With the increasing impedance coupling between inverters and grid caused by the
phase-locked loop (PLL), traditional three-phase inverters suer from the harmonic distortion or
instability problems under weak grid conditions. Therefore, the admittance reshaping control
methods are proposed to mitigate the interactions between inverters and grid.

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With the increasing impedance coupling between inverters and grid caused by the
phase-locked loop (PLL), traditional three-phase inverters suer from the harmonic distortion or
instability problems under weak grid conditions. Therefore, the admittance reshaping control
methods are proposed to mitigate the interactions between inverters and grid.

© All Rights Reserved

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Article

Admittance Reshaping Control Methods to Mitigate

the Interactions between Inverters and Grid

Ling Yang 1 , Yandong Chen 2, * , An Luo 2 and Kunshan Huai 3

1 School of Automation, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China

2 College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China

3 Guangzhou Power Supply Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510620, China

* Correspondence: yandong_chen@hnu.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-151-1626-8089

Received: 20 May 2019; Accepted: 19 June 2019; Published: 26 June 2019

Abstract: With the increasing impedance coupling between inverters and grid caused by the

phase-locked loop (PLL), traditional three-phase inverters suffer from the harmonic distortion or

instability problems under weak grid conditions. Therefore, the admittance reshaping control

methods are proposed to mitigate the interactions between inverters and grid. Firstly, a dynamics

model of traditional inverter output admittance including main circuit and PLL is developed in the

direct-quadrature (dq) frame. And the qq channel impedance of the inverter presents as a negative

incremental resistance with the PLL effect. Secondly, two admittance reshaping control methods are

proposed to improve the system damping. The first reshaping technique uses the feedforward point

of common coupling (PCC) voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second reshaping

technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance. The

proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin, but also ensure the system

dynamic response speed. And the total harmonic distortion of steady-state grid-connected current is

reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control parameters is depicted.

Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the proposed control methods.

Keywords: distributed generation; weak grid; inverter; impedance coupling; admittance reshaping

1. Introduction

With the increasing prevalence of renewable energy systems, the systems are connected to the

utility grid by multiple transformers and long transmission lines because of the distributed locations

of renewable energy generations [1,2]. Therefore, the utility grid shows the feature of the weak grid

where the grid impedance cannot be ignored [3]. Grid-connected inverters are the important part,

which transfer renewable energy to the weak grid [4,5]. Under the weak grid condition, the impedance

coupling between inverters and grid may cause harmonic distortion or instability problems [6,7].

There are two impedance-based analysis methods to analyze the interaction stability between

inverters and weak grid [8–11]. On the one hand, References [8,9] proposed the sequence impedance

model by the harmonic linearization modeling method, which is represented by a diagonal

matrix, including the positive sequence and negative sequence components. On the other hand,

References [10,11] developed the dq impedance model by transforming three-phase variables into a

rotating dq reference frame. The phase-locked loop (PLL) effect can be explained through linearizing

the transitions between the system and the control dq frame. By the generalized Nyquist criterion,

dq impedances can be utilized to analyze system stability considering the PLL effect. The following

conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system stability

is caused by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance coupling

between inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system instability.

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 18

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 18

conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system

conclusions can be obtained from the above references: The negative impact of PLL on system

stability is caused by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance

stability

couplingisbetween

Energies 2019, caused

12, 2457 by the range of negative incremental resistance. It will increase the impedance

inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system

2 of 18

coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the system phase margin or leads to system

instability.

instability.

The impedancereshaping

The impedance reshapingtechniques

techniqueswere were used

used to to mitigate

mitigate thethe interactions

interactions between

between inverters

inverters and

The impedance reshaping techniques were used to mitigate the interactions between inverters

and

grid.grid. References

References [12,13]

[12,13] presented

presented the virtual

the virtual impedance

impedance or active

or active dampingdamping

methodsmethods

underunder

the weak the

and grid. References [12,13] presented the virtual impedance or active damping methods under the

weak grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance

grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance or the output filter parameters.or the output filter

weak grid condition, which changes the structure of inverter output impedance or the output filter

parameters.

However, only However, only

the current the current

control loop of control loopisof

the inverter the inverter

considered. is considered.

Reference Reference

[14] proposed [14]

a special

parameters. However, only the current control loop of the inverter is considered. Reference [14]

proposed a special regulator

regulator replacement method with replacement

consideration methodof thewith

PLL,consideration of the PLL,

which can effectively improvewhich

systemcan

proposed

effectively aimprove

special regulator

system replacement

stability by method the

adjusting withPLL

consideration

bandwidth. ofHowever,

the PLL, ifwhichthe can

PLL

stability by adjusting the PLL bandwidth. However, if the PLL bandwidth is small, it may weaken

effectively improve system stability by adjusting the PLL bandwidth. However, if the PLL

bandwidth

the dynamicisperformance

small, it mayof weaken the dynamic

the system when the performance

load changes of abruptly

the system when

[15]. the load[16]

Reference changes

used

bandwidth is small, it may weaken the dynamic performance of the system when the load changes

abruptly [15]. Reference [16] used multiple resonance compensators to enhance

multiple resonance compensators to enhance the amplitude of the inverter output impedance at specific the amplitude of the

abruptly [15]. Reference [16] used multiple resonance compensators to enhance the amplitude of the

inverter output impedance at specific harmonic frequency. However, the process

harmonic frequency. However, the process of selecting control parameters is unknown in this control of selecting control

inverter output impedance at specific harmonic frequency. However, the process of selecting control

parameters

method [17].is unknown in this control method [17].

parameters is unknown in this control method [17].

Motivated

Motivated by by the

the above

above limitations,

limitations, admittance

admittance reshaping

reshaping control

control methods

methods areare proposed

proposed in in this

this

Motivated by the above limitations, admittance reshaping control methods are proposed in this

paper. The

paper. The strong

strong points

points of

of the

the proposed

proposed methods

methods are are given

given below:

below: On the premise

On the premise of of ensuring

ensuring the the

paper.

system The strongresponse

points ofspeed,

the proposed methods aresystem

given phase

below:margin.

On the premise of ensuring the

system dynamic

dynamic response speed, it can

it can increase

increase the

the system phase margin. Furthermore,

Furthermore, aa specific

specific

system dynamic response speed, it can increase the system phase margin. Furthermore, a specific

design methodofofcontrol

design method control parameters

parameters is depicted.

is depicted. This This

paperpaper is organized

is organized as follow:

as follow: Section 2Section

presents 2

design method of control parameters is depicted. This paper is organized as follow: Section 2

presents the admittance

the admittance model andmodel and analysis

a stability a stability analysis

of the of thecontrol

traditional traditional control

method; method;

Section Section

3 proposes two 3

presents the admittance model and a stability analysis of the traditional control method; Section 3

proposes two admittance reshaping control methods, designs the

admittance reshaping control methods, designs the control parameters and comparatively analyzes control parameters and

proposes two admittance reshaping control methods, designs the control parameters and

comparatively

system stability;analyzes

Section 4system

providesstability;

experimentalSection 4 provides

results to proveexperimental

the validity ofresults to prove

the proposed the

control

comparatively analyzes system stability; Section 4 provides experimental results to prove the

validity

methods;ofFinally,

the proposed control methods;

the conclusions Finally, the

are summarized conclusions

in Section 5. are summarized in Section 5.

validity of the proposed control methods; Finally, the conclusions are summarized in Section 5.

2. Admittance

Admittance Model of Three-Phase Grid-Connected System

2. Admittance Model of Three-Phase Grid-Connected System

2.1. System

2.1. System Description

Description

2.1. System Description

Figure 1

Figure 1 presents

presents the

the system

system structure,

structure, which which includes

includes the the inverter

inverter subsystem

subsystem and and the

the grid

grid

Figure U

subsystem. 1 dcpresents

is the the system

DC-side structure,

voltage. u , u which

and u includes

are the the inverter

inverter subsystem

output voltage, and

filter the grid

capacitor

subsystem. Udc is the DC-side voltage. uinv inv, uC1 C1and upcc are the inverter output voltage, filter capacitor

pcc

subsystem.

voltage Udc is the DC-side coupling

voltage. u(PCC)

inv, uC1voltage.

and upcc uare the inverter outputZgvoltage, filter capacitor

voltage and andpoint point of of

common

common coupling (PCC) voltage. g is the ug grid

is the voltage. is the grid

grid voltage. Zg isimpedance.

the grid

voltage

The and point of common

inductance-capacitance-inductance coupling (LCL)(PCC) voltage.

filter is u g

constituted is theby grid

the voltage.

inverter-side Z is the grid

g inductor L1 ,

impedance. The inductance-capacitance-inductance (LCL) filter is constituted by the inverter-side

impedance.

grid-side The inductance-capacitance-inductance

inductor L and filter capacitor C . R and (LCL)

R are filter is

parasitic constituted

resistances byofthe

L inverter-side

and L . i is

inductor L1, grid-side2 inductor L2 and filter 1capacitor L1 C1.L2RL1 and RL2 are parasitic resistances 1 of2L1 L1

and

inductor

the

L L 1 ,

2. iinverter-side

grid-side inductor L

inductor inductor

L1 is the inverter-side

2 and filter

current. icurrent. capacitor

g is the grid-connected

C 1 . R L1 and R

current. iC1

ig is the grid-connected L2 are parasitic

is the ifilter

current. resistances

capacitor

C1 is the

of L 1 and

current.

filter capacitor

L2. iL1 is the inverter-side inductor current. ig is the grid-connected current. iC1 is the filter capacitor

current.

current.

Figure 1. Three-phase grid-connected system.

2.2. Admittance

2.2. Admittance Model

Model ofof Traditional

Traditional Control

Control Method

Method

2.2. Admittance Model of Traditional Control Method

The diagram

The diagram ofof the

the PLLPLL description

description is is shown

shown in in Figure

Figure 2, whereTTPLL

2, where is the proportional integral

PLL is the proportional integral

(PI) The diagram

controller of of the

PLL,

(PI) controller of PLL, TPLL T PLL= k

PLL = kppll

+

descriptionk

ppll + kipll

/s,

iskshown in Figure 2, where T PLL is the

is the proportional coefficient ofofPLL

/s, kppllppll

ipll is the proportional coefficient proportional

PLL integral

PIcontroller,

PI controller, and

and

(PI) controller of PLL, T = k + k /s, k is the proportional coefficient of PLL PI controller, and

kkipll isthe

theintegral

integralgain

gainofofPLL

PLLPI PIcontroller.

controller. Because

Because of of the

the PLL

PLL dynamics,

dynamics, there

there are

are two

two dq

dq frames

frames inin

PLL ppll ipll ppll

ipllis

kthe

ipll is the integral

system. The gainisof

first thePLL PI controller.

system dq frame Because

that is of the PLLby

identified dynamics,

the PCC there are The

voltage. two second

dq framesis in

the

the system. The first is the system dq frame that is identified by the PCC voltage. The second is the

the

controlsystem.

control dq The first

dq frame

frame thatisis

that isthe systemby

identified

identified dqPLL.

by frame that is identified by the PCC voltage. The second is the

PLL.

control dq frame that is identified by PLL.

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 18

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 3 of 18

The dq admittance model of the traditional control method, considering the PLL effect, is shown

The dq

in Figure 3. admittance

Outside themodel dottedoflinethe of traditional

Figure 3,control

the controlmethod,

diagramconsidering the PLL effect,

of the traditional control is

shown in Figure 3. Outside the dotted line of Figure 3, the control

method without considering the PLL effect is pretended. The PI controller [18] is often utilized diagram of the traditional control

method without considering

for the grid-connected current the PLLdue

loop effect

to itsis pretended.

simplicity and Theefficiency.

PI controller The[18]filteris often utilized

capacitor current for

the grid-connected

feedback [19] is oftencurrent

introducedloopfor due

the to its simplicity

active damping loop andtoefficiency.

suppress the The filter capacitor

resonance peak of thecurrent

LCL

feedback

filter, which does not require additional passive components or energy loss. However, by adding the

[19] is often introduced for the active damping loop to suppress the resonance peak of the

LCL filter, which

small-signal does not

disturbance, PLLrequire

affects additional

the grid-connectedpassive current

components vectororand energy loss. However,

filter capacitance current by

adding

vector inthe thesmall-signal

control dq frame disturbance,

and dutyPLL cycleaffects

vectorthein thegrid-connected

system dq frame. current vector and

Therefore, filter

the above

capacitance current vector in the control dq frame and duty cycle

vectors are converted between the system dq frame and the control dq frame, and considering the PLL vector in the system dq frame.

Therefore, the above

effect, are shown vectors

inside are converted

the dotted line of Figure between

3. the system dq frame and the control dq frame,

and considering the PLL effect, are shown

In Figure 3, the superscript variable is “sy,” which inside the dotted line ofthe

represents Figure

variable3. in the system dq frame,

In Figure 3, the superscript variable is “sy,” which

the superscript variable is “c,” which represents the variable in the control dq frame, represents the variable in the

and system

the front dq

frame, sy−sy sy sy sy−sy

variablethe superscript

is “∆,” variable isthe

which represents “c,”small-signal

which represents variable. theThevariable

matricesin the

AD−ig control

= ∆igdq dq /∆D

frame,, A and the

sy-sy sy dq sy upcc−ig sy-sy

frontsyvariable sy is “∆,” which represents

sy−sy sy sy the small-signal

sy−c variable. sy The matrices

sy−c A = ∆i /∆D

sy , Aupcc-ig

= ∆isygdq /∆u =sy ∆Dsy /∆u sy-c = ∆i c /∆u = ∆i /∆u

D-ig c gdq dq

sy , A

sy-sy , A c sy sy-c c, A sy , A PI is

= ∆igdq/∆upccdq , Aupcc-Dupcc−D

pccdq = ∆Ddq /∆upccdqdq , Apccdq upcc−ig gdq pccdq upcc−ic1 C1dq

upcc-ig = ∆igdq/∆upccdq, Aupcc-ic1 = ∆iC1dq/∆upccdq, API is the PI controller

pccdq

the PI controller matrix of grid-connected current loop and Aad is the active damping coefficient matrix.

matrix of grid-connected current loop and Aad is the active damping coefficient matrix. The

The derivation of the above matrices are as follows.

derivation of the above matrices are as follows.

Δigrdq

c

=0

Δigdq

c

[ Aad ]2×2

ΔiCc 1dq

ΔiCsy1dq

[ Ausy-c

pcc-ic1 ]2×2 [ Ausy-c

pcc-ig ]2×2

[ Ausy-sy

pcc-D ]2×2 [ Ausy-sy

pcc-ig ]2×2

Δupccdq

sy

sy

[ ADsy-sy

-ig ]2×2

Figure 3. The dq admittance model of traditional control method.

The vectors are converted from the system dq frame to the control dq frame via the translation

The vectors are converted from the system dq frame to the control dq frame via the translation

matrix T ∆θ , which can be defined as

matrix TΔθ, which can be defined as

cos(∆θ) sin(∆θ)

" #

T∆θ = cos( Δθ ) sin( Δθ ) . (1)

TΔθ = − sin(∆θ) cos(∆θ) . (1)

− sin( Δ θ ) cos( Δ θ )

The small-signal pcc voltage can be obtained as

The small-signal pcc voltage can be obtained as

c

c ∆uc c

# sy sy sy∆u

sy

u+ Δupccd 11 Δ∆θ u pccd pccd

"

upccd

pccd + pccd θ

upccd+ Δ+upccd

uc + == −∆θ 1 syusy +sy∆usy. . (2)

c ∆u

c c (2)

pccq Δupccq −Δθ 1 upccq

upccq + pccq + Δupccq pccq

pccq

And (2) can be rewritten as

sy sy

Δ∆u Δθ ∆θ

∆ucpccd

c sy sy u

Δupccd upccd + u+pccq

pccd pccq

∆uc c == −usysy ∆θ + ∆u sy .

. (3)

(3)

Δupccq −upccd

pccq pccdΔθ + Δupccq

sy pccq

From Figure

From Figure 2,

2, the

the angle ∆θ can

angle Δθ can be

be calculated

calculated as

as

(s)∆uccpccq

PLL ( s ) Δupccq

TTPLL

Δθ==

∆θ .. (4)

(4)

ss

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 4 of 18

sy

TPLL (s)∆upccq sy

∆θ = sy = GPLL ∆upccq , (5)

s + upccd TPLL (s)

TPLL (s)

where GPLL = sy .

s+upccd TPLL (s)

Substitute (5) into (3), (3) can be obtained as

sy sy sy

∆ucpccd upccq GPLL ∆upccd ∆upccd

0

= sy + . (6)

−upccd GPLL ∆usy ∆usy

∆uc 0

pccq pccq pccq

sy sy sy

∆upccd

# "

∆Dd + ∆Dd .

c

" # " #

0 −Dq GPLL

sy = sy ∆usy

(7)

∆Dq 0 Dd GPLL pccq

∆Dcq

sy−sy

And the matrix Aupcc−D can be obtained as

sy

∆Ddq "

A3dd −A3dq

# "

0

sy

−Dq GPLL

#

sy−sy

Aupcc−D = sy = = sy . (8)

∆upccdq A3qd A3qq 0 Dd GPLL

sy sy sy

∆igd ∆upccd ∆igd

c

0 igq GPLL

= sy + sy . (9)

∆usy

∆ic 0 −igd GPLL ∆i

gq pccq gq

sy−c

And the matrix Aupcc−ig can be obtained as

∆icgdq sy

" #

sy−c A4dd A4dq 0 igq GPLL

Aupcc−ig = sy = = sy . (10)

∆upccdq A4qd −A4qq 0 −igd GPLL

At the same time, the small-signal filter capacitance current can be expressed as

sy sy sy

∆iC1d iC1q GPLL ∆upccd ∆iC1d

c

0

= + sy . (11)

∆i sy sy ∆i

c

−iC1d GPLL ∆upccq

0

C1q C1q

sy−c

And the matrix Aupcc−ic1 can be obtained as

∆icC1dq sy

" #

sy−c A5dd A5dq 0 iC1q GPLL

Aupcc−ic1 = sy = = sy

. (12)

∆upccdq A5qd −A5qq 0 −i G

C1d PLL

According to the small-signal open-loop circuit model of LCL filter in the system dq frame, the

following equation can be expressed as

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 5 of 18

sy sy sy

∆uC1d ∆iL1d

#

∆Dd Udc /2

"

− sy = A

sy sy

∆uC1q ∆iL1q

∆Dq Udc /2

sy sy sy

∆iL1d ∆igd ∆uC1d

sy − sy = B

, (13)

∆i ∆usy

∆i

L1q gq C1q

sy sy sy

∆uC1d ∆upccd ∆igd

∆usy − ∆usy = C ∆isy

C1q pccq gq

" # " # " #

sL1 + RL1 −ω1 L1 sC1 −ω1 C1 sL2 + RL2 −ω1 L2

where A = ,B= ,C= .

ω1 L1 sL1 + RL1 ω1 C1 sC1 ω1 L2 sL2 + RL2

From (13), (14) can be obtained as

sy sy sy

∆iC1dq = B∆upccdq + BC∆igdq . (14)

sy sy−sy

By setting ∆Udc and ∆upccdq to zero, the matrix AD−ig can be obtained as

sy

∆igdq

sy−sy

AD−ig = sy = E · (C + A + ABC)−1 , (15)

∆Ddq

sy sy−sy

Similarly, by setting ∆Udc and ∆Ddq to zero, the matrix Aupcc−ig can be obtained as

sy

∆igdq

sy−sy

Aupcc−ig = sy = −(AB + I) · (ABC + A + C)−1 , (16)

∆upccdq

Meanwhile, the matrix API can be defined as

" # " #

A6dd A6dq Gi 0

API = = . (17)

A6qd A6qq 0 Gi

" # " #

A7dd A7dq KC 0

Aad = = . (18)

A7qd A7qq 0 KC

From Figure 3 and Mason’s gain formula, the inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL with considering

the PLL effect using traditional control method can be calculated as

sy−sy sy−sy sy−sy sy−c sy−c

"

Ydd Ydq

# Aupcc−ig + AD−ig (Aupcc−D − API Aupcc−ig − Aad (Aupcc−ic1 + B))

Yinv_PLL = = sy−sy . (19)

Yqd Yqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc−D = Aupcc−ig = Aupcc−ic1 = 0. The inverter output

admittance Y inv using traditional control method can be calculated as

sy−sy sy−sy

"

Yinvdd Yinvdq

# Aupcc−ig − AD−ig Aad B

Yinv = = sy−sy . (20)

Yinvqd Yinvqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 6 of 18

"

YPLLdd YPLLdq

# AD−ig (Aupcc−D − API Aupcc−ig − Aad Aupcc−ic1 )

YPLL = Yinv_PLL − Yinv = = sy−sy . (21)

YPLLqd YPLLqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Under the weak grid condition, the grid impedance can be expressed as

" # " #

Zgdd Zgdq sLg −ω1 Lg

Zg = = . (22)

−Zgdq Zgdd ω1 Lg sLg

According to the Norton theorem, the equivalent circuit of the system using the traditional control

method is shown in Figure 4. The inverter subsystem is equivalent to a parallel connection between

the current source and inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL = (Y inv //Y PLL ). The grid subsystem is

equivalent

Energies 2019, to

12,the grid

x FOR REVIEW Zg and an ideal grid in the series connection.

impedance

PEER 6 of 18

Figure

Figure 4. Equivalent circuit

4. Equivalent circuit of

of the

the system

system with

with the

the traditional

traditional control

control method.

method.

On

On the

the basis

basisof

ofthe

thegeneralized

generalizedNyquist

Nyquistcriterion

criterion[20],[20],if ifthe Nyquist

the Nyquist curve forfor

curve thethe

eigenfunction of

eigenfunction

the return-ratio matrix L does not encircle (–1, j * 0), the system is in a stable state.

of the return-ratio matrix L does not encircle (–1, j * 0), the system is in a stable state. L can beL can be depicted as

depicted as " #

Zgdd Ydd Zgdq Yqq

L = Zg · Yinv_PLL = . (23)

−ZZ gdd

gdqYYdddd ZZ YqqYqq

gdd

gdq

L = Zg ⋅ Yinv_PLL = .

Z gddYqq

(23)

Therefore, the eigenfunction of the return-ratio − Zmatrix

gdqYdd

L can be calculated as

Therefore, the eigenfunction of the return-ratio matrix L can be calculated as

2 1/2

l1 = Zgdd Ydd /2 + Zgdd Yqq /2 − (Z2gdd Ydd 2

− 2Z2gdd Ydd Yqq − 4Z2gdq Ydd Yqq + Z2gdd Yqq ) /2

l = Z Y / 2 + Z Y / 2 − ( Z 2

Y 2

− 2 Z 2

Y Y − 4 Z 2

Y Y + Z 2

Y 2

)1/2

/ 2 }

1 gdd dd gdd qq gdd dd gdd dd qq gdq dd qq gdd qq

| {z }

| {z

x1

x2

. /2 . (24)

(24)

x1 x2

l2 = ZgddY 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/2

/2 + Z Y /2 + ( Z Y 2 −22Z 2 dd Yqq − 4Z 2 Ydd Yqq +2 Z 2 Y

Y 1/2qq )

| l2 = Z gddYdd / 2 + Z gdd}Yqq / 2 + ( Z gddYdd − 2 Z gddYddYqq − 4 Z gdqYddYqq + Z gddYqq ) / 2

qq

dd gdd gdd dd gdd gdq gdd

{z | {z }

x1 xx22

x1

From (24),

From (24), the

the retained

retained component

component xx1 and

and secondary

secondary component

component xx2 can be defined as

1 2 can be defined as

1 1

xZ= ·Z(Y ⋅ (Y + Y+ Y) )

x1 = 2 1 gdd2 gdddd dd qq qq

2 .)1/2

1

. (25)

(25)

x2 = (Z2 1 Y22 − 22Z2 Y2 dd Yqq − 4Z2 2 Ydd Yqq +2Z2 2 Y1/2qq

x2 =gdd( Zdd

gddYdd − 2 Z gddYddYqq − 4 Z gdqYddYqq + Z gddYqq )

2 gdd gdq gdd

2

According to (25), the Bode diagrams of the retained component x1 and secondary component

x2 areAccording

shown in to (25), the

Figure Bode the

5. When diagrams

distanceof the retained

between thecomponent x1 and secondary

two is the smallest, component

the magnitude of x1 xis2

are shown

−15.6 inmagnitude

dB, the Figure 5. When of x2 isthe distance

−47.2 dB. The between

magnitudethe twoof x1isisthe

31.6smallest,

dB largerthe magnitude

than that of x2 ,of x1 is

which

−15.6 dB, the magnitude of x 2 is −47.2 dB. The magnitude of x1 is 31.6 dB larger than that of x2, which

is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2 , (24) can be rewritten as

is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2, (24) can be rewritten

as Zgdd

l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) · (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)

Z2gdd

l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) ⋅ (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)

2

are shown in Figure 5. When the distance between the two is the smallest, the magnitude of x1 is

−15.6 dB, the magnitude of x2 is −47.2 dB. The magnitude of x1 is 31.6 dB larger than that of x2, which

is equivalent to 38.02 times. Therefore, ignoring the secondary components x2, (24) can be rewritten

as

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 Z gdd 7 of 18

l1 = l2 = x1 = ( ) ⋅ (Ydd + Yqq ). (26)

2

Figure 5. diagrams of

of the

the retained component xx11 and secondary component x2.

retained component

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW 7 of 18

However, a dynamic interconnected system will be formed in the weak grid. The phase margin

of theHowever,

system may a dynamic interconnected

be insufficient. system

That results will be formed

in increasing in the weak

the distortion of grid. The phase current.

grid-connected margin

of the

To systemenough

guarantee may be stability

insufficient.

and That

goodresults in increasing

dynamics, the range the distortion

of phase margin of grid-connected

of the system iscurrent.

usually

To guarantee

required enough

to be 30–60 ◦ under

stability and good

the weak dynamics, the range of phase margin of the system is

grid condition.

usuallyIn therequired

Nyquist to curve,

be 30–60°

the under the weak

intersection grid

point forcondition.

the eigenfunction and unit circle is defined as the

In the Nyquist curve, the intersection point

system cut-off frequency f i , and the location is determinedfor the eigenfunction

as the phaseand margin unit of

circle αPMas[21].

is defined

the system the

system

From (26), αPM frequency

cut-off fi, and as

can be expressed the location is determined as the phase margin of the system αPM

[21]. From (26), αPM can be expressed as

Zgdd ( fi )

αPM = 180◦ − arg( Z gdd ( f i )) − arg(Ydd ( fi ) + Yqq ( fi )). (27)

α PM = 180 − arg( 2 ) − arg(Ydd ( f i ) + Yqq ( f i )). (27)

2

From (27), the system phase margin is increased by decreasing arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) and arg(Ydd (f i ) +

Yqq (f From (27), the system phase margin is increased by decreasing arg(Zgdd(fi)/2) and arg(Ydd(fi) +

i )). It is difficult to control the phase of grid impedance arg(Zgdd (f i )/2). Therefore, the target needs

Y qq(fi)). It is difficult to control the phase of grid impedance arg(Zgdd(fi)/2). Therefore, the target needs

to be achieved by decreasing arg(Ydd (f i ) + Yqq (f i )).

to be achieved by decreasing arg(Ydd(fi) + Yqq(fi)).

2.4. Stability Analysis of Traditional Control Method

2.4. Stability Analysis of Traditional Control Method

The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method is shown as in

FigureThe Nyquist

6. The diagram

system cut-off of the eigenfunction

frequency f i is 181 Hzwith thesystem

and the traditional

phasecontrol

marginmethod is◦shown

αPM is 16 , which as in

does

Figure 6. The system cut-off frequency fi is 181 Hz and the system phase margin αPM is 16°, which

not satisfy the requirement of sufficient stability of the system. Therefore, the system phase margin

does not

should besatisfy the under

improved requirement of sufficient

the traditional stability

control method.of the system. Therefore, the system phase

margin should be improved under the traditional control method.

Figure 6. The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method.

Figure 6. The Nyquist diagram of the eigenfunction with the traditional control method.

The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittance Y inv_PLL using the traditional control method

The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittance Yinv_PLL using the traditional control method

are shown in Figure 7. The amplitudes and phases of Ydd , Ydq , Yqd and Yqq can be obtained at the

are shown in Figure 7. The amplitudes and phases of Ydd, Ydq, Yqd and Yqq can be obtained at the

system cut-off frequency, so arg(Ydd(fi) + Yqq(fi)) = 74°. Because the grid impedance is equivalent to

the inductance, arg(Zgdd(fi)/2) is generally equal to 90°. According to (27), the system phase margin

αPM is 16°, which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The results are consistent with those

in Figure 6. Therefore, the system phase margin should be improved under the traditional control

method. Specifically, the PLL shapes the Zqq (1/Yqq) as a negative incremental resistance that may

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 8 of 18

system cut-off frequency, so arg(Ydd (f i ) + Yqq (f i )) = 74◦ . Because the grid impedance is equivalent to

the inductance, arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) is generally equal to 90◦ . According to (27), the system phase margin

αPM is 16◦ , which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The results are consistent with those

in Figure 6. Therefore, the system phase margin should be improved under the traditional control

method. Specifically, the PLL shapes the Zqq (1/Yqq ) as a negative incremental resistance that may

destabilize the system. Meanwhile, |Ydd | and |Yqq | are far larger than |Ydq | and |Yqd |, so |Ydq | and |Yqd |

are equal to 0, which verifies the correctness of (23). Within the range of the error, the measurement

results 2019,

Energies are in

12,agreement

x FOR PEER with the model results, which proves the correctness of the model.

REVIEW 8 of 18

Figure 7.

Figure TheBode

7. The Bodediagrams

diagramsofofinverter

inverteroutput

outputadmittance Y inv_PLL

admittanceYinv_PLL of traditional

of traditional control

control method.

method. (a)

(a) Y ; (b) Y ; (c) Y

Ydd; (b) Yqd; (c) Ydq; (d) Yqq.

dd qd dq ; (d) Y qq .

3. Admittance Reshaping Control Methods for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter

3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)

3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)

To improve the system’s stability, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 uses the

To improve

feedforward the system’s

PCC voltage stability,

to modify the proposed

the inverter admittanceY reshaping

output admittance technique 1 uses the

inv , which is equivalent to adding

feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance Yinv, which is equivalent to

the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance. The system diagram of

adding the virtual

the proposed admittance

admittance to connect

reshaping in parallel

technique with inverter

1—considering output

the effect admittance.

of PLL—is shownThe system

in Figure 8.

diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1—considering the effect

Inside the left dotted line of Figure 8, the control diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping of PLL—is

shown

techniquein 1—without

Figure 8. Inside the leftthe

considering dotted line of Figure

PLL effect—is 8, theThe

presented. control

vectors diagram of the proposed

are converted between

admittance reshaping technique 1—without considering the PLL effect—is presented.

the system dq frame and the control dq frame that considers the PLL effect are shown outside The vectors

the left

are converted

dotted between

line of Figure 8. the system dq frame and the control dq frame that considers the PLL effect

are shown outside8,the

From Figure theleft dotted linematrix

feedforward of Figure

Acom8. can be defined as

sy

Δupccq

ΔiCsy1d sy

Δupccq " #

sy

igq GPLL iCsy1q GPLL Gcomdd 0

Acom = . (28)

sy ΔiCc 1d 0 Gcomqq

Δigd sy sy

c ΔuCsy1d Δigd Δupccd

Δigd

ΔDdc

From Figure 8, the dq admittance model of the proposed 1 ΔDdsy

admittance sy

Δuinvd

1 reshaping technique

1

sy

1 is

Δigd

sy

Δuinvd ΔuCsy1d

c sy−c

Δigrd

obtained, as shown in Figure 9, where the matrix A sL1 + RLcan be sC

obtained as sL + R

sy upcc−upcc 1 1 2 L2

Δupccd

sy

Δupccq c

Δupccd DqsyGPLL

sy

upccq GPLL sy

ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2

sy Δupccq

Δupccq c

Δupccq sy

sy

upccd GPLL Δupccq

ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2

sy

Δupccq DdsyGPLL

sy

c

Δigrq ΔDqc ΔDqsy Δuinvq 1 ΔiLsy1q 1 ΔuCsy1q 1

sy

Δigq

sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2

sy c

Δigq Δigq

ΔuCsy1q sy

Δigq sy

Δupccq

c

3.1. Admittance Reshaping Technique 1 (the Feedforward PCC Voltage)

To improve the system’s stability, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 uses the

feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance Yinv, which is equivalent to

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 9 of 18

adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance. The system

diagram of the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1—considering the effect of PLL—is

shown in Figure 8. Inside the left dotted line of Figure 8, the control diagram of the proposed

admittance reshaping ∆ucpccdq "

Aconsidering

A

#

0 u

sy

G

sy−ctechnique 1—without 8dd 8dq the PLL

effect—is

pccq presented.

PLL The vectors

Aupcc−upcc = = = . (29)

sy sy

are converted between the system ∆upccdq

dq frameAand −Acontrol

8qd the 8qq 0 −u

dq frame pccd G

that considers

PLL

the PLL effect

are shown outside the left dotted line of Figure 8.

sy

Δupccq

ΔiCsy1d sy

Δupccq

sy

igq GPLL iCsy1q GPLL

sy ΔiCc 1d

Δigd sy sy

c ΔuCsy1d Δigd Δupccd

Δigd

ΔDdc ΔDdsy sy

Δuinvd 1

sy

Δuinvd 1 ΔuCsy1d 1

sy

Δigd

c

Δigrd sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2

sy

Δupccd

sy

Δupccq c

Δupccd DqsyGPLL

sy

upccq GPLL sy

ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2

sy Δupccq

Δupccq c

Δupccq sy

sy

upccd GPLL Δupccq

ω1L1 ω1C1 ω1L2

sy

Δupccq DdsyGPLL

sy

c

Δigrq ΔDqc ΔDqsy Δuinvq 1 ΔiLsy1q 1 ΔuCsy1q 1

sy

Δigq

sL1 + RL1 sC1 sL2 + RL 2

sy c

Δigq Δigq

ΔuCsy1q sy

Δigq sy

Δupccq

c

sy ΔiCsy1q ΔiC1q sy

Δupccq

igd GPLL iCsy1d GPLL

sy

Δupccq

Figure

Figure 8. The system

8. The system diagram

diagram of

of proposed

proposed admittance

admittance reshaping

reshaping technique

technique 11 considering

considering the

the

phase-locked loop (PLL) effect.

phase-locked loop (PLL) effect.

Therefore, the inverter output admittance Y invc_PLL with the proposed admittance reshaping

technique 1 can be expressed as

" #

Ycdd Ycdq

Yinvc_PLL =

Ycqd Ycqq

sy−sy sy−sy sy−sy sy−c sy−c sy−c (30)

Aupcc−ig +AD−ig (Aupcc−D +Acom Aupcc−upcc −API Aupcc−ig −Aad (Aupcc−ic1 +B))

= sy−sy .

I+AD−ig (API +Aad (BC))

Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc−D = Aupcc−ig = Aupcc−ic1 = 0. The inverter output

admittance Y invc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 can be calculated as

sy−sy sy−sy sy−c

"

Yinvcdd Yinvcdq

# Aupcc−ig + AD−ig (Acom Aupcc−upcc − Aad B)

Yinvc = = sy−sy . (31)

Yinvcqd Yinvcqq I + AD−ig (API + Aad (BC))

Next, the calculation process of the feedforward matrix Acom is introduced. The optimization

function Gp (s) of the inverter output admittance phase, which can be given as

1 + kω s

Gp ( s ) = · km , (32)

1 + kp kω s

where kp is the proportional coefficient, kω is the phase coefficient, and km is the gain coefficient. kp

and kω can reduce the phase at the desired frequency and km can compensate for the amplitude offset

at the desired frequency.

The Bode diagram of the optimization function Gp (s) is shown in Figure 10. By selecting the

appropriate parameters, the amplitude of Gp (s) is 0 dB at the desired frequency and the phase reaches

the minimum at the desired frequency.

I + AD -ig (API + Aad (BC ))

sy-sy sy-c sy-c

Without considering the PLL effect, Aupcc-D = Aupcc-ig = Aupcc-ic1 = 0. The inverter output admittance

Yinvc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 can be calculated as

pcc-ig + AD -ig (Acom Aupcc-upcc − Aad B )

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 Yinvc = = . 10 of 18

(31)

Yinvcqd Yinvcqq I + ADsy-sy

-ig (API + Aad (BC ))

Δigrdq

c

=0

Δigdq

c

[ Aad ]2×2

ΔiCc 1dq

ΔiCsy1dq

[ Ausy-c

pcc-ic1 ]2×2 [ Ausy-c

pcc-ig ]2×2

[ Ausy-c

pcc-upcc ]2×2

Δupccdq

c

[ Ausy-sy

pcc-D ]2×2 [ Ausy-sy

pcc-ig ]2×2

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW Δupccdq

sy

10 of 18

ΔDdqc ΔDdqsy sy

Δigdq

2×2 [ Asy-sy ]

The Bode diagram of the optimization function Gp(s) isD -igshown in Figure 10. By selecting the

appropriate parameters, the amplitude of Gp(s) is 0 dB at the desired frequency and the phase

Figure 9. The

reaches the minimum dq admittance

at the model of proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.

desired frequency.

Figure 9. The dq admittance model of proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.

Next, the calculation process of the feedforward matrix Acom is introduced. The optimization

function Gp(s) of the inverter output admittance phase, which can be given as

1 + kω s

Gp ( s ) = ⋅ km , (32)

1 + k p kω s

where kp is the proportional coefficient, kω is the phase coefficient, and km is the gain coefficient. kp

and kω can reduce the phase at the desired frequency and km can compensate for the amplitude offset

at the desired frequency.

Figure 10. The Bode

Bode diagram

diagram of

of the

the optimization function G

optimization function (s).

Gpp(s).

Meanwhile,

Meanwhile, the

the optimization matrix A

optimization matrix can be

App can be defined

defined asas

G

Gpp 00

" #

p = 0

ApA=

Gp .

. (33)

(33)

0 G p

If

If the

the series

series correction

correction between

between the the optimization matrix A

optimization matrix App and

and inverter

inverter output

output admittance

admittance

YYinv_PLL is taken, the aim of compensating for the phase of inverter output admittance

inv_PLL is taken, the aim of compensating for the phase of inverter output admittance at the desired

at the desired

frequency

frequency will will be

be realized.

realized. Meanwhile,

Meanwhile, the the feedforward matrixAAcom

feedforward matrix can also be obtained. Therefore,

com can also be obtained. Therefore,

the inverter output admittance Y

the inverter output admittance Yinvc_PLL with using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1

invc_PLL with using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1

can be rewritten

can be rewritten as as

Yinvc_PLL = Ap Yinv_PLL . (34)

Yinvc_PLL = ApYinv_PLL . (34)

Therefore, Gcomdd in the feedforward matrix can be expressed as

Therefore, Gcomdd in the feedforward matrix can be expressed as

(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G − G2

Gcomdd = (1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) · G1 −1G2 sy , (35)

Gcomdd = km (kp kω s + 1) ⋅ GPWM GPLL ,

sy upccd (35)

km ( kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLLupccd

(sL1 +RL1 )sC1

where G1 = 1 +( sL + R ) sCand G = L C ω21 . 2

where G1 = 1 + (11+sC1 RL1C1 ) 1 and2 G2 =1 L11C1ω1 .

Meanwhile,(1 G+ sC1Rin

comqq C1 )the feedforward matrix can also be expressed as

Meanwhile, Gcomqq in the feedforward matrix can also be expressed as

(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G1 − G2 − G3

Gcomqq = ⋅ sy

, (36)

km (kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLLupccd

sy

+ K CiCsy1d ) .

Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1, Yinvc_PLL is equivalent to the parallel

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 11 of 18

(1 − km kp )kω s + (1 − km ) G1 − G2 − G3

Gcomqq = · sy , (36)

km (kp kω s + 1) GPWM GPLL upccd

sy sy sy

where G3 = GPLL GPWM (Dd + Gi igd + KC iC1d ).

Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1, Y invc_PLL is equivalent to the parallel

connection between Y PLL and Y invc . Therefore, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 is

equivalent to adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with inverter output admittance Y inv .

The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittances Y invc_PLL with the proposed admittance

reshaping technique 1 are shown in Figure 11, where arg(Ycdd (f i ) + Ycqq (f i )) = 54◦ . Because the grid

impedance is equivalent to the inductance, arg(Zgdd (f i )/2) is generally equal to 90◦ . According to (27),

the system phase margin αPM is 36◦ , which meets sufficient stability of the system. Therefore, the

proposed admittance reshaping technique 1 increases the system phase margin. At the same time, the

measurement results are in good agreement with the modified model, which proves the correctness of

the modified

Energies 2019, 12,model.

x FOR PEER REVIEW 11 of 18

Figure 11.

Figure The Bode

11. The Bode diagrams

diagrams of of inverter

inverteroutput admittancesYY

outputadmittances invc_PLL with proposed admittance

invc_PLL with proposed admittance

reshaping technique 1. (a) Y ; (b) Y

cdd; (b) Ycqd

reshaping technique 1. (a) Ycdd cqd ; (c) Y ; (d) Y

; (d) Ycqq.cqq

; (c) Ycdqcdq .

3.2. Admittance Reshaping Technique 2 (the Active Damping Controller)

To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts

To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts

the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance Y PLL . The control block

the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance YPLL. The control block

diagram of the improved PLL is shown in Figure 12. The proposed admittance reshaping technique

diagram of the improved PLL is shown in Figure 12. The proposed admittance reshaping technique

2 reduces the phase of PLL equivalent admittance at the system cut-off frequency, which improves

2 reduces the phase of PLL equivalent admittance at the system cut-off frequency, which improves

system stability.

system stability.

From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance

reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as

TPLL

GPLLc = sy GAD

. (37)

s + upccd TPLL + 1+G TPLL

AD

sy−sy

Therefore, the matrix Aupcc−D in (8) can be rewritten as

From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance

reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as

Figure 11. The Bode diagrams of inverter output admittances Yinvc_PLL with proposed admittance

reshaping technique 1. (a) Ycdd; (b) Ycqd; (c) Ycdq; (d) Ycqq.

3.2. Admittance Reshaping Technique 2 (the Active Damping Controller)

To increase the system phase margin, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 adopts

the active damping controller to reconstruct

sy " the PLL equivalent

# " admittance YPLL#. The control block

∆Ddq A3cdd 12.

−A

sy

−Dq GPLLc reshaping technique

0 admittance

diagram of the improved

sy−sy PLL is shown in Figure The

3cdqproposed

A = sy = = sy . (38)

2 reduces the phaseupcc−D_c ∆upccdq admittance

of PLL equivalent A3cqd atAthe 0 Dd frequency,

3cqq system cut-off GPLLc which improves

system stability.

Figure 12. The control block diagram of the improved PLL.

sy−c

Meanwhile, the matrix Aupcc−ig in (10) can be rewritten as

From Figure 12, the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance

reshaping technique 2 can be expressed as"

∆icgdq # sy

sy−c A4cdd A4cdq 0 igq GPLLc

Aupcc−ig_c = = = . (39)

A4cqd T−A

sy

sy

∆uG = PLL4cqq 0. −igd GPLLc

PLLc

pccdq

sy GAD (37)

s + upccd TPLL + TPLL

sy−c 1 + GAD

At the same time, the matrix Aupcc−ic1 in (12) can be rewritten as

sy-sy

Therefore, the matrix Aupcc-D in (8) can be rewritten as

∆icC1dq sy " A # sy

A 0 sy iC1q GPLLc

sy−c

Aupcc−ic1_c = ΔD = A3cdd − A3cdq =

5cdd 5cdq 0 − Dq GPLLc . (40)

Ausy-sy

pcc-D_c∆u = sy sydq = A5cqd −A5cqq = 0 sy −isy G PLLc

.

(38)

Δupccdq A3cqd A3cqq 0 Dd GPLLc

pccdq C1d

Therefore,

Meanwhile,the theinverter

matrix A output

sy-c admittance Y inv_PLLc using the proposed admittance reshaping

upcc-ig in (10) can be rewritten as

technique 2 can be expressed as

A4cdd sy−syA4cdq 0 sy−cigq GPLLc

c sy

sy-c Δigdq

A = sy+ A= (A

sy−sy

Aupcc−ig

sy−sy

= − Aad

. (Asy−c + B)) (39)

Ycdd Ycdq upcc-ig_c − A4cqq− API 0Aupcc−ig_c

Δ u

D−igA4cqd upcc−D_c − i sy

G upcc−ic1_c

Yinv_PLLc = =

pccdq

sy−sy gd PLLc . (41)

Ycqd Ycqq I+A (API + Aad (BC))

D−ig

Next, the calculation process of the active damping controller GAD is introduced. According to

(32), the closed-loop transfer function of PLL GPLLc using the proposed admittance reshaping technique

2 can be rewritten as

Yinv_PLLc = Ap Yinv_PLL . (42)

( 1 − Gp ) s

GAD = . (43)

(Gp − 1)s + TPLL Gp

Using proposed admittance reshaping technique 2, Y inv_PLLc is equivalent to the parallel connection

between Y PLLc and Y inv . Therefore, the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2 is equivalent

to adding the virtual admittance to connect in parallel with the PLL equivalent admittance Y PLL .

Using the proposed admittance reshaping technique 2, the reconstructed inverter output admittances

Y inv_PLLc can achieve the same purpose as proposed admittance reshaping technique 1.

By selecting the appropriate parameters kp and kω , the phase of the inverter output admittance is

reduced at the system cut-off frequency, which increases the system phase margin. In addition, the

amplitude of the inverter output admittance at the system cut-off frequency will be changed. Therefore,

it is essential to select the appropriate parameter km to compensate for the amplitude offset.

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 13 of 18

(kp − 1)kω ω

φp (ω) = −arctan( 2 ω2 + 1

). (44)

kp kω

q

ωm = 1/( kp kω ) . (45)

Combining (44) and (45), the maximum compensation phase φm can be derived as

kp − 1

φm = −arctan( p ). (46)

2 kp

To maintain the amplitude of the inverter output admittance at the system cut-off frequency, the

amplitude of Gp (s) should be 0 dB at the system cut-off frequency, that is, |Gp (j2πf i )| = 1. The gain

coefficient of phase compensation km can be expressed as

s

2 ω2 + 1

kp2 kω m

km = 2 ω2 + 1

. (47)

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER REVIEW kω m 13 of 18

Using the traditional control method, the system cut-off frequency f i is 181 Hz, and the system

Using the traditional control method, the system cut-off frequency fi is 181 Hz, and the system

phase margin αPM is 16◦ , which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The parameter

phase margin αPM is 16°, which does not meet sufficient stability of the system. The parameter design

design process of the proposed control methods can be illustrated as follows. Firstly, the maximum

process of the proposed control methods can be illustrated as follows. Firstly, the maximum

compensation phase frequency ωm should be equivalent to the system cut-off angular frequency ωi =

compensation phase frequency ωm should be equivalent to the system cut-off angular frequency ωi =

2πf i ≈ 1137rad/s. Secondly, the range of maximum compensation phase φm is −14~−44◦ on the basis

2πfi ≈ 1137rad/s. Secondly, the range of maximum compensation phase ϕm is −14~−44° on the basis of

of the required system phase margin. Then, the range of kp is 1.6383~5.55 by (46). Next, the range of

the required system phase margin. Then, the range of kp is 1.6383~5.55 by (46). Next, the range of kω is

kω is 3.7325–4 × 10−4 −6.8698 × 10−4 by (45). Finally, the range of km is 1.28–2.3558 by (47).

3.7325 × 10 –6.8698 × 10–4 by (45). Finally, the range of km is 1.28–2.3558 by (47).

3.4. Contrast Analysis of System Stability

3.4. Contrast Analysis of System Stability

The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction are shown in Figure 13. Using the traditional control

The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction are shown in Figure 13. Using the traditional

method, the system phase margin αPM is separately 16◦ . Using the proposed control methods, the

control method, the system phase margin αPM is separately 16°. Using the proposed control

system phase margins αPM are separately 30◦ and 60◦ , which are increased by 14◦ and 44◦ , respectively.

methods, the system phase margins αPM are separately 30° and 60°, which are increased by 14° and

The result is the same as the designed maximum compensation phase, which meets sufficient stability

44°, respectively. The result is the same as the designed maximum compensation phase, which

and good dynamics of the system.

meets sufficient stability and good dynamics of the system.

Figure 13. The Nyquist diagrams of the eigenfunction.

4. Experiments Verification

To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase

grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase

grid-connected inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and

an industrial personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the

main circuit, control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 14 of 18

4. Experiments Verification

4. Experiments Verification

To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase

To prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, the experimental platform for a three-phase

grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase grid-connected

grid-connected system was built, as shown in Figure 14a, which included a three-phase

inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and an industrial

grid-connected inverter, a detection and data acquisition circuit (voltage and current sensors), and

personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the main circuit,

an industrial personal computer. The three-phase grid-connected inverter in Figure 14b includes the

control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.

main circuit, control board and LCL filter circuit. The system parameters are shown in Table 1.

DSP control board LCL filter circuit

Three-phase grid- grid-side inductance

connected inverter

filter capacitance

Sensors

(voltage and current) inverter-side inductance

Switchgear

Industrial personal

computer

(control and

calculation)

Transformer

Three-phase grid-connected inverter

(a) (b)

Figure 14. Experimental platform for a three-phase grid-connected system. (a) Whole; (b) Details.

Figure 14. Experimental platform for a three-phase grid-connected system. (a) Whole; (b) Details.

Table 1. System parameters.

Parameter/Unit Value

DC voltage Udc /V 720

Inverter-side inductor L1 /mH, RL1 /Ω 0.6, 0.01

Filter capacitor C1 /µF 10

Grid-side inductor L2 /mH, RL2 /Ω 0.15, 0.001

Grid inductor Lg /mH 0.05

Grid-connected current reference igrd , igrq /A −73, 0

Grid-connected current isgd , isgq /A −73, 0

PCC voltage uspccd , uspccq /V 311, 0

Filter capacitor current isC1d , isC1q /A 0.03, 0.90

Duty radio Dsd , Dsq 0.55, 0.01

PLL PI controller kppll , kipll 1, 4000

Grid current loop PI controller kpi , kii 0.45, 1000

Active damping coefficient KC 1.15

Fundamental frequency f 1 /Hz 50

Switching frequency f s /kHz 10

To improve the stable operation range, the stability enhancement method was proposed [14] by

largely reducing the PLL bandwidth, abbreviated as the traditional control method. The traditional

control method, the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2, the experimental waveforms

of PCC voltage upcc and the grid-connected current ig are shown in Figures 15–17. The experimental

results of the grid-connected current in the three cases are shown in Table 2.

In the case of the traditional control method from Figure 15a, the total harmonic distortion (THD)

of the steady-state grid-connected current is 9.71%. The harmonic contents of the grid-connected

current are large. The reason is that the phase margin of the system may be insufficient using the

traditional control method. Therefore, it is essential to propose the control method to increase the

system phase margin.

To increase the system phase margin, admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2 are proposed, which

use a set of parameters within the design range shown in Table 3. In the case of the proposed admittance

reshaping techniques 1 and 2 from Figures 16a and 17a, the THD of the steady-state grid-connected

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 15 of 18

currents are 1.72% and 1.93%. In both cases, the harmonic contents of the grid-connected current are

greatly attenuated. The reason is that the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2 increase the

system damping and improve system stability. Therefore, the validity of the theoretical analysis is verified.

As can be seen in Figures 15b, 16b and 17b, the reference grid-connected current increases from

36.5A to 73A in the case of the traditional control method and the proposed admittance reshaping

techniques 1 and 2. The transient experimental results in the three cases are similar. Therefore,

compared with the traditional control method, the proposed admittance reshaping techniques 1 and 2

can ensure system dynamics.

Traditional control method 9.71%

Admittance reshaping technique 1

1.72%

(within the parameter design range)

Admittance reshaping technique 2

1.93%

(within the parameter design range)

Admittance reshaping technique 1

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR 5.62%

(without thePEER REVIEW

parameter design range) 15 of 18

Energies 2019, 12, x FOR PEER

Admittance REVIEW

reshaping technique 2 15 of 18

5.84%

(without

(without the parameter

the parameter design

design range)

range)

(without the parameter design range)

Table 3.

Table 3. Different sets of parameters.

parameters.

Table 3. Different sets of parameters.

Case Case φm ϕm kp k p kω kkmω km

theCase

within within

design rangerange

the design

ϕm

−20◦ −20°

2.04

kp

2.04

6.16 × 10−4

k×ω 10–4

6.161.43 k

1.43

m

withinwithout

withoutthe

thedesign

design range

rangerange

the design −10◦ −20°

−10°

1.42 2.04

1.42× 10−4

7.38 6.16 × 10–4

7.381.19 –4 1.43

1.19

without the design range −10° 1.42 7.38 × 10–4 1.19

iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient

iga igb igc upcca upccb reference current transient

igabc

igabc

FFT

THD=9.71% reference current transient

FFT iga igb

THD=9.71% reference current transient

iga igb

50Hz t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) THD=21.54% t(10ms/div) THD=9.71%

t(8ms/div) (a) f(300Hz/div) (b)

t(10ms/div)

(a) (b)

Figure 15. Experimental waveforms of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage upcc and

Figure 15. Experimental waveforms of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage upcc and grid-connected

Figure 15. Experimental

grid-connected waveforms

current ig with traditionalofcontrol

point method.

of common coupling

(a) Steady (PCC)

state; (b) voltage upcc and

Transient.

current ig with traditional control method. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

grid-connected current ig with traditional control method. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

igabc(100A/div)

ga)(1A/div) igabc(100A/div)

igabc

igabc

FFT

THD=1.72% reference current transient

FFT iga igb

THD=1.72% reference current transient

iga igb

)(1A/div)

lg(igalg(i

50Hz t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) THD=3.44% t(10ms/div) THD=1.72%

t(8ms/div) (a) f(300Hz/div) (b)

t(10ms/div)

(a) (b)

Figure 16. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 1

Figure 16. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 1

within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

Figure 16. Experimental

within the waveforms

parameter design of Steady

range. (a) upcc and ig with

state; proposed admittance reshaping technique 1

(b) Transient.

within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

igabc

igabc(10

FFT

THD=1.72% reference current transient

iga igb

lg(iga)(1A/div)

Energies 2019, 12, 2457 16 of 18

50Hz THD=3.44% THD=1.72%

t(8ms/div) f(300Hz/div) t(10ms/div)

To verify the reasonableness

(a) of the parameter design for the proposed admittance

(b) reshaping techniques

1 and 2, another set of parameters without the design range is shown in Table 3. The experimental

waveforms

Figure of

16.PCC voltage upcc

Experimental and grid-connected

waveforms of upcc and icurrent ig in bothadmittance

g with proposed cases are shown as Figures

reshaping 18 and

technique 1 19.

The experimental results of the grid-connected current in both cases

within the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient. are shown in Table 2.

pcc and with proposed

proposed admittance

admittance reshaping technique 2

Energies 2019, 12, xparameter

within FOR PEER REVIEWrange. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient. 16 of 18

within the

the parameter design

design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

From

From Figures18a

Figures 18aandand19a,

19a,thethe

THDTHD the of the steady-state grid-connected current is 5.62% and

To verify the reasonableness of theofparameter

steady-state

designgrid-connected

for the proposed current is 5.62%

admittance and 5.84%

reshaping

5.84%

in in the case

the case of1 the of the proposed control methods without the design range. The THD of the

techniques andproposed

2, another control

set ofmethods without

parameters the design

without range.range

the design The THD of thein

is shown grid-connected

Table 3. The

grid-connected

current in both current

cases in both

is less casesinisFigure

less than that

with in theFigure 15a with themethod,

traditional control

experimental waveforms of than

PCC thatvoltage upcc and 15agrid-connected traditional

currentcontrol

ig in both casesbut are greater

shown

method,

than that but

in greater

Figures than

16a that

and in

17a Figures

within 16a

the and

design 17a within

range. the

The design

reason isrange.

that theThe reason

phase is that

margin of the

the

as Figures 18 and 19. The experimental results of the grid-connected current in both cases are shown

phase

system margin

has of

been the system

improved buthasit been

has improved

not yet met but it has

sufficient not yet

stability met

of sufficient

the system. stability of

Therefore, the

the

in Table 2.

system. Therefore,

reasonableness theparameter

of the reasonableness

designof is the parameter

verified for thedesign

proposed is verified for the proposed control

control methods.

methods.

As can be seen in Figures 15b, 18b and 19b, the reference grid-connected current increases from

Astocan

36.5 A 73 Abeand

seentheintransient

Figures 15b, 18b and 19b,

experimental thein

results reference

the threegrid-connected

cases are similar. current increases

Therefore, from

compared

36.5 A to 73 A and the transient experimental results in the three cases

with the traditional control method, the proposed control methods without the design range can also are similar. Therefore,

compared

ensure the with

system thedynamics.

traditional control method, the proposed control methods without the design

range can also ensure the system dynamics.

upcca upccb reference current transient

upccab(300V/div)

igab(100A/div)

THD=11.56% THD=5.62%

t(10ms/div)

(b)

Figure 18.

Figure Experimental waveforms

18. Experimental waveforms of upcc

of u and iigg with

pcc and with proposed

proposed admittance

admittance reshaping

reshaping technique

technique 11

without the

without the parameter

parameter design

design range. (a) Steady

range. (a) Steady state;

state; (b)

(b) Transient.

Transient.

Figure 19. Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 2

without the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

5. Conclusion

igab(1

THD=11.56% THD=5.62%

t(10ms/div)

(b)

Figure

Energies 18.2457

2019, 12, Experimental waveforms of upcc and ig with proposed admittance reshaping technique 17

1 of 18

without the parameter design range. (a) Steady state; (b) Transient.

Figure

Figure 19. Experimental waveforms

19. Experimental waveforms ofof uupcc and iigg with

pcc and with proposed

proposed admittance

admittance reshaping

reshaping technique

technique 22

without

without the

the parameter

parameter design

design range.

range. (a)

(a) Steady

Steady state;

state; (b)

(b) Transient.

Transient.

5. Conclusions

5. Conclusion

The negative impact of PLL on system stability is caused by the range of negative incremental

The negative impact of PLL on system stability is caused by the range of negative incremental

resistance. It will increase impedance coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the system

resistance. It will increase impedance coupling between inverters and grid, which reduces the

phase margin or leads to system instability. Therefore, two admittance reshaping control methods

system phase margin or leads to system instability. Therefore, two admittance reshaping control

that consider the PLL effect are proposed to improve system damping. The first reshaping technique

methods that consider the PLL effect are proposed to improve system damping. The first reshaping

uses the feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second reshaping

technique uses the feedforward PCC voltage to modify the inverter output admittance. The second

technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent admittance. The

reshaping technique adopts the active damping controller to reconstruct the PLL equivalent

proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin but also ensure the system

admittance. The proposed control methods not only increase the system phase margin but also

dynamic response speed. The total harmonic distortion of the steady-state grid-connected current is

ensure the system dynamic response speed. The total harmonic distortion of the steady-state

reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control parameters is depicted.

grid-connected current is reduced to less than 2%. Furthermore, a specific design method of control

Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the proposed control methods.

parameters is depicted. Finally, experimental results are provided to prove the validity of the

Still, the paper does not study the effect of time delay on the proposed control methods, which is an

proposed control methods. Still, the paper does not study the effect of time delay on the proposed

important topic to be explored in the future.

control methods, which is an important topic to be explored in the future.

Author Contributions: L.Y. and Y.C. provided the original idea for this paper. L.Y., A.L. and K.H. organized the

manuscript and attended the discussions when analysis and verification were carried out. All the authors gave

comments and suggestions for the writing of and descriptions in the manuscript.

Funding: This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China under Grant No.

2017YFB0902000, and the Science and Technology Project of State Grid under Grant No. SGXJ0000KXJS1700841.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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