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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.

47 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm
P.Elangovan1, B.R.Harini2
Assistant Professor, Valliammai Engineering College, Chennai.
UG Student, Valliammai Engineering College, Chennai.,

ABSTRACT The fibre reinforced concrete which

This paper presents the effect of flexural possess high flexural strength and high durability
behavior of fibre reinforced concrete. A total of 4 when compared to conventional reinforced concrete
reinforced concrete beams were cast and tested .This hybrid form enhances the strength, durability
in the present investigation. Concrete of M20 and acts as a crack arrester. This is more
grade was designed and crimped steel fibres and economical than normal reinforced concrete
polypropylene fibres were used in hybrid form. because of its high flexural strength enhances the
The main variables considered were the volume life of the structure and the structure is prone to less
fraction of (i) Crimped steel fibres viz. 0.25%, damage which would thus reduce the cost overall.
0.5% and 0.75% (ii)Polypropylene fibres viz. Fibre Reinforced Concrete is concrete containing
0.75%, 0.5%, and 0.25%. The combination of fibrous material which increases its structural
0.75% volume fraction of steel fibres and 0.25% integrity. It contains short discrete fibres that are
volume fraction of polypropylene fibres gave uniformly distributed and randomly oriented in a
better performance with respect to strength and hybrid, two or more different types of fibres are
energy dissipation capacity than the other rationally combined to produce a composite that
combinations. The performance of specimens derives benefits from each of the individual fibres
was compared with the control mix without and exhibits a synergistic response. Fibres having
hybrid fibres. Then the behavior flexural lower modulus of elasticity are expected to enhance
member are compared with conventional strain performance whereas fibres having higher
specimens. The results show that the flexural modulus of elasticity are expected to enhance the
behavior of specimen with fibres showed better strength performance. Moreover, the addition of
performance. hybrid fibres makes the concrete more
Keywords: flexural behaviour, steel fibre, homogeneous and isotropic and therefore it is
polypropylene fibre transformed from brittle to more ductile material.

Introduction Ahsanafathima K M, (2014) has

In reinforced concrete structures, flexural investigated the effects of steel fibres and
failure is one of the main threats being faced. polypropylene fibres on the mechanical properties
Many methods were adopted to increase the of concrete which results in higher splitting tensile
strength and flexural behavior of the structure. strength with addition of 0.5% polypropylene fibre
Since plain concrete possesses very low tensile by volume of concrete.
strength, limited ductility, and little resistance to
cracking. Internal micro-cracks are present in the Saeed Ahmed,(2006) , A study on
concrete and these micro-cracks are caused due to properties of polypropylene fibre reinforced
low tensile strength. By using fibre reinforced concrete. In this paper the author deals with the
concrete the toughness of the structure. Inclusion effects of addition of various proportions of
of polypropylene fibres reduces the water polypropylene fibre on the properties of concrete.
permeability, increases the flexural strength due An experimental program was carried out to
to its high modulus of elasticity. The flexural explore its effects on compressive, tensile, flexural,
strength is improved by up to 30% by decreasing shear strength and plastic shrinkage cracking. The
the propagation of cracks. author concludes that the addition of polypropylene

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.47 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm
fibres at low values actually increases the 28 days
compressive strength but when the volumes get Coarse aggregate
higher than the compressive strength decreases Locally available crushed blue granite stones
from original by 3 to 5%. The tensile strength conforming to graded aggregate of nominal size
increases about 65% to 70% up to 0.40% after 12.5 mm as per IS 383-(1970) with the specific
which it decreases. There is about 80% increase gravity of 2.77.
in flexure strength by adding 0.20% fibres in
concrete after which strength starts reducing with Water
further increment in fibre ratios. Casting and curing of specimens were done with
Tamil selvi.M (2013), ‘Studies on the the potable water that is available in the college
properties of steel and polypropylene fibre premises.
reinforced concrete without any admixture’. In
this paper the author has investigated the strength Steel fibre
of concrete cubes, cylinders and prisms cast using Steel fibres have high tensile strength ranging from
M30 grade concrete and reinforced with steel and 0.5 - 2.0 GPa with modulus of elasticity of 200
polypropylene fibres.The steel, polypropylene and GPa. In this project aspect ratio of 50 crimpled type
hybrid polypropylene and steel (crimped) fibres steel fibre is used.
of various proportion i.e., 4% of steel fibre, 4% of
polypropylene fibre and 4% of hybrid Polypropylene fibre
polypropylene and steel (crimped) fibres each of Polypropylene fibre, a synthetic carbon polymer, is
2% by volume of cement were used in concrete produced as continuous mono – filaments, with
mixes. The author concludes that the concrete mix circular cross section that can be chopped to
with 4% Endura-600 Macro synthetic required length (or) tape of rectangular cross
Polypropylene fibre shows that concrete was section.
more slippery and difficult to compact. Increase
in compressive strength of SFRC was observed to Mix proportions M20
be in range of 3% to 60% between 7 and 28 Cement Fine Coarse Water
days.The compressive strength of PPFRC was aggregate aggregate
observed to increase between 10% and 18% for 7
and 28 days. Corresponding values for Hybrid
concrete was increased by 3% to 22 % for 7 to 28
days when compared to conventional concrete. 425.73 553.96 1177.15 191.6
Experimental investigation kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m3 ml
Cement 1 1.3 2.76 0.45
The ordinary Portland cement of 53 Grade
conforming to IS 12269-(1987) was used in this Preliminary studies
study. The specific gravity, initial and final In the preliminary studies, the standard sizes of
setting of OPC 53 grade were 3.15, 45 and 400 cube (150 * 150 *150 mm) were tested as per IS
min, respectively. 516-(1959). The concluding results were as follows:
The cube compressive strength was observed as 69
Fine aggregate N/mm2. By the addition of steel and polypropylene
Locally available river sand conforming to fibres the compressive strength of cubes has been
grading zone II of IS 4031-(1998). Sand passing increased. Various proportions have been tried out
through IS 4.75 mm sieve will be used with the among that 0.75% of steel with 0.25% of
specific gravity of 2.65. polypropylene fibre shows the better results of
increase in compressive strength by 8.5 %.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.47 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm

Beam specimen details

All the four beam specimens are of same size.

The beam has a cross section of 120mm x 150mm
with an overall length of 1200mm. Figure 1
shows the beam reinforcement specimen.



Casting and testing of specimens: Concrete cubes were casted for different
Plywood moulds were used for casting the proportions of fibre and the value of high strength is
specimens. Reinforcement cages were fabricated taken. For that optimum proportion beams were
and placed inside the moulds. Required quantities casted and tested.The beam is tested for strength by
of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and fibres were applying load at 1m span and the load capacity is
mixed manually and water was added to the mix. calculated. the following are the strength obtained
by various specimens,


Fibre SP1 SP2 SP3

Steel 0.75 0.5 0.25

Polypropylene 0.25 0.5 0.75


The mixes were poured into moulds in

layers and the moulds were vibrated for thorough
compaction. After 24 h of casting, specimens
were demoulded and cured in curing tanks for 28
days. Specimens were tested in a loading frame.
The test setup shown in figure 3consisted of a
steel loading frame with a capacity of 600 kN.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.47 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm
th th
(kg) (kN) (N/mm ) CONVENTIONAL 590 32.78
FIBRE 787 43.75
1 8.4 784 34.84 REINFORCED
2 8.1 719 31.96 FIBRE32.59 754 41.93
3 8.5 697 30.98 CONCRETE(SP 2)

28 DAY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST In this paper, the performances of flexural
RESULTS OF FIBRE CONCRETE CUBES: member with and without fibre were examined
experimentally. The following conclusions are
AVERA arrived at from this study:
COMPR GE • The behavior of flexural member specimens in
SPEC GHT. ULTI which the reinforcement designed under normal
IMEN OF MATE loading was studied.
GTH STREN • The test specimens with hybrid fibre showed
ILS E (kN) increased ultimate load-carrying capacity and lesser
(N/mm2) GTH
(kg) deflection than conventional flexural concrete
8.3 1109 49.3 • The ultimate load-carrying capacity of specimens
SP1 8.4 1062 47.2 48.4 with hybrid fibre reinforced high performance
concrete was increased by 8.5% compared to the
8.4 1095 48.7 conventional concrete.
8.5 1039 46.2
SP 2 8.2 996 49.3 45.73 Reference:
1. IS 12269-1987 (Reaffirmed 1999)
8.3 1050 46.7 Specification for 53 grade ordinary Portland
8.3 1008 44.8 cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New
Delhi, India
SP 3 8.5 978.75 43.5 44
2. IS 13920-1993 (Reaffirmed 1998) Ductile
8.2 983.25 43.7 detailing of reinforced concrete structures
subjected to seismic forces code of practice.
Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
3. IS 516-1959 (Reaffirmed 1997) Methods of
tests for strength of concrete. Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi, India

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.47 (2015)
© Research India Publications; httpwww.ripublication.comijaer.htm
4. IS 383-1970 (Reaffirmed 1997) Specification
for coarse and fine aggregate from natural
sources for concrete. Bureau of
IndianStandards, New Delhi, India
5. IS 456-2000 (Fourth Revision) Plain and
reinforced concrete -code of practice. Bureau
of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India
6. Ahsanafathima K M, Shibivarghese, (2014)
‘Behavioural study of steel fibre and
polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete’,
International Journal of Research in
Engineering & Technology (IMPACT:
IJRET) ISSN (E): 2321-8843; ISSN (P):
2347-4599 Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp: 17-24.
7. Saeed Ahmed, Imran A Bukhari, Javed Iqbal
Siddiqui Shahzad Ali Qureshi,(2006), ‘A
study on properties of polypropylene fibre
reinforced concrete’,31st Conference on Our
world in concrete & structure.
8. Vikrant S. Vairagade, Kavita S. Kene,
(2012), ‘Introduction to Steel Fibre
Reinforced Concrete on Engineering
Performance of Concrete’, International
Journal of Scientific & Technology Research
Volume 1, Issue 4, pp: 139-141
9. Wei Sun, Huisu Chen, Xin Luo, Hongpin
Qian, (2001), ‘The effect of hybrid fibres and
expansive agent on the shrinkage and
permeability of high-performance
concrete’,Cement and Concrete Research 31,
pp: 595-601.