipllis
kthe
ipll is the integral
system. The gainisof
first thePLL PI controller.
system dq frame Because
that is of the PLLby
identified dynamics,
the PCC there are The
voltage. two second
dq framesis in
the
the system. The first is the system dq frame that is identified by the PCC voltage. The second is the
the
controlsystem.
control dq The first
dq frame
frame thatisis
that isthe systemby
identified
identified dqPLL.
by frame that is identified by the PCC voltage. The second is the
PLL.
control dq frame that is identified by PLL.

Figure 2. The diagram of PLL description.


Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 18
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 3 of 18

Figure 2. The diagram of PLL description.


The dq admittance model of the traditional control method, considering the PLL effect, is shown
The dq
in Figure 3. admittance
Outside themodel dottedoflinethe of traditional
Figure 3,control
the controlmethod,
diagramconsidering the PLL effect,
of the traditional control is
shown in Figure 3. Outside the dotted line of Figure 3, the control
method without considering the PLL effect is pretended. The PI controller [18] is often utilized diagram of the traditional control
method without considering
for the grid-connected current the PLLdue
loop effect
to itsis pretended.
simplicity and Theefficiency.
PI controller The[18]filteris often utilized
capacitor current for
the grid-connected
feedback [19] is oftencurrent
introducedloopfor due
the to its simplicity
active damping loop andtoefficiency.
suppress the The filter capacitor
resonance peak of thecurrent
LCL
feedback
filter, which does not require additional passive components or energy loss. However, by adding the
[19] is often introduced for the active damping loop to suppress the resonance peak of the
LCL filter, which
small-signal does not
disturbance, PLLrequire
affects additional
the grid-connectedpassive current
components vectororand energy loss. However,
filter capacitance current by
adding
vector inthe thesmall-signal
control dq frame disturbance,
and dutyPLL cycleaffects
vectorthein thegrid-connected
system dq frame. current vector and
Therefore, filter
the above
capacitance current vector in the control dq frame and duty cycle
vectors are converted between the system dq frame and the control dq frame, and considering the PLL vector in the system dq frame.
Therefore, the above
effect, are shown vectors
inside are converted
the dotted line of Figure between
3. the system dq frame and the control dq frame,
and considering the PLL effect, are shown
In Figure 3, the superscript variable is “sy,” which inside the dotted line ofthe
represents Figure
variable3. in the system dq frame,
In Figure 3, the superscript variable is “sy,” which
the superscript variable is “c,” which represents the variable in the control dq frame, represents the variable in the
and system
the front dq
frame, sy−sy sy sy sy−sy
variablethe superscript
is “∆,” variable isthe
which represents “c,”small-signal
which represents variable. theThevariable
matricesin the
AD−ig control
= ∆igdq dq /∆D
frame,, A and the
sy-sy sy dq sy upcc−ig sy-sy
frontsyvariable sy is “∆,” which represents
sy−sy sy sy the small-signal
sy−c variable. sy The matrices
sy−c A = ∆i /∆D
sy , Aupcc-ig
= ∆isygdq /∆u =sy ∆Dsy /∆u sy-c = ∆i c /∆u = ∆i /∆u
D-ig c gdq dq
sy , A
sy-sy , A c sy sy-c c, A sy , A PI is
= ∆igdq/∆upccdq , Aupcc-Dupcc−D
pccdq = ∆Ddq /∆upccdqdq , Apccdq upcc−ig gdq pccdq upcc−ic1 C1dq
upcc-ig = ∆igdq/∆upccdq, Aupcc-ic1 = ∆iC1dq/∆upccdq, API is the PI controller
pccdq
the PI controller matrix of grid-connected current loop and Aad is the active damping coefficient matrix.
matrix of grid-connected current loop and Aad is the active damping coefficient matrix. The
The derivation of the above matrices are as follows.
derivation of the above matrices are as follows.

Δigrdq
c
=0
Δigdq
c
[ Aad ]2×2
ΔiCc 1dq

ΔiCsy1dq

[ Ausy-c
pcc-ic1 ]2×2 [ Ausy-c
pcc-ig ]2×2

[ Ausy-sy
pcc-D ]2×2 [ Ausy-sy
pcc-ig ]2×2
Δupccdq
sy

ΔDdqc ΔDdqsy Δigdq


sy

[ ADsy-sy
-ig ]2×2

Figure 3. The dq admittance model of traditional control method.


Figure 3. The dq admittance model of traditional control method.
The vectors are converted from the system dq frame to the control dq frame via the translation
The vectors are converted from the system dq frame to the control dq frame via the translation
matrix T ∆θ , which can be defined as
matrix TΔθ, which can be defined as
cos(∆θ) sin(∆θ)
" #
T∆θ =  cos( Δθ ) sin( Δθ )  . (1)
TΔθ =  − sin(∆θ) cos(∆θ) . (1)
 − sin( Δ θ ) cos( Δ θ ) 
The small-signal pcc voltage can be obtained as
The small-signal pcc voltage can be obtained as
 c
c ∆uc c 
# sy sy sy∆u
sy
 u+ Δupccd   11 Δ∆θ u pccd pccd 
 " 
 upccd
pccd + pccd θ 
upccd+ Δ+upccd
 uc  +  ==  −∆θ 1    syusy +sy∆usy. . (2)

c ∆u
c c  (2)
pccq Δupccq   −Δθ 1  upccq
upccq + pccq + Δupccq pccq
pccq

And (2) can be rewritten as


And (2) can be rewritten as
sy sy
   Δ∆u Δθ ∆θ
  
 ∆ucpccd 

c  sy sy u
Δupccd upccd + u+pccq
pccd pccq 
 ∆uc c  == −usysy ∆θ + ∆u sy .
. (3)
(3)
 
Δupccq   −upccd
pccq pccdΔθ + Δupccq
sy pccq

From Figure
From Figure 2,
2, the
the angle ∆θ can
angle Δθ can be
be calculated
calculated as
as
(s)∆uccpccq
PLL ( s ) Δupccq
TTPLL
Δθ==
∆θ .. (4)
(4)
ss
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 4 of 18

Combining (3) and (4), the following equation can be obtained as


sy
TPLL (s)∆upccq sy
∆θ = sy = GPLL ∆upccq , (5)
s + upccd TPLL (s)

TPLL (s)
where GPLL = sy .
s+upccd TPLL (s)
Substitute (5) into (3), (3) can be obtained as
sy sy sy
 ∆ucpccd upccq GPLL  ∆upccd   ∆upccd
      
  0 
 =  sy  +  . (6)
−upccd GPLL  ∆usy   ∆usy
  
 ∆uc   0  
pccq pccq pccq

Similarly, the small-signal duty ratio can be expressed as

sy sy sy
 ∆upccd
#  "
∆Dd  + ∆Dd .
c
" # " #
0 −Dq GPLL 
sy = sy  ∆usy
 (7)
∆Dq 0 Dd GPLL pccq
 ∆Dcq

sy−sy
And the matrix Aupcc−D can be obtained as

sy
∆Ddq "
A3dd −A3dq
# "
0
sy
−Dq GPLL
#
sy−sy
Aupcc−D = sy = = sy . (8)
∆upccdq A3qd A3qq 0 Dd GPLL

Meanwhile, the small-signal grid-connected current can be expressed as


sy sy   sy
 ∆igd  ∆upccd   ∆igd
 c    
  0 igq GPLL 
 =  sy  +  sy . (9)
 ∆usy
 
 ∆ic   0 −igd GPLL   ∆i 
gq pccq gq

sy−c
And the matrix Aupcc−ig can be obtained as

∆icgdq sy
" #  
sy−c A4dd A4dq  0 igq GPLL 
Aupcc−ig = sy = =  sy . (10)
∆upccdq A4qd −A4qq 0 −igd GPLL 

At the same time, the small-signal filter capacitance current can be expressed as
sy sy   sy
 ∆iC1d iC1q GPLL  ∆upccd   ∆iC1d
 c    
  0 
 =   +  sy . (11)
 ∆i sy sy   ∆i
 c  
−iC1d GPLL  ∆upccq
  0  
C1q C1q

sy−c
And the matrix Aupcc−ic1 can be obtained as

∆icC1dq sy
" #  
sy−c A5dd A5dq  0 iC1q GPLL 
Aupcc−ic1 = sy = =  sy
. (12)
∆upccdq A5qd −A5qq 0 −i G 
C1d PLL

According to the small-signal open-loop circuit model of LCL filter in the system dq frame, the
following equation can be expressed as
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 5 of 18

sy sy  sy 
 ∆uC1d   ∆iL1d 
#  
∆Dd Udc /2
 "

−  sy  = A

sy  sy 
∆uC1q  ∆iL1q

∆Dq Udc /2






 sy   sy  sy
 ∆iL1d   ∆igd   ∆uC1d 

  


 sy  −  sy  = B

, (13)
 ∆i  ∆usy 


   ∆i 


 L1q gq C1q
sy sy  sy 

 ∆uC1d   ∆upccd   ∆igd 
 
   


 ∆usy  −  ∆usy  = C ∆isy 
 
     


C1q pccq gq
" # " # " #
sL1 + RL1 −ω1 L1 sC1 −ω1 C1 sL2 + RL2 −ω1 L2
where A = ,B= ,C= .
ω1 L1 sL1 + RL1 ω1 C1 sC1 ω1 L2 sL2 + RL2
From (13), (14) can be obtained as
sy sy sy
∆iC1dq = B∆upccdq + BC∆igdq . (14)

sy sy−sy
By setting ∆Udc and ∆upccdq to zero, the matrix AD−ig can be obtained as

sy
∆igdq
sy−sy
AD−ig = sy = E · (C + A + ABC)−1 , (15)
∆Ddq

where E = [Udc /2, 0; 0, Udc /2].


sy sy−sy
Similarly, by setting ∆Udc and ∆Ddq to zero, the matrix Aupcc−ig can be obtained as

sy
∆igdq
sy−sy
Aupcc−ig = sy = −(AB + I) · (ABC + A + C)−1 , (16)
∆upccdq

where I is the identity matrix.


Meanwhile, the matrix API can be defined as
" # " #
A6dd A6dq Gi 0
API = = . (17)
A6qd A6qq 0 Gi

And the matrix Aad can also be defined as


" # " #
A7dd A7dq KC 0
Aad = = . (18)
A7qd A7qq 0 KC

From Figure 3 and Mason’s gain formula, the inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL with considering
the PLL effect using traditional control method can be calculated as
sy−sy sy−sy sy−sy sy−c sy−c
"
Ydd Ydq
# Aupcc−ig + AD−ig (Aupcc−D − API Aupcc−ig − Aad (Aupcc−ic1 + B))
Yinv_PLL = = sy−sy . (19)
Yqd Yqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

sy−sy sy−c sy−c


Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc−D = Aupcc−ig = Aupcc−ic1 = 0. The inverter output
admittance Y inv using traditional control method can be calculated as
sy−sy sy−sy
"
Yinvdd Yinvdq
# Aupcc−ig − AD−ig Aad B
Yinv = = sy−sy . (20)
Yinvqd Yinvqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Meanwhile, the PLL equivalent admittance Y PLL can be calculated as


Energies 2019, 12, 2457 6 of 18

sy−sy sy−sy sy−c sy−c


"
YPLLdd YPLLdq
# AD−ig (Aupcc−D − API Aupcc−ig − Aad Aupcc−ic1 )
YPLL = Yinv_PLL − Yinv = = sy−sy . (21)
YPLLqd YPLLqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

2.3. Impedance-Based Stability Criterion


Under the weak grid condition, the grid impedance can be expressed as
" # " #
Zgdd Zgdq sLg −ω1 Lg
Zg = = . (22)
−Zgdq Zgdd ω1 Lg sLg

According to the Norton theorem, the equivalent circuit of the system using the traditional control
method is shown in Figure 4. The inverter subsystem is equivalent to a parallel connection between
the current source and inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL = (Y inv //Y PLL ). The grid subsystem is
equivalent
Energies 2019, to
12,the grid
x FOR REVIEW Zg and an ideal grid in the series connection.
impedance
PEER 6 of 18

Figure
Figure 4. Equivalent circuit
4. Equivalent circuit of
of the
the system
system with
with the
the traditional
traditional control
control method.
method.

On
On the
the basis
basisof
ofthe
thegeneralized
generalizedNyquist
Nyquistcriterion
criterion[20],[20],if ifthe Nyquist
the Nyquist curve forfor
curve thethe
eigenfunction of
eigenfunction
the return-ratio matrix L does not encircle (–1, j * 0), the system is in a stable state.
of the return-ratio matrix L does not encircle (–1, j * 0), the system is in a stable state. L can beL can be depicted as
depicted as " #
Zgdd Ydd Zgdq Yqq
L = Zg · Yinv_PLL = . (23)
−ZZ gdd
gdqYYdddd ZZ YqqYqq
gdd
gdq
L = Zg ⋅ Yinv_PLL =  .
Z gddYqq 
(23)
Therefore, the eigenfunction of the return-ratio  − Zmatrix
gdqYdd
L can be calculated as
 Therefore, the eigenfunction of the return-ratio matrix L can be calculated as
2 1/2


 l1 = Zgdd Ydd /2 + Zgdd Yqq /2 − (Z2gdd Ydd 2
− 2Z2gdd Ydd Yqq − 4Z2gdq Ydd Yqq + Z2gdd Yqq ) /2
 l = Z Y / 2 + Z Y / 2 − ( Z 2
Y 2
− 2 Z 2
Y Y − 4 Z 2
Y Y + Z 2
Y 2
)1/2
/ 2 }



1 gdd dd gdd qq gdd dd gdd dd qq gdq dd qq gdd qq
| {z }
    

 | {z
x1

 x2

. /2 . (24)
(24)
x1 x2

l2 = ZgddY 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2

/2 + Z Y /2 + ( Z Y 2 −22Z 2 dd Yqq − 4Z 2 Ydd Yqq +2 Z 2 Y
Y 1/2qq )

| l2 =  Z gddYdd / 2 + Z gdd}Yqq / 2 + ( Z gddYdd − 2 Z gddYddYqq − 4 Z gdqYddYqq + Z gddYqq ) / 2
qq
 dd gdd gdd dd gdd gdq gdd


  




 {z | {z }
x1 xx22

 x1

From (24),
From (24), the
the retained
retained component
component xx1 and
and secondary
secondary component
component xx2 can be defined as
1 2 can be defined as

1 1
xZ= ·Z(Y ⋅ (Y + Y+ Y) )

 x1 = 2 1 gdd2 gdddd dd qq qq


 2 .)1/2
1
. (25)
(25)
 x2 = (Z2 1 Y22 − 22Z2 Y2 dd Yqq − 4Z2 2 Ydd Yqq +2Z2 2 Y1/2qq

 x2 =gdd( Zdd

gddYdd − 2 Z gddYddYqq − 4 Z gdqYddYqq + Z gddYqq )
2 gdd gdq gdd
 2
According to (25), the Bode diagrams of the retained component x1 and secondary component
x2 areAccording
shown in to (25), the
Figure Bode the
5. When diagrams
distanceof the retained
between thecomponent x1 and secondary
two is the smallest, component
the magnitude of x1 xis2
are shown
−15.6 inmagnitude
dB, the Figure 5. When of x2 isthe distance
−47.2 dB. The between
magnitudethe twoof x1isisthe
31.6smallest,
dB largerthe magnitude
than that of x2 ,of x1 is
which
−15.6 dB, the magnitude of x 2 is −47.2 dB. The magnitude of x1 is 31.6 dB larger than that of x2, which
is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2 , (24) can be rewritten as
is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2, (24) can be rewritten
as Zgdd
l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) · (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)
Z2gdd
l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) ⋅ (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)
2
are shown in Figure 5. When the distance between the two is the smallest, the magnitude of x1 is
−15.6 dB, the magnitude of x2 is −47.2 dB. The magnitude of x1 is 31.6 dB larger than that of x2, which
is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2, (24) can be rewritten
as
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 Z gdd 7 of 18
l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) ⋅ (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)
2

Figure 5. The Bode diagrams


Figure 5. diagrams of
of the
the retained component xx11 and secondary component x2.
retained component
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18
However, a dynamic interconnected system will be formed in the weak grid. The phase margin
of theHowever,
system may a dynamic interconnected
be insufficient. system
That results will be formed
in increasing in the weak
the distortion of grid. The phase current.
grid-connected margin
of the
To systemenough
guarantee may be stability
insufficient.
and That
goodresults in increasing
dynamics, the range the distortion
of phase margin of grid-connected
of the system iscurrent.
usually
To guarantee
required enough
to be 30–60 ◦ under
stability and good
the weak dynamics, the range of phase margin of the system is
grid condition.
usuallyIn therequired
Nyquist to curve,
be 30–60°
the under the weak
intersection grid
point forcondition.
the eigenfunction and unit circle is defined as the
In the Nyquist curve, the intersection point
system cut-off frequency f i , and the location is determinedfor the eigenfunction
as the phaseand margin unit of
circle αPMas[21].
is defined
the system the
system
From (26), αPM frequency
cut-off fi, and as
can be expressed the location is determined as the phase margin of the system αPM
[21]. From (26), αPM can be expressed as
Zgdd ( fi )
αPM = 180◦ − arg( Z gdd ( f i )) − arg(Ydd ( fi ) + Yqq ( fi )). (27)
α PM = 180 − arg( 2 ) − arg(Ydd ( f i ) + Yqq ( f i )). (27)
2
From (27), the system phase margin is increased by decreasing arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) and arg(Ydd (f i ) +
Yqq (f From (27), the system phase margin is increased by decreasing arg(Zgdd(fi)/2) and arg(Ydd(fi) +
i )). It is difficult to control the phase of grid impedance arg(Zgdd (f i )/2). Therefore, the target needs
Y qq(fi)). It is difficult to control the phase of grid impedance arg(Zgdd(fi)/2). Therefore, the target needs
to be achieved by decreasing arg(Ydd (f i ) + Yqq (f i )).
to be achieved by decreasing arg(Ydd(fi) + Yqq(fi)).
2.4. Stability Analysis of Traditional Control Method
2.4. Stability Analysis of Traditional Control Method
The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method is shown as in
FigureThe Nyquist
6. The diagram
system cut-off of the eigenfunction
frequency f i is 181 Hzwith thesystem
and the traditional
phasecontrol
marginmethod is◦shown
αPM is 16 , which as in
does
Figure 6. The system cut-off frequency fi is 181 Hz and the system phase margin αPM is 16°, which
not satisfy the requirement of sufficient stability of the system. Therefore, the system phase margin
does not
should besatisfy the under
improved requirement of sufficient
the traditional stability
control method.of the system. Therefore, the system phase
margin should be improved under the traditional control method.

Figure 6. The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method.
Figure 6. The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method.
The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL using the traditional control method
The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittance Yinv_PLL using the traditional control method
are shown in Figure 7. The amplitudes and phases of Ydd , Ydq , Yqd and Yqq can be obtained at the
are shown in Figure 7. The amplitudes and phases of Ydd, Ydq, Yqd and Yqq can be obtained at the
system cut-off frequency, so arg(Ydd(fi) + Yqq(fi)) = 74°. Because the grid impedance is equivalent to
the inductance, arg(Zgdd(fi)/2) is generally equal to 90°. According to (27), the system phase margin
αPM is 16°, which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The results are consistent with those
in Figure 6. Therefore, the system phase margin should be improved under the traditional control
method. Specifically, the PLL shapes the Zqq (1/Yqq) as a negative incremental resistance that may
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 8 of 18

system cut-off frequency, so arg(Ydd (f i ) + Yqq (f i )) = 74◦ . Because the grid impedance is equivalent to
the inductance, arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) is generally equal to 90◦ . According to (27), the system phase margin
αPM is 16◦ , which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The results are consistent with those
in Figure 6. Therefore, the system phase margin should be improved under the traditional control
method. Specifically, the PLL shapes the Zqq (1/Yqq ) as a negative incremental resistance that may
destabilize the system. Meanwhile, |Ydd | and |Yqq | are far larger than |Ydq | and |Yqd |, so |Ydq | and |Yqd |
are equal to 0, which verifies the correctness of (23). Within the range of the error, the measurement
results 2019,
Energies are in
12,agreement
x FOR PEER with the model results, which proves the correctness of the model.
REVIEW 8 of 18

Figure 7.
Figure TheBode
7. The Bodediagrams
diagramsofofinverter
inverteroutput
outputadmittance Y inv_PLL
admittanceYinv_PLL of traditional
of traditional control
control method.
method. (a)
(a) Y ; (b) Y ; (c) Y
Ydd; (b) Yqd; (c) Ydq; (d) Yqq.
dd qd dq ; (d) Y qq .

3. Admittance Reshaping Control Methods for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter


3. Admittance Reshaping Control Methods for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter
3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)
3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)
To improve the system’s stability, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 uses the
To improve
feedforward the system’s
PCC voltage stability,
to modify the proposed
the inverter admittanceY reshaping
output admittance technique 1 uses the
inv , which is equivalent to adding
feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance Yinv, which is equivalent to
the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance. The system diagram of
adding the virtual
the proposed admittance
admittance to connect
reshaping in parallel
technique with inverter
1—considering output
the effect admittance.
of PLL—is shownThe system
in Figure 8.
diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1—considering the effect
Inside the left dotted line of Figure 8, the control diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping of PLL—is
shown
techniquein 1—without
Figure 8. Inside the leftthe
considering dotted line of Figure
PLL effect—is 8, theThe
presented. control
vectors diagram of the proposed
are converted between
admittance reshaping technique 1—without considering the PLL effect—is presented.
the system dq frame and the control dq frame that considers the PLL effect are shown outside The vectors
the left
are converted
dotted between
line of Figure 8. the system dq frame and the control dq frame that considers the PLL effect
are shown outside8,the
From Figure theleft dotted linematrix
feedforward of Figure
Acom8. can be defined as
sy
Δupccq
ΔiCsy1d sy
Δupccq " #
sy
igq GPLL iCsy1q GPLL Gcomdd 0
Acom = . (28)
sy ΔiCc 1d 0 Gcomqq
Δigd sy sy
c ΔuCsy1d Δigd Δupccd
Δigd
ΔDdc
From Figure 8, the dq admittance model of the proposed 1 ΔDdsy
admittance sy
Δuinvd
1 reshaping technique
1
sy
1 is
Δigd
sy
Δuinvd ΔuCsy1d
c sy−c
Δigrd
obtained, as shown in Figure 9, where the matrix A sL1 + RLcan be sC
obtained as sL + R
sy upcc−upcc 1 1 2 L2
Δupccd
sy
Δupccq c
Δupccd DqsyGPLL
sy
upccq GPLL sy
ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2
sy Δupccq
Δupccq c
Δupccq sy
sy
upccd GPLL Δupccq
ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2
sy
Δupccq DdsyGPLL
sy
c
Δigrq ΔDqc ΔDqsy Δuinvq 1 ΔiLsy1q 1 ΔuCsy1q 1
sy
Δigq
sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2
sy c
Δigq Δigq
ΔuCsy1q sy
Δigq sy
Δupccq
c
3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)
To improve the system’s stability, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 uses the
feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance Yinv, which is equivalent to
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 9 of 18
adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance. The system
diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1—considering the effect of PLL—is
shown in Figure 8. Inside the left dotted line of Figure 8, the control diagram  of the proposed
admittance reshaping ∆ucpccdq "
Aconsidering
A
# 
0 u
sy
G
sy−ctechnique 1—without 8dd 8dq the PLL
 effect—is
pccq presented.
PLL  The vectors
Aupcc−upcc = = =  . (29)

sy sy
are converted between the system ∆upccdq
dq frameAand −Acontrol
8qd the 8qq 0 −u
dq frame pccd G
that considers
PLL
 the PLL effect
are shown outside the left dotted line of Figure 8.
sy
Δupccq
ΔiCsy1d sy
Δupccq
sy
igq GPLL iCsy1q GPLL
sy ΔiCc 1d
Δigd sy sy
c ΔuCsy1d Δigd Δupccd
Δigd
ΔDdc ΔDdsy sy
Δuinvd 1
sy
Δuinvd 1 ΔuCsy1d 1
sy
Δigd
c
Δigrd sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2
sy
Δupccd
sy
Δupccq c
Δupccd DqsyGPLL
sy
upccq GPLL sy
ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2
sy Δupccq
Δupccq c
Δupccq sy
sy
upccd GPLL Δupccq
ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2
sy
Δupccq DdsyGPLL
sy
c
Δigrq ΔDqc ΔDqsy Δuinvq 1 ΔiLsy1q 1 ΔuCsy1q 1
sy
Δigq
sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2
sy c
Δigq Δigq
ΔuCsy1q sy
Δigq sy
Δupccq
c
sy ΔiCsy1q ΔiC1q sy
Δupccq
igd GPLL iCsy1d GPLL
sy
Δupccq

Figure
Figure 8. The system
8. The system diagram
diagram of
of proposed
proposed admittance
admittance reshaping
reshaping technique
technique 11 considering
considering the
the
phase-locked loop (PLL) effect.
phase-locked loop (PLL) effect.

Therefore, the inverter output admittance Y invc_PLL with the proposed admittance reshaping
technique 1 can be expressed as
" #
Ycdd Ycdq
Yinvc_PLL =
Ycqd Ycqq
sy−sy sy−sy sy−sy sy−c sy−c sy−c (30)
Aupcc−ig +AD−ig (Aupcc−D +Acom Aupcc−upcc −API Aupcc−ig −Aad (Aupcc−ic1 +B))
= sy−sy .
I+AD−ig (API +Aad (BC))

sy−sy sy−c sy−c


Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc−D = Aupcc−ig = Aupcc−ic1 = 0. The inverter output
admittance Y invc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 can be calculated as
sy−sy sy−sy sy−c
"
Yinvcdd Yinvcdq
# Aupcc−ig + AD−ig (Acom Aupcc−upcc − Aad B)
Yinvc = = sy−sy . (31)
Yinvcqd Yinvcqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Next, the calculation process of the feedforward matrix Acom is introduced. The optimization
function Gp (s) of the inverter output admittance phase, which can be given as

1 + kω s
Gp ( s ) = · km , (32)
1 + kp kω s

where kp is the proportional coefficient, kω is the phase coefficient, and km is the gain coefficient. kp
and kω can reduce the phase at the desired frequency and km can compensate for the amplitude offset
at the desired frequency.
The Bode diagram of the optimization function Gp (s) is shown in Figure 10. By selecting the
appropriate parameters, the amplitude of Gp (s) is 0 dB at the desired frequency and the phase reaches
the minimum at the desired frequency.
I + AD -ig (API + Aad (BC ))
sy-sy sy-c sy-c
Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc-D = Aupcc-ig = Aupcc-ic1 = 0. The inverter output admittance
Yinvc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 can be calculated as

Yinvcdd Yinvcdq  Ausy-sy sy-sy sy-c


pcc-ig + AD -ig (Acom Aupcc-upcc − Aad B )
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 Yinvc =   = . 10 of 18
(31)
Yinvcqd Yinvcqq  I + ADsy-sy
-ig (API + Aad (BC ))

Δigrdq
c
=0
Δigdq
c

[ Aad ]2×2
ΔiCc 1dq

ΔiCsy1dq

[ Ausy-c
pcc-ic1 ]2×2 [ Ausy-c
pcc-ig ]2×2

[ Ausy-c
pcc-upcc ]2×2
Δupccdq
c

[ Ausy-sy
pcc-D ]2×2 [ Ausy-sy
pcc-ig ]2×2
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW Δupccdq
sy
10 of 18
ΔDdqc ΔDdqsy sy
Δigdq
2×2 [ Asy-sy ]
The Bode diagram of the optimization function Gp(s) isD -igshown in Figure 10. By selecting the
appropriate parameters, the amplitude of Gp(s) is 0 dB at the desired frequency and the phase
Figure 9. The
reaches the minimum dq admittance
at the model of proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.
desired frequency.
Figure 9. The dq admittance model of proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.

Next, the calculation process of the feedforward matrix Acom is introduced. The optimization
function Gp(s) of the inverter output admittance phase, which can be given as
1 + kω s
Gp ( s ) = ⋅ km , (32)
1 + k p kω s

where kp is the proportional coefficient, kω is the phase coefficient, and km is the gain coefficient. kp
and kω can reduce the phase at the desired frequency and km can compensate for the amplitude offset
at the desired frequency.

Figure 10. The


Figure 10. The Bode
Bode diagram
diagram of
of the
the optimization function G
optimization function (s).
Gpp(s).

Meanwhile,
Meanwhile, the
the optimization matrix A
optimization matrix can be
App can be defined
defined asas

G
Gpp 00 
" #
p = 0
ApA=
Gp .
. (33)
(33)
0 G  p 
If
If the
the series
series correction
correction between
between the the optimization matrix A
optimization matrix App and
and inverter
inverter output
output admittance
admittance
YYinv_PLL is taken, the aim of compensating for the phase of inverter output admittance
inv_PLL is taken, the aim of compensating for the phase of inverter output admittance at the desired
at the desired
frequency
frequency will will be
be realized.
realized. Meanwhile,
Meanwhile, the the feedforward matrixAAcom
feedforward matrix can also be obtained. Therefore,
com can also be obtained. Therefore,
the inverter output admittance Y
the inverter output admittance Yinvc_PLL with using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1
invc_PLL with using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1
can be rewritten
can be rewritten as as
Yinvc_PLL = Ap Yinv_PLL . (34)
Yinvc_PLL = ApYinv_PLL . (34)
Therefore, Gcomdd in the feedforward matrix can be expressed as
Therefore, Gcomdd in the feedforward matrix can be expressed as
(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G − G2
Gcomdd = (1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) · G1 −1G2 sy , (35)
Gcomdd = km (kp kω s + 1) ⋅ GPWM GPLL ,
sy upccd (35)
km ( kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLLupccd
(sL1 +RL1 )sC1
where G1 = 1 +( sL + R ) sCand G = L C ω21 . 2
where G1 = 1 + (11+sC1 RL1C1 ) 1 and2 G2 =1 L11C1ω1 .
Meanwhile,(1 G+ sC1Rin
comqq C1 )the feedforward matrix can also be expressed as
Meanwhile, Gcomqq in the feedforward matrix can also be expressed as
(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G1 − G2 − G3
Gcomqq = ⋅ sy
, (36)
km (kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLLupccd

where G3 = GPLLGPWM ( Ddsy + Gi igd


sy
+ K CiCsy1d ) .
Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1, Yinvc_PLL is equivalent to the parallel
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 11 of 18

(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G1 − G2 − G3
Gcomqq = · sy , (36)
km (kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLL upccd
sy sy sy
where G3 = GPLL GPWM (Dd + Gi igd + KC iC1d ).
Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1, Y invc_PLL is equivalent to the parallel
connection between Y PLL and Y invc . Therefore, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 is
equivalent to adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance Y inv .
The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittances Y invc_PLL with the proposed admittance
reshaping technique 1 are shown in Figure 11, where arg(Ycdd (f i ) + Ycqq (f i )) = 54◦ . Because the grid
impedance is equivalent to the inductance, arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) is generally equal to 90◦ . According to (27),
the system phase margin αPM is 36◦ , which meets sufficient stability of the system. Therefore, the
proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 increases the system phase margin. At the same time, the
measurement results are in good agreement with the modified model, which proves the correctness of
the modified
Energies 2019, 12,model.
x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 18

Figure 11.
Figure The Bode
11. The Bode diagrams
diagrams of of inverter
inverteroutput admittancesYY
outputadmittances invc_PLL with proposed admittance
invc_PLL with proposed admittance
reshaping technique 1. (a) Y ; (b) Y
cdd; (b) Ycqd
reshaping technique 1. (a) Ycdd cqd ; (c) Y ; (d) Y
; (d) Ycqq.cqq
; (c) Ycdqcdq .

3.2. Admittance Reshaping Technique 2 (the Active Damping Controller)


3.2. Admittance Reshaping Technique 2 (the Active Damping Controller)
To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts
To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts
the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance Y PLL . The control block
the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance YPLL. The control block
diagram of the improved PLL is shown in Figure 12. The proposed admittance reshaping technique
diagram of the improved PLL is shown in Figure 12. The proposed admittance reshaping technique
2 reduces the phase of PLL equivalent admittance at the system cut-off frequency, which improves
2 reduces the phase of PLL equivalent admittance at the system cut-off frequency, which improves
system stability.
system stability.
From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance
reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as

TPLL
GPLLc = sy GAD
. (37)
s + upccd TPLL + 1+G TPLL
AD

sy−sy
Therefore, the matrix Aupcc−D in (8) can be rewritten as

Figure 12. The control block diagram of the improved PLL.

From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance
reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as
Figure 11. The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittances Yinvc_PLL with proposed admittance
reshaping technique 1. (a) Ycdd; (b) Ycqd; (c) Ycdq; (d) Ycqq.

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 12 of 18


3.2. Admittance Reshaping Technique 2 (the Active Damping Controller)
To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts
the active damping controller to reconstruct
sy " the PLL equivalent
# " admittance YPLL#. The control block
∆Ddq A3cdd 12.
−A
sy
−Dq GPLLc reshaping technique
0 admittance
diagram of the improved
sy−sy PLL is shown in Figure The
3cdqproposed
A = sy = = sy . (38)
2 reduces the phaseupcc−D_c ∆upccdq admittance
of PLL equivalent A3cqd atAthe 0 Dd frequency,
3cqq system cut-off GPLLc which improves
system stability.

Figure 12. The control block diagram of the improved PLL.


Figure 12. The control block diagram of the improved PLL.
sy−c
Meanwhile, the matrix Aupcc−ig in (10) can be rewritten as
From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance
reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as"
∆icgdq #  sy 
sy−c A4cdd A4cdq  0 igq GPLLc 
Aupcc−ig_c = = =  . (39)
A4cqd T−A
sy
 sy
∆uG = PLL4cqq 0. −igd GPLLc 
PLLc
pccdq
sy GAD (37)
s + upccd TPLL + TPLL
sy−c 1 + GAD
At the same time, the matrix Aupcc−ic1 in (12) can be rewritten as
sy-sy
Therefore, the matrix Aupcc-D in (8) can be rewritten as
∆icC1dq sy " A #  sy 
A  0 sy iC1q GPLLc 
sy−c
Aupcc−ic1_c = ΔD =  A3cdd − A3cdq  =
5cdd 5cdq 0  − Dq GPLLc  . (40)
Ausy-sy
pcc-D_c∆u = sy sydq = A5cqd −A5cqq =   0 sy −isy G PLLc
. 
(38)
Δupccdq  A3cqd A3cqq   0 Dd GPLLc 
pccdq C1d

Therefore,
Meanwhile,the theinverter
matrix A output
sy-c admittance Y inv_PLLc using the proposed admittance reshaping
upcc-ig in (10) can be rewritten as
technique 2 can be expressed as
 A4cdd sy−syA4cdq   0 sy−cigq GPLLc 
c sy
sy-c Δigdq
A = sy+ A=  (A
sy−sy
Aupcc−ig
sy−sy
= − Aad
. (Asy−c + B)) (39)
 Ycdd Ycdq upcc-ig_c − A4cqq− API 0Aupcc−ig_c
 
Δ u 
D−igA4cqd upcc−D_c − i sy
G  upcc−ic1_c
Yinv_PLLc =   =
 pccdq
sy−sy  gd PLLc  . (41)
Ycqd Ycqq I+A (API + Aad (BC))
D−ig

Next, the calculation process of the active damping controller GAD is introduced. According to
(32), the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique
2 can be rewritten as
Yinv_PLLc = Ap Yinv_PLL . (42)

Therefore, the active damping controller GAD can be obtained as

( 1 − Gp ) s
GAD = . (43)
(Gp − 1)s + TPLL Gp

Using proposed admittance reshaping technique 2, Y inv_PLLc is equivalent to the parallel connection
between Y PLLc and Y inv . Therefore, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 is equivalent
to adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with the PLL equivalent admittance Y PLL .
Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2, the reconstructed inverter output admittances
Y inv_PLLc can achieve the same purpose as proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.

3.3. Design Method of Control Parameters


By selecting the appropriate parameters kp and kω , the phase of the inverter output admittance is
reduced at the system cut-off frequency, which increases the system phase margin. In addition, the
amplitude of the inverter output admittance at the system cut-off frequency will be changed. Therefore,
it is essential to select the appropriate parameter km to compensate for the amplitude offset.
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 13 of 18

The phase-frequency function of Gp (s) is expressed as

(kp − 1)kω ω
φp (ω) = −arctan( 2 ω2 + 1
). (44)
kp kω

If dφp (ω)/dω = 0, the maximum compensation angular frequency ωm can be obtained as


q
ωm = 1/( kp kω ) . (45)

Combining (44) and (45), the maximum compensation phase φm can be derived as

kp − 1
φm = −arctan( p ). (46)
2 kp

To maintain the amplitude of the inverter output admittance at the system cut-off frequency, the
amplitude of Gp (s) should be 0 dB at the system cut-off frequency, that is, |Gp (j2πf i )| = 1. The gain
coefficient of phase compensation km can be expressed as
s
2 ω2 + 1
kp2 kω m
km = 2 ω2 + 1
. (47)
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW kω m 13 of 18

Using the traditional control method, the system cut-off frequency f i is 181 Hz, and the system
Using the traditional control method, the system cut-off frequency fi is 181 Hz, and the system
phase margin αPM is 16◦ , which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The parameter
phase margin αPM is 16°, which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The parameter design
design process of the proposed control methods can be illustrated as follows. Firstly, the maximum
process of the proposed control methods can be illustrated as follows. Firstly, the maximum
compensation phase frequency ωm should be equivalent to the system cut-off angular frequency ωi =
compensation phase frequency ωm should be equivalent to the system cut-off angular frequency ωi =
2πf i ≈ 1137rad/s. Secondly, the range of maximum compensation phase φm is −14~−44◦ on the basis
2πfi ≈ 1137rad/s. Secondly, the range of maximum compensation phase ϕm is −14~−44° on the basis of
of the required system phase margin. Then, the range of kp is 1.6383~5.55 by (46). Next, the range of
the required system phase margin. Then, the range of kp is 1.6383~5.55 by (46). Next, the range of kω is
kω is 3.7325–4 × 10−4 −6.8698 × 10−4 by (45). Finally, the range of km is 1.28–2.3558 by (47).
3.7325 × 10 –6.8698 × 10–4 by (45). Finally, the range of km is 1.28–2.3558 by (47).
3.4. Contrast Analysis of System Stability
3.4. Contrast Analysis of System Stability
The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction are shown in Figure 13. Using the traditional control
The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction are shown in Figure 13. Using the traditional
method, the system phase margin αPM is separately 16◦ . Using the proposed control methods, the
control method, the system phase margin αPM is separately 16°. Using the proposed control
system phase margins αPM are separately 30◦ and 60◦ , which are increased by 14◦ and 44◦ , respectively.
methods, the system phase margins αPM are separately 30° and 60°, which are increased by 14° and
The result is the same as the designed maximum compensation phase, which meets sufficient stability
44°, respectively. The result is the same as the designed maximum compensation phase, which
and good dynamics of the system.
meets sufficient stability and good dynamics of the system.

Figure 13. The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction.


Figure 13. The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction.

4. Experiments Verification
To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase
grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase
grid-connected inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and
an industrial personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the
main circuit, control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 14 of 18

Figure 13. The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction.


4. Experiments Verification
4. Experiments Verification
To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase
To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase
grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase grid-connected
grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase
inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and an industrial
grid-connected inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and
personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the main circuit,
an industrial personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the
control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.
main circuit, control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.
DSP control board LCL filter circuit
Three-phase grid- grid-side inductance
connected inverter
filter capacitance
Sensors
(voltage and current) inverter-side inductance

Switchgear
Industrial personal
computer
(control and
calculation)
Transformer
Three-phase grid-connected inverter
(a) (b)

Figure 14. Experimental platform for a three-phase grid-connected system. (a) Whole; (b) Details.
Figure 14. Experimental platform for a three-phase grid-connected system. (a) Whole; (b) Details.
Table 1. System parameters.

Parameter/Unit Value
DC voltage Udc /V 720
Inverter-side inductor L1 /mH, RL1 /Ω 0.6, 0.01
Filter capacitor C1 /µF 10
Grid-side inductor L2 /mH, RL2 /Ω 0.15, 0.001
Grid inductor Lg /mH 0.05
Grid-connected current reference igrd , igrq /A −73, 0
Grid-connected current isgd , isgq /A −73, 0
PCC voltage uspccd , uspccq /V 311, 0
Filter capacitor current isC1d , isC1q /A 0.03, 0.90
Duty radio Dsd , Dsq 0.55, 0.01
PLL PI controller kppll , kipll 1, 4000
Grid current loop PI controller kpi , kii 0.45, 1000
Active damping coefficient KC 1.15
Fundamental frequency f 1 /Hz 50
Switching frequency f s /kHz 10

To improve the stable operation range, the stability enhancement method was proposed [14] by
largely reducing the PLL bandwidth, abbreviated as the traditional control method. The traditional
control method, the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2, the experimental waveforms
of PCC voltage upcc and the grid-connected current ig are shown in Figures 15–17. The experimental
results of the grid-connected current in the three cases are shown in Table 2.
In the case of the traditional control method from Figure 15a, the total harmonic distortion (THD)
of the steady-state grid-connected current is 9.71%. The harmonic contents of the grid-connected
current are large. The reason is that the phase margin of the system may be insufficient using the
traditional control method. Therefore, it is essential to propose the control method to increase the
system phase margin.
To increase the system phase margin, admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2 are proposed, which
use a set of parameters within the design range shown in Table 3. In the case of the proposed admittance
reshaping techniques 1 and 2 from Figures 16a and 17a, the THD of the steady-state grid-connected
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 15 of 18

currents are 1.72% and 1.93%. In both cases, the harmonic contents of the grid-connected current are
greatly attenuated. The reason is that the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2 increase the
system damping and improve system stability. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical analysis is verified.
As can be seen in Figures 15b, 16b and 17b, the reference grid-connected current increases from
36.5A to 73A in the case of the traditional control method and the proposed admittance reshaping
techniques 1 and 2. The transient experimental results in the three cases are similar. Therefore,
compared with the traditional control method, the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2
can ensure system dynamics.

Table 2. The experimental results of the grid-connected current.

Case THD of the Steady-State Grid-Connected Current


Traditional control method 9.71%
Admittance reshaping technique 1
1.72%
(within the parameter design range)
Admittance reshaping technique 2
1.93%
(within the parameter design range)
Admittance reshaping technique 1
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR 5.62%
(without thePEER REVIEW
parameter design range) 15 of 18
Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER
Admittance REVIEW
reshaping technique 2 15 of 18
5.84%
(without
(without the parameter
the parameter design
design range)
range)
(without the parameter design range)
Table 3.
Table 3. Different sets of parameters.
parameters.
Table 3. Different sets of parameters.
Case Case φm ϕm kp k p kω kkmω km
theCase
within within
design rangerange
the design
ϕm
−20◦ −20°
2.04
kp
2.04
6.16 × 10−4
k×ω 10–4
6.161.43 k
1.43
m

withinwithout
withoutthe
thedesign
design range
rangerange
the design −10◦ −20°
−10°
1.42 2.04
1.42× 10−4
7.38 6.16 × 10–4
7.381.19 –4 1.43
1.19
without the design range −10° 1.42 7.38 × 10–4 1.19
iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient
iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient
igabc
igabc

FFT
THD=9.71% reference current transient
FFT iga igb
THD=9.71% reference current transient
iga igb

50Hz THD=21.54% THD=9.71%


50Hz t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) THD=21.54% t(10ms/div) THD=9.71%
t(8ms/div) (a) f(300Hz/div) (b)
t(10ms/div)
(a) (b)

Figure 15. Experimental waveforms of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage upcc and
Figure 15. Experimental waveforms of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage upcc and grid-connected
Figure 15. Experimental
grid-connected waveforms
current ig with traditionalofcontrol
point method.
of common coupling
(a) Steady (PCC)
state; (b) voltage upcc and
Transient.
current ig with traditional control method. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.
grid-connected current ig with traditional control method. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient


igabc(100A/div)

iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient


ga)(1A/div) igabc(100A/div)

igabc
igabc
FFT
THD=1.72% reference current transient
FFT iga igb
THD=1.72% reference current transient
iga igb
)(1A/div)
lg(igalg(i

50Hz THD=3.44% THD=1.72%


50Hz t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) THD=3.44% t(10ms/div) THD=1.72%
t(8ms/div) (a) f(300Hz/div) (b)
t(10ms/div)
(a) (b)
Figure 16. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 1
Figure 16. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 1
within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.
Figure 16. Experimental
within the waveforms
parameter design of Steady
range. (a) upcc and ig with
state; proposed admittance reshaping technique 1
(b) Transient.
within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.
igabc

igabc(10
FFT
THD=1.72% reference current transient
iga igb

lg(iga)(1A/div)
Energies 2019, 12, 2457 16 of 18
50Hz THD=3.44% THD=1.72%
t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) t(10ms/div)
To verify the reasonableness
(a) of the parameter design for the proposed admittance
(b) reshaping techniques
1 and 2, another set of parameters without the design range is shown in Table 3. The experimental
waveforms
Figure of
16.PCC voltage upcc
Experimental and grid-connected
waveforms of upcc and icurrent ig in bothadmittance
g with proposed cases are shown as Figures
reshaping 18 and
technique 1 19.
The experimental results of the grid-connected current in both cases
within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient. are shown in Table 2.

Figure 17. Experimental waveforms of uupcc and iigg with


pcc and with proposed
proposed admittance
admittance reshaping technique 2
Energies 2019, 12, xparameter
within FOR PEER REVIEWrange. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient. 16 of 18
within the
the parameter design
design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

From
From Figures18a
Figures 18aandand19a,
19a,thethe
THDTHD the of the steady-state grid-connected current is 5.62% and
To verify the reasonableness of theofparameter
steady-state
designgrid-connected
for the proposed current is 5.62%
admittance and 5.84%
reshaping
5.84%
in in the case
the case of1 the of the proposed control methods without the design range. The THD of the
techniques andproposed
2, another control
set ofmethods without
parameters the design
without range.range
the design The THD of thein
is shown grid-connected
Table 3. The
grid-connected
current in both current
cases in both
is less casesinisFigure
less than that
with in theFigure 15a with themethod,
traditional control
experimental waveforms of than
PCC thatvoltage upcc and 15agrid-connected traditional
currentcontrol
ig in both casesbut are greater
shown
method,
than that but
in greater
Figures than
16a that
and in
17a Figures
within 16a
the and
design 17a within
range. the
The design
reason isrange.
that theThe reason
phase is that
margin of the
the
as Figures 18 and 19. The experimental results of the grid-connected current in both cases are shown
phase
system margin
has of
been the system
improved buthasit been
has improved
not yet met but it has
sufficient not yet
stability met
of sufficient
the system. stability of
Therefore, the
the
in Table 2.
system. Therefore,
reasonableness theparameter
of the reasonableness
designof is the parameter
verified for thedesign
proposed is verified for the proposed control
control methods.
methods.
As can be seen in Figures 15b, 18b and 19b, the reference grid-connected current increases from
Astocan
36.5 A 73 Abeand
seentheintransient
Figures 15b, 18b and 19b,
experimental thein
results reference
the threegrid-connected
cases are similar. current increases
Therefore, from
compared
36.5 A to 73 A and the transient experimental results in the three cases
with the traditional control method, the proposed control methods without the design range can also are similar. Therefore,
compared
ensure the with
system thedynamics.
traditional control method, the proposed control methods without the design
range can also ensure the system dynamics.
upcca upccb reference current transient
upccab(300V/div)

iga igb reference current transient


igab(100A/div)

THD=11.56% THD=5.62%
t(10ms/div)
(b)

Figure 18.
Figure Experimental waveforms
18. Experimental waveforms of upcc
of u and iigg with
pcc and with proposed
proposed admittance
admittance reshaping
reshaping technique
technique 11
without the
without the parameter
parameter design
design range. (a) Steady
range. (a) Steady state;
state; (b)
(b) Transient.
Transient.

Figure 19. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 2
without the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

5. Conclusion
igab(1
THD=11.56% THD=5.62%
t(10ms/div)
(b)

Figure
Energies 18.2457
2019, 12, Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 17
1 of 18
without the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

Figure
Figure 19. Experimental waveforms
19. Experimental waveforms ofof uupcc and iigg with
pcc and with proposed
proposed admittance
admittance reshaping
reshaping technique
technique 22
without
without the
the parameter
parameter design
design range.
range. (a)
(a) Steady
Steady state;
state; (b)
(b) Transient.
Transient.

5. Conclusions
5. Conclusion
The negative impact of PLL on system stability is caused by the range of negative incremental
The negative impact of PLL on system stability is caused by the range of negative incremental
resistance. It will increase impedance coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the system
resistance. It will increase impedance coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the
phase margin or leads to system instability. Therefore, two admittance reshaping control methods
system phase margin or leads to system instability. Therefore, two admittance reshaping control
that consider the PLL effect are proposed to improve system damping. The first reshaping technique
methods that consider the PLL effect are proposed to improve system damping. The first reshaping
uses the feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second reshaping
technique uses the feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second
technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance. The
reshaping technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent
proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin but also ensure the system
admittance. The proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin but also
dynamic response speed. The total harmonic distortion of the steady-state grid-connected current is
ensure the system dynamic response speed. The total harmonic distortion of the steady-state
reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control parameters is depicted.
grid-connected current is reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control
Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the proposed control methods.
parameters is depicted. Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the
Still, the paper does not study the effect of time delay on the proposed control methods, which is an
proposed control methods. Still, the paper does not study the effect of time delay on the proposed
important topic to be explored in the future.
control methods, which is an important topic to be explored in the future.
Author Contributions: L.Y. and Y.C. provided the original idea for this paper. L.Y., A.L. and K.H. organized the
manuscript and attended the discussions when analysis and verification were carried out. All the authors gave
comments and suggestions for the writing of and descriptions in the manuscript.
Funding: This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China under Grant No.
2017YFB0902000, and the Science and Technology Project of State Grid under Grant No. SGXJ0000KXJS1700841.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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