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1

Idiosyncratic Concepts in the Music of


Henry Threadgill's Zooid

An Applied Investigation into Compositional and


Improvisational Techniques

Gareth Keany Hill


BMus (Hons), MPhil (Music) Australian National University

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Doctor of


Philosophy.

University of Tasmania

Hobart (July 2017)


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DECLARATION

This exegesis contains the results of research carried out at the University of
Tasmania, Conservatorium of Music between 2014 and 2017. It contains no material
that, to my knowledge, has been accepted for a degree or diploma by the University or
any other institution, except by way of background information that is duly
acknowledged in the exegesis. I declare that this exegesis is my own work and
contains no material previously published or written by another person except where
clear acknowledgement or reference has been made in the text. This exegesis may be
made available for loan and limited copying in accordance with the Copyright Act
1968.

The research associated with this exegesis abides by the international and Australian
codes of human and animal experimentation, the guidelines by the Australian
Government’s Office of the Gene Technology Regulator and the rulings of the Safety,
Ethics and Institutional Biosafety Committees of the University. Ethics committee
approval has been obtained for this research: H0015038

Gareth Keany Hill


23 November 2017
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Acknowledgements

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people that have helped with

this project.

For their patience and unwavering support, I thank my supervisors Dr Glen Hodges

and Dr Nick Haywood. This study has benefitted enormously from their guidance and

understanding.

I also thank the musicians who kindly agreed to participate in interviews, providing

invaluable information for this research. Brandon Ross, Jose Davila, Christopher

Hoffman and Liberty Ellman all gave thoughtful and illuminating accounts of their

experiences performing with Threadgill. Additionally, Ellman was responsible for the

excellent mastering of the Slow Code album included here.

The musicians of Slow Code, Jack Beeche, Dan Mamrot and Aaron McCoullough, all

gave considerable time and effort to this project. I am forever grateful for their

creativity, musicianship and friendship. Additionally, I thank Niko Schäuble for the

use of his studio, Pughouse Studios, and his meticulous work engineering and mixing

the Slow Code album.

Lastly, I would like to thank my partner Dominique Chaseling. She has provided

constant support, great insight and love. Without her continued encouragement, this

project would not have succeeded or even existed.


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Table of Contents

List of Figures ..............................................................................................................vi

Abstract ..................................................................................................................... viii

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1

Henry Threadgill Biography................................................................................................ 6

Chapter 1 – Literature Survey.................................................................................. 15

General Music Analysis ...................................................................................................... 18

Jazz Improvisation .............................................................................................................. 24

Musical Practice Research ................................................................................................. 31

Henry Threadgill................................................................................................................. 34

Biography .......................................................................................................................... 34

Interviews/Articles ............................................................................................................ 36

Musical Discourse ............................................................................................................. 37

Scores ................................................................................................................................ 40

Music Analysis .................................................................................................................. 41

Chapter 2 – Methodology .......................................................................................... 44

Selection of Recorded Works ............................................................................................. 45

Transcription ....................................................................................................................... 45

Interviews ............................................................................................................................ 47

Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 48

Creative Application ........................................................................................................... 53

Chapter 3 – Analysis .................................................................................................. 59

Form Modification .............................................................................................................. 64

Harmony .............................................................................................................................. 76

Melodic Conception ............................................................................................................ 95


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Counterpoint ..................................................................................................................... 105

Chapter 4 – Creative Works ................................................................................... 128

Mixed Business .................................................................................................................. 131

Tribulation ......................................................................................................................... 138

How Did You Get This Number ...................................................................................... 142

Who Wore It Better .......................................................................................................... 146

2,2,3,4,-6 ............................................................................................................................. 150

Boreanaz ............................................................................................................................ 154

Termeil ............................................................................................................................... 158

Windows 95 ....................................................................................................................... 161

Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 167

Appendix 1 – Transcriptions................................................................................... 171

Appendix 1.1: After Some Time transcriptions .............................................................. 172

Appendix 1.2: Polymorph transcriptions ........................................................................ 204

Appedix 1.3: To Undertake My Corners Open transcriptions ....................................... 247

Appendix 2 – List of Recordings............................................................................. 291

Discography .............................................................................................................. 294

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 295


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List of Figures

Figure 1 - Diacritical markings .................................................................................... 47

Figure 2 - After Some Time form ................................................................................. 71

Figure 3 - Polymorph form .......................................................................................... 72

Figure 4 - To Undertake My Corners Open form ........................................................ 73

Figure 5 - Representation of Brandon Ross's explanation of Threadgill's interval

generation process ................................................................................................ 79

Figure 6 - Author's depiction of Hoffman's cello part to After Some Time, bar 1-2 .... 82

Figure 7 - Harmony notation........................................................................................ 82

Figure 8 - After Some Time, bar 1: harmony and interval set/master cell comparison 86

Figure 9 - Polymorph bar 1-2: harmony and interval set/master cell comparison....... 87

Figure 10 - To Undertake My Corners Open bar 7-8: harmony and interval set/master

cell comparison .................................................................................................... 88

Figure 11 - See The Blackbird Now bar 1: harmony and master cell comparison ....... 90

Figure 12 - See The Blackbird Now bar 2: harmony and master cell comparison ....... 91

Figure 13 - After Some Time bar 1-2: intervallic analysis ........................................... 92

Figure 14 - After Some Time bar 1-2: accompany part and harmony relationship ...... 93

Figure 15 - After Some Time: A section unconnected motifs 1 - 4 .............................. 97

Figure 16 - After Some Time: alto saxophone, bar 8 related motifs 1 - 3 .................... 98

Figure 17 - After Some Time: alto saxophone, bar 8 - 16 related motifs 1 - 10 ........... 99

Figure 18 - Polymorph: 1 section bar 1-3, restricted intervallic movement .............. 100

Figure 19 - Polymorph: alto saxophone melody, repeated interval use ..................... 102

Figure 20 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 1 - 6: trombone melody, unrelated

motifs 1 - 4 ......................................................................................................... 105

Figure 21 - After Some Time, bar 1 - 2: guitar/bass rhythmic unison ........................ 107
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Figure 22 - After Some Time, bar 8 - 10: full counterpoint ........................................ 108

Figure 23 - Polymorph, bar 1: counterpoint entries ................................................... 109

Figure 24 - Polymorph, bar 2 - 3: guitar, bass guitar and tuba rhythmic relationship

............................................................................................................................ 110

Figure 25 - Polymorph: section 4 repeats, bass and tuba ........................................... 112

Figure 26 - Polymorph written material, bar 15 - 16: bass guitar and tuba unison ... 113

Figure 27 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 1 - 9: melodic focus ..................... 114

Figure 28 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 14 - 20: melodic focus ................. 116

Figure 29 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 27 - 30: melodic focus ................. 117

Figure 30 - After Some Time, bar 10: alto solo, improvised counterpoint ................. 119

Figure 31 - After Some Time, bar 24: guitar solo, improvised counterpoint .............. 121

Figure 32 - Polymorph, bar 24 - 25: tuba solo, improvised counterpoint .................. 122

Figure 33 - Polymorph, bass guitar solo bar 138-139; written material bar 21-22:

guitar and tuba comparison ................................................................................ 123

Figure 34 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 93 - 94: flute solo, improvised

counterpoint ....................................................................................................... 124

Figure 35 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 17 - 19: trombone solo, improvised

counterpoint ....................................................................................................... 125


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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to investigate the music of Henry Threadgill’s Zooid,

focusing on compositional and improvisational techniques, and how these function in

an ensemble setting. Discoveries from this research will be used to advance the

author’s creative practice; a folio of original compositions and performance

recordings exploring Threadgill’s ideas will be included in this project.

Henry Threadgill has stated in recent interviews that he has developed an interval-

based harmonic system and a modular approach to form in his current ensemble,

Zooid. These innovations result in a dynamic and original sound, absent of traditional

harmonic movement and obvious structure. The processes behind this music have not

been extensively explored; little research has been performed on this original musical

system, while Threadgill’s interviews have provided little clarification of his

approach. This research seeks to illuminate this highly acclaimed composer’s ground-

breaking music. Amongst other awards, Threadgill’s recent Zooid album In For A

Penny In For A Pound received the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for composition.

This project will be achieved through a number of activities including: interviews

with musicians in Zooid and those connected with Threadgill, transcription and

analysis of a number of Zooid’s recorded pieces, and the creation and performance of

new works inspired by Threadgill’s approach for Zooid. For the author, Threadgill's

music is inspiring and intriguing. This research will lead into new areas and provide a

contrasting creative approach to that of the author’s. It is hoped that this project may

also inspire others to explore Threadgill's approach to music.


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Introduction

Henry Threadgill’s Zooid takes the stage. Drummer Elliot Kavee, then Threadgill

carrying multiple flutes and alto saxophone, are quickly followed by guitarist Liberty

Ellman, Jose Davila on tuba and Christopher Hoffman on cello. Once settled,

Threadgill turns and, facing away from the audience, quietly counts off the first song.

The music arrives all at once, tuba, cello and guitar working around each other, the

drums providing a driving and pulsating counterpoint. It is not clear where we are, is

this a solo? A melody? After some time remnants of structure appear: a low cello note

is followed by a common rhythmic gesture. Then the flute enters. This is Zooid.

(Author’s reflection on Zooid in performance)

Henry Threadgill has been described as “one of the most intriguing composers of our

time” (Adler 2011, 24), “one of the great original, iconoclastic voices in American

music” (Fischlin 2011), and “one of the most thrillingly elusive composers in and

around the jazz idiom” (Chinen 2009). After a career spanning more than forty years

and numerous ensembles, Threadgill has formed the ensemble Zooid. Threadgill’s

music composed for this ensemble is at once confronting and beguiling. Little of this

music is immediately apparent; Zooid’s approach to melody, solos and overall form

are so unusual that on first listening these elements are not evident. Howard Mandel

describes it as “richly textured group interplay, organized pieces rife with virtuosity

and passion—but few familiar touchstones such as obvious melody, chord

progressions or head-solo-solo-solo-head structures.” (2010, 46) Yet behind this,


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there is a sense of intensity and coherence within the group; the musicians pivot

quickly to new material and are capable of creating sudden and unexpected endings.

The ensemble name could reference the close rapport between the musicians of the

group, with the Oxford Dictionary listing “Zooid” as a biological term defined as

“individuals which make up a colonial organism and typically have different forms

and functions.” The mysterious nature of Zooid’s music has prompted this research

project.

Zooid currently consists of Threadgill on flute, bass flute and alto saxophone, guitarist

Liberty Ellman, cellist Christopher Hoffman, Jose Davila on trombone and tuba, and

drummer Elliot Kavee. However, the recordings discussed in this study feature a

previous iteration of the ensemble, with bass guitarist Stomu Takeishi replacing

Hoffman.

Zooid’s music contrasts the author’s musical experience prior to this research project.

Having performed in numerous ensembles including improvisation relating to the jazz

idiom such as Blow, the Ted Vining Trio and Tim Willis’s The End, the author’s

musical practice either involved the use of chord/scale structures reminiscent of much

jazz music or a free improvisational approach without a predefined structure. Early

impressions of Zooid suggested the use of a different organisational system, distinct

from the improvisational methods the author had experienced previously. This music

did not appear to contain triadic chordal structures within a discernable repeated form,

as is the case for much of the improvised music the author was involved in, nor did it

seem as if the ensemble was improvising freely without predetermined structure. A

complex musical approach was evident in Zooid, presenting the opportunity to


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advance the author’s creative practice into new areas.

This project aims to determine what compositional process and techniques can be

identified in Threadgill’s music for Zooid and how can these be applied to the

author’s creative practice.

A process of transcription and analysis will be used to identify musical concepts in

use in Zooid. These will be further explored in the creation of new compositions and a

series of live and studio performances. Performances will be undertaken with Slow

Code, an ensemble formed in 2013 with the purpose of developing new improvised

music. This ensemble will be the vehicle to develop and explore concepts and

techniques discovered in research with the aim of creating a body of work informed

by the practice of Zooid. Slow Code consists of Melbourne-based musicians Jack

Beeche, Dan Mamrot, Aaron McCoullough and the author, Gareth Hill.1

A selection of recordings from Zooid’s commercial output will be analysed,

determining the inner workings of the ensemble and revealing idiomatic

compositional and improvisational concepts that can be used to inform the

researcher’s musical practice. Aspects including harmonic concepts, melodic devices,

arranging, instrumentation, as well as contexts for improvisation will provide impetus

for the generation of original compositions. While a potent and vital element of this

music, the role of the drums as well as the overall rhythmic approach of the ensemble

has not been included in this project. Rhythmic concepts present in this music are

worthy of further research but were deemed to be beyond the scope of this study. This

1
Further information about the Slow Code practitioners is included in Chapter 2.
4

project represents an original and significant contribution to knowledge as the first

performance-based study of Henry Threadgill’s music for Zooid, a composer

currently with severely limited analytical research in the literature.2

As this project is performance-based, its primary objective is to inform and develop

the author’s musical practice through research. While this will be actively pursued

through methods discussed later, this process cannot be entirely formalised; prolonged

exposure to any specific music will undoubtedly affect one’s practice, if only

subconsciously. While the assimilation sought in this research is by choice, Threadgill

describes his own period of prolonged exposure, in this case to country music.

I discovered something when I was really young. I had to give myself a


whuppin.' I didn't like country and western music, but I found myself in the
army stationed in Kansas where there was nothin' but country music … Every
station on the radio, day and night, every bar, every jukebox … I can dislike
something, but I've got to give it a chance. I can't close the door completely.
Otherwise I shut out something that may be valuable for my own music …
Because I had been limiting myself, look what I was missing. I had to kill my
limitations. (Ouellette 1998)

As previously stated, the author did not immediately understand or fully appreciate

the music that Zooid performs. Put bluntly, this music was difficult listening. At the

same time, there was a strong attraction; the ensemble had an intense rhythmic drive

and the music’s mysterious nature was uniquely fascinating. After multiple listenings,

small and tantalising aspects of organisation were revealed in the form of repeated

figures or intriguing melodies. While there will be a formal evaluation of the

2
As discussed in Chapter 1.
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influence this music has had on the author’s creative practice, the informal

understanding through familiarity should also be acknowledged.

In parallel to informal influences, formal impacts to the researcher’s creative practice

will be evaluated through the creation and performance of a portfolio of new

compositions informed by the idiomatic concepts identified in research. The

performance and rehearsal of these works will be essential, allowing the assimilation

of concepts into performance practice and the opportunity for alternative insights.

The experience the author has had learning to listen to this music may be one of the

reasons Threadgill has not enjoyed wider notoriety. Despite his significant and varied

body of work, Threadgill has not received the same kind of mainstream recognition

that some of his contemporaries enjoy. Iverson suggests this may have been because

of his constant pursuit of musical innovation,

Threadgill could have won more hearts in the general jazz populace if he had
continuously performed his most charismatic tunes. Of course, this is the last
thing that Threadgill wanted to do. ‘I figured out a long time ago that going
back for me is always a mistake.’ (Iverson 2011a)

Due to Threadgill’s relatively low profile, background information will be included

here as a means of contextualising this project. The following is a brief biography of

Henry Threadgill.
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Henry Threadgill Biography

Henry Threadgill was born on 15 February 1944 in Bronzeville, a suburb of Chicago

(Lewis 2009). From a young age, he was exposed to the variety of music the city

attracted at the time. Early musical experiences came from the radio; Chicago radio

broadcasts were wide-ranging, including blues, jazz, classical and country, as well as

music catering to the large Polish and Serbian communities living there (Appelbaum

2013). His father ran gambling houses, which Threadgill would visit as a child. To

occupy his time, a young Threadgill was given money for the jukebox, “It would be

all jazz on the jukebox, because my father loved jazz” (Lewis 2009, 73). This musical

exposure continued when Threadgill spent weekends at his father’s house where they

would “just play records. Duke, Gene Ammons, Count Basie, Modern Jazz Quartet”

(Lewis 2009, 73). His parents had divorced when he was three years old and

Threadgill spent most of his time living with his mother and extended family. The

family would visit the Maxwell Street Markets on weekends, where he had the

opportunity to hear the many blues musicians that played in the open air markets,

including Muddy Waters and Howlin’ Wolf (Lewis 2009, Mazor 2008).

The varied music of post-war Chicago prompted an inspired Threadgill to begin his

musical studies at four years of age, learning boogie-woogie piano from the radio. “I

would practice Meade Lux Lewis and Albert Ammons. I kept that on the radio. I

could figure out harmony because I could play the piano” (Lewis 2009, 73). Later,

while attending Englewood High School, Threadgill began learning tenor saxophone

and clarinet, supplementing his formal education with time spent attending music

venues of Chicago’s 63rd street district.


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I used to live at McKie’s. I saw everybody. All you would do is take your
horn. They would say, just sit over there, young blood, and don’t even think
about no drink … just sit over there and get you a Coca-Cola or something.
(Lewis 2009, 73)

While Threadgill participated in jam sessions on 63rd street, he was also working in

blues, polka and mariachi bands, as well as performing for sanctified church services.

Liberty Ellman states that the musical climate of Chicago influenced Threadgill’s

creative approach, in particular his rhythmic sensibility.

And so with Henry … he was in marching bands, he came up in Chicago


where there was a lot of blues. Chicago was like the main spot where a lot of
bands would come. You know, not just New York but then they would go
there. So he got to see everybody, John Coltrane and Miles and all the people.
A lot of church music. So it was all those things, you know. And so his super
funky thing comes from the marching band experience and parade music …
and that I think informs his rhythm so much. (interview 11 July 2015)

After high school, Threadgill attended Woodrow Wilson Junior College, whose

students at the time included Joseph Jarman, Roscoe Mitchell and Anthony Braxton,

musicians that would go on to be important parts of the Chicago music scene and

receive international success (Lewis 2009). Richard Wang, who lectured in music at

the college, introduced Threadgill and his other students to contemporary 20th century

classical composers, such as Paul Hindemith and Arnold Schoenberg, and encouraged

them to explore the musical possibilities of both classical composition and the

concepts of Ornette Colman, Cecil Taylor and John Coltrane (Mandel 2016a). It was

at this time Threadgill would meet the pianist Muhal Richard Abrams, “Muhal came
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and played at our school, we had a music club at college … and we invited him with a

group to come in” (Appelbaum 2013). Threadgill’s fellow students, Jarman and

Mitchell were involved in Abrams’ Experimental Band, an ensemble focussed on

exploring new compositional ideas, and invited Threadgill to participate in rehearsals.

However, in 1965 Threadgill quit both the Experimental Band and his studies at

Wilson to focus on playing primarily for church services. It was at one of these

services Threadgill describes being encouraged to take up the alto saxophone.

There was this church that I was playing at. Morris was the minister … I think
he asked me to play His Eye Is On The Sparrow, something like that … So I
played it and it just fell flat. There was like, the people were like “mmm.” It
was very polite, the response, and the minister told me “Henry, you know,
under the pulpit I’ve had this saxophone and I don’t know what it is, but I
don’t think it’s as big as the one you’ve got … why don’t you get it fixed up,
and I’ll pay for it.” So I took it and got it overhauled … I came back with it
and he asked me, “You know, I want you to play that piece again.” When I
went up and played it … there was a big difference in the response that was
going on in the church. So, I remember I had this realisation right then: that
the tenor is a blues horn, and … the alto is a church horn. (Appelbaum 2013)

Threadgill would continue to play church music, and the alto saxophone, later touring

with the evangelist Church of God minister, Horace Shepherd. Threadgill recalls his

time with Shepherd, “I was playing in camp meetings, speaking in tongues, pulling

snakes out of people’s mouths” (Lewis 2009, 75) and “we used to go through big

revival places where, a lot of times, there would be these almost kind of a competition

between this minister and this minister. We’d roll into places and invariably you’d

take over” (Appelbaum 2013). This engagement would end when Threadgill decided

to join the army band in 1966 as an arranger (Lewis 2009). Threadgill’s decision to
9

enlist was primarily to avoid seeing combat; unfortunately this would not be the case.

After a period of working for the army band, Threadgill was asked to produce an

arrangement of patriotic American songs.

The conductor of the orchestra…they were going away and they had given me
a commission to write a medley of these American [songs], Oh Beautiful …
Rock Of Ages … and, I wrote it and it was very, I guess it must have come
across like Stravinsky or something. (Appelbaum 2013)

The medley was performed at an inauguration in Kansas City, attended by the

cardinal, the governor, the mayor and the head of the fifth army. At some point during

the performance, the cardinal vocally objected to the performance.

“Blasphemy!” That’s what he said ... [then] the governor looked at the mayor,
and the mayor looked back at him, and then he looked over … at the generals
… and looked down at the conductor because the cardinal, he had made it
clear that he was like, this is blasphemy, what’s going on right here … Then
they pointed to me, I was on the sidelines, I wasn’t even in the orchestra
playing … [the] first sergeant said “Threadgill did it.” (Appelbaum 2013)

As a result of this performance, Threadgill was sent to Vietnam to serve in the

infantry. He would be stationed in the highlands of Vietnam, in Pleiku, until 1969

when he returned to the U.S. (Lewis 2009). Meanwhile, Muhal Richard Abrams and

other musicians from the Experimental Band, including Joseph Jarman and Roscoe

Mitchell, formed an association to further African-American musicians creating

innovative, original music in Chicago, the Association for the Advancement of

Creative Musicians or the AACM. The association that exists to this day provided a
10

space to workshop new music composed by its members, held concerts for member

ensembles and set up a music education program. It was also responsible for

Threadgill’s early discharge; Abrams sent documents explaining that Threadgill had a

teaching position with the AACM, allowing Threadgill to move back to Chicago and

begin teaching and performing with the association (Lewis 2009).

The atmosphere around the AACM was fertile for the creation of challenging and

progressive music. The association was governed according to the will of its members

and creative autonomy was valued above all. George Lewis explains,

The AACM provides a successful example of collective working-class self-


help and self-determination; encouragement of difference in viewpoint,
aesthetics, ideology, spirituality, and methodologies; and the promulgation of
new cooperative, rather than competitive, relationships between artists. (Lewis
2009, x-xi)

For Threadgill, the AACM appears to have opened up the possibilities of

incorporating multiple musical influences.

The players [of the AACM] were all composers, and they were all looking for
and developing their writing skills and compositional language. So you would
find out what other people were constantly doing, which enhanced what you
were doing … Somebody could tell you about listening to this person play
music from some other country, or avail you of information to go hear
concerts by the Chicago Symphony or the Chicago Chamber Players or
anything of that nature … In that circle there was a broad resource of
information being exchanged and previewed. It was not exclusively Jazz any
more. It was music. (Panken 1996)
11

It was while back in Chicago performing with Abrams and others from the AACM,

Threadgill began to gain a profile as a musician, initially with a collectively led trio

called Air. The trio, founded in the early 1970s with bassist Fred Hopkins and

drummer Steve McCall, was initially formed to provide music for a theatre

production, specifically using Scott Joplin rags (Baumgartner , Shteamer 2010a). The

challenges involved in transferring Joplin’s densely harmonic piano music to a trio of

saxophone, bass and drums, proved to be a fruitful opportunity with Air going on to

record an album, Air Lore, of similarly adapted material. Hopkins reflects on the

inception of the trio.

Henry got commissioned to write the music and perform for this play, The
Hotel: 99 Rooms, with Don Saunders, the director. In fact, not that long ago
we performed one of his pieces at the Public Theatre. So we got together and
we performed this music. And what happened was this special thing … After
we performed for about … God, I forgot how long we worked at that time -
but several months. And after the play was over, we said, “Wow, we can’t just
drop this now,” because we had gotten so close musically - and as friends also.
So we decided to get together and form a band. (Panken 2011)

The limited instrumentation of Air would cause Threadgill to develop different ways

for the ensemble to function, including the drums. “I studied what Ahmad Jamal was

doing with drums … how the drums were tuned, how the drums wouldn't just keep

time, they would play melody” (Sandow). Additionally, the trio found new ways to

incorporate composition and improvisation, and also bring an orchestral approach to

the group, highlighting the elements of wind, strings and percussion (Davis 1990).

A later ensemble, the Henry Threadgill Sextett (or Sextet), formed after his move to
12

New York in 1975, would expand this idea (AACM New York Chapter 2016). The

Sextett incorporated winds, Olu Dara (later Rasul Siddik, then Ted Daniel) on

trumpet, Craig Harris (later Ray Anderson, then Frank Lacy, then Bill Lowe) on

trombone and Threadgill on saxophones, clarinet and bass flute; strings, Deirdre

Murray on cello (originally Brian Smith on piccolo bass) and Fred Hopkins on bass;

and percussion, John Betsch (later Reggie Nicholson) and Pheeroan akLaff (later

Newman Baker). The spelling of Sextett with two t’s was in reference to the sections

of the ensemble, as he saw the percussionists as playing one part. Threadgill explains,

I was really trying to straighten people our because they kept making this
thing about “sextet” and “septet,” so I thought, “Let me make a distinction.”
So when you see Sextett, [mock-serious] “He means a kind of special sextet,
because he’s not using traditional spelling.” (Shteamer 2010a)

The Sextett received wide critical acclaim during the late 1980s, with Threadgill

winning the award for best composer in the Down Beat polls of 1988, 89 and 90

(AACM New York Chapter 2016). The varied instrumentation of the group allowed

Threadgill to create rich sonic landscapes, evoking sombre moods with striking

harmonies as well as energetic dance feels.

One thing I’ve been working toward is a larger orchestral sound that gets away
from the traditional big-band sound. I had a very large palette in the Sextett.
Just with the drums alone, I had twelve pitches; two floor toms, upper toms,
snare drum, floor bass drum and concert bass drum. I had two percussionists,
that’s six tones apiece. (Mandel 1999, 71)

Threadgill would continue to search for new sounds in his music with the ensemble,

Very, Very Circus. Originally consisting of Threadgill on alto saxophone and flutes,
13

Curtis Fowlkes on trombone (later Mark Taylor on french horn), Brandon Ross and

Masujaa on guitars, Edwin Rodriguez and Marcus Rojas on tubas, and Gene Lake on

drums, the oddly constructed group would combine influences of “avant-garde jazz,

funk, salsa, and East European marches” (Baumgartner), while continuing his

explorations into double instrumentation, this time with guitar and tuba.

With "Very, Very Circus" I'm looking for a whole different type of texture,
something similar to what Miles Davis was doing when he "went electric" and
recorded "Bitches Brew", or what Ornette did when he formed the group
"Prime Time". But I've also combined the tuba, one of the earliest instruments
in jazz and the forerunner of the bass, with the electric guitar, a comparatively
recent instrument. So in "Very, Very Circus" I've got a new ensemble that can
look both forward and backward and pay its respects to various traditions
while building upon them. This is what I hope my music has always done and
will always continue to do. (AACM New York Chapter 2016)

In addition to these groups, he has led numerous other unusually populated ensembles

such as X-75 featuring four woodwinds, four double basses and one vocalist; the

Situation Society Dance Band, a 19-piece ensemble including vocals, a string section,

saxophones, brass and rhythm section; and Make A Move, featuring accordion,

harmonium, vibraphone and marimba at times (Baumgartner , Pareles 1986).

Currently residing in New York, Threadgill continues to extend his musical practice

leading both the previously mentioned Zooid and a larger ensemble, Double Up,

featuring double pianos in its line up. As a continuous musical experimenter and

pioneer, this quote succinctly illustrates his approach beyond the bounds of genre or

classification.
14

The one thing I've always understood was the aim. The aim is to make music.
How? That question is open. With what? And that question has always been
open … The only thing that I knew from the time I was a little kid was that the
idea was that you had to make music. And I don't care what the music was or
where it was from. It didn't matter if it was Mozart or Balinese orchestra or
whatever it was. The idea is to make music. And how you do it, nobody really
cares, basically. I don't think the listeners care. It becomes a conversation for
academics and things like that. (Hall 2011)
15

Chapter 1 – Literature Survey

As with other lesser-known artists, it is unsurprising that the literature around

Threadgill’s music is limited. While there certainly is material concerning his life and

career, little formal investigation has been carried out regarding Threadgill’s concepts

and approach to music. Threadgill discusses his musical concepts and approach in

multiple interviews but no attempts are made to explore any underlying processes.

While these interviews are revealing and provide insight into Threadgill as an artist

and person as well as invaluable self-descriptions of his musical process, analysis that

could illuminate his music does not occur. The primary aim of this research project is

to further the author’s musical practice through investigation of Threadgill’s music.

The consequent secondary outcome is to address the lack of formal analysis and

provide some insight into the workings of an innovative musician.

Prior to Zooid, Threadgill has created a substantial body of work consisting of highly

original music. From the leaderless trio of Air featuring free improvisation and

rearrangements of Scott Joplin rags, to the New Orleans inspired polyphony of the

Situation Society Dance Band and the quasi-fusion sound of Make A Move, he has

consistently drawn influence from multiple musical traditions, employed challenging

instrumentation defying traditional jazz band configuration and effectively melded the

competing elements of composition and improvisation. This can be seen in this

description of another ensemble, the Henry Threadgill Sextett.

The use of low instruments, such as tuba and French horn, allows Threadgill
16

to cloak his melodies in a trancelike, euphoric, mysterious layer of sound.


Threadgill is an expert in the imperceptible blending of composition and
improvisation. This allows him to seamlessly unite the legacy of free jazz with
New Orleans dirges and funeral marches, with Ellington and Mingus … His
oblique, well-conceived juxtapositions of different musical styles are not
nostalgic meditations on jazz history, but rather raw attacks on clichés—a
powerful, sophisticated, forward-thinking celebration of the past. (Berendt and
Huesmann 2009)

This highly complementary tone is often repeated in the literature concerning

Threadgill; he is regularly referred to as an advanced and talented performer,

composer and ensemble leader, a sentiment frequently echoed by musicians the

author discussed this project with. Given this level of respect in the jazz community it

is incongruous Threadgill remains an understudied figure in academic literature.

While the scope of this research project is confined to the recent music of Zooid to

allow thorough investigation, it is hoped that this study may generate further

investigation of Threadgill’s previous work. An examination of the progression of his

musical output seems fertile ground for further research.

The first three sections of this literature review detail material related to the broader

aspects of this project. The first section, General Music Analysis, discusses sources

outside of the jazz tradition. The second section concerns Jazz Improvisation,

including jazz analysis and the processes of jazz performance. The third section is

titled Musical Practice Research, including studies that have sought to assess

compositional and performance practices through formal investigation.

The remaining sections focus on works pertaining specifically to Threadgill. As


17

previously noted, Threadgill is not a mainstream figure and the amount of literature

written about him is correspondingly limited. Of this, the majority cover his life and

music without further analysis of musical process with a small number of interviews

provide excellent explanations from Threadgill and guitarist Liberty Ellman regarding

the musical functioning in Zooid. These works will be divided into the following

sections: Biography, Interviews/Articles and Musical Discourse. The very limited

amount of material directly concerning Threadgill’s concepts and approach will

appear under Scores and Music Analysis.


18

General Music Analysis

While Threadgill’s work could be considered part of the jazz tradition (and his work

has been categorised as such), it appears he is uneasy with the term “jazz.” Threadgill

explains, “I never did consider my music jazz…jazz is part of my vocabulary, but I

don’t do jazz specifically” (Birnbaum 1995, 17). Currently, Threadgill does not

describe his music as “jazz,” preferring instead to use the term “creative improvised

music” (Shteamer 2010b). For him, the term has been subverted; diffuse from the

intent of the creatively forward music he produces.

There's confusion about what jazz means now … There's a basketball team
named Jazz, perfume named jazz, festival named jazz—there's not one person
on there that's improvising … and then people make films, documentaries,
Ken Burns for one. He and the people that were his consultants, they give a
picture of what they say jazz is and then exclude generations of people, whole
schools and generations of people are excluded from it … So that's why I say
that word has really lost its meaning. (Shteamer 2010b)

In addition to this, Threadgill has actively sought out music from a wide range of

genres. Growing up in Chicago, “I was listening to as much Serbian music and

country and western music and classical music as I was listening to jazz and blues”

(Chinen 2009). In particular, Threadgill appears to have been strongly influenced by

classical music. In Lewis’s A Power Stronger than Itself, Threadgill mentions meeting

with two of the foremost atonal classical composers as a young man.

I met Hindemith and Varese in person. With Hindemith I had just kind of
validated something that I had already learned, but the Varese was something I
couldn’t touch. I didn’t know what the hell was going on, and I didn’t know
19

why I liked it. I positioned myself and grabbed his hand and told him how
many pieces of his that I liked. He just looked at me for a long time, very
earnestly. You gotta remember that I knew that he was the one that taught
William Grant Still, so I knew that he was okay. (Lewis 2009, 75)

Moreover, Threadgill was exposed to classical composition techniques through the

AACM (Lewis 2009) and at various classical music institutions.

I went to all the music schools—universities, colleges, conservatories—all


around this country … I was constantly studying at these places, taking every
course in music they had to offer. That was my approach; I was never
interested in a degree, I was interested in the catalogue. (Mandel 1999, 68)

It is therefore probable that Threadgill has been influenced by atonal and other

classical composition approaches. Two sources provide analysis of atonal techniques

pertinent to the approach taken in this study. Vincent Persichetti’s Twentieth-Century

Harmony (1978), primarily written as a handbook for student composers, provides

examples of atonal compositional devices, while Allen Forte’s The Structure of

Atonal Music (1973), gives a more rigorous examination. Concerned with atonal

music analysis, Forte offers a systematic analytical system quantifying pitches and

intervallic relationships; a system largely derived from the work of composer Milton

Babbitt. Of particular interest to this study are Persichetti’s concept of mirror writing

and Forte’s interval vector analysis. Both concepts focus on the compositional

implications of intervals; mirror writing involves reversing intervals to produce new

musical material, while interval vectors gauge the discrete intervals contained within

a group of pitches. In multiple interviews (Mandel 2010, Adler 2011, Chinen 2011),

Threadgill mentions the significance of intervals in his concept for Zooid.


20

Well, the language … is such that we move from one series of intervals to
another series of intervals throughout a piece of music … They control the
voice leading and everything: The harmony, the voice leading, the melodic
line, everything is moving not necessarily with every one of those intervals
being used, but that pool of intervals, and improvisation is coming from there
also. (Shteamer 2010b)

Determining any direct influences in a compositional approach is difficult, but

Persichetti and Forte’s concepts may be useful in the analysis of Threadgill’s music.

The implications of these concepts will be discussed further in Chapter 2.

As previously mentioned, Threadgill has expressed a connection to the music of

Edgard Varese. While this project does not seek to provide analysis of the musical

and extra-musical influences included in Threadgill’s works, it is worth mentioning

the parallels between Varese and Threadgill. An article published by Varese and his

pupil Chou Wen-chung (1966) details Varese’s vision for electronic instruments and

the musical possibilities they could allow. He also addresses criticisms of his

experimental electronic music as being antithetical to musical tradition.

My fight for the liberation of sound and for my right to make music with any
sound and all sounds has sometimes been construed as a desire to disparage
and even to discard the great music of the past … No matter how original,
how different a composer may seem, he has only grafted a little bit of himself
on the old plant … It does not matter if at first it seems to some people more
like a cactus than a rose. (Varese and Wen-chung 1966, 14-15)

In various interviews Threadgill echoes a similar approach to artistic innovation. In


21

discussing his musical system, he suggests his methods build on rather than destroy

previous concepts.

There is a system and there is no system, it’s a natural language … The


regular language is still there. I haven’t done anything to get rid of anything-I
don’t believe in that. Anything that’s been very, very good you don’t get rid of
it. You’d have to be crazy to get rid of what works. You’re supposed to find a
way to condense it, re-evaluate it, give it a new look and keep its essence so
you can come in with new information. (Mandel 2010, 48)

Similarly, musical form is of great concern for both Varese and Threadgill. They

share a similarly organic approach to form. Varese states that any work should dictate

its own form, “Form is a result-the result of a process. Each of my works discovers its

own form. I could never have fitted them into any of the historical containers”

(Varese and Wen-chung 1966, 16). While Threadgill appears to treat form as a

shifting variable, using the process of rearrangement in rehearsal to search for new

configurations.

I come to rehearsal with much material that is written out, but that's only a
starting point. Everything is written out, but it also doesn’t mean a thing. The
music is totally modular because what is here can be here or what is here can
be there because this is what we discover in discovery. (Iverson 2011b)

More so, Threadgill directly credits Varese for inspiring his current concept with

Zooid.

I saw a process in what [Varese] was doing…He got what he wanted by taking
one step, where there were actually four or five steps. I don’t know if he knew
22

about those steps, I never saw what I’m doing in his music, but everything I’m
doing comes from that one thing he was doing, which was all he wanted to do
with it. I went, I’ll be damned, I’ve been sitting here five years and it’s right in
my face. I’ve been going one-two, when there’s one-two-three-four. (Mandel
2010, 48)

The connection between Threadgill and Varese is compelling: a fascinating insight

into the influence between two great musicians. Similarly, Threadgill has mentioned

numerous other classical composers in reference to his work such as Elliot Carter,

Stravinsky and Bartok (Mandel 2010, Shteamer 2010b). While beyond the scope of

this project, it is strongly suggested that Threadgill’s relationship to classical

composition is worthy of additional investigation.

Another musician closely aligned with Threadgill is the composer and performer

Anthony Braxton. There are strong parallels between the two; both woodwind players

grew up in Chicago, studied at the same school and were heavily involved with the

AACM. Additionally, both employ alternative notation and have drawn influence

from multiple musical traditions in their music making. While there is a lack of

literature concerning analysis of Threadgill’s music, the opposite could be said of

Braxton. There are several substantial works that document his music making and

discuss his musical concepts. A contributing factor to this literary imbalance is the

existence of Braxton’s own writings concerning his music. Braxton has published

multiple volumes under the Tri-Axium Writings and Composition Notes titles.

(Braxton 1988, 1985) These writings have led to works by Ronald M. Radano (1993)

and Mike Heffley (1996) providing further discussion of Braxton’s musical systems

and frameworks as well as in depth analysis of his performative output. Another work

of note by Graham Lock (1985) includes extensive interviews with Braxton and
23

documents a British tour of a Braxton-led ensemble. Given the idiosyncrasy of

Braxton’s sound world, the research presented by Radano and Heffley both seek to

understand his music on its own terms, drawing extensively from Braxton’s literary

output and employing diagrammatic analysis in a style similar to Braxton’s graphic

notation system. In particular, Heffley has attempted to incorporate a Braxton-

inspired structure to his work by devising diagrams that detail the internal logic and

relationships between his various chapters.

Visuals--diagrams, drawings, schemata--and numbers (and alphanumeric and


geometric visuals of numbers and their relationships) figure large in both
Braxton’s music and his explanations of it. My use of both here is offered as a
conceptual touchstone through the potentially overwhelming convolutions of
them to come. My circles [within Heffley’s structure diagram] covey the way
I’ve tried to spiral through my material and tie the end of the book up with its
beginning, just as Braxton’s latest fruits are the issue of the same kind of seeds
they contain. (1996, 17)

These approaches, centred on the understandings of the music practitioner, provide a

compelling analysis of this music and reflect a similar ethos to some of the literature

discussed in the following subsection. Beyond this aspect, the analytical procedures

contained in these works do not have a bearing on the methods used in this project.

Furthermore, the compelling parallels between Braxton and Threadgill’s music are

not within this project’s scope and are suggested as a line of enquiry for further

research.
24

Jazz Improvisation

In the last twenty years there has been a significant growth in jazz research. A shift in

perception and changes in attitude from academia have allowed further recognition of

its importance. A number of authors have contributed to this development with works

treating jazz as a subject distinct from other music research. Ingrid Monson mentions

early efforts in jazz analysis relied heavily on classical music theory, uncovering

features common to the two genres while leaving other unique aspects unappreciated

or worse, devalued.

The same standards [of Western composition], however, were also used to
disparage aspects of the jazz tradition and allowed scholars to overlook those
aspects of improvisation for which there are no analogs. (1996, 4)

A number of authors have attempted to address this issue, tailoring analysis to the

needs of jazz as an art form to and of itself.

Ekkehard Jost presents an early example of this approach in his study of a selection of

prominent free jazz practitioners, Free Jazz (1981). Covering the music of a number

of free jazz practitioners, Jost argues that these musicians rejected the conventions of

mainstream jazz and developed new unique musical systems.

Their only point of agreement lay in a negation of traditional norms;


otherwise, they exhibited such heterogeneous formative principles that any
reduction to a common denominator was bound to be an oversimplification.
(1981, 9-10)
25

Consequently, Jost proposes that the variety of musical styles exhibited by these

practitioners requires a different approach to analysis. Analysis in Free Jazz is

tailored to best suit the musical style of each musician, employing a range of different

techniques including graphic notation, score excerpts and form analysis. Jost’s effort

to illuminate the individual innovations of these musicians presents an attempt to

value their music on its own terms, an attitude directly relevant to the study of

Threadgill’s idiosyncratic approach. Drawing from this early study, Lynnette

Westendorf provides a continuation of Jost’s approach in her dissertation “Analysing

Free Jazz” (1994), reiterating the need for a tailored approach to this music. The

analytical methods employed by these authors will be further discussed in Chapter 2.

Widely accepted as one of the most comprehensive works on jazz, Paul F. Berliner’s

Thinking in Jazz (1994) is the culmination of extensive interviews with jazz

practitioners and transcription of musical examples into a sizeable discussion of the

numerous cultural, developmental, practical and conceptual aspects present in jazz

music. As a synthesis of ethnomusicology and musical analysis, Berliner’s

practitioner-centric approach was a departure from previous jazz research. For

Berliner, the reputation of institutional scholarship among the jazz community was of

outsiders looking in and judgement from afar. In agreement with Monson, he states

that jazz in research had often been viewed through the lens of western music theory

without a thorough understanding of musical processes unique to style. Consequently,

“understanding how the artists themselves viewed the issue … was of central

importance” (1994, 5).

Thinking in Jazz would go on to influence other publications, including Ingrid


26

Monson’s Saying Something (1996) and David Hodson’s Interaction and

Improvisation (2007). Both authors recognised a similar deficit in previous research,

earlier efforts had been concerned with the analysis of soloists only, single lines out of

context of the ensemble they were performed in. Monson addresses this through a

multidisciplinary approach, combining linguistic theory with ethnomusicological and

music analysis approaches similar to Berliner. The title of the work echoes this

linguistic approach; Saying Something refers to the musical act of transcending

musical elements in jazz performance to achieve communication with other band

members and the audience. Monson states that within this communicative process,

“interacting musical roles are simultaneously interacting human personalities” (1996,

7). Thus, verbal communication traits and interactive patterns are analogous with, and

can be applied to interaction within jazz ensembles. The result is a development in

describing the complex interactions between jazz musicians, informed by concepts

and processes described by the musicians themselves.

Monson’s multidisciplinary research uncovers numerous interactive events occurring

between soloist and rhythm section in the extensive transcriptions of recorded

performances. In response, Hodson’s research takes interactive analysis to its next

logical conclusion; that interaction occurs between all members of a jazz ensemble,

not only between a soloist and members of the rhythm section. Hodson uses

transcription and other graphic representations to discuss interactive techniques

employed in jazz performance. While these observations are sometimes more

subjective than objective, going so far as to suggest possible motivations for particular

musical events and speculating on moods created within a performance, his work

highlights a number of important musical features of jazz that will be explored for
27

efficacy in this project.

In attempting to study jazz music with respect to and utilising the perspectives of its

practitioners, Berliner, Monson and Hodson all have produced analytical works of

great substance and depth. While some aspects may prove to be superfluous to the

aims of this practice-based research project (in particular, a linguistic approach), a

methodological process that includes musician interviews to inform transcription and

analysis methodology is likely to generate appropriate concepts for new creative

works. The application of these approaches will be discussed further in Chapter 2.

The use of transcription in the analysis of improvised music is not without its

complications. The act requires the researcher to make judgements regarding the

representation of ambiguous pitch and rhythm or even whether sounds should be

included at all (especially in the case of “ghost notes,” sounds played with very little

or no pitch). This is further compounded in the process of analysis, where decisions

regarding an improviser’s intent are sometimes necessary. Contrasting the approach

for analysis of pre-composed scores, this issue is discussed by Bruno Nettl and

Melinda Russell.

For compositions, we believe that all components are equally and definitely
intended by the [composer] … In improvisation, one must face the likelihood
that some of the material maybe precisely intended while other passages are
thrown in without specific thought. (1998, 13)

While the suggestion that passages of improvisation are played “without specific

thought” devalues the process of improvisation to some extent, the authors rightly
28

suggest that mistakes are frequently present in jazz improvisation. In the author’s

performance experience mistakes are a normal part of improvising which may even

be exploited creatively to add to a performance. The presence of mistakes in

improvisation means analysis must be approached differently to that of a score. Derek

Bailey, in his survey of improvisation in music around the world, Improvisation: Its

Nature and Practice in Music (1993), expresses a similar, if more forward, sentiment.

The real indictment of transcription is that in most cases it is used to reduce a


performance to a condition in which it can be examined as if it were
composition. When the object of examination is improvisation, transcription,
whatever its accuracy, serves only as a misrepresentation. (Bailey 1993, 15)

Bailey’s statement is correct in one respect; transcription can never fully capture the

intricacies of a performance. However, the same could be said of a score

misrepresenting a classical music performance; without the performer’s interpretation,

classical music would not be nearly as interesting (or audible). Perhaps a more

accurate assessment of transcription would be as a form of limited representation. Of

these limitation, Berliner explains, “there may be elements of creativity that are

destined to remain mysterious, but it is possible to talk effectively about many aspects

of [jazz improvisation] that previously had eluded articulation by scholars” (1994, 8).

Transcription is not a perfect tool but it appears to be the most appropriate method for

this research project. Consequently, awareness of transcription’s limitations must be

taken into account in any analysis. Aptly, Hodson describes his use of transcription as

“heuristic” (2007, 1), a limited method of exploring the complexities of jazz

improvisation more concerned with effective outcomes rather than an infallible

process. This is a fitting term, given the shortcomings of the practice.


29

Noting similar limitations, Travis A. Jackson avoids the use of transcription and

challenges the idea that recordings alone can provide sufficient information for

research in his study of the New York jazz scene, Blowin’ the Blues Away (2012). For

Jackson, the process of recording involves decisions that alter the ultimate sound of a

performance.

Microphone selection and placement, recording media, room construction,


frequency equalization, dynamic range compression, and countless other
choices affect what we hear on a recording. A change in any one of them can
appreciably alter the final product. Each of these constitutes a human decision,
whether a producer’s, engineer’s, or performer’s, oriented toward getting a
specific kind of sound, doing something in one way rather than in others.
(Jackson 2012, 8-9)

The implication here is that recordings represent a select part of a musician’s output,

filtered through the electronic and commercial confines of the recording environment.

Jackson suggests that a more holistic approach to jazz research may allow a deeper

understanding. Jackson’s study included a period of attending performances,

interviewing musicians and witnessing recording sessions, allowing insight into how

musicians themselves perceive their music and process, and exposure to multiple

performances of individual artists. Similar to Berliner’s numerous musician

interviews, the time Jackson spent immersing himself within the New York jazz scene

allowed him to develop an insider’s perspective of its culture and processes. The

knowledge he gained witnessing recordings and performances, and interacting with

members of the scene was reflected in analysis.


30

My analysis of [recording sessions] is informed not only by the sounds made


accessible by recording, but also by the knowledge of the interactive contexts
and constraints of recording as well as the long-term interactions of the
performers. In other words, my analysis is the result of knowledge not only of
sound, but also of a musical event that was recorded and the frames
surrounding it. (Jackson 2012, 158)

This long-term immersive research has led Jackson to focus on musical aspects that

are not readily notated, forgoing transcription by instead “presenting each

performance discussed as a narrative incorporating various performative and

contextual parameters, I am privileging the social in musical events, in hopes that that

strategy allows me better to preserve their dynamism” (2012, 157).

A comprehensive survey of jazz analysis is provided in Gary Potter’s Analysing

Improvised Jazz (1992). In his discussion of a range of analytical works dating back

to the 1950s, Potter provides an assessment of the efficacy of the major approaches,

identifying advantages and deficiencies. He proposes an analytical style incorporating

other approaches while compensating for perceived inadequacies. Interestingly, Potter

suggests that, “As much of the analysis as possible should be displayed in musical

notation. Some verbal description is inevitable, but it should be kept to a minimum”

(1992, 150). This approach is directly contrary to Jackson’s narrative style and

reflects the musical aspects valued in the analysis of each author. The plethora of the

analytical methods examined by Potter and the previously mentioned authors will be

assessed for their applicability in Chapter 2.


31

Musical Practice Research

As the interest in jazz research has increased, so too has research dealing with musical

practice development. As in this project, musical practice research differs from other

research by focussing on furthering creative practice within academic research. The

literature included here reference creative practice development as a primary aim of

research and engage with the ramifications of this to varying degrees.

Produced in the mid 1980s, Michael Montgomery’s “Studies in Jazz Style for the Jazz

Bassist” (1984), presents an early example of musical practice research. Noting that

the “jazz idiom … is often neglected by the classically-oriented performer” (1984, 1),

Montgomery proposes producing of a number of etudes each reflecting the approach

of a different subgenre or prominent bassist, as a way to familiarise non-jazz bass

players to the style. Despite its pedagogical focus and limited engagement with

creative practice development, the creation of a number of etudes in a research

context sets a precedent for the current project.

A more recent example of creative practice research is Scott Cook’s dissertation titled

“Referential Sets, Referential Tonics, and the Analysis of Contemporary Jazz” (2012).

The impetus for Cook’s research arose in his experiences in performance. The

difficulties posed by harmonic progressions found in compositions from the post-bop

era onwards were not conducive to satisfying improvising. “In essence, I was

continuously reorienting myself to new keys or tonal areas … the result was often not

musical to my mind, and would, at times, distract from my enjoyment of the

performance” (2012, 1). In aid of this, Cook suggests developing a “useful jazz
32

theory,” a performance-focused theory designed to provide a practical understanding

of complex harmony to assist improvisation. He has developed a referential set theory

for analysing the melody and harmony of modern jazz compositions combining

“elements of traditional jazz theory with techniques reminiscent of those used in the

analysis of nineteenth-century chromaticism” (2012, 75). This work contains a

compelling theoretical model, potentially useful for the improvising musician.

However, Cook does not fully explore the process of practical application, only

briefly mentioning the effect this study has had on his performing in the conclusion.

Kristin Isaacson’s dissertation, “Yardbird Cello: Adapting the Language of Charlie

Parker to Cello through Solo Transcription and Analysis” (2007), presents a more

performance-centric approach. Examining recorded solos of Charlie Parker, Isaacson

explores the process involved in performing Parker’s solos on cello. Much of this

study focuses on the technical issues involved in replicating Parker’s intricate phrases,

discussing the way bowing and fingering on the cello can accommodate this

challenging material. While one chapter is dedicated to explaining the process of

learning and absorbing Parker’s style on the cello, Isaacson stops short of providing

evidence of how this process has changed her performance practice, either in the form

of creative reflection or new works.

Nicholas Haywood approaches creative practice development directly in his doctoral

thesis “Complexity Through Interaction: An Investigation into the Spontaneous

Development of Collective Musical Ideas from Simple Thematic Materials” (2014).

His project concerns the generation of meaningful musical expression through

interaction in an improvising ensemble, and the factors that contribute to this.


33

Research was carried out through a series of performances with a newly formed

ensemble over two years. Two recordings were produced, one at both the beginning

and end of the research period, forming the material for analysis. An examination of

these recordings, through self-reflection and interviews with the ensemble members,

gave rise to theories regarding the conditions for successful ensemble improvisation.

Haywood’s aim was not to thoroughly investigate the harmonic, melodic or rhythmic

aspects, but to evaluate the performances as successful creative works. The perceived

quality of performance and connection between players were valuable metrics,

providing a qualitative focus to the research. Without resorting to notated

transcriptions, Haywood and the other participants’ reflections on performances

provided appropriate material for analysis. In an approach similar to Jackson, this

method gives weight to musical aspects less apparent in a transcribed score through a

focus on the viewpoints of the participating musicians. While the current research

project does not have a primary focus on ensemble interaction, the analytical

techniques displayed by Haywood are convincing and will be investigated further in

Chapter 2.

In addition to these approaches, a number of postgraduate theses focus on the analysis

of musical style in relation to jazz improvisation. Glen Hodges’ “The

Analysis of Jazz Improvisational Language and its use in Generating New

Composition and Improvisation” (2007), Marc Hannaford’s “Elliot Carter’s Rhythmic

Language: A Framework for Improvisation” (2012), and Stephen Harvey’s “Jazz

Chamber Music: An Analysis of Chris Potter’s Imaginary Cities and a Musical

Composition” (2016) all provide excellent examples of analytical research applied to


34

compositional and performance outputs. In all cases direct links were made between

analysis and the generation of composition, satisfying the research based practice

aspect of these works. A similar approach will be sought in the current project.

Henry Threadgill

Threadgill’s status as a prolific yet underexposed musician is reflected directly in the

literature on his life and music. A Grove Music Online entry on Threadgill (Mandel

and Kernfeld) is brief and outdated, mentioning his work only up until the mid 1990s.

As previously mentioned, this deficiency is considered significant for a prolific and

influential musician and composer, a situation this project seeks to address. Of the

few works concerning Threadgill most can be considered largely biographical pieces,

dealing primarily with his life and career. These works are included under the

following headings: Biography, listings in encyclopaedias or as part of larger

historically focussed texts; Interviews/Articles, writings that included insight from

Threadgill into his music; and Musical Discourse, literature that discusses

Threadgill’s music from a critical standpoint. Finally the remaining two sections,

Scores and Music Analysis, focus respectively on Threadgill’s unpublished

manuscripts used in this project and the limited number of publications that deal with

Threadgill’s work from an analytical perspective.

Biography

Unsurprisingly, there are no formally published biographies solely concerning

Threadgill. A number of music encyclopaedias and websites have brief entries


35

detailing his life and career, while biographical information is also included in various

other publications. Focussed largely on background and career as a musician, these

works rarely discuss Threadgill’s music or process, if at all.

Oxford Music Online includes two articles about Threadgill. The previously

mentioned entry is not up to date, covering his career up until the 1990s (Mandel and

Kernfeld). The other, by Michael Baumgartner, and is more comprehensive, listing

his major ensembles up to and including Zooid . Three websites feature larger

biographical pieces. The AACM New York Chapter website features an unattributed

biography that again ends in the 1990s (AACM New York Chapter 2016), while critic

Greg Sandow has included a more free ranging biographical account on his website,

originally included in a press kit for Columbia Records (Sandow). Additionally,

Threadgill’s website contains a revealing biography detailing his life and

achievements to date and is presumably approved by Threadgill himself (Santoro).

Mandel provides more relevant material in his discussion of jazz music in the last two

decades of the 20th Century, Future Jazz (1999). A subchapter, dedicated to

Threadgill, is largely made up of quotes describing his childhood growing up in

Chicago, his early attraction to music and subsequent music career. These quotes give

insight into Threadgill’s background and development as a musician, but little more.

Valerie Wilmer’s As Serious as Your Life (1992) covers the major figures associated

with “The New Music,” as free jazz was sometimes referred to. While Threadgill is

only mentioned in the main body twice (a short biography is also included in the

appendix), Wilmer covers the history and members of the AACM and numerous other
36

prominent experimental musicians of the time, detailing the cultural and musical

context of Threadgill’s early career.

George E. Lewis gives a significant and comprehensive history of the AACM in A

Power Stronger than Itself (2009). Concerned with chronicling the AACM from an

insider viewpoint, Lewis (a longstanding member of the organisation) conducted

extensive interviews with numerous members of the association. The organisation’s

focus on promoting individual creativity fostered many highly regarded musicians,

including Roscoe Mitchell, Lester Bowie and Anthony Braxton, all artists with highly

original approaches. Significantly, multiple sections of the text deal with Threadgill’s

life and music. This comprehensive resource is a valuable addition to literature

concerning Threadgill and highlights the crucible of the AACM that he arose in.

Interviews/Articles

In contrast to the lack of coverage in more formal literature, Threadgill has been a

relatively popular subject for articles and interviews in journals, magazines and more

recently, on blogs and other websites. While these sources do not venture into musical

analysis, they often include Threadgill’s reflections on his music.

Wayne Enstice and Paul Rubin (1992), and Studs Turkel (2006) have published

interviews with Threadgill. Unfortunately, there is little relevant information to be

found here, with these interviews containing mostly biographical information

replicated elsewhere. These will not be used further in this research.


37

In contrast, articles and interviews in music-focussed periodicals (such as Down Beat,

Jazztimes and The Wire), in other publications and websites contain pertinent self-

reflections. Journalists David Adler (2011), Larry Appelbaum (2013), Larry

Birnbaum (1995), Nate Chinen (2009, 2011), Seth Colter Walls (2016), Daniel

Fischlin (2011), Glen Hall (2011), Ethan Iverson (2011b, c, d), Howard Mandel

(2010, 2016b), Frank Oteri (2010), Dan Ouellette (1998), Ted Panken (1996), Gene

Santoro (1987) and Hank Shteamer (2010b) have all incited Threadgill to elaborate on

his musical practice and philosophy. These sources provide an excellent basis from

which to form an initial understanding of his music with Zooid and to inform an

appropriate analytical method.

Musical Discourse

The literature included here is mostly confined to commentator or critics’ writings on

Threadgill’s music. Given this context, the level of enquiry is confined to verbal

observations about his work, commonly regarding the instrumentation of Threadgill’s

various ensembles and his range of compositional styles. Stuart Nicholson discusses

instrumentation in Jazz: The 1980s Resurgence (1995).

Threadgill’s prowess as an orchestrator was revealed on ‘X-75 Volume 1’


(Arista Novus) from 1979, with a drumless band of four basses and a
saxophone choir that impressed with an arrangement of ‘Celebration’. By
1982 he had slimmed down and revised this unusual ensemble to what he
called his ‘sextet’ (a septet with two drummers, two basses, saxophone,
trumpet and trombone). (1995, 125)
38

While Todd Jenkins notes musical influences present in Threadgill’s compositions,

“The leader’s persistent interest in martial music takes a powder in favour of Arabic,

Indian, Latin, and even classical seasonings” (2004, 357). Similar observations are

echoed in other sources including Francis Davis’ Outcats (1990), Ted Gioia’s The

History of Jazz (1997), and Joachim-Ernst Berendt and Gunther Huesmann’s The Jazz

Book (2009).

Gary Giddins offers a discussion of Threadgill in two compilations of published

articles (1998, 2004). One article critiques Threadgill’s recordings up to and including

the Very Very Circus ensemble, where an intriguing view of the music of the Henry

Threadgill Sextett is given.

These records represent Threadgill’s first major attempt to create a music in


which soloists never depart for more than a few measures from the ensemble –
a music that aspire to collective tumult in which the composer’s hand is
always apparent. (1998, 518)

Beyond this, there is little else of relevance to this project within these volumes.

The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD (Cook and Morton 2004) offers reviews of four

Threadgill recordings from a variety of ensembles including Very Very Circus, Make

A Move and Zooid. An apt description appears in the Threadgill’s section preamble,

“Describing an artist as ‘uncategorizable’ is both a feeble shorthand and a truism, but

in the case of Henry Threadgill it’s also an inevitable recourse, because the

Chicagoan’s dense, chewy music really is sui generis” (Cook and Morton 2004,

1572). It is worth mentioning Cook and Morton’s review of the first Zooid album, Up
39

Popped The Two Lips, describing some tracks as “confused stylistically” while

awarding it “sceptical” rating overall (2004, 1572). Steve Graybow is kinder to this

album in his article “Jazz Notes: The Art of Composition” (2001). In discussing the

sound of Zooid he mentions,

If it seems that Threadgill’s new material would be jarring, dissonant, or hard


on the ears, nothing could be further from the truth. The music is, not
surprisingly, bereft of many of the things immediately taken for granted in
standard composition, such as identifiable themes and recurring motifs. It is
not, however, without melodic fluidity. Much of the music floats upon
deliberate tempos, with the musicians pushing, probing, and exploring each
other’s angular lines, moving the compositions into uncharted and unexpected
territory. In fact, the overall effect is so deliberate and often lulling that the
listener might not realize just how “out there” the music is. (Graybow 2001,
44)

Hank Shteamer’s liner notes to the box set of recordings titled The Complete Novus &

Columbia Recordings of Henry Threadgill & Air (2010a), describe and evaluate each

of the many tracks included on the eight CD set. Spanning 1978 to ‘96, the box set

contains a substantial amount of Threadgill’s recorded output from this period.

Shteamer’s liner notes provide an account of every track, highlighting the range of

musical influences, compositional techniques and individuality present in these

recordings. Perhaps written as a listening guide, the liner notes generally describe the

overall structure of each track, noting solos, melodies and other features. In doing

this, Shteamer has produced an extensive picture of this period of Threadgill’s career,

one considerably larger than the other texts listed here.

Mentioned previously, Ethan Iverson’s interview with Threadgill is published in a


40

series of entries on his blog Do The Math (2011b, c, d). A final accompanying entry

contains Iverson’s appraisal of Threadgill’s music, discussing four Sextett recordings

and one from Zooid (2011a). Given Iverson’s background as a pianist his critique

differs from those mentioned previously, focussing on more performance-centric

features. Iverson discusses key centres, harmonic structures and orchestration as well

as more emotive reflections of each track. His account of the Zooid track, Polymorph,

provides an interesting viewpoint of Threadgill’s relationship to the blues.

Threadgill’s natural blues sensibility keeps him grounded in something real.


The conclusion of “Polymorph” is thrilling because the magician’s cape swirls
out of the frame just enough for us to perceive that real blues in an
unadulterated form. (2011a)

While none of the authors here approach Threadgill’s music from a wholly analytical

perspective, their assessments are valuable. The few texts included here that discuss

Zooid, confirm and expand upon this author’s own initial evaluations of this music.

Of the remaining, while they provide excellent background information the works that

do not cover Zooid will not be used further.

Scores

The author has been provided copies of a number of Threadgill’s hand written cello

and guitar parts. As well as informing the transcriptions produced for this project, the

documents offer a window into Threadgill’s process, demonstrating his notation

system and offering evidence of the ensemble’s rehearsal and performance practice.

Extra musical writing accompanies each part (presumably written by the performer
41

using the part) noting the various arrangements and modifications Threadgill has

developed for the piece. This information will be used during analysis in Chapter 3.

Music Analysis

At the time of writing, there are only three publications that deal with analysis of

Threadgill’s recent music with Zooid, each to varying degrees. As previously

mentioned, the dearth of material concerning Threadgill generally and regarding

analysis of his music specifically is concerning given his prolific and creative output.

This literature provides an important base from which to approach this project.

Published on his blog Dfan Says, Dan Schmidt provides a number of entries detailing

his investigation of the Zooid composition, To Undertake My Corners Open (2012,

2014a, b). The three entries appear to be a “work in progress,” with Schmidt

explaining the various stages of his research into this composition, ranging from

initial hearing to transcription analysis. Schmidt focuses on identifying formal

structure within this work, detailing various sections discovered in transcription. By

comparing harmonic relationships within the transcribed score, he identifies related

pre-composed and improvised solo sections within the piece. This is achieved through

analysis of the guitar and bass accompaniment, identifying repeating harmonic

patterns generated between the two. While limited to structural analysis, this is

significant work. It indicates there is pre-conceived harmonic progression that can be

identified in this music, something not easily determined from initial hearings.

Chad Taylor provides an academic examination of Zooid in his masters dissertation,


42

“Henry Threadgill’s Zooid: An Examination of Form and Process” (2015). Taylor

gives a wide-ranging study of various musical features, identifying eight

characteristics of Threadgill’s Zooid music including approach to form, meter,

phrasing and harmonic process. In particular, his explanation of Threadgill’s

harmonic process is illuminating and gives substance to the intervallic approach

discussed in multiple interviews. Taylor continues this intervallic focus in his analysis

of Threadgill’s solo on the Zooid track, See The Blackbird Now. His analysis is

concerned with developing an understanding of the effect the intervallic system has

on improvisation in the ensemble by comparing the intervals used in Threadgill’s solo

to the intervallic information contained in Threadgill’s handwritten score. Beyond

this, Taylor has included a number of transcribed interviews with Threadgill’s band

members, further explaining the processes in Zooid.

The remaining analytical text is an academic paper from Richard Savery titled “The

Improvisation Techniques of Henry Threadgill” (2014). Savery examines a number of

different aspects of Threadgill’s composing, discussing a number of ensembles,

including Air, the Sextett and Zooid. He echoes Taylor’s explanation of Threadgill’s

harmonic process, though given the format, with far less brevity and without

reference to any transcribed material or score. As Savery admits, his paper does not

thoroughly investigate Threadgill’s approach having “only touched on some of his

ideas” (2014, 6).

Schmidt, Taylor and Savery have all produced valuable research into Threadgill’s

music. In particular, Taylor has produced a substantial work covering a number of

different innovative musical practices evident in Threadgill’s music for Zooid. The
43

current research project approaches this music from a different perspective,

examining concepts and techniques relevant to the author’s performance approach.

Additionally, the author aims to apply Threadgill’s concepts to his own musical

practice, producing new music that explores these ideas in the creative sphere.
44

Chapter 2 – Methodology

While this project focuses on understanding the musical approach of Henry

Threadgill’s Zooid, its broader aim is development of the author’s creative practice.

Consequently, this study is not designed to produce a comprehensive picture of the

musical practice of Threadgill, but instead focuses on uncovering concepts relevant to

the researcher’s musical practice. The true value of research findings will be in their

application. The project’s research methods are designed to promote the genesis and

growth of creative activity. There are five activities that contribute to this goal:

Selection of Recorded Works, Transcription, Interviews, Analysis and Creative

Application.

Initially, four of Threadgill’s recorded works will be selected based on relevant

musical features evident in preliminary examination. These works will then be

transcribed in preparation for further analysis and inclusion in the written component

of this project. Interviews will be conducted with musicians associated with

Threadgill, namely Liberty Ellman, Christopher Hoffman, Jose Davila and Brandon

Ross. Subsequent analysis of the transcribed works will be informed by the

information gathered in interviews. Idiosyncratic devices and approaches identified in

analysis will be used in the composition and performance of new works with the

author’s ensemble Slow Code. An evaluation of these works will take the form of

self-reflective assessment.
45

Selection of Recorded Works

The selection of material appropriate for analysis is an important part of this project.

This project was initially conceived encompassing the entirety of Threadgill’s

recorded material, selecting a number of pieces from various ensembles he has led or

participated in, and in doing so, determine a stylistic progression. While this broad

scope remains worthy of further investigation (it is worth reiterating the near non-

existence of research into Threadgill’s music), early research into Threadgill’s music

for Zooid uncovered considerable complexities and unusual approaches to improvised

music, prompting a tighter focus.

The selected Zooid recordings for this project take into account three main factors: the

perception of structural elements (repeated figures, defined sections), melodic and

rhythmic content, and resonation with the author’s aesthetic approach. Initial

engagement with the music of Zooid proved difficult; it is often densely populated,

without apparent delineations of composed melody and improvised soloing, and a

consistent meter is rarely apparent. For the author, repeated listening was required for

certain works to reveal structural organisation. Comprehension and emotional

connection to a recording, with reference to one or more of the above factors, finally

determined its inclusion in this project.

Transcription

The practice of transcription is a valuable process for building an understanding of the

Zooid pieces chosen for this project. Not only is a written score produced, analogous
46

to the recording, there is considerable time spent converting recorded sounds into

scored music producing an intimate familiarity with the minutiae of performance.

Emeritus Professor Patrick Dorian describes this process, highlighting the benefits of

creating a transcription.

Transcription is one of the most challenging yet beneficial exercises that

aspiring and accomplished jazz artists undertake. Meticulous transcription

becomes a lesson in total ear training … Listening to the entire solo many

times is usually not sufficient for learning the solo. There is too much detailed

information to absorb in terms of pitches, rhythms, phrases, nuances, etc.

(1996)

As discussed in the previous chapter, the use of transcription in jazz and improvised

music is burdened with issues regarding the representation of a largely aural style

within the notation of Western classical music. Nettl and Russel (1998), Bailey

(1993), Berliner (1994), Hodson (2007) and others have presented views of the

advantages and limitations of the practice. In essence, the major concerns with

transcription of jazz and other improvised performances is the tendency to treat the

transcribed score as a pre-composed work (Bailey 1993). While the act of

improvisation is inherently different to that of a pre-composed work, a transcribed

score can only be considered a representation of one individual’s (often not the

performer) perception of a work (Berliner 1994). These issues require transcription to

be treated appropriately as a source for analysis, with awareness that the format can

only partially represent the complexities of a recorded performance.


47

A thorough model for transcription is presented in Berliner’s Thinking in Jazz (1994).

Ranging from small excerpts of individual solos to full ensemble scores, Berliner’s

work reflects his exhaustive investigation into the practice of jazz performance. The

current study will produce transcriptions of three Threadgill works in a similar style to

Berliner’s full ensemble scores to aid in the investigation of form, melody, harmony,

ensemble interaction and other musical features in Threadgill’s Zooid, while excerpts

of these transcriptions will be included within Chapter 3 to allow continuity with the

written analysis.

The full scores are annotated with additional descriptions and harmonic information

(as discussed in the following chapter and in Appendix 1). Additionally, a number of

diacritical markings are included to represent various instrumental techniques as well

as techniques specific to the fretted instruments, guitar and bass guitar. These are

shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 - Diacritical markings

Interviews

Interviews will be undertaken with current and previous members of Threadgill’s


48

ensembles, in order to gain an understanding of Zooid’s musical approach from the

people most closely involved with the process. These will largely follow the methods

used by Berliner (1994), Monson (1996) and Jackson (2012). All interviews will be

recorded electronically or with detailed notes and consist of a semi-structured

conversation, including a series of questions regarding Threadgill’s concepts, the

development of Zooid’s performance approach in ensemble and musical background

as well as opportunity for open-ended discussion. Pertinent quotes will be selected

and transcribed from the interviews for inclusion in the exegesis. For ease of reading,

quotes may be minimally edited. In light of this, interviewees will be given the

opportunity to proof any attributed quotes to ensure their intended meaning has been

conveyed.

For this stage of the project, interview participation gained from a number of

musicians, including Zooid members Liberty Ellman, Christopher Hoffman and Jose

Davila, as well as previous Threadgill collaborator Brandon Ross. Threadgill himself

was also approached to be an interview participant but was not able to take part. In

communication with the author, Threadgill expressed encouragement of the author’s

efforts in studying his music. The author would like to thank Threadgill for the time

and generosity given to him while on field travel in New York.

Analysis

The complex sound of Zooid presents significant challenges for analysis. For the

author, the works are beguilingly obtuse; structure and forms are alluded to without

clear delineation, atypical harmony is present between the contrapuntal playing of the
49

ensemble, and the divisions between composed and improvised material are

ambiguous.

To account for this, analysis will consist of two modes of enquiry: structural

evaluation and the identification of idiomatic practices. Initially, transcriptions will be

examined for structure delineating pre-composed sections3 and improvised passages4,

and smaller structures within these sections. Secondly, analysis of idiomatic practices

will involve gathering information concerning performance and compositional

practice from the interviews conducted in this study and in other publications. This

information will be further informed by examining the transcribed works for evidence

of these and any other apparent musical concepts and techniques.

As previously mentioned, Threadgill objects to many of the implications of the term

“jazz” and instead refers to his work as “creative improvised music” (Shteamer

2010b). While these objections are valid and relevant to the issues regarding the

public perception of jazz today, the music he currently produces employs many

practices reminiscent of jazz, notably extensive improvisation and group interplay.

Therefore, the analysis methods used in this study include those used in jazz focussed

research by Monson (1996), Berliner (1994) and Hodson (2007). At the same time,

this study must approach analysis with an openness to understand this music on its

own terms. Kenny’s description of Ekkehard Jost’s use of a “tailored analysis” is

pertinent here.

3
These will be referred to in future as “written material.” This term was used by the Zooid ensemble

members in reference to pre-composed sections of the works.


4
For similar reasons to Footnote 1, “solo” will be used in place of the term “improvised passages.”
50

Jost tailors his analytic method to suit the personal styles of each Free Jazz

musician, whose “only point of agreement lay in a negation of traditional

norms”…Thus, analysis is made to serve each individual work – an apparent

contradiction of the top-down or “one serves all” ideology promoted by many

other methodologies. (Kenny 1999, 61)

This research will be undertaken with an effort to respect the individual creativity of

the source material while producing results that aid in the development of the author’s

creative practice.

Initial analysis will be concerned with defining structure within the works. Without

access to Threadgill’s original scores (as is the case for the majority of transcriptions

in this study), informed estimations concerning meter, harmony and form will be

made. For example, it became apparent after some research that meter is not

consistent within the ensemble. The drummer, Elliot Kavee, is often directed to play

in an alternate meter to that of the other band members (Taylor 2015). The musical

effect is one of ambiguous continuity; a driving pulse is maintained throughout, yet

clear downbeats indicating bar divisions rarely occur. This practice of multiple meters

is innovative and has great potential for further creative investigation. However, in the

interest of producing a legible transcribed score, bar divisions will be estimated

initially but may not necessarily reflect the original intent.

While every effort has been made to decipher Threadgill’s intentions, without

reference to original material, the transcriptions included in this study are a conscious
51

approximation, aware that interpretive limitations are always present. This being said,

sheet music will be sourced from Zooid to aid the transcriptions produced here. Once

form has been determined in the transcribed pieces, this will be graphically

represented using diagrams similar to those used by Berliner (1994) and Jost (1981).

As discussed further in the literature review, it is beyond the scope of this study to

fully explore the ramifications of notational accuracy in transcription. That said,

findings from approximate notation could lead to successful creative applications. In

this study, if information found later to be imprecise has given rise to a new effective

musical approach or practice, the ultimate aim of furthering creative practice has been

achieved. The use of preliminary results in composition and performance can provide

an opportunity for further discovery and orient research towards more effective

analysis concerning creative outputs.

In addition to this, the transcriptions included in the appendix and the excerpts

contained in the following chapter should not be considered fully representative of the

recorded performances they draw from. As previously stated, transcriptions at best

can only present a partial amount of information contained within a musical

performance. Without reference to audio recordings, there can be a tendency to

interpret transcriptions literally. The transcriptions offered here are placeholders for

the aural information they attempt to represent and a means of presenting concepts

within the discourse of the exegesis. As a result, the author strongly recommends

listening to the Zooid recordings in tandem with this text.

A secondary stage of analysis will identify idiomatic practices. Literature and


52

interviews suggest Threadgill has developed innovative approaches to harmony,

composition, group interplay and form. These practices will be discussed in

interviews with members of Zooid and evidence sought in the transcribed scores. This

will be presented in three ways: written analysis accompanied by transcription

excerpts, intervallic analysis of single and multiple parts, and larger structural analysis

using a graphic representation.

These analytical methods were largely confirmed by Taylor’s study (2015).

Generally, his work validated approaches taken in this project, but there were a

number of contrasts. For example, a point of difference was observed in Taylor’s use

of pitch set theory in analysis. In particular, Taylor employs interval vector analysis in

investigating Threadgill’s intervallic approach, an approach similar to that outlined by

Forte (1973). While Taylor’s use is convincing, this style of analysis was not deemed

to be appropriate for the current project. Interval vector analysis is written in a way

not immediately evident to some musicians. Consequently, a different analytical style,

drawing from Threadgill’s interval set notation, was developed to enhance the

accessibility of this project. Other analysis methods unproductive for this project

included those offered by Persichetti (1978), Waters (2011) and Kenny (1999).

It is likely that there may be other idiomatic practices, not referred to in interviews,

discovered in the overall investigative process. These practices will require a suitable

analytical method, employing alternative approaches where required. Ultimately for

the analysis to succeed, appropriate methods must be used to reveal the innovative

approaches Threadgill uses in Zooid. In relation to this, Westendorf states, “The

question ever present in my mind was: Exactly what are the best ways to examine and
53

write about these (and other) free jazz works?” (1994, 157). Analysis in this project

will be approached with this ethos.

Creative Application

The development of creative practice within jazz music is commonly described as

“imitation, assimilation, innovation,” a quote attributed to trumpeter Clarke Terry

(Steinel 1995, 9). The three-step process delineates the learning stages essential to

forming an individual musical approach. Walter Bishop Jr. elaborates,

You move from the imitation stage to the assimilation stage when you take

little bits of things from different people and weld them into an identifiable

style—creating your own style. Once you’ve created your own sound and you

have a good sense of the history of the music, then you think of where the

music hasn’t gone and where it can go—and that’s innovation. (Berliner 1994,

120)

Within the current study the “imitation, assimilation, innovation” process, including

the composition and performance of new works, will be undertaken concurrently with

other research activities. This will allow an experimental and exploratory creative

response to research findings throughout this project. This process begins with an

imitative stage, compositions will be written emulating different features of

Threadgill’s music discovered in analysis. Through performance and further

composition, discovered techniques will be assimilated into the author’s creative

practice. As both imitative and assimilation efforts progress, innovation will be sought
54

through experiments in incorporating Threadgill’s conceptual ideas and exploring any

further creative implications of these musical approaches. It is not the aim of this

project to produce new music that merely reproduces the approach found in Zooid

(despite the aforementioned ‘imitation’ stage). Any new compositions will be

produced as a meaningful creative response to Zooid. Through adaptation and

experimentation, a musical approach informed by Threadgill’s concepts will be

pursued rather than a verbatim application of these concepts. The development of

creative practice is not expected to be complete with the submission of this thesis,

instead it is hoped that the project will illuminate further directions for musical

exploration after the culmination of this formal study.

One studio recording and four live recordings featuring new compositions will be

performed by the author’s ensemble Slow Code. This material will be included as an

integral part of this study. The recordings span the duration of the project and

represent the developing approach to performance over this period. The live

recordings are listed here with venue, city and performance date. These will be

referred to subsequently by a shortened title included here in parentheses. The live

recordings are as follows: Uptown Jazz Cafe, Melbourne, 5 February 2015 (Uptown);

University of Tasmania Conservatorium of Music, Hobart, 18 March 2016 (UTas);

303, Melbourne, 13 July 2016 (303); Smith’s Alternative, Canberra, 6 April 2017

(Smith’s). The studio album was recorded on 17 and 18 July, 2016 at Pughouse

Studios, Melbourne, engineered and mixed by Niko Schäuble and mastered by

Liberty Ellman. This recording will be referred to as ‘album’ in the text. For full track

listings of each recording refer to Appendix 2.


55

Slow Code consists of four members: Jack Beeche, Dan Mamrot, Aaron

McCoullough and the author.

Jack Beeche is an Australian saxophonist based in Melbourne. After graduating from

the Australian National University School of Music in 2004 he moved to London

where he immersed himself in the local jazz scene, attending jam sessions and

performing in the UK and Europe. He regularly travelled, studying with top

international jazz musicians, searching for his own approach to improvised jazz. After

becoming highly influenced by alto saxophonist Lee Konitz who strives to improvise

entirely in the moment, Beeche returned to Australia in 2009 where he settled in

Melbourne. Beeche works regularly with jazz ensembles in Melbourne, performing at

festivals and touring nationally. In 2015 he completed his Masters of music

performance at Monash University and released his first album Golden Blue.

Dan Mamrot is an improvising guitarist who has performed with many esteemed

Australian and international artists including Jim Black, George Garzone, Stephen

Magnusson, Oliver Lake, Jean Michel Pilc, Ben Robertson, John Taylor and more. He

is currently performing, touring and recording with some of Australia’s finest

musicians and has studied music in India, Italy and New York.

Aaron McCoullough born in Wollongong, Australia holds a Bachelor Of Music with

Honours, a Masters of Education, and is currently a Doctoral Candidate. The

endowment of numerous awards and scholarships has enabled him to travel both

nationally and internationally studying with many of today's leading improvisers and

music educators. Central to Aaron’s skill set, however, is his distinguished ability to
56

adapt to various musical contexts. This is recognised by his demand as an

accompanist with a variety of renowned artists, some of which include: Dr Tony

Gould, Joe Chindamo, Daniel Gassin, Hugh Stuckey and Hetty Kate. Aaron’s work as

an accompanist has led to numerous international and national appearances at

festivals and venues throughout Australia, New Zealand, and the United Arab

Emirates. He is also actively involved in composing and performing his original

music, which has lead to national touring and commercial release.

Gareth Hill is a Melbourne-based musician, specialising in double bass and bass

guitar. After studying violin from aged eight, a suggestion from his orchestra

conductor prompted him take up the double bass. The tutelage of renowned bassists

Eric Ajaye and Max McBride in Canberra guided Gareth to perform jazz, classical

and other music in the capital’s thriving music scene. Gareth's dedication to his art led

to travel to New York where he studied with legendary bassists Rufus Reid and John

Patitucci. In addition to this, his academic studies allowed him to graduate from a

Masters of Philosophy (Music) in 2008 at the Australian National University.

Additionally, he has toured and performed with diverse artists and ensembles such as

jazz greats Bernie McGann, Bob Sedergreen, Ted Vining, Don Burrows and Mark

Levine, as well as classical composers Thomas Ades and Brett Dean. After relocating

in 2008, Gareth is deeply involved with the vibrant music scene of Melbourne with

ensembles Blow, The End and the Ted Vining Trio.

As this project is situated within the academic context, it is worth mentioning that

Threadgill’s relationship to institutionalised music learning is a strained one. For him

and some other jazz musicians, the rigid structures of curriculum and graded
57

assessment are not congruent with pursuit of creative music making. Jonathan

Lorentz’s thesis on saxophonist George Garzone outlines Garzone’s related criticisms

of institutional jazz.

[He] spoke of being ‘totally against school’ in our opening interview and

further problematized the codification of improvisation studies in jazz

education … Garzone identified the irony of a jazz students’ dependency on

written visual aids, and remarked in astonishment that ‘they need to see

material’ … He expressed further concern for his students’ ability to learn

aurally, a skill necessary for expressive improvised performances. (Lorentz

2008, 27-30)

Threadgill himself asserts that institutionalised learning is not conducive to students

developing their own individual musical approach.

… now, institutions, universities, colleges and music schools have all come up

with solutions that's been taught to all of the players out here, and they all

have a way of approaching stuff. I don't consider that creative at all. See, the

way that Johnny Griffin came at a piece, as opposed to the way Paul

Gonsalves came at a piece as opposed to the way that Eddie ‘Lockjaw’ Davis

came at a piece, the same piece of music, you couldn't even compare … But

now everything has been studied, catalogued, and made a methodology. It's a

methodology now that's taught, and players learn these methodologies, and

they're playing methodologies more than they're playing ideas. (Shteamer

2010b)
58

As previously mentioned, this research is not concerned with producing a

comprehensive picture of Threadgill’s process or methodology. Instead, the aims are

to uncover innovative musical practices and concepts and use these to further the

researcher’s creative practice through the creation and performance of new works. In

an effort to acknowledge Threadgill’s valid concerns about institutionalised music

education, this project deliberately allows space for creative investigation of the

music of Zooid. This attempts to avoid simply replicating Threadgill’s methods by

experimenting with and developing these ideas through the presentation of numerous

performances during the research period.

Development of the author’s musical practice will be achieved with the production of

new music. Drawing from the performance research of Haywood (2014), this research

will be evaluated through a self-reflective assessment of compositions and their

performances, including discussion of the adaption of Threadgill’s concepts

discovered in analysis. It is worth mentioning that this assessment is not intended to

be a comprehensive investigation of the ensemble dynamics and workings of Slow

Code. These aspects were deemed to be beyond the scope of this project and are

suggested as a potential area for further research in the conclusion.


59

Chapter 3 – Analysis

The analysis in this project is concerned with identifying compositional techniques

and musical practices present in the music of Henry Threadgill’s Zooid that are

applicable to the author’s creative practice. As previously stated, this study is not

intended to be a comprehensive survey of Threadgill’s music for Zooid, rather it

focuses on discoveries that may generate further creative works and practices. To this

end, four aspects of Threadgill’s composing and performance practice for Zooid will

be covered here: Form Modification, Harmony, Melodic Conception and

Counterpoint.

This chapter draws from a number of sources including published interviews with

Threadgill and other associated musicians, interviews performed in the fieldwork of

this project, three recordings of Henry Threadgill’s Zooid transcribed by the author,

guitar and cello parts provided respectively by Ellman and Hoffman, and a small

amount of related research. In particular, the following analysis has been developed

with close reference to the fieldwork interviews, using these primary sources to shape

the way the transcriptions are contextualised. The collecting and processing of all

information sources occurred for the majority of the research period and allowed an

evolving understanding to develop. This process was linked to the project’s creative

aspect. New discoveries inspired creative ideas that were then used to generate

original compositions. In turn, the creation and performance of these compositions

provided a new perspective of the concepts in Threadgill’s music. While the effect

this has had on the author’s creative practice will be detailed in the following chapter,
60

an account of the accompanying research process is relevant here.

Early experience with Zooid’s music exposed obtuse features; bar lengths seemed

irregular if not indeterminate, differentiation between written and improvised material

was unclear, and unfamiliar harmony occurred between the complex counterpoint of

the ensemble. In order to begin understanding this seemingly impenetrable music, it

was proposed that transcriptions be produced of a number of Zooid recordings. While

the process of transcription remains problematic due to its subjective nature,5 it was

anticipated that aspects of Threadgill’s music that may be relevant to the author’s

creative practice could be discovered from analysis of transcribed scores.

Additionally, it was envisaged that any issues arising from transcriptions could be

mitigated through an understanding of the limitations of this technique and the input

from fieldwork interviews.

Transcriptions of After Some Time and To Undertake My Corners Open from the

Zooid album This Brings Us To Vol. 1 and Polymorph from This Brings Us To Vol. 26

were produced initially with no reference to Threadgill’s written scores, which are not

publicly available. The transcription process, while arduous at times, allowed for a

gradual and more intimate association with these works. An early decision to reduce

each piece to a time signature of 4/4 made transcribing Zooid’s complex metrical

changes manageable. At a later stage the transcriptions were referenced as a whole

and estimations regarding bar divisions could be made.

5
For a more complete discussion of this issue refer to pg. 24-25 of the current study.
6
For full album details refer to the included Discography.
61

Early analysis of transcriptions was informed by the small amount of available

literature relating to Threadgill’s compositions. Initial information came from

published interviews with Threadgill and guitarist Ellman, and later through from

Sydney-based drummer Alex Masso. Masso had attended a workshop with guitarist

Brandon Ross, a member of Threadgill’s earlier Make A Move and Very Very Circus

ensembles, and offered a recording of the workshop presentation. Ross’s workshop

described new details of Threadgill’s harmonic system, including notation and a

harmonic generation process. While questions remained as to how the system was

employed, this information provided further insight into the processes involved in

Zooid. Taylor’s inclusion of an original handwritten score and guitar part of

Threadgill’s composition See The Blackbird Now (2015, 23-25) was also

enlightening, giving greater insight into Threadgill’s compositional techniques,

especially his harmonic notation.

Further information was gathered during a fieldtrip to New York City. As well as

attending a number of Zooid performances, interviews were conducted with members

of the ensemble, Liberty Ellman, Christopher Hoffman, Jose Davila and previous

Threadgill collaborator Brandon Ross. These interviews revealed additional

information regarding Threadgill’s practices as a composer and interestingly, as a

bandleader. Interviews and other informal discussions with these musicians provided

a unique picture of their involvement in this music, often explaining the process they

went through in adapting to Threadgill’s concepts. Hoffman explains the intense

difficulties involved in learning to play in the group.

Obviously I had to be pulled up a little bit and helped cos’, I mean my head
would hurt at the end of a rehearsal. And the amount of counting, and then the
62

other thing that would happen would be that Jose, the tuba player, at one point
I was stomping so loud and he’d say, “Hey man, you gotta chill out on that.
It’s actually kind of distracting especially when you get off, you know.” And I
said, “Yeah, of course. I understand.” He said, “I used to do it too.” My leg, I
would basically come home and my neck would be like super tense and my
left or right leg would just be like sore and all fucked up. And I would just
hear loops in my head. Wake up in the morning, going, going, going. I
basically allowed myself to be mind controlled by Henry Threadgill. And I
love it. (interview 9 July 2015)

Ellman describes a similar intensity in Threadgill’s approach to maintaining

spontaneity in performance.

One thing I’ve learned about Henry is that he doesn’t want anyone to be too
comfortable. And in his music you can’t play licks and routine. And if he feels
like you are developing routine on the music … he’s probably going to try to
sabotage it. And he’ll do it in front of a big crowd, you know you go to play a
festival for four thousand people and right before you go on stage he’ll say,
“Oh you know what? Let’s play this other thing.” And everyone goes “What?”
And, I think he loves it, he loves the excitement of that. But I think he’s right,
it really makes you draw on your inner resources. (interview 11 July 2015)

Travel to New York included an opportunity to attend performances by Zooid as well

as a concert series by Threadgill’s other ensemble, Double Up. This exposure to

numerous live performances of Threadgill’s music revealed other aspects not present

in recordings. Threadgill’s interaction with other members and direction of the entire

group was seemingly benign; pieces were discussed softly and briefly, if at all, with

count-ins performed with the same quiet intensity. Direction of the group during

pieces was minimal, only occasionally indicating downbeats, possibly of new

sections. While this direction was relatively limited, it appeared to be effective,


63

propelling the music with energy in a variety of different moods. Zooid performances

occurred at the Village Vanguard in New York’s Greenwich Village district, where

one band customarily performs two sets each night from Tuesday to Sunday of a

week. The opportunity to observe Zooid perform over six consecutive nights not only

provided what Jackson would describe as a “multisensory experience” (2012, 99) of

music making, it also exposed a growing rapport between the musicians. In particular,

emotional intensity was heightened in performances towards the end of the week.

Other valuable research material was gained during fieldwork in the form of

Threadgill’s handwritten guitar and cello parts, provided by Ellman and Hoffman

respectively. These documents revealed the material the musicians work from in

performance, including the harmonic information and structure for each piece. When

compared to the completed transcriptions, these parts exposed the difficulties

involved in interpreting this music without the written scores. While it was possible to

delineate larger melodic and solo sections reasonably reliably, time signatures and the

placement of bar lines could not determined as clearly. Threadgill organises his music

so that each bar generally contains one melodic statement. In the transcriptions

produced for this project, it was not possible to accurately determine where these bar

lines should fall before referencing the written guitar and cello parts.

In comparing the transcriptions to Threadgill’s written parts, it was apparent that the

performance approach in Zooid obscures the notated material from which the group

works. Certainly, without the aid of Ellman and Hoffman’s parts, some structures

would not be as apparent in the transcriptions produced in this study. The following

sections discuss a number of concepts and techniques Threadgill uses in Zooid, all of
64

which contribute to the complex soundscape encountered listening to Zooid.

Form Modification

I gather information and then I process the way I process. I come to rehearsal
with much material that is written out, but that's only a starting point.
Everything is written out, but it also doesn’t mean a thing. The music is totally
modular because what is here can be here or what is here can be there
because this is what we discover in discovery. This is what needs to be
brought out by music analysts and musicologists. - Threadgill (Iverson 2011b)

As the above comment indicates, form is a variable element in Zooid. Every

performance is an opportunity for Threadgill to develop new arrangements for his

pieces. For Threadgill, the compositional process does not end at the written page. His

written scores are treated as starting points, as material ready to be reworked into new

configurations. As Taylor notes, “Rehearsing is not just a way to learn Threadgill’s

music, but it is also part of the composition process” (2015, 65). Threadgill states,

I go into rehearsal to look for its discovery. What’s on paper is a place to


start. I am playing, and then this guy plays this note wrong, and then I say,
“Oh, really? Just keep it like that.” I say, let’s start at measure two, and
someone thinks I mean start on the second beat. So I just say, “Hey, start on
the second beat.” Also, when someone doesn’t play ’cause they forgot to come
in. Well, that’s discovery … These little things you were talking about, the
“mistakes,” affect form. The same thing happens in research labs where most
of the discoveries are made through mistakes. (Iverson 2011b)

Threadgill is open to the dynamic atmosphere of rehearsal, where misunderstandings


65

and mistakes are opportunities to uncover new aspects of the notated score.

Rehearsing is essential for this to occur. Multiple sessions are held before any

performance. Without this, the ensemble would not have the opportunity to learn and

develop Threadgill’s compositions. Ellman describes the unique atmosphere

Threadgill creates in these sessions.

The work we do in rehearsal is as fun as, or even more fun than, the actual
performances. That has to do with Henry’s approach to rehearsing, explaining
the music and getting us to develop the music to where it’s second nature. It’s
getting rarer, for economical reasons, to have bands that rehearse all the time.
Even if we play the Jazz Gallery, we’ll rehearse five or six times. (Chinen
2011)

Threadgill’s compositions consist of a written score of notated material for each

instrument with accompanying harmonic notation (Threadgill’s harmony will be

covered in the following section), divided into lettered or numbered sections. An

arrangement of a composition typically consists of a combination of entire or partial

sections played as notated or used as vehicles for improvisation. Ellman describes this

in contrast to common jazz practice.

So any piece that might have, say we have one page of music and it says A, B,
C. So you look at it. Now a normal jazz musician would look at it and start at
the top, play the melody and then solo over it. Why would you do that? Why
would you have every form be the same and everything? Why would you start
like that? … [Threadgill] just says, “We’re going to start on C with your solo,
then we’re going to play the melody at C. Then we’re going to go to A, play
the melody at A, and he’s going to solo at B. And his solo at B is going to be
B forwards and B backwards harmonically.” And we’ll be in rehearsal saying,
“Oh really? Ok.” (Interview 11 July 2015)
66

As previously mentioned, a composition’s arrangement can change nearly every

performance. For Ellman, this creates a distinct atmosphere.

It’s actually being open. Being willing and actually desiring to be in a


situation of unpredictability. Which is part of the thrill of the music. Which is
totally the point. Henry is constantly creating that experience because not only
does he have his unique harmonic language and rhythmic sensibility that
really drives the feel of the music, but also he’s studied a lot of contemporary
composers and the way they use form. He likes to talk about Stravinsky and
apparently he used all these cards, and he would write sections of music on
these cards and he would put them on the wall and move them around. And
say, you know, “Oh, what if, maybe this goes here!” And, a lot of the times we
play music in Zooid, … he changes the form. (interview 11 July 2015)

Central to this approach is a desire by Threadgill to constantly challenge the members

of his ensemble to be fully engaged in performance. While the content of a

composition may be familiar to the group, form modification encourages focus and

intensity within the ensemble. Threadgill explains his motivations for this, referencing

theatre performance techniques.

It’s about challenging the musicians. You’ve got to have people in a position
where they don’t really know, where they’re a little bit off guard, a little bit off
balance, and they can really be spontaneous and extemporaneous. Albee the
playwright said the one thing about a really good actor is it gives the directors
a chance to really mess something up. They know it so well, they really mess
it up, because they know it so well … Familiarity makes you kind of absent
from really understanding something. So you need musicians to be challenged.
You don’t want them to come up and say, “Oh, I know what that is” every
time. You’re not going to get anything. You’re not going to get anything fresh
67

out of them. They need to be challenged every time they come up. (Oteri
2010)

The concentration required from musicians encountering new structures is different to

that when dealing with more familiar material. As the music changes from

performance to performance, the ensemble cannot rely entirely on previous

experiences. Threadgill values this approach so highly that he has stated of his

compositions, “If I can’t find another way to play it, I’m not going to play it” (Oteri

2010). Hoffman spoke of the atmosphere this creates in performance.

So his thing is like, never repeat the same performance … I think he just wants
to keep himself interested. And for him, locking down and committing to
anything, he’s not really interested in doing that. And it keeps all of us on our
toes. This music is what’ll keep me from getting Alzheimer’s. It’s so intense.
(interview 9 July 2015)

Haywood’s performance-based research into the conditions for meaningful ensemble

improvisation (2014) provides a counterpoint to this approach. In contrast to

Threadgill’s highly rehearsed and complex pieces, Haywood deliberately chose

repertoire that was comparatively simple, ranging from single line melodies with

accompanying harmony to loosely structured free improvisations. Additionally,

repertoire was not rehearsed before performances and an ensemble of musicians that

had not performed together previously was chosen. While this seems at odds with

Threadgill’s approach, ultimately the performance atmosphere was similar for both

ensembles.

Without prior rehearsal or a history of performing together, the musicians in


68

Haywood’s group relied on maintaining close attention to the other members of the

ensemble. For Haywood this uncertainty was advantageous for the performance.

As mentioned previously, aspects such as this that relate to arrangement were


not discussed prior to the performance. Highly attuned active listening was
evident here, in that collective, instinctive variation in dynamics and intensity,
along with intuitive departures from traditional roles were clearly
demonstrated throughout. (Haywood 2014, 50)

While differing in approach and sound, Haywood and Threadgill’s ensembles share a

similar performance aspect: an atmosphere of uncertainty. Haywood’s approach of

unrehearsed, relatively simple material, and Threadgill’s use of multiple rehearsals,

complex material and modified forms, foster concentration within the ensemble and

ultimately contribute to the generation of creative improvised music.

From an audience perspective, Threadgill’s approach to form provides an experience

with little or no recurring musical material. The constantly evolving structures within

Threadgill’s rearrangements make form delineation difficult, even for those familiar

with the band’s recordings or performances.

And so you read, B might be six bars, and you do six bars this way, but it’s
long meter so it feels like twelve bars. You read it this way and then you read
it this way, then you read this way. And so, as a listener, how are you going to
pick up on that? What’s happening now? You know, you’re trying to pick it
all out and then after that we’ll play B and that’ll be the end. (Ellman
interview 11 July 2015)

Despite these complexities or perhaps because of them, Zooid’s music remains for the
69

author enjoyable and enthralling. The combination of mystery and fleeting sense of

ornate organisation gives a Zooid performance its unique characteristic. The regular

indicators of form, melody, solos and even meter, are not easily discernable. This was

so pronounced in live performances that the author quickly gave up trying to follow

any of these features and instead simply allowed himself to be immersed in the entire

musical atmosphere.

Through form modification Threadgill at once gives new life to familiar

compositions, encourages engaged performances and remains elusive to his audience,

even those familiar with Zooid. The three recordings transcribed for analysis each

provide evidence of form modification and the methods Threadgill uses in

rearrangement. The completed transcriptions were compared to their respective guitar

or cello parts to determine what modification had been made for each performance.

Some of the following descriptions refer to bar numbers. These bar numbers are

drawn from the guitar and cello parts and correspond to the written material scores

included in Appendix 1.

After Some Time7 features perhaps the most straightforward arrangement of the three.

Ellman’s guitar part is divided into two sections, A and B. The recording opens with

the written material of the B section played in full. This is followed by Threadgill’s

alto saxophone solo using the harmonic structure of the entire A section. The structure

of the A section has been modified; each harmonic duration has been doubled making

the section twice as long. This unique practice is commonly used in improvised

sections, defined in Zooid as “long meter.”

7
For full transcription refer to Appendix 1 - Transcriptions.
70

He’ll try all kinds of contemporary compositional techniques that a lot of jazz
people don’t even consider. Like he’ll say “we’re going to start on the C
section, with your solo on C and we’re going to do that long meter.” When he
says “long meter” it means double the form. Like double the length. So if it
was one chord for two bars, the next one for three bars, now it’s four bars then
six bars, or beats not bars, beats. (Ellman interview 11 July 2015)

In some arrangements there is a combination of long meter duration and the original

marked durations, known as “regular meter.” Hoffman explains,

But then, [long meter] may be going along a certain way, but then one
measure will be in what we call regular meter. So regular meter is how it’s
written and long meter is doubling of that. (Interview, 9 July 2015)

Taylor’s research confirms this practice, further explaining that the numbers written

beneath determine a chord’s duration in regular meter. While the beat duration is

normally doubled in long meter, he states that “the form could also triple or quadruple

in length” (2015, 31). Jose Davila explained that long meter was an important stage in

the early development of the music, “When Threadgill started using long meter,

everything started opening up. The music started to breathe” (interview 17 December

2015). For Davila, the extra time of long meter allowed the group to better process

each harmonic change, resulting in a more satisfying performance. Threadgill’s

harmonic system (discussed in the following section) contains a significant amount of

information, so it is understandable that long meter would be an effective method of

altering these complex structures for improvisation.

Following Threadgill’s solo in After Some Time, Ellman performs a guitar solo using
71

a different form, the B section harmonic structure in long meter. This solo,

accompanied by tuba, bass and drums, leads into the written material from the A

section played by the same players, without Threadgill’s saxophone part. The A

section written material is repeated once more, this time with saxophone, finishing

with a brief rubato ending. The entire form of After Some Time is represented

graphically in Figure 2.

Figure 2 - After Some Time form

It is worth noting that the handwritten cello and guitar parts used here have numerous

extra markings, presumably made to document previous arrangements. On Ellman’s

part of After Some Time, hand written instructions such as, “Henry drops out then we

go to B,” “Sto last 2 bar, A, B guitar, A sax, B theme” and “Guitar solo at A (L.M.)

take chart out on B” reflect the numerous permutations of this piece. These markings

are no longer used by the group. Threadgill’s forms change so frequently that

ensemble members ceased writing out new arrangements, choosing instead to

memorise this information. Hoffman described the process of committing frequently

varying forms to memory.

It took a while for me, cos’ I used to sit there and write down all of the
arrangements that we had, and all the guys in the band they’d all say, “Don’t
write that down, don’t write it on your chart at least.” … I’ve got so many
charts from the past with other band members with all these arrangement
versions. And then you just stop writing out the arrangements. And you get
72

used to it and then you can memorise them. I mean we can memorise anything
when we want to, you know. (interview 9 July 2015)

Figure 3 - Polymorph form

In comparison to After Some Time, the form of Polymorph8 is more complex.

Hoffman’s written cello part is divided into five sections, numbered 1 to 5. A graphic

representation of the form used in the transcribed recording is shown in Figure 3. Dots

representing repeat marks have been included in this figure to assist in explaining the

complex form. This marking is also included in Figure 4. The recording opens with

the written material of sections 1, 2 and 3, with bar 14 in section 3 repeated, followed

by section 2 and 3 again. Davila then performs a tuba solo using sections 1, 2 and 3,

in long meter except for bar 4 in regular meter. In the supplied cello part, brackets are

marked around bar 4 in section 1, indicating this bar is to be played in regular meter

in solos. Threadgill follows, performing an alto saxophone solo on the same structure

as Davila, while Stomu Takeishi performs a final solo over sections 4 and 5 in regular

8
For full transcription refer to Appendix 1 - Transcriptions.
73

meter before the written material of sections 4 and 5 is played to close the piece.

Initially Takeishi’s solo is accompanied only by Ellman and Elliot Kavee. Ellman’s

accompaniment closely emulates the written material for sections 4 and 5, meaning

that when the written material is played to finish the performance, a near seamless

transition has occurred between solo and written material sections. Additionally,

Takeishi continues to improvise in this final section, blurring the division further by

embellishing and departing from the written material. The written material of section

4 and 5 is repeated six times, without Threadgill on the final repeat, leaving the

remaining ensemble to end the piece.

Figure 4 - To Undertake My Corners Open form

To Undertake My Corners Open9 features the most elaborate form of the three pieces

and can be seen in Figure 4. Consisting of four sections marked A, B, C and D, this

performance opens with the A section featuring a trombone melody until bar 7. Bar 7
9
For full transcription refer to Appendix 1 - Transcriptions.
74

features a guitar and bass pattern repeated four times before the entire group enters to

perform the remaining A section. Davila follows with a trombone solo on a heavily

modified version of the A section. The trombone solo form begins with the first bar of

the A section in long meter then a repeated section of bars 2 to 6 in long meter. Bar 7

is played in regular meter, then followed by the remaining A section in long meter

except bar 10 played in regular meter. When the form repeats the first bar is omitted,

starting instead at bar 2 following the same repeats and long/regular meter

modifications. Ellman follows with a guitar solo on three bars of the B section, bars

14 to 16. Again this form modulates between long and regular form, beginning with

bar 14 in long meter, bar 15 in regular meter and returning to long meter in bar 16.

Threadgill then performs a flute solo on the C and D sections up to bar 28, before

returning to the repeating guitar and bass pattern in bar 7. The remaining bars of the A

section are played by the entire ensemble before another repeating guitar and bass

pattern, this time on the first three bars of the B section. The performance ends with

the entire ensemble playing the remaining B section followed by written material of

the C and D sections.

A common feature of these arrangements is minimal repetition of written material. In

each recording, the opening material is not played again. As Threadgill’s written

material is often densely contrapuntal and features unusual melodic structures,

denying the listener multiple opportunities to hear written material makes

distinguishing structure within these pieces extremely difficult. Indeed, the author

could not accurately identify written material and improvised sections on early

hearings.
75

This may be an intentional aspect of Threadgill’s concept for Zooid. As discussed in

the following sections, many of the techniques employed in this music add

significantly to its ambiguity. This music is perhaps not meant to be heard as an

agglomeration of recognisable and definable structures and devices but rather felt and

experienced as an organic whole. Fischlin’s interview with Threadgill contains an

exchange explaining the way Threadgill hopes people will experience his music.

Fischlin: So for people who are coming new to your music, what do you think
they have to know?
Threadgill: Nothing.
Fischlin: Nothing?
Threadgill: Nothing. I don’t believe you have to know anything about art.
Some people won’t be able to engage with it. That’s just a reality in terms of
any kind of art anywhere. They always say that art is universal. Art is really
not universal. What they mean by universal is that all societies and groups
make art. That’s what’s really universal, but an audience can’t always engage
with certain things. It’s just not within its parameters to do that, you know. But
I really don’t believe in ever telling people anything. I had one experience in
high school with a literature teacher and a girl. And we had to write poetry.
The girl came up in front of the class and she said, “This poem is about so-
and-so, so-and-so . . .” and he said, “Stop.” He said, “Just read the poem.
Don’t tell us what it’s about.” And I mean, people say to try to explain things
to other people about art. It doesn’t work . . . that’s not the way it works. I
don’t really believe in that. And then you get people sitting up with things in
their head that they think should occur, rather than just letting people go with
the flow. Yet I’ve found that people from all over the world can engage with
your music and art because we travel all over the world and it’s certainly not
just something that people in North America can appreciate, but people in all
kinds of places. (Fischlin 2011, 8-9)

An unattributed poem likely authored by Threadgill, included in the liner notes for the
76

Zooid album Tomorrow Sunny/The Revelry, Spp, reiterates this sentiment.

I’m trying to take a long view


within reason
about the music
I cannot tell
or say
anything
about the music
no expectations suggested
… the individual listener
let the music
is all I can offer (2012)

For the author, one of the important and attractive aspects of Zooid’s music is its

sense of mystery, which is greatly enhanced by Threadgill’s form modulations. The

application of this technique will be further explored in the following chapter.

Harmony

Generally with major/minor music, people play some kind of melody at some
point, and then they have this harmony that's the basis of it that they improvise
on, and they do all these different extensions and manipulations of this
harmony, and you're quite sure what you're listening to at that time. Because
it's like this one thing, then it's this other thing [Laughs], you know? It's this
melody that they play, with a limited harmonic language up on it, and then it
changes and opens up and the language gets more complicated harmonically
sometimes, in terms of the person that's improvising. But the harmonies that
we're playing, they're not major/minor harmonies. They're not thirds and
things, so you're not sure what you're listening to. All you know is you hear a
harmony in my music, but you can't really find it. - Threadgill (Shteamer
77

2010b)

As with Threadgill’s approach to form, identifying harmony in Zooid is similarly

elusive. The contrapuntal nature of this music displaces any sense of vertical

harmony. Harmonic structures are spread between the instruments of the ensemble,

while durations of chords often vary between written material and solo sections. In

addition to this, Threadgill has developed an approach to harmony divergent from that

of the majority of jazz practice.

As was the case in developing an understanding of Threadgill’s use of form, many

sources contributed to comprehending this harmonic system. Early examination

suggested harmonic organisation was present in this music but this was not easily

determined even after transcriptions were produced for more detailed analysis.

Previous Threadgill collaborator Brandon Ross provided preliminary information

regarding Threadgill’s harmonic approach. Ross had contact with Threadgill’s

harmonic system at its genesis. As a member of Threadgill’s Make A Move ensemble,

Ross encountered this system in some of Threadgill’s music written for Make A

Move’s last recording, Every Mouth’s A Book.

So the first records that Henry did where he’s using the interval concept in a
clearly structured and compositional way was the first Zooid record and the
last Make A Move record, so the first ones to appear on Pi Recordings. And
the track is, I think the first track on the Make A Move record is Platinum
Inside Straight. So this is where you have harmonic structures that can all be
moved by that interval set. (interview 10 July 2015)

A recording of Ross’s workshop at the 2011 Banff International Workshop in Jazz


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and Creative Music provided his description of Threadgill’s harmonic system. Ross

explained that the system is based around three-note groupings and a process of

generating new groupings by inverting pitches by the intervals contained in each

group.

The use of the term “inversion” needs to be clearly defined here. In tonal harmony,

inversion refers to the rearrangement of a chord. For instance, a triad can be inverted

to produce 1st and 2nd inversion chords. In this situation the three notes of the triad are

preserved. Threadgill’s inversion process produces new notes by inverting the

intervals between the notes. Ross states, “Henry’s ‘system’ opens into a kind of

focused pan-tonality, ordered and open, and moment-to-moment/instance-to-instance

harmonic and melodic presences” (email correspondence 8 July 2017).

Ross’s workshop provides an example of Threadgill’s inversion process using the

pitches C, E and G as an initial three-note grouping. While these notes can be seen as

C major triad in traditional harmony, it is the intervals between the notes that are the

focus here. In this grouping, there are three intervals: a minor 3rd between E and G, a

major 3rd between C and E, and a perfect 5th between C and G. Each interval is

inverted around either the upper or lower pitch to produce new three-note groupings.

For example, by inverting the interval between E and G, a minor 3rd, the E, a minor

3rd below G, moves to an B-flat, a minor 3rd above G, to generate a grouping of C, G

and B-flat. The same interval between E and G can be inverted in the opposite

direction, so that the G, a minor 3rd above the E, moves to a C-sharp, a minor 3rd

below E, generating a grouping of C, C-sharp and E. This process is continued,

inverting each interval in both directions, until six new three-note groupings have
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been formed. The intervals contained in the initial and subsequent groupings are then

used to form an interval set, this set includes a minor 2nd, minor 3rd, major 3rd, perfect

5th, minor 7th and a major 7th. This process is also displayed graphically in more detail

in Figure 5.

Figure 5 - Representation of Brandon Ross's explanation of Threadgill's interval generation


process

Ross’s workshop confirms there is a defined harmonic system at work in Zooid. This

concurs with Threadgill and Ellman’s comments in interviews who both mention

aspects of this system. Threadgill himself mentions the importance of the interval set

and how it functions in the ensemble,


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Well, the language…is such that we move from one series of intervals to
another series of intervals throughout a piece of music. So let's say the first
series has five intervals in it, the next has seven intervals in it, the next has
three, … on and on like that. And those intervals are what control everything
at that time. They control the voice leading and everything: The harmony, the
voice leading, the melodic line, everything is moving not necessarily with
every one of those intervals being used, but that pool of intervals, and
improvisation is coming from there also. (Shteamer 2010b)

Similar descriptions appear in other Threadgill interviews, but he does not elaborate

further. At a later date, Ellman discussed Threadgill’s reticence to define his musical

approach.

Well, that’s why I try to say people ask a lot about it and Henry’s been more
and more shy about it because he doesn’t feel like it serves people to delve too
far into that. Because like I said, I think it is useful for people to study it just
from a purely curious perspective, because it’s not going to help somebody
sound more like themselves to study his system. (interview 11 July 2015)

Ellman’s statement implies that any study of Threadgill’s music needs to be

approached with the right spirit. As previously mentioned, if this project is to benefit

the author’s creative practice, any application of Threadgill’s concepts should try to

avoid mere reproduction and seek a truly creative response.

From Ross’s explanation, a number of things can be determined: Threadgill’s

harmonic structures are built around three-note groupings, there are sets of intervals

related to note groupings, and intervals sets are derived from a process of inverting

the intervals in a three-note grouping. What is not clear is the way this system

functions within Threadgill’s compositions and in Zooid performances. This became


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more apparent when Ellman and Hoffman supplied examples of their sheet music for

Zooid.

The guitar and cello parts supplied for this project were facsimiles of Threadgill’s

hand written sheet music that he produces for each member of Zooid. Hoffman’s

After Some Time part has been partially recreated in Figure 6, displaying the notation

that facilitates Threadgill’s harmonic system in Zooid. Hoffman described how this

notation works in ensemble.

If you look at a chart, what you’ll get is there’ll be some written material, like
a line, a written line. And then there’ll be what you’re talking about which is a
bass, alto, tenor voice, right. Then there’ll be the intervals and then there’ll be
a number of beats that each block of voices gets within the measure. You
know, because the measure may be broken up by a couple of different sets of
chords if you want to call those chords. (interview 9 July 2015)

The cello music is written in double staves with the upper stave containing notated

written material and the lower stave reserved for Threadgill’s harmonic notation.

Interval sets appear in brackets between the two staves with each number referring to

an interval contained in the set. Each interval is considered to be major or perfect

unless accompanied a minus symbol (-) indicating a minor interval, or a plus symbol

(+) indicating an augmented interval. Further, double intervals indicate both major

and minor intervals, or in the case of double fours, both perfect and augmented

intervals. For example, the interval set for bar 1 in Figure 6, (-233446), contains a

minor 2nd, minor 3rd, major 3rd, perfect 4th, augmented 4th and a major 6th.
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Figure 6 - Author's depiction of Hoffman's cello part to After Some Time, bar 1-2

The first two bars of After Some Time show a progression of three-note groupings.

Each grouping is written on the lower stave as three letters, one beneath a dividing

line and two upper letters. The position of each note in this notation indicates its

orientation in the harmonic structure: the lower pitch is the bass of the note grouping,

the top left and right are the middle and upper voices respectively.

Figure 7 - Harmony notation

For example, in the first note grouping G-sharp is the bass, C is the middle and A is

the upper voice as shown in Figure 7. Additionally, each note grouping is

accompanied by a number written directly below indicating duration. In the case of

the first note grouping the number is six, indicating this harmony lasts for six quavers

or half of the 6/4 bar. The harmonic material written on the lower stave is particularly

important when improvising. As described previously, the harmonic material of a


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piece is the basis for improvisation in Zooid with Threadgill selecting and modifying

sections as forms for the various solos. Hoffman explained that the durations for each

note grouping are significant in this practice.

So then, there’ll be a couple of different sections of written material which


will have all that information with it, and all of the written material is derived
from those voices and those intervals. And then the numbers for the rhythm,
that’s expandable. So, if you have a bar of 5/4 and you have this chord for
three beats and this chord for two beats, often times when we’re taking solos,
not all the time but a lot of the time, three beats becomes six beats and two
beats becomes four beats. So the measures basically expand. (interview 9 July
2015)

Taylor’s research both confirms and expands upon the explanations of Ross, Ellman

and Hoffman. He refers to Threadgill’s harmonic approach as an intervallic language

and uses some terminology not mentioned by Ross, Ellman or Hoffman. Possibly

through Threadgill himself, Taylor has gained access to a copy of a complete score

and separate guitar part of the Zooid composition, See The Blackbird Now.

Significantly, this score varies from that of Ellman and Hoffman’s guitar and cello

parts and does not include the harmonic notation described earlier. Instead boxed

three-note groupings accompanying each interval set are included, described by

Taylor as “master cells.” In his description, these master cells are used as the initial

three-note grouping in Threadgill’s inversion process to produce “sister cells.” Taylor

states, “each master cell can mutate and produce other sister cells that contain some of

the same intervallic material” (2015, 32). The terminology used in Taylor’s study

differs to that of Ross. To avoid confusion, the terms used by Taylor will be used in

the remainder of this project. “Master cell” refers to the initial three-note grouping
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and “sister cell” refers to the generated three-note groupings.

Taylor elaborates further on Threadgill’s harmonic approach. In the following

statement he makes a connection between the master cells written on the score of See

The Blackbird Now and the harmony written in the separate guitar part.

With each master cell, Threadgill can produce 6 sister cells which are
considered to be part of the same family and can be interchanged with one
another. All the harmony comes from these related cells. (2015, 36)

Taylor substantiates this connection by comparing the master cell in bar 4 of the score

to the harmony in bar 4 of the guitar part using Threadgill’s inversion process.

Using Threadgill’s operation, the master cell E, F, A, produces the sister


cells (E A C#), (E Db F), (F F# A), (D# E A), (F A D), and (B E F). For this
measure, Threadgill chooses to use the 4th and 6th sister cells as the harmony.
(2015, 40)

In the previous two statements Taylor asserts that the harmonic notation in the

individual instrument parts is drawn from the master cell written in the score and the

generated sister cells produced in Threadgill’s inversion process. However, analysis

of the three pieces included in this project shows that there may be a more complex

relationship between the master cell and the harmony in this music.

Determining the correlation between master cells and harmony in the Zooid pieces

chosen for this project was not straightforward. As Threadgill’s scores were not

available, the only reference for this, other than the author’s transcriptions, came from
85

guitar and cello parts supplied by Ellman and Hoffman. These parts do not include the

master cell information seen in the score for See The Blackbird Now, so a system was

devised to generate a hypothetical master cell derived instead from the interval sets

written in the parts. As previously noted, there is a clear relationship between the

master cell and interval set. Once the inversion process has been performed, the

intervals contained in the master and sister cells generate the interval set. The process

for generating hypothetical master cells involved creating a compendium using

Threadgill’s inversion process for every possible three-note grouping within an octave

that would detail each master cell and interval set relationship. The interval sets

produced in this compendium could then be cross-referenced to those that appear in

the guitar and cello parts, indicating a potential master cell that may have been used in

Threadgill’s original score. In the compendium, each master cell was built upon the

note C, to streamline the process and allow for transposition if necessary. This process

also allowed a closer examination of the relationship between the sister cells produced

in the inversion process and the three-note groupings that appear in the harmonic

notation of the guitar and cello parts.

To aid in this analysis, hypothetical versions of the written material scores used in

Zooid were created from the written material sections ascertained in transcriptions10.

The following analysis included in this and the follow section, Melodic Conception,

takes examples from these hypothetical scores. Passages that included multiple three-

note groupings within one interval set were selected for harmonic analysis from the

three written material scores as well as the See The Blackbird Now scores included by

Taylor. The analysis from these sources revealed a different master cell/harmony

10
Written material scores for each transcribed piece are included in full in Appendix 1.
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relationship to that described by Taylor. The following analysis uses square brackets

to denote master cells, eg. [A B C], and curved brackets to denote sister cells and

harmony contained in the individual instrument parts, eg. (A B C).

Figure 8 - After Some Time, bar 1: harmony and interval set/master cell comparison

Bar 1 of the cello part of After Some Time contains the interval set (-233446) and

harmony of four three-note groupings: (G# C A), (C E A), (E F A) and (E♭E A). The

interval set relates to two master cells in the compendium [C C# F] and [C E F].

Transposing these master cells shows that the harmony in bar 1 is contained in the

sister cells. Transposing [C E F] to [E G# A] gives the first and second harmony,

(G# C A) and (C E A), as sister cells, while transposing [C C# F] to [E F A] gives the

third harmony, (E F A), as the master cell and the fourth, (E♭E A), as a sister cell.
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Figure 9 - Polymorph bar 1-2: harmony and interval set/master cell comparison

Bar 1 and 2 of the cello part of Polymorph both contain the interval set (22-3) and

four harmony groups: (B♭C D♭), (B♭B C), (A B♭C) and (A♭B♭B). The interval

set relates to one master cell [C C# D] that can be transposed to produce the second

harmony as a master cell [B♭B C]. The remaining three harmonies, (B♭C D♭),

(A B♭C) and (A♭B♭B), are all resulting sister cells.


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Figure 10 - To Undertake My Corners Open bar 7-8: harmony and interval set/master cell
comparison

Bar 7 and 8 of the guitar part of To Undertake My Corners Open contain the interval

set (-23445-67) and five harmony groups: (C# A G#), (C F C#), (F E A), (E E♭B♭)

and ( E♭B♭B). The interval set relates to two master cells [C B F#] and [C G F#] that

can be transposed to produce the first, fourth and fifth harmonies. [C B F#] can be

transposed as the fourth harmony, [E E♭B♭], giving the fifth harmony, ( E♭B♭B), as

a sister cell, while [C G F#] can be transposed to [C# G# G] giving a sister cell of the

first harmony, (C# A G#). Interestingly, the second and third harmonies cannot be

found in any transposition of both master cells and their generated sister cells. These

harmonies, (C F C#) and (F E A), can be linked to their related interval set, the

intervallic relationships present in each harmony are consistent with the interval set.
89

Of these three examples, only the Polymorph excerpt satisfies Taylor’s master

cell/harmony relationship. The harmony in bar 1 and 2 of Polymorph can be

generated through the inversion process of a single master cell. In the other two

examples, it was necessary to use multiple master cells related to the interval set to

produce the harmony present, and in the case of To Undertake My Corners Open,

some harmony could not be produced using this practice. Despite this, another

correlation can be seen in the harmony of all three excerpts; the intervallic

relationships within each three-note grouping are consistent with the associated

interval set.

It should be stated here that this and the remaining analysis in this chapter has not

been confirmed by Threadgill and should be considered theoretical. However, the

previous examples point to a nuanced relationship involving the master and sister

cells, the derived interval sets and the harmony that occurs in the instrument parts. As

previously mentioned, Threadgill says intervals control the voice leading in Zooid

pieces. He elaborates, “Every movement is according to the numbers … Otherwise

you break the bonding that causes the whole thing to fit the nuclei of the intervallic

series” (Chinen 2009). It is suggested that the harmony in Zooid pieces is not drawn

only from master and sister cells of the intervallic process but instead uses interval

sets to govern harmonic structures, allowing a greater range of harmonic possibilities

and wider sense of coherence. As previously shown, master and sister cells do appear

in Zooid harmony. However, given there are many instances where the harmony

varies from using this material, it is logical to conclude that the interval sets act as an

overarching organising element for harmony in Zooid.


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Figure 11 - See The Blackbird Now bar 1: harmony and master cell comparison

Further evidence of this can also be seen in See The Blackbird Now (Taylor 2015, 23-

25). As previously stated, the master cell for each interval set appears in the score,

allowing a clearer indication of its relationship to the harmony. Bar 1 of the guitar

part of See The Blackbird Now contain the interval set (223345-7) and three harmony

groups: (A G B♭), (E F G) and (C E E♭), as shown in Figure 11. The master cell

written in the score is [A B♭ C#] and only gives a sister cell of the first harmony, (A

G B♭). The remaining harmonies, (E F G) and (C E E♭), contain intervallic

relationships consistent with the interval set. Bar 2 of the guitar part of See The

Blackbird Now contain the interval set (-2334466) and four harmony groups: (F A♭ D

♭), (D B F), (B♭ D# E) and (C E D♭), as shown in Figure 12. The master cell written

in the score is [F# B G] and has none of the harmony occurring as sister cells, while

each harmony remains intervallically consistent with the interval set.


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Figure 12 - See The Blackbird Now bar 2: harmony and master cell comparison

These examples confirm the significance of the interval set in relation to harmony.

Further, Taylor’s assertion that all of the harmony is derived from the master and

sister cells is not evident; bar 1 contains just one harmony group in common with the

master and sister cells, while bar 2 includes none. Threadgill reiterates his intervallic

approach to harmony,

They control the voice leading and everything: The harmony, the voice
leading, the melodic line, everything is moving not necessarily with every one
of those intervals being used, but that pool of intervals. (Shteamer 2010b)

The extent of this intervallic control became more apparent in conversation with

Davila. He stated that,

The way each instrument moves is directed by the interval set and when you
take the three accompanying parts, the guitar, cello and tuba, the way these
parts move together makes the harmony. (interview 17 December 2015)
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This statement gives significant insight into Threadgill’s composing as it further

explains the functioning of the intervallic system in relation to the notated harmony.

The intervallic movement Davila describes can be seen in the transcribed excerpt of

the written material of After Some Time in Figure 13. The interval numbers written

above each stave all correspond to the bracketed interval set for each bar. One

exception is the final interval of the alto saxophone, which could either be attributed

to transcription error or as a deliberate departure in performance.

Figure 13 - After Some Time bar 1-2: intervallic analysis

Figure 14 confirms Davila’s comments regarding the relationship between the notated

harmony and the three accompanying parts. Boxes have been added to the excerpt

from After Some Time grouping the three voices that make up the harmony in each
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bar. For example, the first harmony is (G# C A) which corresponds to the first box

containing G# in the tuba, C in the bass guitar, and A in the guitar. The remaining

boxes correspond similarly to their respective harmony.

Figure 14 - After Some Time bar 1-2: accompany part and harmony relationship

In summary, there are a number of practices that have been determined that make up

Threadgill’s harmonic approach. Initially, the intervallic process is performed using a

master cell. The generated interval set determines the intervallic movement of each

voice. In turn, the three accompanying parts generate the harmony. Importantly, each

three-note grouping may or may not resemble those generated in the intervallic

process.
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Importantly, this intervallic approach is maintained during improvisation. When

improvising, the soloist and accompanying players use the interval set to construct

lines and depart from the harmony. Threadgill explains,

The written music that's on the paper, everything is moving according to [the
interval set]. Not necessarily every interval that is up there, but when we
improvise, we can take a lot of liberties because that is what the musicians
have learned how to do. (Iverson 2011b)

For Ellman, more liberties are taken as a soloist than an accompanying player, where

the interval set must be taken into account when moving between chords.

When we’re moving from one chord to the next, we absolutely have to move
using the intervals on the page. So say that you had an interval of a minor
second, and one chord was a D and I was going to move from a D to an E-flat.
If I go up to the E-flat, it’s a half step, but if I go down to the E-flat, then
we’re going down, what, a seventh? But if there’s no seventh in the interval
set, that would be an illegal motion. So it’s the same pitch but I’d be breaking
the rules of the counterpoint. When you’re comping, that’s really, really
important. (Chinen 2011)

Once you get into the solo, it’s not as strict. But, you’re far better off if you
use those interval sets to inform your melodic choices, more so than anything
else. Because if you try to play any kind of mode or licks or anything like that
it just sounds real corny. It doesn’t fit, it’s like a different kind of music. So
you have to sort of, I had to really start developing lines that are like minor
second, minor third, major second, sharp four, major seven! “Oh, that’s
interesting.” You come up with [a] different kind of language. (interview with
Ellman 11 July 2015)
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Ellman’s comments point to the level of flexibility that has developed in Threadgill’s

intervallic system. While he is referring to liberties taken when soloing, there are

degrees of flexibility present in all components of this system. While the intervallic

process is a formulaic procedure producing just six three-note groupings, Threadgill

focuses on the intervallic material generated in this process, using this as the basis for

voice leading and harmony when composing, allowing far more possible harmonic

groupings than the original six sister cells. The notation for this harmony is also

flexible by design; writing each note of a harmony means any possible three-note

grouping can be represented and clearly communicated to the player. Lastly, as

Ellman states, harmony is treated in a flexible way when improvising. With

awareness of the system, players are free to deviate from the confines of interval sets

and harmonic progressions, making artistic value judgments in the moment of

performance. This flexibility is key to the dynamic nature of a Zooid performance

where Threadgill and the ensemble have created a space for engaged, creative music.

Melodic Conception

Every time I moved from one group to the next, my language was changing
every time … I never wrote music for the Sextett the way I wrote when I was in
Air — I used completely other abilities for what I was doing with melody and
form. From Air until Make A Move is all in the range of major-minor, and it
broke over into chromaticism … Make a Move was as far as I could go with
major-minor music, then I mixed in chromaticism and whatever else I could
think of until I got completely over to where I am now, to a complete language
that has nothing to do with that. - Threadgill (Mandel 2016b)
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Threadgill’s melodic material for Zooid is striking. Angular and rhythmically unique,

his melodies contribute heavily to the idiosyncratic nature of this music. As shown in

the following examples Threadgill’s melodies display a motivic quality; they are

made up of short, fragmented statements or motifs. Sometimes these motifs are linked

rhythmically or through common intervallic content, while other melodic passages

appear unconnected with contrasting motifs.

Analysis concerning the written material of the three transcribed pieces included in

this project is problematic. Written material is not easily determined, with three

factors making this material unclear in the transcriptions. Firstly, this project

differentiates written material from improvised sections by relying on the partial

information of the guitar and cello parts provided by Ellman and Hoffman

respectively. Secondly, Threadgill’s pieces are constantly rearranged and modified

from their original forms for new performances, further obscuring the written

material. Lastly, even if the structure of a piece can be determined, designating

written material sections from solos, there is a strong improvisatory approach in

Zooid performances. Consequently, ensemble members deviate with creative license

from their written parts. This was evident when comparing the original cello and

guitar parts with transcriptions; liberties with performance of the written parts are

clearly evident. As such, the analysis presented here cannot be relied upon as wholly

representative of Threadgill’s original compositions. The result is an approximate

picture of Threadgill’s written material for these works that nevertheless can still

provide an insight into compositional approach. As previously mentioned, these

excerpts are taken from the written material scores included in Appendix 1.
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Figure 15 - After Some Time: A section unconnected motifs 1 - 4

The motifs contained in Zooid melodies can be irregular, occurring in different

positions in the bar and almost interrupting the accompaniment. After Some Time

provides a clear example of this. The piece is divided into two sections, A and B, with

the alto saxophone playing the main melodic line. In the first two bars of the A

section, this melody contains four short melodic statements or motifs, as shown in

Figure 15. The first begins on the last semiquaver of the first beat of bar 1 and is made

up of four semiquavers. The second motif begins on the last semiquaver of beat 4, this

time consisting of six semiquavers. The third statement, which might not be

considered a motif, consists of one note on beat 3 of the second bar, before the fourth

motif is played on the last semiquaver of the fourth beat. The fourth motif is more
98

rhythmically complex than the previous statements, featuring a variety of different

note lengths.

There is little commonality between these four statements; they vary in rhythmic

content, length, placement and intervallic structure. While this melody can seem

unconnected, unexpected and possibly jarring, it clearly articulates the agitated tone

of the section reaching a climax at the final note of the fourth motif. The remaining A

section continues in a similar way, using varied motifs to maintain a dynamic and

disjointed atmosphere.

Figure 16 - After Some Time: alto saxophone, bar 8 related motifs 1 - 3

This is contrasted in the B section with clearer relationships within the motivic

melody. In bar 8, the first bar of the B section, the alto saxophone plays three two-

note motifs as shown in Figure 16. These motifs are closely related, both

intervallically and rhythmically. Each motif features a descending minor 2nd interval

starting with the first motif on beat 1, descending from F to E; the second motif

begins on the second quaver of beat 3, descending from E to E-flat; and the third

motif is played on the second quaver of beat 6, descending from A to A-flat. The

rhythmic content of the three motifs are also similar; the first featuring a quaver and

crotchet rhythm starting on-beat, while the remaining motifs are made up of dotted

quavers starting off-beat.


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The remaining B section features an extended rhythmic development stemming from

the first motif of bar 9 and can be seen in Figure 17. This motif starts on the second

quaver of beat 1 with a rhythmic pattern of two semiquavers followed by two quavers.

This rhythmic device is developed throughout the remaining melody, maintaining

various parts of the original pattern. This can be seen in the second motif of bar 9, bar

10, and from the second motif of bar 12 onwards; the motifs here all share rhythmic

components, uniting this passage through rhythmic variation.

Figure 17 - After Some Time: alto saxophone, bar 8 - 16 related motifs 1 - 10

After Some Time displays three types of motivic compositional approaches: the

melody develops through either intervallic or rhythmic relationships between motifs,

or can be made up of unrelated motifs. There is additional evidence of these

approaches in the two other transcribed pieces.


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Figure 18 - Polymorph: 1 section bar 1-3, restricted intervallic movement

Polymorph has a much more languid feel than After Some Time, its tempo is slower

and the melody contains more sustained notes. An example of restricted interval

composing is found in the first two bars of the written material. Examining the

anacrusis and first bar of the composition, we can see Threadgill has limited the

movement of not just the melody, but all instruments to an interval of a minor 2nd, as

shown in Figure 18. While the interval set contains a minor 2nd, major 2nd and minor

3rd (written as (22-3) on the score), none of the movement in this bar is by more than a

semitone, ignoring the octave interval in the tuba. Further, after the initial ascending

line of the tuba, only the alto saxophone line continues ascending. The remaining

instruments move in descending semitones, in opposition to the melody line and


101

creating a nearly parallel harmonic movement together. This minor 2nd movement is

continued by the guitar and tuba in bar 2, while the alto saxophone introduces an

ascending minor 3rd interval at the end of the bar. This is mirrored by the

accompanying instruments directly after; in bar 3 the guitar descends by a minor 3rd,

the bass descends by a minor 3rd then a major 3rd, and the tuba by a minor 3rd then a

semitone. The remaining written material continues with less intervallic restrictions,

employing a variety of intervals.

It is not clear if Threadgill actively sought to use restricted intervals in the first three

bars of this piece. While his intervallic system certainly restricts movement to a

number of intervals (most sets contain five or more intervals), intervallic movement is

not frequently limited to this degree. Without confirmation from Threadgill,

assumptions about specific compositional process remain theoretical. Not

withstanding, the alto saxophone part reveals further evidence of an intervallic

melodic approach. Figure 19 shows the entire alto saxophone melody, where starting

in bar 5, a major 6th interval is used repeatedly in the melody. The interval occurs ten

times, sometimes descending but predominantly ascending, and could be considered a

theme of sorts. The intervals that feature in the first three bars, a minor 2nd and a

minor 3rd, also reoccur frequently. In one interview, Threadgill explains that the

restriction of interval sets gives gravity, or a sense of cohesion to his music.

All of the material … It’s composed of blocks of intervallic blocks. There’s a


gravitational system that’s based on those intervals, that means that everything
will hang together there through a force field from the mere fact that this is the
only thing in play. (Vimeo 2010)
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Taking this logic one step further, the repetition of the three intervals, a minor 2nd,

minor 3rd and major 6th, within this melody could be seen as a type of cohesive

element, interconnecting the phrases.

Figure 19 - Polymorph: alto saxophone melody, repeated interval use


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The presence of interval sets and corresponding interval use in the written material of

these pieces suggests Threadgill composes using predetermined interval sets as a

guide for his melodies. This process is not a simple procedure of randomly selecting a

series of intervals to generate melodies. Rather, the interval set is used to unlock new

melodic material and is an organising element giving coherence to the individual

voices in these compositions. Ellman discussed this in relation to presentation he gave

to student musicians.

In the end it still has to sound good … someone invited me to go to the New
School and talk about Henry’s music. And I was trying to explain this interval
system and there was some smart-ass kid in the back … one of them said, “So
you’re saying that if that one has a minor second and a major second in it, then
that means you could just play any scale because you could play a major scale,
you could play a half-whole diminished scale, you could play an altered scale.
They all have collections of semitones and whole tones.”… I said, “Yeah,
you’re right. Technically that’s true but that would sound like garbage
because, first of all, you have to build some kind of line that works from one
chord to the next and there has to be some sort of melodic logic that has to
come from your intuition.” It’s like if you’re playing a minor seven chord,
you’re not just running up and down Dorian mode. That doesn’t make any
music at all. Technically, you’re not wrong but it doesn’t sound like music.
So, you know you’re not completely free because you have so many options
here. You know, you still have to use them to your advantage musically. It’s
like saying in Serialism anything goes. Well, no. This music has a series of
notes and you can play it in that order and it’s part of the rules of the music
that makes it sound the way it does. And Henry’s music has its rules too. So
you can disregard them but you won’t sound good on the music. (interview 11
July 2015)
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For Ellman, the intervallic approach gives a specific character to Zooid’s music. The

use of interval sets allows the music to transcend any semblance of tonality while

maintaining intervallic coherence as an organising element.

To Undertake My Corners Open provides a contrast to the other two pieces

melodically. In addition to a change in instrumentation, the melodic focus in this work

shifts frequently between trombone, flute and guitar. A motivic approach is evident in

much of the melodic material and is most obvious in the opening trombone melody.

After a short anacrusis, the trombone plays four contrasting motifs over the first six

bars, as shown in Figure 20. There is rhythmic variation in each motif; the first spans

beat 1 to 4 of bar 1 and consists of crotchet and semiquaver divisions, the second

consists of just five consecutive semiquaver notes starting on beat 1 of bar 2, the third

motif consisting of triplet quaver divisions starts on the second triplet quaver of bar 3

and is continued until the end of the bar, while the fourth motif spans nearly three bars

and is played from the second quaver beat of bar 4 until the fourth quaver beat of bar

6, consisting of a variety of different rhythmic divisions from a semiquaver to a

minim. In addition to this, there are no intervallic commonalities between the motifs

in this opening melody.


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Figure 20 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 1 - 6: trombone melody, unrelated motifs 1 -


4

This passage is analogous in approach to the unrelated motifs that were contained in

After Some Time. Each motif here is distinct from the other in length, rhythm and

intervallic content, meaning the larger melody does not adhere to any strict overall

structure. Despite this, there is a clear difference between the melody here and that of

After Some Time. Less space is given between the individual motifs in the trombone

melody of To Undertake My Corners Open than the alto saxophone melody in After

Some Time. This means that the varied material is more compressed and varying at a

greater speed, giving the music a greater sense of urgency. After the initial trombone

melody, the written material moves between guitar, flute and trombone melodic focus

at various points in the piece. This melodic movement is part of a larger shift in

arrangement variation and will be discussed in the following section.

Counterpoint

Collective improvisation has been an important thing to me, always. Now


everything is truly independent; no one can really depend on anyone else. I
like harmony. I haven’t abandoned anything. Counterpoint is there, but the
harmony is an illusion. You hear this harmony, but we aren’t really playing it,
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and we aren’t improvising on it. - Threadgill (Iverson 2011b)

Counterpoint is an important part of Threadgill’s music for Zooid. The written music

for the pitched instruments in the ensemble displays a high level of rhythmic

independence between the parts. This occurs to varying degrees, but often each

instrument performs a completely separate line that interlocks with the other parts.

The result of this is an intricate and complex sound that somehow retains a strong

rhythmic feel across the ensemble. Further to this, counterpoint is retained in the

improvised sections of the pieces. The group has developed a performance method

that allows the soloist and accompanying players to improvise independent parts

around each other, mirroring the counterpoint of Threadgill’s written material. This

section will examine examples of counterpoint from both the written material and

improvised passages.

It is worth noting again that the drum parts for Zooid, performed by Elliot Kavee,

have not been included in this study. While the drums form an invaluable part of the

sound of this music, underpinning and providing yet another level of rhythmic

counterpoint to this group, their contribution is beyond the scope of this research.
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Figure 21 - After Some Time, bar 1 - 2: guitar/bass rhythmic unison

Threadgill’s written material for After Some Time demonstrates the way he uses

counterpoint in composition. Shown in Figure 21, the written material begins with an

alto saxophone melody with counterpoint accompaniment from the guitar, bass guitar

and tuba. The guitar and bass guitar are in rhythmic unison during the entire A

section. The B section, starting at bar 8, sees the guitar and bass guitar play

independent parts underneath the continuing alto saxophone melody, as shown in

Figure 22. This results in full counterpoint within the ensemble and an expansion of

rhythmic complexity. The written material returns to rhythmic unison between guitar

and bass guitar in bars 11 and 12, before again shifting to full counterpoint in the last

four bars of the written material.


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Figure 22 - After Some Time, bar 8 - 10: full counterpoint

The first bar of the B section is typical of the way Threadgill coordinates the different

pitched instruments around each other. As shown in Figure 22, the rhythms of each

part fit together to create a driving dynamic intensity. The alto saxophone, tuba and

bass guitar enter at different points of the first beat, followed by the guitar on the

second beat. The instruments continue to sound at different points in the remaining

bar. Ellman talks about the effect of this type of counterpoint composition.

Another way his harmony works in this band is that he writes everybody’s part
sort of like counterpoint for chamber music … So it’s more mysterious. And
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rhythmically then, we’re all playing this counterpoint so we’re not all hitting
at the same time. So you hear this (sings). You know, it’s like we’re playing
the harmony but we’re not all hitting everything at the same time … But then
the rhythm interlock[ing] everything is where the magic happens, it’s super
funky, you know. (interview 11 July 2015)

Figure 23 - Polymorph, bar 1: counterpoint entries

The opening of Polymorph displays another example of counterpoint in Threadgill’s

written material. In Figure 23 after the tuba anacrusis, the entries of the other pitched

instruments are staggered. The tuba plays a quaver on beat 1 of bar 1, followed by the

alto saxophone one quaver later. The guitar enters on the last semiquaver of beat 1

before the bass guitar plays on beat 2. As the bar progresses further, the parts remain

displaced: tuba is followed by bass guitar, then guitar, bass guitar, tuba, alto

saxophone, before the guitar finishes the bar on the final quaver beat. The

counterpoint emphases of each instrument have been visualised on the bottom stave

marked C.P. This notation will be used to show the level of counterpoint displacement

in other examples in this section. While the complexity of counterpoint in bar 1 of


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Polymorph could have an adverse effect on the overall feeling of the music, to this

author it achieves the opposite. The way the accompanying parts are situated around

the alto saxophone melody enhances the line and rhythmic movement of the music.

The following two bars deviate from this approach by showing more uniformity. In

Figure 24, the guitar and bass guitar play a unison figure that aligns rhythmically with

the tuba. The alto saxophone only plays in the last beat of bar 2, performing two

quaver triplets into the next bar. The remaining written material generally modulates

between these two arrangements, alto saxophone melody with either three

independent parts or guitar and bass guitar rhythmic unison with an independent tuba

part.

Figure 24 - Polymorph, bar 2 - 3: guitar, bass guitar and tuba rhythmic relationship

A third arrangement occurs in the sections marked 4 and 5. The transcribed recording

concludes with a bass solo on sections 4 and 5 followed by the written material of
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these same sections repeated six times. With the entry of the written material, it

appears that the bass guitar continues to improvise around the written parts. The

variation in the bass guitar in this section makes it difficult to determine exactly what

is present in the score, but it is clear that some of the bass guitar and tuba parts are

closely related, sometimes in full unison. Figure 25 is an excerpt from the full

transcription of Polymorph showing the repetitions of the first two bars of the 4

section written material that close the performance.

In each repetition, the first two bars of the 4 section show bass guitar and tuba in

unison. The bass guitar improvisation happening in these sections makes analysis

difficult, but there are multiple instances where bass guitar and tuba are playing in

unison or close to, specifically in repeats 1, 2, 4 and 6. It is therefore likely that the

bass guitar is in unison with the tuba in these bars in the written material. This is

evidence of another arranging configuration, where bass guitar and tuba are unison,

while alto saxophone and guitar play independent parts. An approximate version of

the written material for these bars demonstrating this is shown in Figure 26.
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Figure 25 - Polymorph: section 4 repeats, bass and tuba


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Figure 26 - Polymorph written material, bar 15 - 16: bass guitar and tuba unison

Threadgill’s use of three counterpoint densities, guitar and bass guitar unison, bass

and tuba unison, or four-part counterpoint, is effective in itself. Each density is used

for only one or two bars before changing to another configuration. This rapid

modulation between levels of complexity contributes to the general sense of mystery

in Zooid’s music. This is most prominent in the written material for To Undertake My

Corners Open where melodic focus shifts frequently between instruments.


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Figure 27 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 1 - 9: melodic focus


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In contrast to the two other transcribed works, Undertake My Corners Open features a

change in instrumentation, Threadgill plays flute and Davila moves to the trombone.

Shown in Figure 27, the written material opens with a trombone melody accompanied

by guitar and bass guitar. In bar 7 the melodic focus moves to guitar performing a

short melodic figure accompanied by bass guitar counterpoint. Immediately after, the

flute enters in unison with guitar in bar 8 accompanying the trombone’s return to the

melody. In bar 9 and 10 the flute is tacet while the trombone continues the melody.

The flute enters again at bar 11, this time in unison with the trombone for the first two

beats of the bar. The flute and trombone then enter with a passage of counterpoint

accompanied by guitar and bass guitar, where all four pitched instruments play

independently.

The next section, marked as B, features another melodic figure from the guitar

accompanied by bass guitar, before the trombone and flute alternately enter with

melodic material as well as counterpoint playing together with guitar and bass guitar

accompaniment until the end of the written material. This is shown in Figure 28. The

final four bars, from bar 27 to 30, are of particular interest as the melodic focus

rapidly shifts between flute and trombone. This fleeting melodic transfer contributes

to the musical climax at this point and can be seen in Figure 29.
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Figure 28 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 14 - 20: melodic focus


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Figure 29 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 27 - 30: melodic focus

This composition features an number of arrangement configurations, but has four

main styles: melody in the trombone accompanied by guitar and bass guitar; shorter

melodic figures from the guitar accompanied by bass guitar; flute melody

accompanied by guitar, trombone and bass guitar; and melodic counterpoint between

flute and trombone accompanied by guitar and bass guitar. The movement of melodic

focus between multiple instruments contributes to the dynamic nature of this piece.

The counterpoint that features in the written material of these pieces informs the way
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the ensemble plays together when improvising. Their approach to improvisation is

markedly different to that of orthodox jazz music. Ellman explains that each

instrument has to function in a unique way, in particular, the bass player.

[If] a bass player comes in and tries to start walking at any point. Stop it, don’t
do that! You know, it’s not that there’s anything wrong with walking but you
can’t walk through this music and make it sound like it’s music. It’s not made
for that kind of movement, it’s a different kind of movement. It’s a collective
rhythmic movement that needs to have enough space. So it’s better that you
play more like funk music or something, you know. (sings Zooid style bass
line) That kind of movement dances and it complements the rest of what’s
happening in the music. Where as, if you’re just going (sings walking bass
line), that’s a different kind of thing. That’s outlining a harmony, to let the
soloist go off on a trip and maybe there’s dialogue between the drummer and
the soloist, and you’re just playing, you outline the chords. Now that’s a
beautiful kind of music and this isn’t about not liking that. This is just about
how you play Henry’s music. So, there’s much more communal dialogue
happening. (interview 11 July 2015)

The communal dialogue that happens during improvisation in Zooid ends up sounding

much like the counterpoint that occurs in Threadgill’s written material. Davila further

explained this process, mentioning how he converted his part from the written

material into what he plays to accompany solos.

When we go into solos often everything will be in long meter, the lengths of
the bars will be doubled. When that happens I try to keep the overall feeling of
my line, not by just doubling the length of each note. That was something
Henry would encourage us to do, keep the feeling of the line when we expand
the bars. (interview 17 December 2015)
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The improvised sections provide evidence of this ensemble’s style of improvised

counterpoint. This is a highly interactive and dynamic practice that contributes greatly

to Zooid’s unique sound.

Figure 30 - After Some Time, bar 10: alto solo, improvised counterpoint

In After Some Time, Threadgill plays the first solo on alto saxophone after the opening

written material section. Counterpoint between the pitched instruments is evident in

the first bar of the improvisation, as shown in Figure 30. Here, the alto saxophone

solo uses the A section in long meter, meaning the first bar of the written material in

6/4 has changed to 12/4 in the improvised section. The alto saxophone, guitar and

tuba all enter on beat 1, with the alto saxophone playing a longer phrase extending

into the second beat. The tuba follows this on the second quaver of beat 2, before the

guitar on beat 3. The tuba plays again on the last semiquaver of beat 3, before the bass

guitar enters with a sustained note on beat 4. Already the players are occupying

different rhythmic positions within the bar, forming a tessellating pattern of musical
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figures that continues in the remaining bar and beyond. On beat 5, the tuba plays on

the second semiquaver followed by an extended phrase from the alto saxophone

beginning on the last semiquaver. Underneath this alto saxophone phrase the guitar

enters, then tuba, then bass guitar. As with the written material, each part in this bar

contributes to the counterpoint, displaying a distinct and interlocking rhythmic line

within the improvised context.

Davila’s comments about maintaining the character of his written part during

improvisation are evident here. In the first half of the bar, he almost exclusively plays

G-sharps and G-naturals, reflecting the first two notes of the written material of this

bar. Further, the majority of these notes are played off the beat, imitating the written

material entry on the last semiquaver of the first beat. This treatment of the written

material, maintaining the character of a figure while improvising, grants the player

freedom to make creative and aesthetic choices regarding their playing within the

group. As well as being an important creative practice in the group, Davila’s

comments are revealing and relate to Threadgill’s development of creative

improvisation approaches in Zooid.

Counterpoint improvisation is evident throughout this performance of After Some

Time. For instance, in the first bar of the guitar solo, guitar, bass guitar and tuba all

play rhythmically contrasting parts, as shown in Figure 31. Again in long meter, the

bar length has doubled from 7/4 in the written material to 14/4 in the solo. The first

three notes of the bar are spread between the three players; tuba on beat 1, bass guitar

on the following quaver, and guitar on beat 2. Of particular note is the way guitar and

tuba play between each other, filling the spaces between statements and even between
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single notes. The bass guitar compliments this by playing a sparser and more

rhythmically static figure. The counterpoint continues until beat 8, where guitar and

tuba align for four semiquavers. This is the beginning of an extended guitar phrase

that lasts until beat 13. The tuba again aligns with three of the last four notes of the

guitar phrase, highlighting the deep rapport present in this ensemble.

Figure 31 - After Some Time, bar 24: guitar solo, improvised counterpoint
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Counterpoint improvising can also be found in the other two transcribed pieces. In

Figure 32, bars 24 to 25 of Polymorph show counterpoint in the tuba solo. Guitar,

bass guitar and tuba start together on beat 1 of bar 24. The players move to

counterpoint after the tuba’s initial ascending line with guitar and bass guitar

interjecting between the tuba’s first two phrases.

Figure 32 - Polymorph, bar 24 - 25: tuba solo, improvised counterpoint

As well as featuring counterpoint improvisation, Polymorph shows the accompanying

guitar and tuba repeatedly use parts of their written material behind the soloist. The
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final solo of in this recording of Polymorph is from the bass guitar. The solo uses the

same form as the sections that close the piece, sections 4 and 5. At various points in

the solo, the guitar and tuba play figures from their written material in these sections.

For example, bars 138 and 139 feature guitar and tuba performing nearly identical

figures to that of their corresponding written material as shown in Figure 33.

Figure 33 - Polymorph, bass guitar solo bar 138-139; written material bar 21-22: guitar and
tuba comparison

The figures played by guitar and tuba foreshadow the written material to come and

obscure the delineation between improvised and written material sections.

Compounding this, when the alto saxophone enters playing the written material, the

bass guitar remains improvising to a large degree. The later part of this piece can be
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seen as gradual crescendo, building all the way from the beginning of the bass solo

until nearly the end of the piece. The written material figures used within the bass

solo and the improvisations in the ensuing written material both help to hide the

transition between each section and allow the music to build continuously towards the

ending.

Figure 34 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 93 - 94: flute solo, improvised counterpoint
To Undertake My Corners Open’s changed instrumentation (Threadgill and Davila
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play flute and trombone, respectively) leaves accompaniment to be played only by

guitar and bass guitar. In comparison to the other transcribed pieces the number of

accompanying voices has been cut, yet evidence of improvised counterpoint remains.

In the flute solo, on a modified version of the C and D sections in long meter, bars 93

and 94 show counterpoint activity from the guitar and bass guitar between the flute’s

relatively sparse phrases as shown in Figure 34.

Figure 35 - To Undertake My Corners Open, bar 17 - 19: trombone solo, improvised


counterpoint

In the earlier trombone solo of To Undertake My Corners Open, bars 17 through 19


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feature counterpoint accompaniment with rhythmic similarity between the guitar and

bass guitar, as shown in Figure 35. While playing separate parts, the guitar and bass

emphasise similar points in the bar while improvising. This can be seen in the guitar

entry in bar 17, all three players play on the quaver after beat 2, then the guitar and

bass emphasise beat 4, the quaver after beat 5 and beat 7. The parts vary more in the

next two bars, but still coincide on beat 1 and 4 of bar 18 and the last quaver of bar

19.

The author suggests that this style of solo and accompaniment playing in After Some

Time, Polymorph and To Undertake My Corners Open is reflective of a well-

developed group dynamic. Zooid has been a consistent ensemble, barring minor

personnel changes, since the early 2000s. Over this time, the musicians working

within Threadgill’s innovative systems have developed a highly nuanced and intimate

musical relationship. The instances of improvised counterpoint mentioned here show

a shared understanding between the players that has been built over the considerable

amount of time Zooid has been performing and rehearsing. Additionally, this practice

can be linked to the counterpoint featured in Threadgill’s written material.

It should not be ignored that Threadgill’s leadership, along with his composing, has

undoubtedly led to the formation of this group’s unique improvisational style.

Threadgill’s efforts have brought together committed, capable and like-minded

individuals who can learn his multifaceted musical approach and help to develop it

further. The practices mentioned in the previous sections of this chapter, form

modification, harmony, melodic conception and counterpoint, all contribute to the

dynamic and ambiguous nature of this music. Threadgill has created an ensemble that
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performs in a highly unique and innovative way.


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Chapter 4 – Creative Works

As previously stated, a primary aim of this research is to further the author’s creative

practice. To this end, Threadgill’s music for Zooid has been explored with reference

to the idiomatic compositional and performative concepts that have developed in the

ensemble. This chapter details the creative component of this project, where

Threadgill’s concepts are explored within the context of the author’s composing and

performing.

Eight new compositions have been produced for this project. The creation of these

pieces has been continuous throughout the research process and has allowed new

concepts to be explored in the creative domain as they were found. The following

compositions are presented chronologically, detailing the developing comprehension

of Threadgill’s approach and the evolution of the author’s compositional and

performance practice. The scores included here are facsimiles of those used in

performance and as such include handwritten annotations pertinent to the study. Each

score is accompanied by the author’s reflections on the compositional and

performance process for each piece. This is not intended to be a compositional diary

of this output. Instead, reflections concern the adaptation of Threadgill’s concepts

rather than provide a complete discussion of compositional materials. These

descriptions will also assist the understanding of some of the performance iterations

found on the recordings listed in Appendix 2.


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Figure 36 - Mixed Business


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Mixed Business

This was the first composition written for this project. As such, inspiration for this

piece came from information gained in preliminary listening and early efforts in

transcribing Threadgill’s music. This limited understanding of his approach lead to

developing new performance methodologies for Slow Code that differed from the

concepts as they were understood later in research.

Mixed Business was written prior to the formation of Slow Code. Conceived initially

as a two-voice piece, melody is taken by the alto saxophone with double bass

providing a counterpoint accompaniment. The melody is motivic with short, irregular

alto saxophone statements punctuating the double bass line, reflecting early

impressions of Zooid. When Slow Code was formed, a guitar part was added

providing another layer of counterpoint to the existing voices.

Early experiments with the quartet of Slow Code relied on each player reading from a

score that included the written material for alto saxophone, guitar and double bass.

The rhythmic independence of each part made the provision of a full score for each

instrumentalist necessary for ensemble coordination. It also allowed performers to use

material from other parts in performance.

Initially, rehearsals focused on playing the written material and exploring the way

improvisation could be included in performance. At first, chord symbols were not

included in the scores so improvisation relied solely on the notated music. The soloist

was required to navigate through the piece against the written parts as
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accompaniment. It quickly became clear that this was not an effective method of

performing for this ensemble; the accompanying parts did not give a clear enough

sense of harmony and would require considerable rehearsal to make this a practical

approach. As a result harmonic notation, drawn from Threadgill’s system, was

included to assist improvising. The three pitches that best represented the overall

sound of each bar were written using the Zooid notation, a horizontal line dividing a

bass note from an upper and middle note. This notation had been discovered in early

research through Ross’s Banff workshop and made improvisation more manageable

in Slow Code while still preserving a harmonic aspect of the written material.

Initially used without accompanying interval sets, Threadgill’s harmonic notation

posed challenges for improvising in ensemble. While improvising, the author found

that he could not rely on practices such as chord/scale relationships to deal with

harmony in this system, instead a different approach developed. Many of the three-

note groupings contained in Mixed Business presented a very different sound to that

of mainstream jazz chords. For instance, the harmony of bar 5 and 6 are (E D F) and

(F F# E♭) respectively, neither of which conform to the triadic structures seen in the

majority of jazz harmony. The unusual sound of these and other harmonies combined

with the unfamiliar appearance of the notation proved daunting at first but suggested

opportunities for further exploration.

The process of familiarisation began initially for the author as internalising the sound

of individual three-note groupings. This involved a practice of arpeggiating the

pitches of each harmony on double bass, exploring various configurations in multiple

registers of the instrument. Later, these groupings were combined to develop and
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understanding of the progression of the entire form. Replicating a practice suggested

by Hoffman, the author used a looping pedal to record a contrapuntal version of the

harmonic progression. This could be played continuously to allow aural familiarity of

the progression as a whole and to test improvisational ideas. An important discovery

found during this practice was the flexibility this harmony contained. A large variety

of other pitches could be used to colour each grouping in different ways, resulting in a

significant sense of freedom once the overall sound of the harmonic progression had

been internalised. This familiarisation practice greatly enhanced the experience the

author had when playing with Slow Code. He felt a stronger musical connection with

the performances of the other members of the ensemble due to this increased

harmonic familiarity.

As with many of these compositions, the form of Mixed Business was modified for

the various performances included in this project. While briefly discussed in

published interviews, this aspect of Threadgill’s approach was only fully understood

after meeting with Hoffman, Davila and Ellman, and comparing the transcribed

recordings to Ellman and Hoffman’s guitar and cello parts. This important feature is

used in Slow Code to similar ends to Zooid; rearranging a familiar composition can

reveal new performance possibilities, requiring concentration and a creative approach

from the ensemble to deal with different challenges.

Early performances closely followed the written form of the piece. The entire written

material opens the performance, before the complete form was used for improvising,

ending again with the written material. As this project spanned a number of years,

numerous performance opportunities meant Slow Code gained a significant level of


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familiarity with this composition. At the same time, research had revealed

Threadgill’s various techniques for form modification making Mixed Business and

many of the other compositions included here ideal vehicles to explore this concept in

live performance.

A later arrangement of this composition includes the use of repetition, restructured

written material and long meter and can be heard on some of the live recordings

included in the folio, the 303 and Smith’s performances. To facilitate this new form,

Mixed Business was divided into three lettered sections: the A section from bar 1 to

11, the B section from bar 12 to 13, and the C section from bar 14 to 16. The

arrangement begins with the written material of the B section repeated three times,

followed by the written material of the A and C section. A double bass solo is

performed using a modified version of the whole form; bars 1 to 12 are played in long

meter then 13 to 16 return to regular meter. This is followed by a combined solo from

alto saxophone and guitar using the whole form in regular meter. The piece ends with

the same written material arrangement that opened the performance.

This version of Mixed Business presented new challenges. For the author, the habits

from performing the piece in its original form were difficult to unlearn. In particular,

it took a significant amount of concentration to not play from the beginning of the

written material as the piece was originally composed. Yet, this arrangement opened

up new aspects of the piece; the repetition of the B section set a different mood for the

written material, while the use of long meter in the double bass solo allowed the

harmony to be more thoroughly explored. As will be shown in the remaining

compositions, form modification was a challenging and stimulating technique for


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Slow Code.
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137

Figure 37 - Tribulation
138

Tribulation

Tribulation was written with a similar approach to the previous composition, Mixed

Business. A melody consisting of motifs of irregular length was composed for the alto

saxophone with accompanying counterpoint in guitar and double bass. This

configuration varies in bar 6, where the alto saxophone melody pauses allowing the

guitar to take melodic focus. This shift of melodic focus, while brief, reflects similar

examples found in the transcribed works and the approach is used more extensively in

subsequent compositions.

Initial performances used the written material of Tribulation in its original

configuration to begin and end the piece, with solos employing the same form. A

number of modifications were made in later performances, including soloing using

the form in reverse. This is a form modification used by Threadgill and is discussed

further in Taylor’s research (2015). In this arrangement, the solo form uses the

existing harmony but starts from the last bar and progresses backwards. This

produced a related yet transformed harmonic progression that resolved in unexpected

ways, a significant challenge in performance. Reverse harmony was preserved in

many arrangements and can be heard on the Smith’s recording. In this performance,

the composition was divided into two sections, the A section from bar 1 to 6 and B

section from bar 6 to 12. The piece opens with the first two bars of the B section

repeated, bars 6 and 7, which ends when the alto saxophone enters with the written

material of bar 7. The written material of the remaining B section from bar 8 to 12

follows before double bass and alto saxophone play solos on the entire form in

reverse. The written material beginning from the A section closes the piece with a
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series of progressively smaller repeats of the passage between bars 3 to 6. As a

closing statement, the written material from bar 1 to 6 is played, followed by bar 3 to

5, then bar 3 to 4, and finally bar 3 to end the piece.


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141

Figure 38 - How Did You Get This Number


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How Did You Get This Number

This composition was written primarily to explore further rhythmic variation between

an alto saxophone melody and guitar and double bass counterpoint accompaniment.

While the majority of the written material is semiquaver-based, this piece also extends

into use of demisemiquavers, triplet quavers and triplet semiquavers in various

combinations. During rehearsals the piece was divided into two sections, each

utilising a different compositional arrangement. The A section features similar

melody and counterpoint writing to the previous pieces, while the one-bar B section

consists of a guitar figure accompanied by double bass. This section draws

conceptually from the repeated passages seen in After Some Time with melodic focus

in the guitar part. The B section was originally marked to be repeated three times. In

performance, this section was instead repeated four times to allow smoother

transitions into other sections. Additionally, the alto saxophonist often chose to enter

here playing the guitar figure, the unison sound providing contrast to the counterpoint

of the A section.

The arrangement for the studio recording of How Did You Get This Number

experimented with dividing the ensemble into duos for improvised sections. The form

of the piece was not significantly modified. It opens with the written material from the

A and B sections before leading into duo improvisations on the A section, firstly from

alto saxophone and drums followed by guitar and double bass. Then the whole

ensemble enters performing a group improvisation on the A section, before the B

section is repeated four times to close the piece. Duo improvisations do not feature in

any of the other pieces written for this project. This feature differentiates the piece
143

from the way the group normally functions, providing a dramatic change in timbre

and space for one-to-one interaction.


144
145

Figure 39 - Who Wore It Better


146

Who Wore It Better

Who Wore It Better was written midway through the research process; a number of

performances had been given presenting the new compositions, two transcriptions had

been completed, and a fieldtrip to New York provided new information through

interviews and witnessing Zooid performances. At this point, there was still

considerable research to complete before developing a deep understanding of

Threadgill’s approach and the concepts behind this music. As such, this is the last of

the pieces utilising only the techniques discovered in early research: motivic melody,

counterpoint accompaniment, shifts of melodic focus, and repeated figures.

The composition is divided into three sections. The A section contains an extended

melodic passage from the alto saxophone accompanied by guitar and double bass

counterpoint. The B section switches melodic focus to a repeated guitar figure

accompanied by alto saxophone and double bass in rhythmic unison, before the C

section returns melodic focus to the alto saxophone for the remaining three bars of the

piece. As with the previous compositions the harmonic notation is used in a similar

way, taking three notes from the written material that approximates the harmony of

each bar. This harmonic notation style was used in all of the remaining pieces. The

sheet music includes hand written harmony notation, as the piece was brought to

rehearsal without these markings. The harmonic information was only given for the A

section as the B and C sections were not intended to be used for solos.

Form modification again featured in later performances of Who Wore It Better. In the

Smith’s performance, the written material from bars 4 and 5 open the piece as a
147

repeated figure from guitar and double bass. The alto saxophone enters with the

written material of bar 4 before leading directly to bar 1 where the written material is

performed until bar 7. The A section from bar 8 to 15 is used as the form for guitar

and alto saxophone solos, followed by a double bass solo on bars 1 to 5. The alto

saxophone plays the written material in bar 5 to signal the end of the bass solo and the

remaining written material is played from bar 6 to close the performance.


148
149

Figure 40 - 2,2,3,4,-6
150

2,2,3,4,-6

2,2,3,4,-6 investigates Threadgill’s intervallic system. The title refers to the interval

set this composition is based on: a minor and a major 2nd, a major 3rd, perfect 4th and a

minor 6th. The written material is constructed using these intervals, exploring how this

approach can generate new melodic shapes. Despite this focus on intervallic

relationships, the overall piece is largely conceived as a feature for drums. Short

motifs from alto saxophone, guitar and double bass have been sparsely positioned

through the A and B sections to allow drums to improvise around them. The

remaining C section contrasts this, featuring a counterpoint figure between alto

saxophone, guitar and double bass varied five times.

As this piece was composed later in the project, form modification was used but not

significantly explored. For instance, the studio recording begins with the written

material from the C section followed by the A and B sections. The alto saxophone

then solos on the A section before a guitar solo using the B section. The harmonic

notation written in these sections occurs every two or three bars in contrast to the

previous pieces where harmony is provided every bar. This spacing allows an

improvised harmony to occur between the written harmony, the idea being that

accompanying players would create additional harmonic movements by devising a

series of notes using the intervals from the interval set that led towards the next

written harmony. Soloists were also encouraged to use the interval set to inform their

improvising. This flexible approach to harmony created unusual and unexpected pitch

groups, and a sense of instability between the written harmonies. Significantly, close

attention was required within the ensemble for meaningful improvisations to occur.
151

Following the solos, the opening configuration of the written material, the C section

followed by the A and B sections, was performed to close the piece.


152
153

Figure 41 - Boreanaz
154

Boreanaz

The impetus for Boreanaz came from the sequence of notes contained in the first bar.

This sequence in descending major 2nds, G, F, E-flat, D-flat, B, A and G, is distributed

between the alto saxophone, guitar and double bass parts, and displaced by octaves

between the instruments. The sequence is broken with the final double bass note of

the bar, an F-sharp. While this passage does not use Threadgill’s concepts directly, it

draws from the restricted intervallic approach seen in Polymorph. This passage was

extended to produce the final E section of the piece, again drawing loosely from

Threadgill’s long meter concept. In the E section, the notes that appeared in bar 1

remain in the same order but have been elongated and varied rhythmically.

The remainder of the composition alternates melodic focus between guitar and alto

saxophone. The B section features a repeated guitar figure accompanied by double

bass counterpoint, before the alto saxophone enters with a motivic melody leading

into the C section. Bar 10 and 11 shift melodic focus back to the guitar before the alto

saxophone returns to the melody at the D section. The last bar of the D section

contains no written material, allowing drums to lead into the elongated sequence in

the E section.

As a later composition in this project, the form of Boreanaz was only modified

slightly in the various performance iterations. This was due in large part to the

ensemble having less time to become familiar with the material. The modified version

can be heard in the Smith’s recording that begins with a drum improvisation

preceding the ensemble entry of the E section written material until bar 19. The A and
155

B section written material follows, before guitar and double bass solos are performed

on the C and D sections. The written material of the C and D sections then close the

performance. A feature of this performance that had also occurred in solos of earlier

performances was an inclusion of part of the written material in improvisations, the

guitar and double bass figure in the second half of bar 11. This practice provided a

regular marker in the repetition of the C and D sections when soloing. The figure both

oriented the ensemble to the form and presented a melodic statement that could be

used to enhance an improvisation.


156
157

Figure 42 - Termeil
158

Termeil

This composition was inspired by a campground on the New South Wales south

coast. The opening tremolo chord is written to mimic the sound of cicadas in this

coastal reserve; an all-encompassing crescendo occurs as the insects’ sound

transitions through the bushland. Following this introduction, a slow and languid

melody enters with melodic focus shifting between all three pitched instruments. A

sparse alto saxophone melody begins the B section accompanied by guitar and double

bass counterpoint. In bar 4 the melodic focus shifts to double bass, then to guitar in

bar 5, before the alto saxophone enters at the end of this bar to continue with the

melody. The piece continues largely with an alto saxophone melodic focus deviating

occasionally to the other instruments. Bar 11 and 12 contain a double bass melody

accompanied by alto saxophone and guitar counterpoint, while bar 15 and 16 include

melodic motifs interspersed between the guitar and double bass.

As with 2,2,3,4,-6 and Boreanaz, this piece did not undergo multiple rearrangements.

The arrangement featured on the studio recording served for all performances of this

composition. This performance begins with the written material as printed: a

sustained crescendo and rapid decrescendo of the tremolo A section before the alto

saxophone melody marks the entry of the metered written material in the B, C and D

sections. Solos follow, a double bass solo on the B section, alto saxophone on the C

section and guitar on the D section. The written material returns starting at the B

section and ending abruptly at bar 9, representing the end of a summer holiday.

This change of solo form for each instrument is also present in the transcribed Zooid
159

pieces, where Threadgill’s arrangements draw from very different sections for solos.

For instance in To Undertake My Corners Open, trombone solos on a modified A

section, guitar on a shortened B section, and flute on the C and D sections. In Slow

Code performances, this variation provided each soloist a contrasting harmonic area

to work within.
160

Figure 43 - Windows 95
161

Windows 95

The introduction to Windows 95 contains the foundational material for the piece. In

the first bar, the guitar plays a rapidly moving figure consisting of semiquaver and

quintuplet semiquaver groupings of different combinations of four notes: G, E-flat, D

and A. Accompanied by counterpoint from double bass and a written drum part, the

guitar line finishes on a B-flat in bar 2, leaving double bass and drums to end the

section.

The alto saxophone enters in the B section with a melody in rhythmic unison with the

guitar, mimicking sections of To Undertake My Corners Open in particular. The alto

saxophone and guitar parts move independently, often in contrary motion, avoiding

any sense of parallel harmony between the two. Meanwhile, the double bass part

features a counterpoint line interspersed between the melody. A drum part has been

included in the score to indicate a pattern that fits with the guitar and double bass

parts in the A section. The continuation of the drum part through the B section is a

suggested rhythmic feel from which the drummer is free to depart.

As this was the last composition written for this project, performance and

rearrangement opportunities were limited. This meant that Windows 95 was not

significantly rearranged; the Smith’s recording shows the extent of this. The piece

opens with the written material of A section, with the alto saxophone added playing

the guitar part in unison. The written material of the B section is played twice before

solos. The alto saxophone performs a solo on the B section in long meter, before

guitar and double bass perform solos on the same section, this time in regular meter.
162

The written material of the B section is then played twice before the A section

concludes the performance.

Taken as a whole, these compositions represent a creative response to Threadgill’s

music discussed in this project. Presented chronologically, increasing comprehension

of Threadgill’s approach is evident in the pieces and the way they have been

performed over the research period. With little information other than Zooid’s

commercial recordings and published interviews, early attempts including Mixed

Business and Tribulation approximated and adapted a number of Threadgill’s

concepts. Approaches towards harmonic notation, melody and counterpoint were

developed in this period and remained in use relatively unchanged in later

compositions. As research progressed, other concepts were experimented with.

2,2,3,4,-6 explored an intervallic approach in melody, harmony and improvisation,

while Termeil featured multiple configurations of melodic focus and accompaniment

within the ensemble. Subsequent compositions also allowed the use of creative

devices not identified in Zooid’s music including duo improvisation and improvised

harmony.

One reflection that occurred to the author at the end of this project was that the

harmonic notation adopted from Threadgill’s practice filled a desire for less triad-

based harmony found in his compositions previously. In prior creative works, the

author attempt to modify existing chord notation to describe an unusual harmony and

resulting in convoluted chord symbols such as Bsus4(maj7) and D-(maj7)/E.

Threadgill’s notation allows these harmonies to described more concisely by reducing

each to three pitches. In this system, similar harmonies could be written as (B E A#)
163

and (E F C#). A significant result of this project has been an expansion of the types of

harmonic structures available to the author when composing, expanding upon the

overly complex chord notation found in his previous works.

The performative approach of the author also experienced significant adjustment.

Various aspects of these compositions led to changes in improvising, accompanying

and the author’s approach to leading the ensemble. As previously mentioned, the use

of Threadgill’s harmonic notation opened up new and unusual harmonic groupings

that prompted the development of an improvisational style less centred around

chord/scale relationships, a practice the author had used extensively up to this project.

The melodies contained in these compositions tried to build upon the melodic and

contrapuntal features observed in Zooid. What resulted was a set of rhythmically

complex pieces distinct from that of the author’s prior output. In rehearsal, Slow Code

spent a significant amount of time learning to play this written material, developing a

feel for the way the various parts fit together and an approach to shaping each

composition as a whole. For the author, the melodies would act as a framing device,

setting the mood and character for subsequent improvised passages. In particular, the

contrapuntal nature of these compositions inspired a similar approach when

improvising. When accompanying or soloing, the author looked for opportunities to

play around and between the other members in the ensemble to recreate a similar

contrapuntal feel.

The author’s practice as a bandleader also developed. Along with the logistical and

interpersonal skills every bandleader must develop, the process involved in presenting

and developing new concepts in untried compositions with this ensemble were
164

challenging. A contributing factor was the slowly developing understanding of

Threadgill’s concepts over the course of this project. Composing started in the early

stages of research, without the aid of many significant discoveries to come. This level

of understanding led to experimentation becoming a key practice in rehearsal.

Through the process of rehearsing, certain concepts were adjusted or abandoned and

replaced to allow our performances to function. As previously mentioned, one early

practice in Mixed Business involved improvising without the aid of any chord

notation, relying instead on the written material provided in the score. It quickly

became clear that the written material on the score was too complex to comprehend

quickly enough for effective improvisation in this ensemble. Prompting from other

ensemble members led to the author’s decision to add Threadgill’s notation system to

the piece. This provided a clearer harmonic structure for improvisations and a base

from which to further develop performances of this and the other compositions.

Challenges also arose in the application of other practices. Form modification was

used in all the compositions presented here and posed difficulties for the group in

maintaining group cohesion in performance. As mentioned previously, Threadgill’s

ensemble members mentioned that they no longer write down new arrangements for

Zooid compositions. This practice did not work well for Slow Code. While not

beyond any member, the experience needed for this kind of memorisation has not

been developed as yet. As a group, it was decided that new arrangements must be

written down at this stage. Different suggestions were voiced, including removable

post-it notes, but the author decided it was simpler for each player to inscribe the

arrangement on their sheet music.


165

In 2,2,3,4,-6, an interval set was introduced as concept for improvising. As mentioned

previously, the soloist was directed to improvise using only the intervals contained in

the interval set. In rehearsal, ensemble members expressed that they felt too confined

by this intervallic restriction. The solution to this problem came from the author’s

interview with Ellman where he explained that the soloist in a Zooid performance can

be less strict with using the interval set. This approach allowed soloists in Slow Code

space to deviate from the interval set, using the intervallic material as a suggestion

rather than a rule.

Indeed, many of the creative solutions developed by the ensemble for the

compositions presented here arose during rehearsals. The process of developing new

arrangements for compositions began as preconceived ideas brought to rehearsal.

Often these preconceived arrangements would undergo additional changes; as the

group would initially attempt to perform an arrangement, other more enticing

arrangement options would become apparent to the author or ensemble musicians.

These new ideas, uncovered in the process of rehearsal, would sometimes be

musically unappealing but more often than not would become part of the next

performance of the composition. This practice of trial and error created a dynamic

atmosphere in rehearsals where creative suggestions from all participants were

welcome and encouraged. This exploratory approach is in part inspired by the

descriptions of Threadgill’s leadership in rehearsal from Ellman and Hoffman.11

Initial research aims included furthering the author’s creative practice through the

creation and performance of new works that explore rather than replicate Threadgill’s

11
See pg. 64 for further discussion of Threadgill’s rehearsal practice.
166

work with Zooid. Additionally, it was stated that the success of this project lay in the

artistic merit of the creative output. It is suggested that this project has satisfied both

of these statements. Continuous composition and performance throughout the

research period has allowed a new creative practice approach to emerge with Slow

Code through an exploratory process of applying Threadgill’s concepts. Importantly,

the author has been artistically challenged by the project and the open and creative

atmosphere that was created by the ensemble.


167

Conclusion

The impetus for this project came from the author’s difficulties in comprehending the

music of Henry Threadgill’s Zooid while at the same time experiencing a fascination

and attraction to its unique sound. As a practicing musician, this project’s initial aims

were to investigate Henry Threadgill’s music for Zooid from a creative perspective,

determining idiosyncratic concepts and techniques and furthering the author’s creative

practice through application of these concepts and techniques in the creation and

performance of new compositions. A secondary aim emerged in production of the

literature review where it became apparent that there is little research concerning

Threadgill, a prolific and award-winning musician.

The primary aims of this project were achieved through a number of processes. Initial

information regarding Threadgill’s approach for Zooid came from numerous

published articles and interviews, as well as fieldwork interviews conducted with

members of his ensembles including Brandon Ross, Liberty Ellman, Christopher

Hoffman and Jose Davila. These sources, as well as a limited amount of related

research literature, enabled the completion and analysis of transcriptions of three

Zooid pieces: After Some Time, Polymorph and To Undertake My Corners Open. An

understanding of the idiosyncratic concepts and techniques that have been developed

for Henry Threadgill’s Zooid emerged through this process.

Threadgill’s concepts and techniques for Zooid identified in this project enabled new

approaches to composition and improvisation. It was also determined that these


168

practices contribute greatly to the mysterious and ambiguous nature of this music.

With source material supplied by Ellman and Hoffman the harmonic and structural

elements could be determined in the transcribed scores. Threadgill’s practice of form

modification produces elaborate rearrangements of his compositions, greatly

obscuring the original material used by the ensemble. Metrically complex, time

signatures in Zooid compositions frequently change from bar to bar (this is

compounded by directions for the drums to perform in an alternate sequence of time

signatures). Harmony in Zooid is not derived from triadic structures, instead note

groupings stemming from the intersecting written material form the harmonic

progressions. The movement of individual parts in the written material is directed by

interval sets, a collection of intervallic material itself derived from an inversion

process. Rhythmically, instrumental parts are frequently displaced creating a dense

counterpoint within the music and further obscuring the atonal harmonic progression.

In solo sections the improvisations performed by the ensemble preserve features of

the written material. In particular, an improvised counterpoint practice has developed

within the ensemble. Together these practices make comprehending the mechanics of

this music without reference to Threadgill’s scores extremely difficult. Fortunately for

this project some of this material was sourced.

The creative component of this project extended throughout the study. The creation

and performance of new compositions throughout the research period allowed

exploration of, and experimentation with, the findings. Additionally, Slow Code

adapted many of these practices to allow for effective performance in the ensemble.

This enabled a related yet individual musical approach to develop in Slow Code.
169

The research has produced a clearer understanding of the musical practice of Zooid

and identified idiomatic concepts and techniques that are applicable to the author’s

creative practice. Application of these practices has occurred in the composition and

performance of new pieces. For the author, this creative output has been both

creatively stimulating and satisfying. In support of the author’s view, audience

members were also positive with their feedback. Canberra Jazz stated,

[Slow Code] was highly rich in harmony and dissonance, fleet of foot with
change and improvisation, highly interactive with guides but also glances … It
was a stunningly inventive and difficult but satisfying exploration of rhythm
and harmony and interplay. (Pozza 2017)

Additionally, the project has identified a number of areas for further research. A

deeper study of Zooid, in particular aspects that were beyond the scope of this study

such as the role of the drums and the rhythmic approach of the ensemble, could

uncover further innovative features and provide a more complete picture of

Threadgill’s approach to counterpoint. In particular, there may be a rhythmic system

of organisation within this music coexisting with the harmonic system mentioned

previously and generating the complex counterpoint between the Zooid instruments.

Also worthy of further exploration are the concepts used in the creative component of

this project. There are more opportunities to creatively investigate Threadgill’s

approach to harmony, counterpoint and, in particular, form modification. As an

approach, form modification opens a significant amount of possibilities for the

performance of individual compositions and the techniques used in rearrangement.

One concept worthy of further application is Threadgill’s intervallic system. Aspects


170

of this system were used in 2,2,3,4,-6 but not thoroughly explored elsewhere.

Additional investigation of how this system can be used in composition and

improvisation could reveal new creative practices.

Similarly, the development of ensemble practice of Slow Code was deemed to be

beyond the scope of this project. As a result, the reflections contained in Chapter 4 are

restricted to observations about the author’s compositional performative approach.

Further study of the performance development of the creative works, including

reflections of the other members of the ensemble and the use of transcribed excerpts

from the performance recordings could reveal additional aspects of Slow Code’s

practice and other directions for creative development.

Threadgill’s earlier output remains largely neglected in the literature. His work as a

composer spans over 40 years. The music of his earlier ensembles, previously

mentioned, is wide-ranging and experimental. Each of these ensembles are worthy of

individual investigation as they all present contrasting phases of Threadgill’s music

making. An entire survey could reveal fascinating aspects of the evolution of this

forward thinking musician.

The research presented here is one view of Threadgill’s extraordinary ensemble. It is

hoped that this inspires a greater appreciation of the unique creative output of this

innovative composer and performer.


171

Appendix 1 – Transcriptions

The following sections contain the transcriptions of After Some Time, Polymorph and

To Undertake My Corners Open produced for this study. There are two separate

scores included for each piece. The first is a written material score that was used in

Chapter 3 for analysis of Threadgill’s compositional style. These scores have been

derived from written material determined in the transcriptions and, as previously

stated, are an approximate representation of the pre-composed scores used in Zooid.

The second is a full transcription of selected recordings taken from the Zooid albums

This Brings Us To Vol. 1 and This Brings Us To Vol. 2.

All scores have been annotated with Threadgill’s harmonic information. The harmony

and interval set information have been included above each system, while the duration

for each harmony has been indicated with dashed lines dividing each bar. In

Threadgill’s original scores, harmony duration is written as a numeral under each

harmony. Dashed lines were used in this context to make harmony durations clearly

evident in the scores.

Other annotations appear in the full transcription scores. Written material and solo

sections have been indicated in boxed text. Some bars in long meter were too long to

fit comfortably on one system and were split across two, indicated with [split bar].

Occasionally, sections of transcriptions did not match to the forms indicated in the

guitar and cello parts. This may be due to irregularities occurring within the ensemble

in performance, or could just as likely be caused by errors in the transcription process.

To account for this some bars have been shortened and marked as [irregular bar].
172

Appendix 1.1: After Some Time transcriptions

After Some Time


(written material score)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)
(-233446)
A CA
__ EA FA EA
__
œ œ œ œ œ œ
__ __
6 œ #œ ≈ Œ 7
G# C E Eb

& 4 ‰™ r ‰™ R J ‰ 4
Alto
œ œ
6 7
Gtr. &4 Ó j ‰ ≈ j j ‰ ‰ ≈ r 4
œ œ™ œ œ
œ œ™ œ bœ
Bass
? 46 Ó J ‰ ≈ J J ‰ ‰ ≈ R 7
4
? 46 ‰ ™ r j ‰ ‰™ r œj ‰ œ ‰ ≈ bœ œ 7
4
Tba.
œ #œ œ J
(223345-7)
BEb

œ œJ ‰
FA BbC EbGb
œ b œ nœ œ™
__ __ __ ___

2
7 6
D A Bb F

&4 Ó J ‰ ‰™ nœ 4
Alto
R
7 j j 6
&4 ‰ j r ‰ r ‰ bœ œ ‰ Œ bœ ‰ 4
3
Gtr.
œ œ œ œ œ œ
bœ œ nœ œ œ bœ
bœ œ œ œ
Bass
? 47 R ‰ R ‰ ‰ J Œ J ‰ 6
4
bœ œ œ
3
? 47 œ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œ™j bœ œ ‰™ R ‰ œ 6
4
Tba.
J J J

(22-34-677)
AF
__ F#D
__ C#A
__ BbF#
___

œ #œ #œ œ™ œ
3 F# C# G# G
6 r 4
Alto &4 ‰ J ‰ ‰™ nœ œ #œ n œ œj ‰ 4
6 r 4
Gtr. & 4 ‰™ œ œ œ œ j ‰ Œ ‰ j 4
œ #œ
œ œ œ #œ
#˙ bœ
Bass
? 46 ‰ ™ R ‰ J 4
4
? 46 #œ ‰™ œ #œ ‰ #œj ‰™ r 4
4
Tba. R œ nœ
173

FBb (223467) F#Eb FF#


__ __

___

4
4 6
Gb D C#

&4 ‰ J ‰ nœ ≈ r nœ nœ #œ 4
Alto
bœ œ J #œ
4 j j 6
&4 ‰ j bœ
‰ ‰
œ
≈ 4
œ
Gtr.
#œ œ
nœ #œ œ nœ œ
Bass
? 44 ‰ J J ‰ ‰ J ≈ 6
4
œ œ #œ
? 44 j ‰ j ‰ ≈ ‰™ R 6
4
Tba.
bœ bœ

(33+4567) AE FA
FA
nœ œ #œ #œ Œ
5 __ __ __
6 œ #œ œ ™ œ œ 5
D Bb Gb
Alto &4 Œ ‰ J ‰ 4
6 j 5
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰ j nœ œ œ
‰ 4
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
œ œ œ bœ™ œ
Bass
? 46 Œ ‰ J J ‰ 5
4
œ n œ œ bœ œ
? 46 J ‰ j ‰ ≈ œ ‰ bœ œ œ ≈ ≈ bœj™
5
4
Tba.
œ

(-2-34466)
EC#
__ CC# C#F#

≈ nœ #œ œ #œ œ œ nœ #œJ
6 __ ___
5 7
G# G C
Alto & 4 ‰ #œ #œ nœJ ‰ ‰ 4
5 ≈ #œ œ œ 47
Gtr. & 4 # œj ‰ ‰™
œ
r
œ
j ‰ Œ
œ œ #œ œ
œ
Bass
? 45 J ‰ ‰™ R J ‰ Œ ‰ 7
4
œ œ
Tba.
? 45 #œ ‰ nœJ Œ ‰ J J ‰ 7
4
174

CEb (-2-35-677) FC G#A AC C#A


7 __ __ __ __ __
7 7
F A C# C# F#
Alto & 4 ‰ bœ œ nœ ™ bœ œJ ‰ ‰ ™ œR œ nœ ™ ˙ 4
7 7
Gtr. & 4 bœj ‰ Œ ≈
nœ œ œ œ œ
‰™ nœ ≈ œ œ œ
R 4
nœ #¿
œ œ œ #œ œ #¿ ™
? 47 J ‰ Œ ≈ ‰ J ≈ J j 7
Bass #œ ‰ 4
? 47 œ ‰ œj œj ‰ ‰ j 7
4
Tba. j #œ œ™
#œ œ

B AD (-233446) GC
__ BbB
__ __ GbEb
___
7 œ nœ œ ‰ j
8
6
G# G F# D

&4 J ‰ j Œ ‰ œ œ bœ ™ 4
Alto
nœ œ bœ ™
7 œ ≈ œ ≈ ≈ œ™ œ ‰ ‰™ bœ 6
Gtr. &4 Œ J ‰ J œ
J

J J R 4
œ™ bœ™ œ bœ™ œ œ œ™
? 47 ‰ ™ œ œ ≈ J ≈ J ‰ J 6
4
Bass
R
? 47 ‰ j #œ ‰ j ‰ j ‰ j #œ ‰ 6
#œ œ nœ #œ j 4
œ
Tba.

(-23345-7 _ -23345-7)
FF#
__ F#A GbBb
___ BEb
__ EbGb

œ Œ ‰ ™ œ#œj ≈ œr nœ œ 44
9 __ ___
6 3
C# F Eb Bb F
&4 ‰ œœ ‰™ r œ Œ 4
œ R œ #œ œ œ
Alto

6 4 3
& 4 #œj ‰ ≈ œj ≈ Œ #œnœ ‰ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ 4 ‰ bœ ™ ‰ œj ‰ bœ œbœ
3
Gtr. 4
œ œ œ#œ œ nœ œ bœ
? 46 J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ J ≈ 44 #œ œ œ œ 3
Bass ≈ ≈J ≈ ‰ J 4

? 46 Œ ‰ ‰ bœJ 44 Œ j j 3
j Œ ‰

j ‰ j
œ bœ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œj 4
œ
Tba.
175

(22-34-677 22-34-677)
AF _ BbC#
___ BbEb C#E
__
œ #œ
__ ___
5 ‰ œ j #œ ‰ ™ nœR #œnœ J
D F
3 bœ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ‰
11

‰ 45
E G

&4 ‰
3
Alto J J 4 #œ œ
3 3

Gtr.
3 5
&4 œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ 4 Œ ‰ #œ œ bœJ ‰ ≈ œJ ≈ ≈ nœ œ 45
bœ œ œ œ #œ œ
Bass
? 43 bœ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈nœ bœ 45 Œ ‰ J ‰ ≈J ≈ ≈ 4
5

? 43 Œ ‰ j ‰ j ‰ 45 ‰™ r r ‰ 45
j œ œ ≈œ‰ ‰ j
3 3
Tba.
œ œ œ œ œœ

(223467)
G#A EA EbC

œ bœ nœJ
__ __ __
bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
13
5 5
E C B

Alto &4 ‰ ‰ ‰ 4
5 j j 5
Gtr. &4 ‰ œ ‰ œ Œ ‰

j ‰
œ
j 4
#œ œ™ œ œ œ bœ œ
Bass
? 45 ‰ J ≈ ‰ J J ‰ 5
4

? 45 ‰ ™ r 5
Tba. œ ‰ ‰ j ≈ j Œ 4
œ œ œ bœ™

FE (33+4567) FA
__ __ C#F

nœ nœ œ
14 __
5 4
Bb Gb D

& 4 ‰™ r œ bœ œ nœJ ‰ ‰ bœ b œ 4
œ
Alto

5 j j j 4
Gtr. &4 ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰™ r 4
œ œ
œ™ œ b œ œ œ œ
? 45 ≈ J J ‰ #œ 4
Bass ≈ ≈ 4

? 45 ‰ j j ≈ bœj™ j 4
bœ œ ‰ ≈ j ‰ œ 4
Ϫ
Tba.
176

C#A
(-2-35-677) AC
__ CEb
__ __

#œ #œ nœ œ
15 C# F
4 5
F#
Alto &4 ‰ ‰ J œ Œ 4
4 ≈ bœj™ 5
& 4 ‰™ r ≈ 4
3

œ œ
Gtr.
œ œ œ œ

Bass
? 44 Œ ‰ J 5
4
? 44 ≈ j ‰™ r j 5
Tba.
#œ ™ #œ nœj ≈
œ
r ‰ nœ 4

(-2-34466) AbG
C#F#
___ EF
__ __ GG#
__
5 bœ œ #œ Œ
16 C B Eb D

Alto & 4 bœ Œ Œ™ ‰
5
&4 Œ ‰ j ≈ nœj™ j ‰
Gtr. #œ œ nœ œ œ
bœ œ œ œ bœ™ œ œ œ
?5 ‰ J J ‰ ≈ J J
Bass 4
?5 œ j ‰ ‰ j j
4 œ œ #œ œ
bœ œ œ
Tba.
177

After Some Time


(full transcription)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)
written material
(-233446)
B AD
__ BbB GC
__ GbEb

7œ œ j D
__ ___
G#
œ ‰ ‰ j
G F#
Œ ‰ 6
Alto &4 J œ œ bœ ™ œ œ bœ ™ 4
7 ‰ œJ ≈ œJ ≈ œ ≈ œ™ œ ‰ ‰™ bœ 6
Gtr. &4 ΠJ

J J R 4
œ™ bœ™ œ bœ™ œ œ œ™
? 47 ‰ ™ œ œ ≈ J ≈ J ‰ J 6
4
Bass
R
? 47 ‰ j #œ ‰ j j j #œ 6
œ ‰ nœ ‰ ‰ j 4
Tuba #œ #œ œ
(-23345-7 -23345-7)
FF#
_ GbBb BEb
F#A EbGb
j r
__ __ ___ __ ___
6 4 ‰™ 3
2

œ œ Œ ‰ ™ œ#œ ≈ œ nœ œ
C# F Eb Bb F
&4 ‰ 4 r œ œ Œ 4
œœ R œ #œ œ
Alto

6 j ‰ ≈ j ≈ Œ #œnœ ‰ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ≈ 4 ‰ ‰ j 3
œ ‰ bœ œbœ
3
Gtr. & 4 #œ œ 4 bœ ™ 4
œ œ œ#œ œ nœ œ bœ
Bass
? 46 J ‰ J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ J ≈ 44 ≈bœnœ œ ≈ œJ ≈ ‰ J 3
4
? 46 Œ ‰ ‰ bœJ 4Œ j j 3
j Œ ‰

j ‰ j
œ 4 bœ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œj 4
œ
Tba.

(22-34-677 22-34-677)
_ BbC#
___ BbEb C#E
nœ œ #œ nœ #œJ
AF ___ __
j #œ
D
3 bœ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ
__ G F
5
4
E
&4 ‰ ‰ 4 ‰ œ#œ œ ‰™ ‰
3

Alto J J R
3 3

3 5 ‰ #œ œ bœ ‰ ≈ œJ ≈ ≈ nœ œ
Gtr. &4 œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ 4 Œ J
bœ œ œ œ #œ œ
Bass
? 43 bœ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈ nœ bœ 45 Œ ‰ J ‰ ≈J ≈ ≈
? 43 Œ j ‰ œj ‰ j ‰ 45 ‰™ r r
œ ≈œ‰ ‰ j ‰
3 3
Tba.
œ œ œ œ œœ
178

(223467) (33+4567)
G#A EA EbC FE FA C#F
nœ œ
__ __
bœ œ œ
__ __ __ __

‰ œ œ œ œbœ J ‰ ‰ ™
6

‰ bœ œnœ
E C B Bb Gb D

& ‰ œ rœbœ œ œJ ‰
œ bœ
Alto

j j
& ‰œ ‰ œ Œ ‰ j ‰ j ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰™ r
nœ œ œ
Gtr.
œ
#œ œ™œ œ œ bœ œ œ™ œ b œ œ œ œ
? ‰J J J J J #œ
Bass ≈ ‰ ‰ ≈ ‰ ≈ ≈

? ‰ ™ œr ‰ ‰ j ≈ j Œ ‰ bœj œj ‰ ≈ j™ ≈ j ‰ j
Tba.
œœ bœ œ™ œ
œ bœ™

(-2-35-677)
C#A
__ AC
__ CEb
__

#œ #œ nœ œ
F# C# F
4 5
8

Alto &4 ‰ ‰ J œ Œ 4

4 ≈ bœj™ 5
& 4 ‰™ r ≈ j j 4
3

œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr.
œ

Bass
? 44 Œ ‰ J 5
4

? 44 ≈ j ‰™ r j ≈ r ‰ j 5
#œ nœ 4
Tba.
#œ ™ nœ œ

(-2-34466)
C#F# EF AbG
__ GG#

5 bœ œ #œ Œ
9 ___
C __
B __
D
Eb
Alto & 4 bœ Œ Œ™ ‰

5 j ≈ nœj™ j
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰ #œ œ nœœ œœ œ ‰
bœ œ b œ œ™ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 45 ‰ J J ‰ ≈
J J

? 45 œ œ j ‰ ‰
œ #œ œ
bœ œ œ
Tba.
179

Alto solo 1st form (long meter)

A CA__ (-233446)
12 nœ nœ œ œ ≈ nœ œ
10 G# [split bar]
Œ Œ ‰™ r
Alto &4 nœ œ œ œ œ
3
12 Œ Œ Œ ‰
&4
œ œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr.

Bass
? 12
4 Ó Œ ˙™

? 12 r
Tba. 4 #œj ‰ ‰ nœ #œ ‰
™ r r
nœ #œ nœ #œ ≈ ≈ œ ‰ ‰™ œ

EA FA
__ EA
__ E __
j3 r
C Eb

Œ ‰™
3

Alto & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™

& œ j ‰ Œ Œ
Gtr.
œ œ œœ bœœ
œ œ œ œ
Bass
? œ™ ‰ ‰ J Œ

? œ™ œ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ™ bœ
Tba.
J J J

FA (223345-7) BbC
__ __
r
D A
14
11 [split bar]

Alto &4 Ó Œ ‰™ #œ œ œ œ œ œJ œ
3

14 r
& 4 œj ‰ Œ ‰™ œ œ œ œ Œ Œ
œ
Gtr.
œ œ œ bœ œ
Bass
? 14
4 Œ ‰ J Œ Œ

? 14
4 œJ ‰ ‰ bœ bœ ‰ ™ œ bœ œ ‰ œ
Tba. R J Ϫ
180

BEb
__ EbGb
___
bœ œ œ œ œ
Bb F

Alto & œJ ‰ Œ Œ J ‰ Œ Ó

bœ œ bœ œ
Gtr. & bœ œ Œ Œ bœ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ œ Œ
nœ œ œ œ œ #œ ™
Bass
? J ‰ Œ Ó ‰

? bœj ‰ ‰ bœR ≈ Œ œ bœ
≈ bœ œ œ ‰ ‰ œJ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ
Tba. R R R

AF (22-34-677) F#D

‰ œJ œ œ
__ __
12
12
#œ nœ
F# C# [split bar]

Alto &4 ‰ J œ Œ Œ ‰
3 3

12 j j
Gtr. &4 ≈ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ Œ
nœ œ œ œ
<#> œ #œ
Bass
? 12
4 Œ Ó Œ ‰ J

nœ œ # œ œ œ
Tba.
? 12
4 #œJ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œR ‰ ≈ œ ‰™ R

C#A BbF#

≈ œr Œ
__ ___
8
& #œ œ ≈ #œr œj ‰ nœ
G# G
Alto J Ó 4
r r #œ œ 8
& ‰™ œ ≈ œ ‰ Œ œ™ #œ ‰ 4

Gtr.

nœ bœ
Bass
? <#> ˙ Ó J ‰ ‰ J 8
4

Tba.
? œJ ‰ #œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ nœ #œ
J ‰ nœJ ‰ 8
4
181

(223467) F#Eb
FBb
__ ___ FF#
#œ œ nœ nœ
D __
8 bœ
13

bœ nœ œ bœ œ œ bœ ≈
Gb C#
Alto &4 Œ œ Ó

8
& 4 ≈ bœJ ™ Œ Œ ≈ ≈ bœj ≈ œ œ Œ ‰ ™ nœr
Gtr. bœ œ œ
<b> œ bœ œ
? 48 bœ Œ Ó ‰ œ Œ
Bass
J
#œ œ œ n œ # œJ œ #œ
Tba.
? 48 b˙ œ œ Œ ≈ ‰ ‰

FA (33+4567)

≈ bœ bœ ‰ ≈ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰
__
12
14 [split bar]
D
Alto &4 Ó Œ ‰
bœ r
3 3
12
Gtr. & 4 bœ œ ‰ œ œ Œ ≈ œ ‰ Œ œ œ œ ≈
œ œ
? 12
4 ‰ œ Œ Ó ‰ J
Bass
J
œ œ
Tba.
? 12
4 œJ ‰ ≈ œ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ ≈ œ™
J

AE
__ [split bar]
bœ bœ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ œ œ
Bb

& ≈ bœ œ
6

Alto
R œ nœ bœ
˙
3 3

Gtr. &æ Ó
œ
Bass
? Œ Ó

Tba.
? bœJ ‰ ‰
œ
J ‰™
œ
R ≈ œ œ
182

FA
__
Gb
œ bœ bœ
7

& œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ
œ bœ œ œ œ
Alto
œ
j j r
Gtr. & bœœ ‰ œœ ≈ œœ
œ œ œ
Bass
? ‰ J

? bœ ‰ œ
Tba. J

EC# (-2-34466)
__ CC#
__

10 #œ nœ nœ #œ #œ nœ nœ #œ nœ ≈ ‰ Œ
15 G# G
#œ œ ‰ Œ
3 [split bar]

&4 œ ‰™
Alto R J
10 j ‰ Œ ‰™ œ #œ j ‰ œ nœ ≈
& 4 œœ R œ #œ œ
Gtr.

œ™ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
Bass
? 10
4 J ‰ Œ

? 10 #œ ‰ ‰ œ nœ ‰ ‰ j j ‰ ‰™ r
Tba. 4 J J J nœ œ œ

(-2-35-677)
C#F#
___ CEb
__ FC
__
#œ ˙™ 14 œJ ‰
C F A [split bar]

Alto & ‰ J 4 œ œ œJ ‰ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ Œ
#œ œ#œ œ ≈ ‰ œ 14 bœ ™ œ œ™ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ™
Gtr. & Œ #œ œ 4 nœ œ œ œ
#œ œ nœ ™ œ œ œ œ œ
? ‰ J Ó 14 J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ‰ J Œ
Bass 4
œ œ # œR œ n œ #œ 14 nœ
? œj ‰ J ≈ 4 J R≈ œ œ œ œ‰ Œ
J ‰™ œœœ œ
Tba. R
183

G#A
__ AC
__ C#A
__
C# C# F#
Alto & Ó Ó Ó ‰
œ#œ
œ
nœ#œ

& Œ #œ œ œ Œ ‰ œœ œœ Œ ≈ #œœ œœ ≈ œœ ≈ ‰ œœ œœ
Gtr.
œ J
#œ œ #œ œ #œ œ
? ‰ J Œ ‰ J
œ œ
Bass

œ
Tba.
? ‰ # œJ ‰ ™ œ œ œ œ
R ≈ ≈ œ #œ œ ‰ œ œ ≈ œ œ ‰ œJ

Alto solo 2nd form

A CA
__
(-233446)
G#
12
17 [split bar]

Alto & 4 œ nœ #œ œ nœ #œ œ nœ #œ œ nœ #œ œ œ Œ
œ
Gtr.
12 Œ
&4 ‰ J Ó ≈ œr ≈ œr Œ

Bass
? 12
4 #œ ™ œ
j
œ ‰ œ
j œ ‰ nœj

? 12 œ ‰ œ ‰ ∑
Tba. 4 J J

EA FA
__ EA
__
j
__
C E Eb
Alto & Œ ‰
#œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ Œ

& ≈ œj r
≈ ‰™ œœ ≈ # œœj™™ ≈ bœj ≈ ‰
œœ
j Œ
œ œ
Gtr.

? œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ Ó
Bass J
bœ™ œ œ
Tba.
? Ó Œ ≈ J J ‰ ‰ J
184

(223345-7)
FA
__ BbC
__
14
18 D A

& 4 œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj
[split bar]
‰ Œ
6 6 6 6
Alto

14
3

Gtr. & 4 ‰ bbœœ Œ Ó ≈


bœ b œ
Œ
œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 14
4 ‰ ‰ Ó ‰ J
3 3

? 14 j j ‰ nœj ‰
Tba. 4 Ó ‰ œ ≈ bœ œ œ

BEb
__ EbGb
___
10
Bb F

& ≈œ œœœ œ œ œ™ b œj ‰ ‰ ™ r j ‰ Ó 4
œ nœ
Alto

r r œ œ œ œ 10
& ‰ ™ bœ œ œ œ œ ‰ ™ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ Œ 4
b œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr.
œ bœ œ nœ œ
? ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J 10
Bass 4

? ‰ ™ bœr ≈ œ bœ nœ œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰™ œ œœ œ bœJ ‰ ‰ œ 10
Tba. J J R J 4

[irregular bar] AF (22-34-677) F#D C#A BbF#


__
r bœ #œ œ œJ ‰ Œ
__ __ ___

œ#œ œ œ œ ™ #œ nœJ ‰ Œ
C# G
10 8
19 F# G#

Alto & 4 ‰™ œ Ó 4

10
&4 œ œ ≈œ œ Ó Ó Ó ≈#œbœ œ 8
4
bϪ
Gtr.
#œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 10
4 Ó ‰ J J ‰ Ó 8
4
#œ nœ œ
? 10 œ #œ j‰ œ 8
Tba. 4 ≈ ≈ ≈ #œ œ œ

Œ Œ œ #œ nœj ‰ 4
185

FBb (223467) FF#


F#Eb

__ ___ __
8 ‰ ™ nœr #œj ≈ œ ‰ ™ bœR Œ 12
20 Gb D C#

& 4 ‰ ≈ R ≈ bœR ‰ ‰ œ nœ nœ #œ nœ 4
Alto
R
8 bœ œ ‰ ‰ ™ œnœ#œ ≈ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ™j nœ œ 12
Gtr. &4 Œ bœ J #œ 4
bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ™ œ

Bass
? 48 ‰ J J ‰ Œ ≈ J J ‰ 12
4
œ # œ #œ œbœ œ œ nœ œ
b œ
? 48 J ‰ ‰ ™ R œ ‰ ‰ J ‰ ‰™ R ≈ ‰ J œ 12
Tba.
J 4
3

FA (33+4567) AE FA
r bœ
__ __

__
12 ‰bœJ ≈ j 10
21 D Bb Gb
Alto & 4 œJ ‰ Œ ‰™ œ œ ‰ ≈ J Œ ∑
Ϫ 4
3

12
& 4 ‰ ™ œr œ œ™ Œ ‰ ™ nœR œ œ œ Œ bœnœ Œ ‰ œœj Œ Œ ≈ œj™ 10
4
#œ ™
œ œ œ™ œ œ
Gtr.

œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ bœ
Bass
? 12
4 ‰J J‰ ‰ J ≈J ‰ J Œ 10
4
œ bœ œ œ œ
? 12
4 œ œ ‰ œJ ‰™ œR Œ ‰ œ ≈ J ≈ J ‰ œ ≈ J ≈≈nœ œ bœJ ‰ œJ ≈ R 10
4
Tba.
J

(-2-34466)
EC#
__ CC# C#F#
__ ___
10
22

G# G C
Alto &4 Œ œ œnœ œj ‰ J ‰ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ#œ Ó
j
3
10
Gtr. &4 Ó #nœœ œœ œœ ≈ œœ œœ ≈ Œ ≈ œœ ™™ Ó
#œ œ
‰ ‰™ œ
R
œœ #œ ™ œ œ œ nœ
Bass
? 10
4 ‰J ‰ œj œ j
≈#œ ™ œ ≈J ≈ Œ

? 10 #œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ
Tba. 4 J ‰ J ‰ #œ Œ ‰™ r ™
nœ ‰
R ≈ J ≈ ‰™ R ≈ œ œ
186

nœ œ
(-2-35-677)
CEb FC
nœ ™ œ [split bar]
__ __
14
23
J J
F A

Alto &4 Ó ‰ ‰ ≈ J J ‰

Gtr.
14
&4 œ œ ‰ Œ œ œ œ Œ ≈ œ œ œj ‰
œ œ œ™ œ #œ ™ œ œ
Bass
? 14
4 ‰ J ≈ J ≈ J

œ r œ œ œ œ
Tba.
? 14
4 nœJ ≈ œR ≈ bœ œ nœ J ≈ nœ œ ≈ œ J ‰

G#A
__ AC
__ C#A
__
#œ œ
ŠϪj
C# C# F#

& ‰ J ‰ ‰ œ #œ ‰ Œ Ó
Alto J J
œ
3

Gtr. & ≈ œ#œ œ ≈ nœ#œ œ Œ œnœ bœ œ Ó Œ ‰ J


œ#œ ™ œ œ œ™ œ3 œ œœœ œ
? ≈J ‰ j
Bass #œ œ
#œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ
Tba.
? ≈ J ≈J ‰ J ≈R ≈ J ‰ J ≈ R ≈ œ#œ

Guitar solo 1st Form (long meter)

B AD
__
(-233446) BbB
__
14
24
G# G [split bar]
Alto &4 Ú

14 œœ œ œ œ#œ
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰ ‰ J Œ Œ Œ ≈ #œ nœ œ
œ œ
? 14
4 ‰ j ‰ j Œ ‰ j Ó Œ
Bass #œ œ œ

? 14 #œ
4 J ‰ ‰
œ ≈ nœ ≈ #œ ≈ nœ œ œ ≈ #œ ≈ œ ‰ ™ #œ nœ œ ≈ bœ bœ œ
Tba. J R R R R R
187

GC
__ GbEb
F# ___
D
Alto & ∑

& œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ œ Œ
n œ b œ œ œ nœ bœ œ bœ
Gtr.
œ #œ ™ nœ œ œ #œ ™
Bass
? J Ó
#œ œ #œ nœ bœ œ œ bœ œ
? #œ ‰ J ‰ ‰™ R ≈ ‰ J ≈
Tba. J

(-23345-7
FF#
__ _
12
25 [split bar]
C#
Alto &4 ∑

12
& 4 ≈ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ
Gtr.

Bass
? 12
4 Œ ‰ J Ó

? 12 bœ
Tba. 4 b˙ œ™ œ œ

F#A GbBb
___
__
8
F Eb
Alto & Ú 4
j
& ‰ ≈n#œœœœœœœœœŒ ‰ ≈ œœœr œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœr ≈ œœœœœœ œœœr ≈nbœœ œœ ≈ bœœ ™™ 8
4
œ œ
Gtr.
œ# œ œ n œ œ
? Œ ≈ Ó Ó 8
Bass 4

œ
? œ
J ‰ œj ‰ ‰ bœj ≈ œ œ ‰ #œJ ≈ œR ≈ R #œ ‰ œ œ œ 48
Tba.
J
188

BEb -23345-7)
__ EbGb
___
8 6
26
Bb F
Alto &4 Ú 4
8 ‰ œb6œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ 6
Gtr. &4 nœ#œ œ œnœbœ œbœ œ œbœ ≈ œ œbœ nœ œnœ œbœnœ œ 4
#œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ
Bass
? 48 ‰ ™ R Œ ‰ J Œ 6
4

? 48 #œ ™ nœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ nœbœ 6
Tba. J ‰ J nœ 4

(22-34-677
AF
__ _
6 10
27
E
Alto &4 ∑ 4

6
&4 Œ b œ nnœœ œœ œœ ≈ œœ œœ œœ ≈ œR œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 10
4
Gtr.
J R
? 46 œ œ 10
4
˙ œ œ œ
Bass

œ œ œ œ œ #œ ™
? 46 œ ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ J 10
4
Tba. J

BbC# 22-34-677) BbEb C#E


___ ___ __
10
28
D G F
Alto &4 ∑

10 œœ bœ œ œ bœ
& 4 œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ≈
# œ nœ œ œnœ
œœ
b œ œ œ™
Gtr.

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ
Bass
? 10
4 ‰ J ‰ J Œ Œ ‰ J Œ ‰ J
nœ ™ œ œJ ‰ ‰ bœJ ≈# œ œ œ œ ≈ œ ‰ œ ≈ œ ≈ œbœ œ œ
? 10
4 ‰ nœ
Tba. J R J J J
189

(223467)
29 G#A
__
E
EA
__
C [split bar]

Alto & ∑

nœ œ #œ œ bœ œ
Gtr. & œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ #œ bœ œ nœ
œ œ™ œ œ bœ™
Bass
? ≈ J ‰ J ‰ J ≈ J Œ
b œ œ bœ n œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? œ ‰ ≈ J ≈ R ≈
Tba. J #œ

EbC
__
B
Alto & ∑

Gtr. & ≈ nbœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ



œœ œœ œœ œœ n œœ œœ
bœ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? J J J ‰

? ™ œ œ œ
Tba. nœ ‰ bœ œ bœ ≈

FE (33+4567) FA
30 __ __ C#F
__
Bb Gb D
Alto & ∑

nœœœœœœœœœœœœ ‰≈œœœœœœ≈œœœœœœ≈œœœœœœ œœ œœœ ™™™ œ œ œ#œ œ


Gtr. & ≈ J ‰ ™ œR œœœ
œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ
? œ J J ‰ ‰ J ≈J ≈J J ‰ # œ ‰ œJ
Bass J

? bœJ ‰ Œ Ó ‰
œ
J ≈ nœ œ bœJ ‰ œnœ œ œ # œ
Tba.
190

(-2-35-677)
C#A
__
8
31 [split bar]
F#
Alto &4 ∑

8 œ bœ œ ‰ bœ
bœ œ nœ bœ œ œ #œ
Gtr. & 4 #œ Œ
#œ œ œ œ
6 6

Bass
? 48 ‰ J Œ
#œ œ nœ #œ #œ #œ
? 48 #œ ‰ J ‰ Œ
Tba. J
6 6

AC
__ CEb
10
C# __
F
Alto & ∑ 4
b œ nœ nœ nœ œ œ n œ b œ n œ b œ œ bœ
nœ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ nœ bœ 10
4
3
Gtr. &
œ
6
œ 6
œ nœ œ 6

? ‰ J Œ 10
Bass 4
bœ n œ nœ
? ‰ œ ≈ ‰ bœ 10
Tba.
J J 4

(-2-34466) AbG
C#F# EF __ GG#
10
32 ___ __ __
C B Eb D
Alto &4 ∑

10 œ œ#œ ≈ Œ ≈##œœ œœ œœ ‰ ‰ ™ nnœœR œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ ‰ ™ œœ œœ œœœœ ™™
n œ œ œ œ™
Gtr. &4 J J R
#œ œ œ œ œœ
œ bœbœ œ œ nœ
3

Bass
? 10
4 Œ J ‰ J J ‰ ≈R ‰ ≈
3

Tba.
? 10
4 œ œ ‰ œœ‰ Œ ≈ œ #œ ‰ œ œ bœ
J J ‰ œ œ œJ ‰ œ œ œ œ
191

Guitar solo 2nd form

AD (-233446)
B __ BbB
__
14
33 [split bar]
G# G
Alto &4 Ú
nœ œ
Gtr.
14
&4 Œ ≈ œ ‰™ RŒ ‰ œnœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œnœbœ œbœbœ œ
nœ œ œ bœ œ œ
5 5

Bass
? 14
4 J ‰ ‰ J ‰ J Œ Œ ‰ J J ‰

nœnœ œ bœ nœ
#œ nœ ™ #œ ‰ nœ#œ ≈ bœ bœ œ œ
Tba.
? 14
4 ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R ≈ R nœ

GC
__ GbEb
F# ___
D
Alto & ∑

nœ œ œ
Gtr. & œ #œ bœ nœ # œ #œ #œ #œ nœ #œ œ #œ nœ nœ nœ bœ œ bœ nœ œ
? ≈ #œ œ ˙
Bass
#œ œ œ œ
#œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ nœ
Tba.
? #œ Œ ‰™ R

(-23345-7
FF#
__ _
12
34 [split bar]
C#
Alto &4 ∑

12
& 4 nœ nœ nœ ‰™ r #œ œ
Gtr.
œ™ œ #œ œ
nœ ™ œ #œ œ œ
Bass
? 12
4 ‰ ‰
J
J ‰
J
J

#œ bœ nœ
? 12 nœ œ nœ nœ œ #œ œ œ bœ
Tba. 4
192

F#A GbBb
___
__
F Eb
8
Alto & Ú 4
<#>œ #œ bœ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ bœœ ™™ ‰ ™ œœ 8
& #œ ≈ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ b œ™ œ 4
J R
Gtr.

œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? Œ ‰
J
J 8
Bass 4

œ ≈ œ nœ ≈ ≈ nœ bœ œ bœ bœ
? #œ
J ‰ œ #œ ≈ œj™ nœ ™ ‰ œ 8
4
Tba. J

BEb -23345-7)
__ EbGb
___
8 6
35
Bb F
Alto &4 Ú 4
8 <b>œ 6
& 4<b><b> œœJ ‰ bœ œ ‰ ™ rœ œ nœb œb œ nœ œœ œ nœ nœb œ œ œ 4
bœ œ nœbœnœ bœ œ
Gtr.

œ œ
? 48 œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ bœ 6
Bass ‰ J œ 4
#œ nœ bœ
? 48 #œ nœ œ œ œ œ 6
Tba. ‰ #œj ≈ #œ nœ 4

(22-34-677 22-34-677)
AF
__
_ BbC#
___
6 10
36 [split bar]
E D
Alto &4 ∑ 4 ∑
6 œœœœœœœ œ œœ œœ 10 œœ
& 4 Œ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ ≈ œœ œœ œœ ≈ R œ 4
œ œœ œœ œ œ œœ
œ œ
J R
Gtr.

bœ œ œ œ
? 46 10
4 ‰ J ‰ J
Bass
n˙ ™ œ œ œ œ b œ œ
˙ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ™ # œ œ™ bœ œ œ œ œ œ
? 46 ‰™ R ≈œ‰ ‰ J 10
4 ≈
Tba. R
193

BbEb
___ C#E
__
G F
Alto & ∑

œ #œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ
Gtr. &
#œ #œ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ
œ
<b> œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ
Bass
? J ‰

? œ ‰ œ bœ bœ
Tba. J œ ˙

(223467)
38 G#A
__ EA
__ EbC
__
E C

B
8
Alto & 4
j œœœœ œ œœ œœ j
Gtr. & œ œ œœ œ œ Œ ‰ ™ œR
≈ œœ ™™ ‰ œ ‰ ≈ œ#œ œ 48
œ nœ œ
œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
3
œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
? ‰ J 8
Bass 4

? nœ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ
R ‰ œr nœ ™ œ
œ™ œ 8
≈ ≈œ ≈ b œ 4
Tba. #œ œ

[irregular bar] (33+4567)


FE
__ FA
__ C#F
__
8
39
Bb Gb D
Alto &4 Ú

8 j j r r b œ nœbœ
& 4 œ ‰ #œ œ bœ ≈ ≈ œœ ™™ œ ‰ bœR ‰ œ ≈ Œ ≈ œœœ™™ ‰ œ

J
Gtr.
œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 6œ
Bass
? 48 bœJ J ‰ J ‰ J

? 48 bœ ™ œ ‰ j œ nœ Œ ‰ œJ ≈ bœ œ œ
Tba. bœ œ bœ œ
194

(-2-35-677)
C#A
__
40 [split bar]
F#
Alto & ∑

œ #œ #œ n œ #œ #œ nœ nœ œ
#œ #œ #œ nœ œ œ
Gtr. & œ

Bass
? #œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ

? #˙ œ ‰ nœ ™ #œ
Tba. J

AC
__ CEb
C# __
F
Alto & ∑
bœ bœ
œ œ # œ n œ #œ nœ œ œ nœ #œ nœ œ #œ nœ
Gtr. &
œ œ œ
?<#> œ
#œ œ œ
Bass

nœ nœ bœ œ bœ
? #œ
œ œ
Tba. ≈ ≈

(-2-34466)
C#F#
___
10
41
C [split bar]
Alto &4 ∑

10 #œ #œ #œ nœ #œ bœ ≈ #œR
Gtr. &4 nœ #œ nœ #œ #œ œ œ
J
nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 10
4
˙ œ œ™ #œ
Tba.
? 10
4 J ‰
195

EF AbG
__ GG#
__
B Eb __
D
Alto & ∑

<#>œ #œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œœ œœ œœ œœ™™ œœ œœ œœ œœ


Gtr. & #œ œ œ œ œ
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

Bass
?

œ bœ œ œ œ
Tba.
? œ

Guitar solo 3rd form

AD (-233446)
B __ BbB
__
14
42 G# G [split bar]
Alto &4 Ú
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œœ œœ œœ
14 ‰™ R ≈ œ œ ≈ R ‰ J ≈ ≈ J ‰
Gtr. &4 J
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™
œ
Bass
? 14
4 J ‰ ≈J ‰ J

? 14 #œ œœ #œ nœ œ ≈ bœ bœ œ
Tba. 4 Œ ≈ œ œ ≈Œ ‰™ R

GC
__ GbEb
F# ___
D
Alto & ∑
#œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ #œ n œ nœ œ œ # œœ ™™ œœ œœ œœ œœ
Gtr. & ≈ #œ ≈ #œ n œ œ #œ ≈ œ™ œ œ œ œ
œ
Bass
? J #œ ™ ≈ ¿J ™ ¿ ˙

? #œ ‰ œ #œ œ œ
Tba.
#œ œ™ œ
196

(-23345-7
FF#
__ _
12
43
C# [split bar]
Alto &4 ∑
# œœ #œ ™ #œ ™
#œ ™ œ œ œ #œ ™
12 #œ
Gtr. &4 ‰ J Œ

Bass
? 12
4 #w

#œ nœ ™ œ nœ œ
? 12 #œ nœ #œ
Tba. 4 #œ

F#A GbBb
___
__
8
F Eb
Alto & Ú 4

nœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ b œ œ œ œ 8
& ‰™ R ‰™ œ œ ‰ ™ bœ œ œ œ ‰ ™ R ≈ J ≈ bœR œ œ œ 4
Gtr.
R R
? <#>œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ™ ‰ œJ œ 8
Bass œ 4
nœ bœ bœ
? ‰ #œ ™ œ 8
Tba. Ó ‰ nœJ œJ ≈ R J ‰ 4

-23345-7)
BEb
__ EbGb
___
8 6
44
Bb F
Alto &4 Ú 4
bœ œ œ bœ œ bœbœbœ œ
8 bœ ‰ ‰ œ œœ œ ≈bœR œJ ‰ ‰
œ œ bœ bœ
nœ œ œ œ œ 6
Gtr. &4 J J nœ# œ nœ 4
6
3

? 48 bœ ‰
œ œ™
≈J
œ œ™
‰ J ≈J Œ ‰ j 6
4
Bass
œ œ œ
3
œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ
Tba.
? 48 bœ œœ‰ ‰ œœ Œ ‰
œ
J ≈ 6
4
3
197

(22-34-677
AF
__ _
6 10
45
E
Alto &4 ∑ 4
6 r œ œ œ™ œ œ n œ œ 10
Gtr. & 4 œ bœ œ œ bœ nœ œ œ bœ ‰ R 4
œ
? 46 j 10
4
œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass

nœ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ
? 46 ≈ ≈ nœ bœ œ ≈ œ ≈ bœ ™ 10
4
Tba.
œ J

BbC# 22-34-677) BbEb C#E


___ ___ __
10
46
D G F
Alto &4 ∑
Ÿ (Ab) Ÿj(Ab) Ÿ (Eb) Ÿ (G#)
bœ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ nœ#œ
b œj ˙ #œ œ ‰ ≈b œ
10 ≈ œ
œ ™™
&4 J
bœ œ œ œ™ # œ œ™
Gtr.

œ #œ œ œ œ™ œ bœ
Bass
? 10
4 ‰ J Œ J

? 10 j bœ œ nœ œ œ nœ
Tba. 4 nœ ™ bœ œ œ ™ œ nœ ™ ‰ Œ œ #œ

(223467)
47 G#A
__ EA
__ [split bar]
E C
Alto & ∑
nœ bœ nœ œ
nœ nœ nœ bœ nœ bœ œ #œ ≈ r
Gtr. & nœ n œ # œ n œ n œj œ bœ œ bœ œ
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ
Bass
?
œ œ
nœ œ ™ œ œJ œ
? œ œ #œ ‰ ≈ ‰
Tba. bœ œ
198

EbC
__
8
B
Alto & ∑ 4
nœ œ œ™ 8
& œ bœ nœ bœ nœ bœ ≈ ‰ n œœ œœ œœ™™ 4
Gtr.
œ J
bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? J ‰ 8
Bass 4

? Œ #œ 8
Tba. nœ œ œ™ œ œ 4

[irregular bar]
FE (33+4567) FA
__ __ C#F
__
8
48
Bb Gb D
Alto &4 Ú
8 œ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ ™ #nœœ œœ œœ
Gtr. & 4 œœ™™ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ™™ œœ œœ œœ œœ bœœ ™™ œœ™™ #œ œ œ
nœ ™
œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ bœ™ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 48 ‰ J

Tba.
? 48 bœ œ œ™ œ œ ‰ ‰ œJ ≈ bœJ ™ œ™ bœ œ œ œ

C#A (-2-35-677) AC
__ __ CEb
__
10
49
F# C# F
Alto & Ú 4
bœ œ
œ œ ™ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ 10 ≈#œœœ ™™ œœœ™™™
& <#><#>œœ##œœ ™™ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ J 4

Gtr. J
œ œ œ œ
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ™ œ 10
Bass
? 4
bœ bœ bœ bœ
nœ #œ #œ œ #œ 10
? ‰ #œ œ œ ‰™ R ≈ 4
Tba. J
199

(-2-34466) AbG
C#F#
___ EF
__ __ GG#
__
10 6
50
C B Eb D
Alto &4 ∑ 4
œ ™ œ#œ #œ ™ œ œnœnœ
#œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œbœ œ
10 J ≈J #œ J ‰ Œ 6
Gtr. &4 ≈ #œ œ
ΠŠ4

nœ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œœ
#œ œ
? 10 œ 6
Bass 4 4
n˙ œ œ bœ nœ nœ œ bœ
? 10
4 R ‰™ bœ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œ™nœ 6
4
Tba. J J J
written material w/o Alto

CA (-233446) EA
A __ EA
__ FA
__ __
6 7
51
G# C E Eb
Alto &4 ∑ 4
6 #œ nœ œ nœ #œ nœ nœ bœ œj ‰ j
ŠϪ
j
œ ‰ ‰
r
≈ œ 47
Gtr. &4
#œ œ
? 46 Œ Œ nœ œ œ 7
4
Bass J J
? 46 ‰ ™ r ‰™ r ‰ nœJ ≈ bœR œJ 7
Tba. #œ œ œ œ 4

(223345-7) (22-34-677)
FA BbC BEb
__ EbGb AF F#D C#A BbF#
__ __ ___ __ __ __ ___
7 6 4
52 D A Bb F F# C# G# G
Alto &4 ∑ 4 ∑ 4
7 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰bœ œ ‰ œ Œ bœJ ‰ 6 ‰ ™ œR œ œ œ j
œ‰Œ ‰ bœj 44
Gtr. &4 J 4

3
bœ ™ nœ œ œ ™ œ œ œ#œ
#œ ™ œ bœ 4
Bass
? 47 Œ œ œ ≈ J ≈ J Œ J ‰ 46 ‰ J J J‰ 4

? 47 œ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œJ ™ bœ œ ‰ ™ œR œ œ ‰ œ 46 #œ ‰ ™ œR #œ ‰ #œJ ‰ ™ œR œJ ‰ 44
Tba.
J J J
200

(223467) (33+4567)
FBb
__ F#Eb FF#
__ FA AE
__ FA
__
___ __
4 6 5
54
Gb D C# D Bb Gb
Alto &4 ∑ 4 ∑ 4
4 bœ œ j nœ œ œ
Gtr. & 4 ‰ bœJ J ‰ ‰ J ≈#œ œ 46 Œ œ œ ‰ œ J ‰ œ™ œ 45
nœ#œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ™ œ
Bass
? 44 ‰ J J ‰ ‰ J ≈ 6
4Œ ‰ J J ‰ 5
4
œ # œ 6 œ œ œJ œ # œ bœ œ œ
? 44 bœ ‰ j ‰ ‰ J ‰ ™ R4 ‰ ≈ œ ‰ bœ œ ‰ ≈bœj™ 45
Tba. J bœ

(-2-34466) (-2-35-677)
EC#
__ CC# C#F# CEb FC G#A
__ AC
__ C#A
__
G# __ ___ __ __
5 7 6
56 G C F A C# C# F#
Alto &4 ∑ 4 ∑ 4
nœ œ œ œ
Gtr.
5
& 4 #œJ ‰ ‰ ™ œR œJ ‰ Œ ≈#œ œ œ 47 bœJ ‰ Œ ≈nœ œ œ œœ‰ R ≈
™ J ‰ 46
œœ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ ™ œ
œ
Bass
? 45 ‰™ R J ‰ Œ ≈ 7
4J‰Œ ≈ ‰ J ≈ J J ‰ 46

nœ œ
? 45 #œ ‰ œJ Œ ‰J 7
4 œJ ‰ ‰ œj Œ ‰ j 6
4
Tba.
œ™ #œ œ™
written material

A CA
(-233446)
EA FA EA
__ __
œ œ œ œ œ œJ
__ __
6 7
58
œ #œ ≈ Œ
G# C E Eb
& 4 ‰™ r ‰™ R ‰ 4
Alto œ œ
6 7
&4 Ó j ‰ ≈ j j ‰ ‰ ≈ r 4
œ œ™ œ œ
Gtr.

nœ œ™ œ bœ
Bass
? 46 Ó J ‰ ≈ J J ‰ ‰ ≈ R 7
4

? 46 ‰ ™ r j ‰ ‰™ r œj ‰ œ ‰ ≈ bœ œ 7
4
Tba. œ #œ œ J
201

œ œJ ‰
(223345-7) BEb
b œ nœ ___
FA BbC EbGb
œ
__ __ __
7 bœ œ™ 6
59 D A Bb F

&4 Ó J ‰ ‰™ nœ 4
Alto R
7 j j 6
&4 ‰ j r ‰ r ‰ bœ œ ‰ Œ bœ ‰ 4
3
Gtr.
œ œ œ œ œ œ

bœ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ
Bass
? 47 R ‰ R ‰ ‰ J Œ J ‰ 6
4
3

? 47 œ ‰ bœ œ œ œ 46
‰ œ ≈ œ™j bœ œ ‰™ R ‰ J
Tba.
J J

(223467)
(22-34-677)
AF
__ F#D
__ C#A
__ BbF# FBb
__ F#Eb FF#
__
___ ___

6 ‰ œ#œ #œ œ™ œJ ‰ ‰™ r #œ
F# C# G# G Gb D C#
4 ‰ bœJ ‰ bœ nœJ ≈ r nœ nœ#œ 46
60

Alto &4 nœ œ#œn œ œj ‰ 4 œ #œ


6 r ‰ j 44 ‰ j bœj ‰ ‰ œj 6
& 4 ‰™ œ œ œ œ j‰ Œ ≈ 4
œ œ
Gtr.
#œ #œ œ
œ œ œ #œ nœ #œ œ nœ œ
? 46 ‰ ™ R #˙ bœ
Bass ‰ J 44 ‰J J‰ ‰ J ≈ 6
4
œœ #œ 6
Tba.
? 46 #œ ‰ ™ œR#œ ‰#œj ‰ ™ œr nœ 4 j‰ j‰ ≈
4 bœ b œ ‰™ R4

(33+4567) AE FA
FA
nœ œ #œ #œ Œ
__ __ __
6 5
62

œ #œ œ ™ œ œ
D Bb Gb

Alto &4 Œ ‰ J ‰ 4
6 j 5
&4 Œ ‰ j nœ œ œ ‰ 4
œ œ œ œ™ œ
Gtr.

œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ™ œ
Bass
? 46 Œ ‰ J J ‰ 5
4
œ nœ
? 46 J ‰ j ‰ ≈ œ œ bœ œ ‰ bœ œ œ ≈ ≈ bœj™
5
4
Tba.
œ
202

(-2-34466)
EC#
__ CC# C#F#
__ ___
5 ≈ nœ #œ œ #œ œ œ nœ #œJ 7
63 G# G C

Alto & 4 ‰ #œ #œ nœJ ‰ ‰ 4


5 ‰ ‰™ ‰ Œ ≈ #œ œ œ 47
Gtr. & 4 # œj œ
r
œ
j
œ œ #œ œ
œ
Bass
? 45 J ‰ ‰™ R J ‰ Œ ‰ 7
4
œ œ
Tba.
? 45 #œ ‰ nœJ Œ ‰ J J ‰ 7
4

(-2-35-677)
CEb FC G#A
__ AC
__ C#A
__
#œ ™ œ
rubato ending
__ __
7 4˙
64 F A C# C# F#

Alto & 4 ‰ bœ œ nœ ™ bœ œJ ‰ ‰ ™ œR œnœ ™ ˙ 4 ¿

7 4w
Gtr. & 4 bœj ‰ Œ ≈
nœ œ œ œ œ
‰ ™ nœR ≈ œ œ œ 4
nœ œ œ œ # œ œ #¿ #¿ ™
Bass
? 47 J ‰ Œ ≈ ‰ J ≈ J #œj ‰ 44 ∑

? 47 œ ‰ œj œj ‰ 4
j ‰ #œj œ™ 4œ Œ Ó
#œ œ
Tba.

<#>˙ ™
66

Alto & Œ Ó Œ œ œ™ w

& ≈œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ
#œ #œ œ
#œ #œ œ ˙
Gtr.

#œ œ #œ œ œœœœ œ
? Ó #œ œ œ#œ œ œ œ #œ
Bass ΠJ J
3 3 3

? œ#œ œ ™ œ ™ œ #œ œœ œœ Œ
Tba. #œ œ œ J bw
203

69

& Ó
œ œ™ œ w
Alto

& Ó Œ ‰ #œ ˙
Gtr. J
<#> ˙
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

Bass
? ≈ R ≈ R ≈

? Œ Œ
œ bœ™ ˙ œ b˙
Tba.

71

Alto & ∑ ∑

Gtr. & ∑ ∑
#œ œ œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ #¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

Bass
? Ó

?
<b> w w
Tba.
204

Appendix 1.2: Polymorph transcriptions

Polymorph
(written material score)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)

(22-3 22-3)
CDb
_ BbC
1 __ BC
__ __ BbB
__
A
5 j 3
Bb Bb Ab 3

& ‰™ Œ 4 ‰ œ™ œ ‰ ‰ bœ 4 Ó ‰ bœ œ
3
Alto œ
5 ‰ œ 43 ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰
Guitar & ‰™ Œ 4 ‰ ≈bœR œ ‰ œ œ
J J J J
œ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ
? ‰™ 5 3
Bass Œ 4Œ ≈ Œ 4 ‰ J J ‰
3

?
b œ ‰ ™ nœr 45 bœj ‰ ‰ j Œ ‰ 3
j j‰ 4 ‰ j
Tuba
bœnœ
bœ nœ œ bœ bœ nœ bœ œ

(223345-7) DF# FGb (-2334466)


F#A __
j
__
r 4
3 __ C
2
F C#
Alto & bœ ™ ‰ ‰™ œ 4 bœ œ œ ˙ œ ‰ 4
j
Gtr. & ‰ œ œ #œ
4‰
4 ≈ bœr œ ‰ œj Œ 2
4
œ bœ œ œ œ œ™
? ‰ J 4Œ ≈ J 2
Bass 4 4
? ‰ ‰ 4 ‰ ‰™ 2
j 4 r 4
3
Tba.

œ œ œ œ
bœ œ bœ™
FD (-2356677) AC (223347) G#A
__ __ __
œ bœJ
5
2 3 3
& 4 ≈ œ œ bœ nœJ 4 ≈ œ œ ‰™
E G# F#
Alto ‰ R
‰ 4
2 3 j 3
Gtr. &4 ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ 4 œ œ™ œ 4
œ œ œ œ œ œ™ bœ™ œ
3 3

Bass
? 42 ‰ ‰ 3
4 J 3
4
3 3

? 42 j ‰ ‰ j 3
4‰ j ≈ bœj™ j ‰ 3
4
Tba.
œ œ bœ œ
205

(2245667)
7 2 DB
__ EbC
__
(-24566-7) C#D#
___
(223347) CEb
__
3 2 3
Eb D C B

&4 ‰ j Œ 4 4 ‰ œj œj ‰
bœ ‰
3

bœ nœ bœ
Alto
œ ˙
3 2 œ 43 ‰ #œ œ ™ œ
&4 Œ œ ‰ œ ‰
J J 4 Ϫ J J J
œ
Gtr.

˙ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ
Bass
? 43 Π2
4
3
4 ‰ ‰ J
? 43 j ‰ ‰ j ‰
2 3
Tba.
bœ j 4 ‰ 4 j ≈ r
œ œ œ
œ œ œ™ œ

(224566-7) (22-367) (-2445-6)


BC DG
__ 3 DbC DAb
10 __ __ __
≈ bœr œ œ bœ j 42 ‰
E F# B G
Alto & ‰ ‰
œ
j
nœ œ œ œ bœ

& œJ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œj™ 2
4 ‰ œJ bœ
Gtr.
J
bœ nœ œ œ œ
nœ ™ bœ bœ
? ≈ J 2‰ J
Bass 4
? ‰ 2
3

‰ j ‰ 4 j ‰ ‰ ≈
3 3 3

œ œ
Tba.

œ œ œ œ bœ œ

(224566-7) (22334-67) (233457) (223345-7)


EC# DF# EbF#
œ
__ BbF# __ ___
D
12 ___ Eb
4
Eb G
Alto & ‰ ≈ œr j ‰ bœ ‰ bœ bœ J ‰ Œ 4
œ
bœ œ™ bœ œ™
3

4
Gtr. & b˙ ‰ J ≈ J ‰ J ≈ J 4
bœ œ œ bœ™
nœ nœ ™ œ
? ‰ J ‰ J ≈ R ‰ ‰ J ≈ J 4
Bass 4
? ‰ j ‰ j ≈ ‰ j ‰ ‰ 4
bœ œ
j j

j 4
œ
Tba.
œ™ bœ
206

(22-345-67) (2456677)
4 BbA EbAb EA DC#
__ ___ __ __
#œ œ œ œ
G C
œ bœ œ
15 C# F#
4
& 4 ‰ ™ œR œ™ ‰™ R Œ œ 3
Alto 4

4
&4 Œ ‰ bœ œ bœj ‰ œ #œ nœ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ bœ 3
4
#œ ™ #œ
Gtr.

?4 j j #œ ‰ ‰ ™ œ 3
4 œ™ ‰™ œ™ ≈ #œ ™ Œ J r 4
Bass
#œ œ
?4 ‰™ ≈ j Œ j ‰ ‰ ‰ 3
4 œ™ j #œ j j 4
œ™ #œ ™
Tba.

#œ œ
(223467) (-2356677)
GAb AC# FD
__
F#D
œ œ
__ __ __ C#
r nœ ™
17 Eb G# F
3
& 4 ‰™ bœ œ Œ ‰ #œ œ œ J ‰ 3
Alto 4

Gtr.
3
& 4<b>œ #œ #œ ™ nœ #œ œJ ‰ Œ œ™ #œ 43

?3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ 3
Bass 4 4
3 3 3 3 3 3

?3 j ‰ ‰ j ‰ j ‰ ‰ 3
4 bœ bœ 4
œ œ nœ œ
Tba.

nœ ™

(223345-7) (-2-3+4566)
AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
19 5 __ bœ œ œ œbœ E
__ __ __ __
F G C Bb
3
& 4 ‰™
œ œ #œ ‰™ œ 44 ≈ J ≈ ≈ ≈ bœ ™ Œ 5
Alto R J R J 4
œ bœ
3
3
& 4 nœ ¿ ¿ ‰ œ ¿ ¿ 44 ‰ #œ œ ‰ ‰ œJ ‰ bœJ
5
Gtr.
J J J 4

? 3 ≈ bœJ ™ œ œ 4 ææ˙ œ œ œ b œJ 5
Bass 4 æ 4 ‰ 4

?3 ‰
4 j ‰ bœj œj ‰ 4
4 Œ Œ œ#œ 45
Tba.
œ œ
Ϫ
207

(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb CDb GbAb DF C#F
nœ œb œ œ
__ __ ___ __ __
œ œ #œ ˙™
21 D G F E C
5 J Œ
Alto &4 ‰ ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ‰™ R
5 r r r j ‰ bœJ œJ ‰ bœ ™ œ ‰ œj ‰ œj ˙ææ
Gtr. & 4 ≈bœ ‰ œ ≈≈œ œ ‰
bœ œ™
nœ ™ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ™ # œ œ
Bass
? 45 ‰ J ≈J ≈J J ‰ n˙

? 45 œ ≈ ≈ œ ≈ œ ‰ ≈œ‰ ≈ œr ≈ œr ≈ œr ‰ ≈ ≈ ‰™ r ‰ ≈ j
R R R R œœ œ œj
Tba.

œ™ œ
208

Polymorph
(full transcription)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)

written material (22-3 22-3)


CDb
_ BC BbB
BbC
1 __
Bb
__
Bb __
A
__
Ab
5 j ‰ ‰ 3 bœ 3
3

Alto & 4 ‰™ Œ ‰ œ™ œ œ 4 Ó ‰ bœ œ

5
& 4 ‰™ Œ ‰ ≈bœR œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ 43 ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰
Gtr.
J J J J
œ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ
? 5 ‰™ Œ Œ ≈ J Œ 3 J J ‰
Bass 4 4 ‰
?5 r j 3
3

Tba. 4 bœnœbœ ‰™ nœ bœ ‰ ‰ j Œ ‰ j j‰ 4 ‰ j
bœ nœ œ bœ bœ nœ bœ œ
(223345-7) (-2334466) (-2356677)
F#A DF#
__ FGb FD
__ __ __
j
F C# C E
r4
3

Alto & bœ ™ ‰ ‰™ œ 4 bœ œ œ ˙ œ ‰ 42 ≈ œ œ #œ œJ ‰ 43
j 4 ‰ ≈bœr œ ‰ œj Œ 2 ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ 43
Gtr. & ‰ œ œ #œ 4 4
œ #œ œ œ œ™ œ3 œ 3œ œ
œ
? ‰ J 4Œ ≈J 2 ‰ ‰ 3
Bass 4 4 4
? ‰ ‰ 4 ‰ ‰™ 2 j ‰ ‰ j 43
3 3

j 4 r4
3

nœ œ œ
Tba.

œ œ œ #œ nœ bœ™
(223347) AC G#A DB (2245667) EbC (-24566-7)
__ __ 2 __ __
G# F# Eb D
œ bœJ ‰
6
3 œ
& 4 ≈ nœ ‰ ™ ‰ j Œ
2 3
nœ 4 4
3
Alto
R #œ œ n˙
œ
3 j 2 œ 43
Gtr. &4 œ œ™ œ Œ œ ‰ œ ‰
J J 4 Ϫ J
œ œ™ #œ ™ œ ˙ bœ œ œ œ
?3 J Π2 3
Bass 4 4 4
?3 ‰ j 2 3
Tba. 4 #œ ≈ #œj™ œ
j ‰

j ‰ ‰ j ‰ j 4 ‰ 4
œ œ œ™
209

(22-367) (-2445-6)
C#D# (223347) CEb BC (224566-7) DG
__ DbC DAb
9 ___
C __
B __
E F# 3 __
B __
G
3 ‰ j j‰ ≈ r œ œ #œ ‰ j 42 ‰ j
& 4 #œ ‰ œ œ

bœ œ œ œ œ n œ bœ

Alto

3
& 4 ‰ #œJ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œj™ 42 ‰ œ bœ
Gtr.
J J J
nœ #œ œ œ œ œ
œ™ bœ bœ
Bass
? 43 ‰ # œ n œ œ ‰ J J ≈ J 2
4‰ J
3

? 43 2
j ≈ r ‰ ‰ j ‰ 4 j‰ ‰ ≈
3 3 3

œ œ
Tba.
œœ œ œ
œ œ œœ bœ œ
(224566-7) (22334-67)
EC#
__ BbF#
12 Eb ___
G

& ‰ ≈ r j ‰ ‰ bœ nœ
Alto
œ #œ
œ
#œ œ™
3

& #˙ ‰ J ≈ J
bœ œ
Gtr.

nœ nœ ™ œ
Bass
? ‰ J ‰ J ≈ R ‰

? ‰ j ‰ j ≈ ‰
Tba.
bœ œ j j
œ™ #œ
(233457) (223345-7) (233457) (223345-7)
DF#
__ EbF# DF#
__ EbF#
œ
14 Eb ___
D Eb ___
D
3
Alto & J ‰ Œ Œ Œ 4
#œ œ™ #œ œ™ 3
Gtr. & ‰ J ≈ J ‰ J ≈ J 4
œ bœ™ œ bœ™
? ‰ J ≈ J ‰ J ≈ J 3
Bass 4

? j ‰ ‰ j ‰ ‰ 3

j

j 4
œ œ
Tba.
210

(2245667) (-24566-7)
DB EbC
2
16
__
Eb __
D
3
&4 ‰ Œ 2 3
j nœ 4 4
3

#œ œ n˙
Alto
œ
3 2 3
Gtr. &4 Œ œ
J
‰ œ
J
‰ 4 œ™ œ
J 4
˙ bœ œ œ
?3 Œ 2 ‰ 3
Bass 4 4 4
3

?3 j ‰ ‰ ‰ 2 3
Tba. 4bœ j j 4 ‰ j j ‰ 4
nœ œ œ œ
(223347) (224566-7)
C#D# CEb BC DG
__
18 ___
C __
B __
E F#
3 j j r œ nœ #œ 2
&4 #œ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰™ ‰ j 4
3
Alto
#œ #œ œ
3
&4 ‰

J
œ ‰ œ
J œ
J ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œj™ 2
4
Gtr.
J
œ™ œ
#œ œ œ™
?3 ‰ J Œ J ≈ J 2
Bass 4 4

? 3 ‰™ ‰ ‰ ‰ 2
4 r j 4
3 3

œ œ
Tba.
œ
œ œ œ œ œ
(22-367) (-2445-6) (224566-7) (22334-67)
3 DbC DAb EC#
__ BbF#
20 __
B __
G Eb ___
G
2
& 4 ‰ nœj œ ‰™ r ‰ bœ bœ
Alto
œ n œ b œ œ j ‰ bœ
œ
j #œ
≈ œJ
3

Gtr.
2
& 4 ‰ œJ bœ ‰ #˙ ‰ J

bœ œ
bœ bœ nœ nœ ™ œ
?2 ‰ J ‰ J ‰ J ≈ R ‰
Bass 4

?2 j ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰
Tba. 4 j bœ
j
œ
j j ‰ ‰ j
œ bœ #œ œ
211

DF# (233457) EbF# (223345-7)


b œ n œ b œ #œ
__
œ
___
nœ nœ
Eb D

23
10
Alto & J ≈ nœ nœ ® 4
#œ œ™ 10
& ‰ J ≈ J 4
œ bœ™
Gtr.

? ‰ J ≈ J 10
Bass 4

? j ‰ ‰ 10

j 4
œ
Tba.

Tuba solo 1st form (long meter)


(22-3
CDb
_
__ BC BbC
1
24 Bb __
Bb
__
A
10 ∑ 6
Alto &4 4
10 bw r
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰œœœ œ œ œ œ ‰™ œ 46

˙o ™
3

? 10 6
Bass 4 b˙ ˙œ Œ œ 4
œ œnœ ™ œ ™ b œ œ œbœ ™ bœnœ ™
? 10 b œ#œ œ œ#œ ‰ Œ ‰ 6
Tba. 4 bœ œ œnœ œ œ 4
3

22-3)
BbB
__
25 Ab
6 ∑
Alto &4
6
Gtr. & 4 œ œ œ bœJ nœ œ œ
J
‰ Ó

? 46 ‰ #œ œ œ œ œJ
3

Bass
˙ ˙
bϪ
3 3

? 46 œJ ‰ ‰ #œ nœ b œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ nœ
Tba. J ‰ ‰
3 3 3
212

(regular meter)
F#A (223345-7) DF#
__ FGb (-2334466)
26 __
F C# __
C

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
4 ‰ ™ nœr œ œ œ
Gtr. & #œ ™ œ ˙ œœ œ œ
œ œ œ 4 œ bœ ™ œ
œ
r
Bass
? ˙ ‰ ™ #œ #œ œ™ ‰ 44 n˙ ™™ ‰

? œ œnœ œJ ≈ œnœ œ#œ œ #œ œ œ ™ nœ 44 œ ™ bœ œbœ œbœ ™œ Œ


Tba. R J
3 3

(long meter) (223347)


FD (-2356677) AC
__ G#A
__
28 __
E G# F#

∑ 6 ∑
Alto & 4

Gtr. & Ó ‰ œJ œ œ œ 46 œ™ œ œ™ œ œ™ œ œ Ó

? 6 #œ œ œ œ#œ
3

Bass
w
4˙ #œ ™ J
? ‰ ™ #œnœ#œnœ œ œ œ™ œ œ 6 œ #œ œ œ œ
4 ‰ ™ #œR œ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ
Tba.
R

(2245667) (-24566-7)
2 DB
__ EbC
30 Eb __
D

∑ 4 ∑ 6
Alto & 4 4
r 4Œ œ ˙ 6
Gtr. & ‰™ œ œœ œ ˙ œ Œ 4 bœ 4
n ˙o ™
? œ™ œ œ bœ ™ œ™ 4 bœ 6
Bass
J 4 4
n œ œ nœ
? <#>œ# œ
œ 4 ‰™ nœr œ œ œ 6
œ bœ ˙ Œ

Tba. 4 œ 4
213

C#D# (223347) CEb BC (224566-7) DG


__
32 ___
C __
B __
E F#
6 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto &4 4
6 #œ œ œ œœ˙ ‰ ™ œR #œJ œ œ 4
Gtr. & 4 ‰™ RR J Œ Ó œ ™ nœ œ œ 4
3

? 46 ˙ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ#œ œ
3
4
4
˙ œ œ œ ˙
Bass

nœ œ
? 46 ≈ œ#œ#œ œ#œ œ œ œ Œ ≈nœ ≈ ‰ ™ bœ nœ œ ≈#œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ 44
Tba.
R J R 3

(22-367) (-2445-6) (224566-7)


3 DbC DAb EC#
__
34 __
B __
G Eb
4 ∑ ∑
Alto &4
4
Gtr. & 4 œ™ bœ œ œ bœ ™ nœ œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ Œ
œ™ œ œ b˙ œœo
3
? 44 J J œ b˙ œ ‰™ R
Bass J

œ bœ œ œ œ œbœ nœ œ
Tba.
? 44 œ J ≈
œ œ
‰ ™ #œR R ≈ ≈ R œ nœ ‰ ≈ œbœ œ ≈
3

(22334-67) (233457) (223345-7)


BbF# DF#
__ EbF#
36 ___
G Eb ___
D

∑ ∑ 10
Alto & 4
r #œ Œ #œ œ ™ œ œ ™ œœ œ œ 10
Gtr. & ‰™ #œ œ œ œœ ‰™ R 4
o œ
œ™ œ œ#œ œbœ ™ œ œ#œ œ œ
œ
3

? œ ‰ œ ≈J ≈ ≈œœ 10
4
Bass
J

Tba.
? ≈ œbœ ≈ ≈ œ œ#œ#œnœ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ 10
#œ œ 4
214

Tuba solo 2nd form (22-3


CDb
_
__ BC BbC
1
38 Bb __
Bb
__
A
10 ∑ 6
Alto &4 4
10 j j r 6
& 4 b˙ ‰ #œœ ≈ œœ ™™
3

Gtr. ‰™ nœœ œœ œœ œœ bœœ ™™œœ œœ ˙˙ 4


? 10 œ œ b˙ œ œo ˙ 6
Bass 4 #˙ œ 4
r bœ œbœnœ ≈ Œ n œ bœ
Tba.
? 10
4 bœnœ ™bœ œ ‰ ‰™ nœ œ œbœ œ™œ œ œnœ œ ‰ ™ œR œ ≈ Œ 46

22-3)
BbB
__
39 Ab
6 ∑
Alto &4
6
& 4 ≈ bœ nœ bœ nœ bœ ‰™ œ nœ bœ
R
nœ ˙ nœ
Gtr.

Bass
? 46
bœ ™ œ
j
˙ ‰ œ œ bœ œ œ
b œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ
3 3

? 46 Œ œ nœ œ
Tba. ≈
3 3 3 3

(223345-7) (-2334466) (regular meter)


F#A DF#
__ FGb
40 __
F C# __
C

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
#œ œ œ œ 4 œ œ ™ œ ‰ Œ ‰ bœ œ
Gtr. & ≈ œ œ œ œ™ œ Œ ‰™ R 4 J
3

? œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 44 nœ ™
3 3
j
œ œ™™ r

Bass
3 3 3

? œ #œ œ œ nœ œ œ
3

œ#œ ™ ˙ 4 ˙™ Œ
Tba. 4
3 3
215

(long meter)
FD AC (223347) G#A
42 __ (-2356677)
E
__
G#
__
F#

∑ 6 ∑
Alto & 4
<b>œ œ œ œ™ œ 46 ˙
Gtr. & J ‰ ‰ J nœ
≈œœ œ œ ≈œ œœœ ‰

? 6 bœ
3

4˙ œ œ
3
Bass
w #œ ™ œ œœ
œ™ bœ œ œ #œnœ œ ™ œ
Tba.
? œœ Œ ≈ 6
4 Œ Œ Œ ≈ #œ œ

(2245667)
2 DB
__
44 Eb

∑ 4
Alto & 4
4
Gtr. & ≈ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ ‰ œ
ææJ
œ
ææ
œ ‰
ææJ 4
? <b>œ ™ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4
Bass
J 4

? œJ ‰ ≈
œ bœ
œ Œ ≈ œ bœ œ nœ œ 4
Tba.
œ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ 4

(-24566-7) (223347)
EbC
__ C#D#
___ CEb
__
45 D C B
4 ∑ 6 ∑
Alto &4 4
œ
4
& 4 ‰ ™ œr bœ œ™ œ Œ
6
4≈ œ Ó ≈#œ#œbœ œ ‰ œnœ
Gtr.

œo œ™ œ
bœ 6œ #œ nœ œ
3

? 44 œ ™ J J 4
Bass nœ œ
œ#œ œ œ œœ
? 44 b
‰ Œ ≈ œbœnœ 4œ 6 ≈ ‰ R R ‰ #œ œ nœ ˙
œ™#œ œ œ R
Tba. ™
3
3
216

BC DG
47 __
E
(224566-7) __
F# 3 DbC
__
B
(22-367) DAb
__
G
(-2445-6)

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
bœ 4 ‰ ™ œ œ œ bœ ™
Gtr. & ‰ ™ R ‰ œJ œ ‰ œœ œ œ
nœ n œ 4 R bœ œ ‰

j j
3
? 4 ™

Bass
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ #œ œ œ
4 œ œ œ ™ nœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œbœ
Tba.
? œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ™ #œ œ ™ ‰ 44 ‰
3 3 3

(224566-7) (22334-67)
EC#
__ BbF#
49 Eb ___
G

Alto & ∑ ∑
#œ 3 #œ œ
Gtr. & b#˙˙ ‰ ‰ J ‰ œ nœ ‰ #œ œ ≈ Œ ≈œœ œ
3

? bœ œ œ
3
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ J

n œ #œ œ
Bass J

? œbœ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œnœ#œnœ œ ‰ ‰ ™ # œR ≈ œbœ ≈#œnœ Œ


3

Tba. ≈ œ œœœœ
3
6 3

(233457) (223345-7)
DF#
__ EbF#
51 Eb ___
D

Alto & ∑

#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr. &
b œ ™™ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? bœ œ œ œ
3

? œ œ™ œ
œ ≈ œ ≈ bœR ≈ #œR ≈ nœR ≈ #œR ≈ R
Tba.
R
217

Tuba solo 3rd form (22-3


CDb
_
BC
521 __
Bb __
Bb
10
[split bar]
Alto &4 ∑ Ó

10 #œ bœ ≈
&4 R ‰ ‰ r ‰™ ‰ ≈
3
Gtr. R bœ œ œ œœœœœ œœ
? 10 r j bœ œ œ
Bass 4 œ œ ≈ œ ‰ J J ‰ Œ

œ œ bœ œ œ œœ œ
Tba.
? 10
4 ≈ Œ ≈ R ‰ ≈ R ‰ ≈ ‰ ≈ œ ≈
3

BbC
__
A
6
Alto & Ó Ó 4

& œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œr ‰ ™ ‰ ‰ r 46
3
Gtr.

? Ó 6
Bass ˙ 4

œ œ œ bœ nœ ‰ ™ nœ œ bœ œ bœ œ nœ 6
Tba.
? ≈ ‰™ R 4

22-3)
BbB
__
53 Ab
6 ∑
Alto &4
6 œ bœ nœ
& 4 bœr ≈ œ ‰ Ó ‰ ≈ nœ
6

œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr.
3

? 46 œ œ
Bass bœ ™ œ Œ Ó ‰ J
? 46 ‰ r r ‰ ™ nœr nœ bœ bœ bœ nœ œ bœ œ œ™
œ œ ≈ Œ
3
Tba.
218

F#A (223345-7) DF#


__
54 __
F C#

∑ 4
Alto & 4
#œ r 4
& ≈ œ œ ‰ ≈ #œ œ r ‰ ™ Œ ≈ œ œ ‰™ 4
3

œ
Gtr.

? ˙ j ‰ bœ ‰ 4
Bass œ œ™ 4

Tba.
? #œ ™ nœ bœ nœ ™ Œ ‰
œ nœ #œ nœ
#œ œ œ 4
4
3
6

(-2334466) (regular meter) (-2356677) (long meter)


FGb
__ FD
__
55 C E
4 ∑ ∑ 6
Alto &4 4
4 ‰ œJ œJ œ œ œ3 6
& 4 ≈ bœ œ œ œ œ Ó
3
Gtr.
œ J œ 4
? 44 ˙ Œ ‰ ææj 6
4
œ wæ
Bass æ

Tba.
? 44 œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ ™ œ™ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œbœ œ 6
4
3

(223347)
AC
__ G#A
__
57 G# F#
6 ∑
Alto &4
6 œ œ ≈ j
Gtr. & 4 b¿ J œ œ™ œ #œ nœ Œ ≈ œ œ
3

? 46 ææ
Bass
#˙ ˙æ
æ
nœ œ

? 46 Œ ≈ #œ nœ #œ œ #œ nœ œ œ ‰
3
‰™ r j ‰ ‰ j
bœ œ œ
Tba.

6
219

(2245667)
2 DB
__
58 Eb

∑ 4
Alto & 4
4
3 3

& œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ 4
3 3
Gtr.
œ œ œ J bœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ bœ™ œ œ
? ™ œ 4
Bass œ 4

? 4
‰™ r n œ nœ nœ œ bœ œ bœ bœ Œ 4
<b> œ œ
Tba.

(-24566-7)
EbC
__
59 D
4 ∑ 6
Alto &4 4
4 6
&4 œ Œ Ó
3
Gtr.
bœ œ 4
œo œo œ™ j
Bass
? 44 œ œ 6
4

? 44 Œ ‰™ nœ nœ œ™ œ 6
4
Tba.
R

(223347)
C#D#
___ CEb
__
60 C B
6 ∑
Alto &4
6 ≈ #œR œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ
Gtr. &4 ‰ #œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ Œ
? 46 œ ‰ j ‰ j ‰
œ œ œ œ j
œ
Bass

? 46 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰™ œ œ ‰ œ
Tba.
R J
220

(224566-7) (22-367) (-2445-6)


BC DG
61 __
E
__
F# 3 DbC
__
B
DAb
__
G

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4

Gtr. & ‰ œœœ œ Ó ‰ ™ œr œ ‰ 4 ≈bœ œ ¿ Œ


4 ≈#œ œ j ‰
œ bœ
œ o
œ 4 œ™ œœo œœ ™™
3
? ‰ j ‰ J 4 œ
Bass
˙™ #œ œ J J
j bœ
Tba.
? œ ‰ œ
J
‰ œ œ ‰ #œ ™ œ œ ‰ 44 œ ™
J J J œ œ ‰ ≈#œ œ œ œ

(224566-7) (22334-67)
EC#
__ BbF#
63 Eb ___
G

Alto & ∑ ∑

R nœR ‰ œR#œR ≈ r ≈ œR ‰ ™ r œ#œ Ó
Gtr. & ‰™ #œ ‰™ œ #œ œ

? Œ bœ œ œ j œ œ œ
Bass ‰
J œ œ
‰ œ bœ

? ≈ bœ ™ œ ≈œ œœ≈ œ œ œ ≈ ≈
Tba.
J #œ œ nœ œ œ œ œb œ
œ œœ
(233457) (223345-7)
DF#
__ EbF#
65 Eb ___
D

∑ 10
Alto & 4
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 10
Gtr. & ≈ 4
bœ œ œ œ
? J œ œ J ‰ 10
Bass
J 4

? Œ bœ œ™ œ œ 10
Tba. 4

221

Alto solo 1st form (22-3 (long meter)


CDb
_
__ BC BbC
661 Bb __
Bb
__
A
10 j ‰ 6
Alto &4 ∑ Œ
œ bœ # œ nœ n œ ™ bœ œ
Π4
10 bœ 6
& 4 ≈ R ≈ bœr œ œ ‰ œ œ ™ j 4
3

œ w
Gtr.

Bass
? 10
4 ‰ bœ ™ ˙ Ó Ó Ó 6
4

? 10
4 Œ Œ bœ
3 3
Ó ‰ œ bœ œ nœ bœ 46
Tba.
J
<b> œ bœ œ œ œ#œ œ

22-3)
BbB
__
67 Ab
6
&4 ‰ ≈
bœ nœ œ œ bœ ‰ Ó Œ œ nœ bœ ‰
3 3
Alto

6
&4 ∑ Œ ‰ ææj
Gtr.

Bass
? 46 ∑

? 46 Œ
3
Tba. <b>œ b œ œ nœ œ
bœ ˙ œ ™ nœ œ
(223345-7) (-2334466) (regular meter)
F#A DF#
__ FGb
__ __
nœ bœ
68 F C# C

& Ó Œ ≈ ≈ œ#œ#œ ‰ nœR ≈ 4 ‰ J
6 6

œ œ #œ œ
nœ œbœ
Alto

‰ ææ 4 ∑
Gtr. & ˙æ
æ
œ™ ˙æ
æ 4
oœ œo œo œo œo œo
? J‰ Œ Ó 4 ∑
Bass 4
5

? Œ
j ‰ ‰™ r Œ ≈ r 44 Œ j ‰ ≈bœ ≈
Tba.
#œn œ œ nœ œ # œ œ
#œ œ œ #œ ™ œ
222

(-2356677) (long meter) (223347)


FD AC
__ G#A
__
70 __
E G# F#

∑ 6
Alto & 4Ó ≈ bœ ™ Œ
J
Ó

& ‰™ æær 46 æ ≈ æj Œ
˙™æ œ œ
Gtr. æ
œæ™ ˙æ œæ
æ æ
œ œ œ œ
? Ó ‰ 6 ∑
Bass 4
5

? 6 j Ó™
j 4
3
Tba.
œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ
#œ œ™
(2245667) (-24566-7)
2 DB
__ EbC
Eb __
D

‰ ≈≈ r œ œj ‰ j Ó
72
4Ó 6
& Œ 4 ≈Œ 4
3 3
Alto
œ nœ œ œbœ œbœ œ
4 Π6
& ææ 4 ˙æ™
4
w™
Gtr. æ

? ∑ 4 ∑ 6
Bass 4 4

? j ‰ #œr ≈ œr ≈ Œ bœ ‰ ™ ‰ œ ≈ ≈ œr ≈ œr 44 œ ‰ ≈ j ≈ 6
4
Tba.
bœ R R J œ b œ œ™ œ œ™

(223347) (224566-7)
C#D# CEb BC DG
__
74 ___
C __
B __
E F#
6 ‰#œJ ‰ ‰ ™ r Œ ≈ 44
&4 Ó ‰ ≈j Œ Œ
3 3

œ 3 œ™ œbœ œ œ
Alto
œ œ nœ
6 ‰ #œj œ 4
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰™ r
#œ œ n œœ
Œ Ó ∑ œ 4
#œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 46 ∑ ∑ ‰ 4
4
5

? 46 Œ j‰ ‰ j≈ r‰ r j ‰ j ‰ 44
# œ # œ n œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ
Tba.
#œ nœ ™ ˙
223

DbC
(22-367)
DAb (-2445-6) EC# (224566-7)
76 3 __ __ __
B G Eb
4 j ‰ Ó™ Ó r ≈ ≈ ≈ #œR nœR ≈ œr ≈
&4 œ
œ
Alto

#œ 3
4 œ œ Œ ™‰ #œ ≈ r ‰ Œ
Gtr. & 4 #œ ˙ R œ
#œ o
Bass
? 44 J ‰ Ó™ w

? 44 ‰ ‰
3
Œ ‰ ‰™ r
Tba.
#œ œ™™ œ œbœ nœ œ œ #œ
Ϫ

(22334-67)
BbF#
œ
78 ___
G
R
& ‰™ r r ‰™ ≈ ‰ ‰™
nœ #œ
Alto
œ œ

Gtr. & Œ ‰ J Ó

Bass
? bæœ œ™
æ
œ
Ó
æ

? ‰™ r ≈
Tba.
œ bœ ™ œ œ œ œ #œ

(233457) (223345-7)
DF#
__ EbF#
79 Eb ___
D

Alto & bœr ‰™ Œ Ó


#œ œ
#œ ™ œ œ œ
Gtr. & #œ ™ œ œJ ‰ Œ ≈
œ bœ
? ‰™ R #œ ‰™ ‰™ R Œ
Bass R
? ‰™ r j ≈ r ≈
bœ œ œ œ œ bœ
Tba.
œ nœ
224

Alto solo 2nd form (22-3


CDb
_
1 __
80 Bb
10
[split bar]
Alto &4 Œ ‰™ œ bœ œ œ œ ® ‰ Œ
bœ™ œ œ œ
Gtr.
10
&4 ≈ J Œ ‰
3

? 10 j ‰ Œ Ó
Bass 4 n¿

? 10 ‰™ ≈
Tba. 4 r j r ‰ r
bœ œ œ™ nœ œ

BC
__ BbC
__
A
Bb

& Ó
6
Alto #œ nœbœ œ œ œbœ œbœ œ ‰ ™ Ó 4
#œ œ œ œnœ œ nœ œbœ œ
J Œ Œ ‰ 6
Gtr. & 4
3 œ œ œ œ œ œ 3
? Ó Œ J ‰ 6
Bass 4
3

? ≈ j j ≈ r j ‰ Œ ‰™ 6
r j ≈ r 4
œ
Tba.
bœ™ œ #œ œ œ œ
22-3)
BbB
__
81 Ab
6
& 4 Œ ‰™ ≈Œ
nœbœnœbœ œ œnœbœ œ œnœbœ œ œnœbœ œ œnœbœ œ œnœ
Alto

˙™
Gtr.
6
&4 Ó™

?6 ∑
Bass 4

?6 ‰ ™ bœr ‰™ r ™ r j ‰ bœ œ ≈bœr
Tba. 4 nœ ‰ bœ nœ

225

F#A (223345-7)
82 __
F [split bar]

& Œ ‰ ®
œ b œ n œb œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ n œ œ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ
Alto

œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
Gtr. &
œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ #œ
3 3 3

Bass
? Œ
3

? j ‰ ‰™ r j
3 3
Tba.
œ #œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ

DF#
__
C#
4
& œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ œ bœ nœ nœ 4

Alto
œ
#œ œ 4
Gtr. & œ œ œ œ 4
œ
3 3

? ‰ J Œ 4
Bass 4

? 4
4
œ œ™ œ
Tba.

(-2334466) (regular meter) (-2356677) (long meter)


FGb
__ FD
__
K
C E

‰ nœj ‰ bœr ‰ ® œr 46
83
4
&4 Œ ‰™
#œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œbœ
Œ Ó
3
Alto

4 bœJ œ œ Ó ‰ ™ œR œ œ œ Œ 6
Gtr. &4 4
3
˙ w
Bass
? 44 Ó ææ ææ 6
4

? 44 ‰ ‰™ œ ≈ œr ‰ ‰ œJ Œ œ œ œœœœ 6
4
Tba.
Ϫ R
226

AC
__
(223347) G#A
__
85 G# F#
6 ‰ r ≈ j ‰3 j Ó ‰ œ œ œ œ Œ 5
Alto & 4 #œ œ œ 4
6
6 bœ 45
& 4 ˙˙ Œ ‰ #œœ ‰™
3

Gtr. œœ R
œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 46 ææ Œ Œ Œ 4
5
5

? 46 œ j 5
Tba. œ #œ #œ ™ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ 4

[irregular bar]
(2245667) (-24566-7)
2 DB
__ EbC
86 Eb __
D
5 4 6
&4 Œ œbœ œ ‰ ‰ œj ‰ Ó ‰ Ó
3
4 4
3
Alto
Ϫ
5
œ œ™
4Œ b œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ 6
Gtr. & 4 œJ ‰ Œ ≈ œ œœ Œ 4 ‰™ R 4
#œ œ 3

? 45 bœ œ œ Œ Ó 4Œ
4 ‰ bœ ˙ 6
4
Bass
J
? 45 j ≈ r≈ j ≈ 4‰ Œ
4 j ‰ ™ #œr œ ≈ œr 46
Tba.
bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ J

(223347)
C#D#
___ CEb
__

88 C B
6
&4 Ó ‰™ r Œ R ‰™
œ # œ # œ œ œ™
Alto

œ
6bœ Œ #œ œ Ó
Gtr. &4
œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 46 ∑ ‰
3 3

? 46 nœj ‰ ‰ j ‰ bœJ
j ‰™ r ≈ #œ nœ œ œ ‰ ‰

Tba.
nœ 3
227

BC (224566-7) DG (22-367) (-2445-6)


__ 3 DbC
__ __ DAb
__
œ ‰ ™ ‰ ™ bœ œ ‰ ™ ‰ œ ≈ ≈ œ ≈#œ ‰ ™
89 E B F# G
4 ‰ ‰ nœj Ó
& R RR r4
3
Alto
R R R
bœ bœ œ œ
œ Œ nœœ j r 4 ˙ j
& Œ œ ≈œ 4 ‰ bœ œ œ œ
3

Gtr. #œ
o
Bass
? #œ œ œ œ Œ Ó Ó 4
4 Œ
˙™
6

? nœ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ™ œ #œ œ‰ 4 ‰ ‰ j j≈ r
Tba.
R J 4
œ œ œ
Ϫ
3 3 3

(224566-7) (22334-67)
EC# BbF#
œ
__
#œ œ ™
Eb ___
G
nœ ‰
91

& Œ œ ≈ j Œ ‰ ‰ J
Alto
bœ œ # œ nœ ™
nœbœ #œ ™
œ œœœ ≈ Œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Gtr. & #œ œœ œ bœnœ ‰™ R

œœ
5
? ‰ bœ œ Ó Œ
Bass
J œ œ œœœœ
? ‰™
Tba. r r‰ r j ≈ r j ‰ ≈ ≈ r≈ r
bœ™ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œœ œ œ œ
(233457) (223345-7)
DF#
__ EbF#
___
#œ œ nœ œ œ 10
93 Eb D

& ‰ ≈ ≈ R Œ ‰™
3 3

Alto J R 4
#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
#œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 10
Gtr. & J ‰ ≈ 4
bœ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? ® bœ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 10
Bass 4

? ≈ r ≈ r ≈ œr 10
4
Tba.

bœ œ œ œ #œ œ
228

Alto solo 3rd form (22-3


CDb
_
__ BC BbC
1 Bb __ __
A
10 œbœ ™Œ
94 Bb

&4 Ó ‰™ œœœœœœœœ≈ ‰ ™ r ≈ 6
4
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ
Alto

œ œb œ œ œ œœœœœœœœ
10
&4 Ó ‰ ‰ b œ J ‰ Œ Œ ‰ œœœœœœœœ‰ 6
Gtr. 4
? 10 Œ œ œ œ œJ œ œ bœ œ œ œ™ œ œœ6
3 3
œ œœœ œœ œ
Bass 4 ‰ Œ 4
3 3

? 10 j r ‰ œ œ ‰ ™ œr œ 6
Tba. 4 bœ œ ≈ œ œ bœ œ œ œœœ 4
œœ ˙

22-3)
BbB
__
95
6
Ab
bœ nœ
&4 Ó Œ ≈ ≈ R J Œ
<b> œ b œ ™
Alto

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ r
3

6
& 4 bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ≈ œR Œ ‰ œ ≈ Œ

Gtr.

bw™
? 6 ææ
Bass 4

?6 r
Tba. 4 Œ nœ ≈ œr ≈ #œ œ
r
œ ‰ œ ≈
œ bœ™ œ
(223345-7)
F#A DF#
__
__

R ≈ ≈ œ #œ œ œ
F C#
96
nœ #œ ™ œ 4
Alto & J ‰ Œ R ‰™ 4
3
r ≈ r ≈ œr ≈ œR ≈ œR 44
& Œ ≈ œ #œ œ r ‰™ œ ‰™ #œ
œ
Gtr.

? #w ˙ 4
Bass æ æ 4

? j 4
Œ Œ j ≈ nœr œ œ #œ ‰ œ 4
œ nœ ™ œ
Tba.
229

(regular meter) (long meter)


FGb (-2334466)
__ FD (-2356677)
__
97 C E
4 5
&4 Ó Œ nœ bœ ‰ œ bœ ™ ‰ Œ Ó
3
Alto 4
4 r r nœ 45
Gtr. & 4 ‰™ bœ œ œ ‰ ‰ ™ œ œ œ ‰ œ bœ ™ œ ™ œ œ œ
œ J ≈ œ#œ œ
œ œ
? 44 œ Œ Ó Œ œ ≈R Œ œ ‰ 45
Bass
ææ J
? 44 ≈ Œ ≈ Œ ‰ Œ Œ ≈ r ‰ 45
Tba.
bœ œ n œ œœœ bœ œ œ
[irregular bar]
(223347)
AC
__ G#A
__
99 G# F#
5 6
&4 œ œ
Œ j ‰ 4
#œ œ œ œ
Alto
bœ œ
5 œ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ ‰™ r j ‰ 6
Gtr. & 4 nœ œ nœ œ #œ œ 4
œ œ
? 45 Œ J ‰ ‰™ #œ Œ ≈ R ‰ 6
4
Bass R
? 45 r j #œ 6
nœ #œ ‰ œ ‰
j ‰ œ œ 4
œ #œ
Tba. ™

(2245667)
2 DB
__
Eb

≈ bœR ‰
100
6 4
&4 Œ ≈ j Œ Ó 4
Ϫ
Alto

œ
6 j ‰ ‰ nœ #œ œ œ œ œ™ Œ œ ‰ 4
& 4 bœ 4
bœ œ œ œ
Gtr.

? 46 ‰ o o 4
‰™ œ œ œ œ ‰ Ó 4
Bass
R
? 46 ≈ r ‰ Œ Ó ‰ bœ ≈ ≈ œ #œ 44
Tba.
bœ R
230

EbC (-24566-7)
101 __
D
4 œ 6
Alto &4 Œ œ ‰ Ó 4
4 œ 6
&4 Œ œ nœ
Œ ‰
bœ 4
œ
Gtr.

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
? 44 Œ ‰™ 6
4
5

Tba.
? 44 œ œ™ bœ œ œ #œ œ
6
4
œ œ

(223347)
C#D#
___
C CEb
__
102 B
6
5
œ œ ‰ #œJ
5

Alto &4 ‰ ‰ œ
#œ œ
œ
œ œ
œ
œ
Œ ‰ Œ

6
Gtr. & 4 œ #œ ‰ #œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ œ œJ ≈ r
œ œ
œ
#œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ ™ bœ
3

? 46
3

Bass ‰ #œ œ œ #œ œ
3 3 3

? 46 ‰™ j r
r‰ œ œ ≈ œ ≈ r‰
œ bœ
Tba.
n˙ œ

(224566-7) (22-367) (-2445-6)


DG

BC __ DbC DAb
103 __
E F# 3 __
B __
G

‰™ R Œ 4Œ ‰ ‰
& 4 j
3 3

œœ b œ œ nœ
Alto
bœ œnœ œ ˙
& œ™ œ œJ ‰ œœJ œœ œ œ ‰ ‰ ‰ œj œ œ œ 44 Œ ‰ œJ ≈bœ œ œ™ œœ
Gtr.
n œœ œœ œœ œœ
nœ œ œ œ œ œ
™‰ #œR ˙
3
?æ 4
3 3 3
Bass æ 4˙ ˙
3

? r 4
j ‰ ‰™ œ 4 œ œ ™ œ ‰ œj œbœ ≈bœR
nœ œ œ ™ #œ œ ™™ œ œ
Tba.
Ϫ
231

EC# (224566-7) BbF# (22334-67)


__ ___
105 Eb G

& œ Œ Ó ‰ œ#œ œ ≈ Ó
# œ œ#œ œ œ#œ
Alto

j
#œ nœœ #
& J œ œ Œœ ≈œœœ Œ ≈ #œ #œ œ œJ ‰ Œ
#œ œ œ o
Gtr.
w
? bœ ™™ nœ œ bœ Œ
Bass
R
? bœ ™™ nœ œ bœ#œ ≈ ‰™ r
Tba.
R nœ#œ#œ nœ œ #œn œ œb œ

(233457) Bass solo 1st form (regular meter)
(223345-7) (22-345-67) (2456677)
DF#
__
Eb EbF# BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
107 ___
D 4 __
G ___
C C# F#
3
6

Alto & ‰#œœœ#œœ® œœœœœœœ Ó ∑ ∑ 4


#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
& Œ ‰ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ‰bœ bœ ‰ œnœ nœ ‰ Œ Œ #œ 43
œJ J
Gtr.

œ œ™
3

? bœ œ œ™ j ≈ œ™j ≈#œj™ Œ #œ œ œ œœ ™ 43
Bass
œ
? Π3
bœ j‰ Ó ∑ 4
œ œ
Tba.
˙

(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7) (-2-3+4566)


GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__ AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
__
110 Eb G# __
F C# 5 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb
3 ∑ ∑ ∑ 4 ∑ 5
Alto &4 4 4
3 j #œ ≈ œ ™ œ œ œ œ 4 ‰ #œ œ ‰ j Œ 5
Gtr. & 4 ≈bœ ™ Œ J Œ 4 J œ 4
o
? 43 ‰ ™ #œr œnœ#œ ≈ œ Œ Ó ‰ ™ r œ œ œ#œ œ 44 œ
3 3 nœœœ 5
Bass
œœ œœ˙ œ
4

Tba.
? 43 ∑ ∑ ∑ 4
4 ∑ 5
4
232

(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb
__ CDb
__ GbAb
___ DF
__ C#F
__
114 D G F E C
5 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto &4 4
5 r r r j bœ ™ r r ‰ bœj œ 4
Gtr. & 4 ≈ bœ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰ bœ ‰ œ œ Œ 4
˙˙o œo œœ œœo
? 45 ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ 4
Bass 4

Tba.
? 45 ∑ ∑ 4
4

Bass solo 2nd form

(22-345-67) (2456677)
4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
116 __
G ___
C C# F#
4 ∑ ∑ 2
Alto &4 4
4 ‰ #œ nœ œ #œ ‰ Œ ≈ nœ œ 42
Gtr. &4 Ó Œ Œ
o œ nœ #œ nœ œ nœ #œ nœ œ œ
? 44 œœ œœ
3

œ™ #œ ‰™ r #œ ‰ J 42
Bass

Tba.
? 44 ∑ ∑ 2
4

[irregular bar]
(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)
GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__ AbC AbC
118 Eb G# __
F C# 5 __
F __
G
2 ∑ 3 ∑ ∑
Alto &4 4
2 3
& 4Œ #œ 4 ≈ œJ Œ œ ∑

Gtr.
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ
? 42 3 nœ #œ
Bass 4 œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ
3 3

Tba.
? 42 ∑ 3
4 ∑ ∑
233

[irregular bar] (-2-3+4566) (-233446) (223345-7)


GC# BG FGb
__ GAb CDb GbAb DF C#F
121 __
C __
E Bb __
D __
G ___
F __
E __
C

∑ 5 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto & 4 4

∑ 5 4
& 4 Œ ≈bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ ∑ 4
œ œ œ bœ œ
Gtr.

œ #œ œ œ œ
? 5Ó Œ R R
≈ ≈ ≈ ‰ R J ≈ ‰J
R 4
Bass œ œ œ œ ™ œ bœ œ œ 4 4

? ∑ 5 ∑ ∑ 4
Tba. 4 4

Bass solo 3rd form

(22-345-67) (2456677) (223467)


4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__
124 __
G ___
C C# F# Eb G#
4 ∑ ∑ 3 ∑
Alto &4 4
4 ‰ #œ œ œ#œ ‰ Œ Ó 3 j #œ
Gtr. &4 Ó Œ 4 ≈bœ ™ œ
j j j n ˙˙o ™™ 3 ‰™ œ #œ#œ œ œ#œnœ#œ œ
? 44 ‰ ≈nœ ™ œ #œ œ ‰ ˙™
3

Bass
nœ ™ 4 R
? 44 ∑ Ó ‰ jŒ 3
4 j ‰ Ó
Tba.
#œ œ

(-2356677) (223345-7) (-2-3+4566)


F#D FD
__ AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
__
127 __
F C# 5 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb

∑ ∑ 4 ∑ 5
Alto & 4 4

Gtr. & <#>œ œ


™ œ œ nœ Œ œ 4 œ #œ œ
4 ‰ œj 5
œ bœ 4
4Œ œ 5
? nœ Œ Ó Œ ‰ #œ œ œ
3 3
4 œnœ œ œ™ 4
nœ œ œ œ œ
Bass

? Œ Ó ‰ j ‰ bœj j ‰ 44 Ó Œ ‰ 5
j 4
Tba.
œ œ
œ
234

(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb
__ CDb
__ GbAb
___ DF
__ C#F
__
130 D G F E C
5 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto &4 4
5 r r r ‰ bœJ œJ ‰ bœr ‰ œr ‰ œr ≈ ‰ œj ˙ææ 4
& 4<b>œbœ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰™ 4
bœbœ œ œ œ
Gtr.

? 45 Ó™ ≈ œr ‰ Œ Œ ‰ nœœ 4
4
Bass
3
œ
œ
? 45 ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ‰ ‰™ 4
j ≈ rŒ œ œ
r ≈‰
œ œr 4
œ œ œ
Tba.
œ ˙
Bass solo 4th form

(22-345-67) (2456677) (223467)


4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__
132 __
G ___
C C# F# Eb G#
4 ∑ ∑ 3 ∑
Alto &4 4
4
& 4 Œ ‰bœJ bœ ‰ œnœ nœ#œ Ó œ™ œ 43 ‰ bœj œ #œ

Gtr.

o
? 44 ∑ ≈ œ œbœbœ œ œ œ œ œ


4 ‰nnœœœ œœœ™™™ ¿¿¿
Bass
#œ n œ œ™ J
? 44 Œ ≈ r‰ ≈ r‰ Œ 3
4 j‰ Œ ‰ j
œ œ
Tba.
œ œ #œ #œ œ œ #œ ™
(-2356677) (223345-7) (-2-3+4566)
F#D FD
__ AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
__
135 __
F C# 5 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb

∑ ∑ 4 ∑ 5
Alto & 4 4
œ™ œ œ ™#œ nœ ‰ Œ œ ‰ 44 ‰ #œ œ ‰ j ‰ j5
Gtr. & ≈J J J J J ‰ œ b œ 4
oœ œo b œ œ œ
? Œ œ œ 4 Œ ≈ œ œ#œ œn¿ ≈ ¿ ¿ ¿ ‰™ 5
bœ œ b œnœbœ 4 R 4
6

œ ¿
Bass
3

? j‰ Œ ‰ j 4 ‰ ≈ ‰ Ó 5
Tba.
œ œ#œ 4 j r 4
œ œ œ œ œ
235

(-233446)
GAb
__ CDb
__
138 D G
5 ∑
Alto &4
5 r r r r bœ œ
Gtr. & 4 ≈ bœ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰™ ‰ J J ‰

? 45 ‰ j ‰™ œ œ bœ ‰ bœ œ œ ‰ b¿ ¿ ‰ ¿
Bass
nœ R R R R R

? 45 j ≈ œ ≈ œ ‰ ≈ œ ‰ ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ‰
Tba.
œ R R R œ œ

Bass solo 5th form

(223345-7) (22-345-67)
GbAb DF C#F EA
139 ___
F __
E __
C 4 BbA
__
G
EbAb
___
C
__
C#

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
r r r œ ˙ 4Œ ‰ bœ bœj ‰ ‰ #œ nœ
Gtr. & bœ ‰ œ œ ≈ œr ≈ ‰ J ææ 4 J
j r j j
Bass
? r≈ ≈

r
bœ œ œ ‰
r
œ ‰ #œ œ™ œ œ ‰ ™ 44 nnœœ œ bœ ≈ ≈ nœ ™ ≈ #œ ™

? ≈ ≈ ‰™ r ‰ ≈ j 4 ‰ ≈ j ≈ j
Tba.
œœ œ œj 4
œ™ œ œ™ œ™ #œ ™

(2456677) (223467) (-2356677)


DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__
141 F# Eb G# __
F C#

∑ 3 ∑ ∑
Alto & 4
3 j ≈ œJ ™ œ œ
Gtr. & nœ#œ# œ Œ Œ œJ ‰ 4 ≈bœ ™ œ #œ
œ œb œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œ
? ‰ Œ 3
Bass 4

? ‰ #œj j‰ ‰ j j ‰ 43 j ‰ ‰ #œj ‰ j Œ ‰ j ‰ j
Tba.
#œ œ nœ bœ œ bœ œ
236

(223345-7) (-2-3+4566)
AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
__
144 5 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb

∑ 4 ∑ 5
Alto & 4 4
j j 4 ‰ #œj j j j 5
& œ ‰ Œ œ ‰ 4 #œ œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ bœ 4
œ œ œ
Gtr.
œ bœ bœ
œ
? r ≈ j r ≈ j 4œ j 5
3
Bass b¿ œ ¿ œ œ 4 œ œ œ œ
4

? ‰ 4 5
Tba. j ‰ j 4 j ‰ ‰ j 4
bœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ
(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb
__ CDb
__ GbAb
___ DF
__ C#F
__
146 D G F E C
5 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto &4 4
bœ œ ˙
5 ≈bœ ‰ œ ≈bbœœ œœ ‰™ ‰ bœ œ
bœ œ ‰ bœ ≈ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ æ˙ 4
Gtr. & 4 bœR œJ RR J J J R œJ œJ æ 4
nœ bœ œ œ ™ nœ œ
#œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ

Bass
? 45 J ≈R R ≈ J 4
4
? 45 œ ≈ œ ≈ œ ‰ ≈œ‰ ≈ ≈ r‰ ‰™ r ‰ ≈ j 44
Tba.
J R R R œ œ œ œœœ œ œj œ™ œ
Bass solo 6th form

(22-345-67) (2456677)
BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
4
148 __
G ___
C C# F#
4 ∑ ∑ 3
Alto &4 4
4 j nœ œ œ #œ 43
&4 Œ ‰ bœ bœ ‰ ‰ #œ nœ nœ #œ# œ ‰™ R
bœ œ œ œ™ J œ
Gtr.

b œ œ œ b œn œ œ œ
? 44 3
4
ææœ ˙æ™
Bass
æ
3

? 44 Œ ‰ ‰ j ‰ j j ≈ r 3
Tba.
œ #œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ 4
˙ ™
237

(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)


GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__ AbC AbC
150 Eb G# __
F C# 5 __
F __
G
3 ∑ ∑ ∑ 4
Alto &4 4
3 j j j 4
& 4 ‰ bœ œ #œ
J ‰ ≈ œ œ œ œ ™ #œ nœ ‰ Œ œ ‰ 4
Gtr.
œ œ œ ™ #œ nœ œ
? 43 ææ 4
4
œ ˙æ ˙™æ œæ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
æ æ æ
Bass

? 43 ‰ ™ r j ‰ ≈ Œ j ‰ ‰ j 4
4
Tba.
œ #œ # œ #œ nœ #œ nœ # œ œ bœ œ œ

(-2-3+4566)
GC# BG FGb
__
153 __
C __
E Bb
4 ∑ 5
Alto &4 4
4 j j j j 5
&4 ‰ #œ œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ bœ 4
#œ œ
Gtr.
œ bœ
? 44 5
4
Bass
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? 44 ‰ j j 5
3

œ j ‰ ‰ bœ œ nœ œ bœ ≈ 4
œ
Tba.

(-233446)
GAb
__ CDb
__
154 D G
5 ∑
Alto &4
5 r bœ œ œ œ
Gtr. & 4 ≈ bœ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ Œ Œ
bœ œ œ œ
bœ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
? 45
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
7
Bass
œ œ œ
? 45 ≈ nœ ≈ œ ‰ ™ r
Tba.
œ œ œ bœ œ ‰ ≈ ≈ r ≈ r ‰
bœ œ œ œ
238

(223345-7) Bass solo 7th form (22-345-67)


GbAb DF C#F BbA EbAb EA
__
155 ___
F __
E __
C 4 __
G ___
C C#

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
r ˙ 4Œ bœ bœj ‰ ‰ #œnœ
Gtr. & ‰™ bœ ‰ œr ≈ Œ ˙ 4 ‰
J
bœ œ ææ
? æ
œ j ‰ 44 œ œ œ œ bœ ™ ≈ œ #œ œ œ œ œ
Bass
¿
æ
Y™
? ≈ ≈ ‰ ≈‰ 4 j‰ Œ
4œ ≈ œ™j ≈#œj™
Tba.
œœ œb œ œ b œ œr
˙
(2456677) (223467)
DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__
157 F# Eb G#

∑ 3 ∑
Alto & 4
3 j j
& nœ #œ Œ #œ œ nœ œ œ nœ #œ 4 ≈ bœ ™ œ ‰ #œJ ≈ nœ#œ

Gtr.

#œ 3

? r ≈ ##œœ œœ ™™ œ œ œ nœ bœ 43 bœ œ œ nœ œ
Bass
¿ #œ nœ œ nœ œ
? ‰ #œj j ‰ ‰ j ≈ j 4
3 j
Tba.
#œ nœ nœ ™ b œ ™ œ œ œ œ

(-2356677) (223345-7) (-2-3+4566)


F#D FD
__ AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
__
159 __
F C# 5 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb

∑ ∑ 4 ∑ 5
Alto & 4 4
œ œ ≈ #œr nœj ‰ Œ j j j
œ ‰ 44 ‰ #œ œ ‰ ‰ œj ‰ bœj 45
& J ‰ Œ J #œ nœ œ #œ œ
Gtr.

n œ # œ n œ ™ # œ n œ œ œb œ
? œ #œ œ#œ œ œ ‰ j bœ nœj ‰ 44 ‰ J œ ≈ R ‰ 45
Bass
œ œ œ œ 3

? j‰ ‰ j ‰ n œj ‰ j j ‰ œj ‰ 44 Œ ‰ j ‰ œj bœj ‰ 45
Tba.
œ #œ œ œ œ
239

(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb
__ CDb
__ GbAb
___ DF
__ C#F
__
162 D G F E C
5
&4 ∑ ∑ 4
Alto 4
5 ≈ r ‰ j ≈ r j ‰ ‰ bœj œj ‰ j ≈ r ‰ j ‰ j æ 4
& 4 bœ œ œ œ b œ œ
bœ œ œ œ ˙æ 4
bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ
Gtr.

œ œ œ œ˙
œ œ œ œ œ œbœ
™ œ™ b œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ
?5 ≈≈R ≈R ‰ J ‰ J J 4
Bass 4 #œ 4
? 5 œ ‰ ≈ œ ≈ r‰ œ ≈ r‰ ≈ r‰ ≈ ‰ bœ j ‰ ‰ j 4
3

4J R bœ J œ œ œœ 4
œœ
Tba.

#œ œ
written material
(22-345-67) (2456677)
4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
164 __
G ___
C C# F#
4
& 4 ‰ ™ r j ≈ œr bœ œ ‰ #œj Œ Ó 3
4
œœ
Alto

4
&4 Œ ‰ bœ bœ ‰ #œ nœ nœ#œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ nœ 3
Gtr.
J #œ œ œ J 4
? 4 ææ #œ œ #œ 3
4 n˙ nœ #œ œ™ b œ œ œ #œ œj ‰ 4
3 3
Bass
œ œ œ™
3

?4 Œ ‰ ‰ 3
4 j j ≈ r‰ 4
nœ œ #œ ™
Tba.
˙ #œ œ œ
5
(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)
GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__ AbC AbC
166 Eb G# __
F C# __
F __
G
3
& 4 ‰ j nœ
‰ Œ ‰™ r œ‰ Œ Œ Œ 4
bœ œ œ œ œ 4
3 5

bœ #œ œ
Alto

3
& 4 œ bœ ™ œ #œ ™ nœ#œ œJ ‰ Œ œ œbœ œ ‰ Œ bœœ ‰ 4
Gtr.
J J 4
j™
? 3 ≈ bœj™
3


≈#œ ™ œnœnœ œœ œ ‰ j bœ nœj ‰ 44
3

Bass 4 bœ™ nœ #œ œ # œ ™œ œ œ œ
?3 ‰ j bœ œj ‰ 44
4 r≈ j‰ j œ
j ‰ ‰ j œ œ
œ
Tba.

œ bœ œ #œ #œ œ
240

(-2-3+4566) (-233446)
GC# BG FGb
__ GAb CDb
__ __ __ __
j3
169 C E Bb D G
4 5
3

&4 ‰ bœ œ œ œ Œ 4 ∑
5

œœ #œ
Alto

4 j j 5 r r rr
& 4 ‰ #œJ œJ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ bœ 4 ≈bœ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ ‰™ ‰ bœR ≈ œR ‰™
œ nœ
Gtr.
œœ
? 44 œ ‰ j œ™ œ 5 ≈ R ‰ R ‰ R R ≈ ‰ nœo œ œR ≈bœJ
Bass
œ bœ
4

? 44 œ ‰ j œ ‰ bœ ™ œ#œ 45 œ ‰ œ ≈ œ ‰ ≈ œ ‰ ≈ r ≈ r ≈ r ‰
œ bœ R R R R nœ œ œ
Tba.

(223345-7) (22-345-67)
GbAb DF C#F EA
171 ___ __ __ 4 BbA
__ EbAb
___ __

4 ‰™ œ œj ‰ ‰ œ bœ œ
F E C G C C#

& ∑ 4
Alto
R
œ œ œ™ b œ
bœ œ œ n œ b œ #œn œ
3
œ œ œ™ 4
Gtr. & bœR ‰ ‰
œ œ
R R
≈ ≈ ≈
R æ æ
R
‰ 4 Œ b œ nœ bœ
J
‰ ‰ #œnœ

? bœR ‰ œ œj j bœ œ
R‰ ‰ œ #œ nœ ™ #œ nœ ™ 44 ‰ J bœ ™ œ nœ #œ
Bass
œ œ
? ≈ ‰™ r ‰ ≈ j 4 ‰ ≈ j ≈ j
Tba.
œ œ œ œj
4
œ™ œ œ™ œ™ #œ ™

(2456677) (223467)
DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__

‰ #œJ œ œ 3 œ
173 F# Eb G#
<b>œ j nœ
Alto & J ‰ Œ œ 4 Œ œ
nœ#œ ™ #œ œ œ œœ bœ #œ nœ#œ
3

3
Gtr. & nœ #œ ™ Œ ≈ #œ œ œ J ‰ 4 ‰ bœ Œ
J
#œ ≈ ≈ nœ #œ
R
? œ 3 œ™ œ œ œ
3

Bass
bœ œ œ ™ œ œ™ œ œ 4 ≈ J

? Œ
j ‰ ‰ j ≈ j ≈ 43 j ‰ ‰ j Œ
Tba.
#œ œ bœ
#œ #œ
241

(-2356677) (223345-7) (-2-3+4566)


FD AbC FGb
F#D __ 5 nœ __ AbC GC# BG __

4 ‰™ #œ ≈ œR ‰ Œ ‰ nœ
175 __
F C# F __
G __
C __
E Bb

Alto & Œ ‰ ™ #œR œ œ ‰ ≈ R ‰ ‰ ™ bœR œ œ ™ 4 R J


5
4
œ œ #œ nœ œ #œ œ
œ œ #œ nœ œ ‰ 4 ‰ #œ œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ bœ 5
Gtr. & R ‰™ Œ J ≈R J ‰ Œ J 4 J J œJ bœJ 4
œ œ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ bœ™
? bœ 4 œ œ 5
Bass ≈ J 4 ≈J 4
3

Tba.
? ‰ j j ‰ ≈ j ‰ j j ‰ 44 j ‰ ‰ j j ‰ 5
4
bœ nœ œ œ bœ ™ œ#œ
#œ œ œ™ œ œ
(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb CDb GbAb DF C#F
œ
__ __ ___ __ __
#œ œ nœ
‰ œJ Œ Œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ
178 D G F E C
5Œ ‰ J ‰ ‰ J J 4
Alto &4 4
b œ œ œ œ
3 3
bœ œ bœ™ œ œ
6 3

5 bœ œ ‰ bœ ™ œ ‰ œ ˙ 4
Gtr. & 4 ≈ bœR ‰ œR ‰ œR œR ‰ ™ ‰ J J œJ ‰ œJ ˙ 4
nœ œ™ œ œ
æ
œ œ
? 45 ‰ J J ‰ bœ ™ œ ‰ bœ ‰ œ œ Œ 4
4
Bass
J J
? 45 r ‰ r ≈ r ‰ ≈#œr ‰ ≈ œR ≈ œR ≈ r ‰ ≈ ≈ ‰ ™ r j ‰ 4
œ œœ j‰ 4
œ œ œ œ nœ
Tba.

nœ œ
(22-345-67) (2456677)
4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
__
G ___
C C# F#
bœ œ
180
4 3
Alto & 4 ‰ ™ œR œ™ œ J ‰ Ó #œ
j ≈ œr œ 4
4 3
&4 Œ ‰ 4
bœ nœ bœ # œ n œ n œ # œ ™ # œœ ™™ n œ # œ n œ # œ n œ œ œ œ
Gtr.

? 44 œ #œ #œ 3
œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4
ææ
Bass
nœ œ
æ

? 44 j j j j ≈ r ‰ 43
≈ œ™ ≈ #œ ™ œ ‰ #œ ‰
Tba.
˙ œ œ
242

(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)


GAb AC# F#D FD AbC
__ __ __ 5 __Fœ™ œ AbC
__ __
nœ œ™ œœœ
182 Eb G# F C# G
3 ‰ œ œ #œ œ ‰ ≈ J J ‰ Œ 4
Alto &4 Œ #œ ≈ œ Œ 4
r j j j
3 3
3 ‰ ™ œ #œ nœ ‰ ¿ ‰ œ ‰ 44
&4 ‰ j
bœ œ #œ #œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ ¿ œ
Gtr.

? 43 ‰ j ‰ j ‰ j ‰ bœj 4
4
3
Bass
bœ #œ œ
œ œ œ™ #œ œ œ œ œ œ
? 43 ‰ #œj ‰ j ‰ j ‰ bœj œj ‰ 44
3
Tba.
bœ œ
œ œ œ™ œ
#œ œ

(-2-3+4566) (-233446)
GC# BG FGb GAb CDb
œ
__
œ œ™ œb œ
__
C __
E Bb __
D __
G

‰ ‰ nœj
185
4 5
& 4 œ œ#œ œJ ‰ œJ 4 œ œ nœ bœJ ‰ Œ ≈R ‰ ‰
3 3
Alto

j j j r r
3 3
4 5
Gtr. & 4 ‰ #œ œ ≈ r œ ‰ bœ
#œ œ œ œ œ bœ
4 œ bœ ‰ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ ¿ ¿ bbœœ œœ ¿¿
œbœ œ œœ ¿ ¿
? 44 œ 5
4 œR ‰ œR ≈ œ œ œ œ™ ≈ œr ≈ œr ≈ œj ≈
Bass œ œ œ œ bœ
? 44 œ ‰ j j ‰ bœ ™ œ#œ 45 œR ‰ r ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ‰ ≈ r ≈ r ≈ j ≈
œ œ œ œ œ
Tba.
œ #œ œ

(223345-7) (22-345-67)
GbAb DF C#F EA
187 ___ __ __ 4 BbA
__ EbAb
___ __
œ
F E C G C C#

‰ Œ Ó™ 4 ‰™ œ œ™ œ bœ œ
Alto & J 4 R
œ ˙
& bœ ¿ œ ≈ œ œ ‰ œ ˙

4 ‰ bœ nœ bœj ‰ œ
bœ ¿ œ œ œ J ææ #œ ™
Gtr.

? ≈ œ œ ≈ ‰™ œ œr ‰ ™ ≈ œ™j œ 4
4 œ™ ‰™
j
Ϫ
j
≈ #œ ™
Bass
R
? ≈ ≈ ‰™ r r ‰™ ≈ j 4 ‰™ ≈ j
4 Ϫ j
œœ œ œ
Tba.
œ™ œ œ™ #œ ™
243

(2456677) (223467) (-2356677)


DC# GAb AC# F#D FD
œ œ
__ __ __ __ __
#œ œ œ œ r nœ ™
189 F# Eb G# F C#

& ‰™ R Œ 3 ‰ #œ œ œ
J ‰
Alto œ 4 ‰ ™ bœ œ Œ
œ ™ #œ
œ bœ 3 #œ ™ nœ #œ œJ ‰ Œ œ ™ #œ
& #œnœnœ#œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ 4 œ #œ

Gtr.

? Œ #œ ‰ œ 3 œœœ œ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ


J ‰™ r 4
Bass
#œ œ 3 3 3 3 3 3

? Œ j‰ ‰ j j ‰ 3 ‰ bœj ‰
#œ 4 b œj ‰ j‰ ‰
œ œnœ œ
Tba.

#œ œ nœ ™
(223345-7) (-2-3+4566)
5 AbC AbC GC# BG FGb
bœ œ
__

4 ≈ J ≈ ≈ œ œbœ
192 __
F __
G __
C __
E Bb

& ‰™ œ œ #œ ‰ ™ œ ≈ bœJ ™ Œ 5
Alto R J R 4 4
nœ ¿ ¿ 3 œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ #œ œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿ bœ
& nœ ¿ ¿ ‰ œ ¿ ¿ 4 ¿ ¿ #œ œ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿ bœ 5
Gtr.
J 4 4

? ≈ bœJ ™ œ œ 4 æ˙ œ œ œ
‰ J 5
Bass ææ 4 4

? ‰ j ‰ bœj œj ‰ 4
4 Œ Œ œ#œ 45
Tba.
œ œ
Ϫ
(-233446) (223345-7)
GAb CDb GbAb DF C#F
nœ œb œ œ
__ __ ___ __ __

‰ œJ ‰ ™ œ #œ ˙™
194 D G F E C
5
&4 ‰ J Œ ‰ J ‰ 4
Alto R 4
bœ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿ œ œ bœ œ
5 bœ œ ‰ bbœœ ™ œ œ œ˙ 4
& 4 ≈ bœ ¿ ¿ œ ¿ ¿ œ œJ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ˙

b Jœ J œ™ 4
J J
Gtr.
nœ ™ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ™ œ™ # œ œ ææ
?5 ‰ J ≈J ≈J J ‰ n˙ 4
Bass 4 4

?5 œ ≈≈œ ≈œ‰ ≈œ‰ ≈ œr ≈ œr ≈ œr ‰ ≈ ≈ ‰™ r j‰ ≈ j 4


Tba. 4R R R R œœ œ œ 4
œ™ œ
244

(22-345-67) (2456677)
4 BbA EbAb EA
__ DC#
__
__ ___
j
G C C# F#

œ œ ≈ ≈ œR bœ œ œ œ œ™
196
4
& 4 ‰™ ≈ ∑ 3
Alto
R J 4
j j3 j 3
3

4
&4 Œ b œ nœ bœ ‰ ‰ n
#œ nœ # œœ #œ Œ #œ œ œ ‰ œ
œ 4
bœ ™ nœ bœ n œ n œ œ œ
Gtr.

#œ #œ
bœ™ œ™ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ
bœ œ œ nœ
?4 ≈ J ‰ J J ‰ 3

Bass 4 4

?4 ≈ j ≈ j Œ j ‰ ‰ j Œ
3
4˙ 4
œ™ #œ ™
Tba.
œ #œ
(223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)
GAb
__ AC# F#D FD
Eb
__
G# __
F
__
C# 5 AbC
__
F
AbC
__
G
œ#œ œ
198
3
&4 ∑ #œ Œ œ#œnœ#œ nœ#œ ≈ Ó 4
Alto 4

3 ‰ bœj Œ #œ œ nœ #œ œ œ ¿ ¿r ‰ #œr œ ™ ¿ œ ‰ 44
3 3

&4 œ nœ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿
bœ #œ œnœ#œ œ œ ¿ ¿ #œ œ ™ œ nœ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿J
Gtr.

œ œn œ bœ
?3 ‰J‰ JJ ‰ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ ‰ ‰ œ œœ4
3

Bass 4 #œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ bœJ œJ œ4
?3 ‰ jŒ j 4
Tba. 4 bœ ‰ 4
bœ #œ #œ œ nœ ™ œ b œ œ œ œ œ™
(-2-3+4566) (-233446)
GC# BG FGb
__ GAb CDb
201 __
C __
E Bb __
D __
G
4
&4 ∑ 5 ∑
Alto 4
#œ œ bœ œ œœ bœ œ
4
&4 ‰ #œJ œ ‰ ‰ œœ ‰ bbœœ 5
4 ≈ bœ ‰ œ ≈ œœ ‰ ‰ bœJ œJ ‰
Gtr.
J J J R J R J
?4 ¿ œ œj ‰ ¿ œ bœ œœ 5 ≈œ‰
œ œ
œ ‰ œ ¿j ‰ œ œ œj ‰
Bass 4 ¿ œ œ ¿ œ bœ 4 R R R
?4 j ‰ ‰ j 5 j ‰
4 4 r‰ r≈ r‰ ≈ r‰
œ œ œ
œ bœ ™ œ#œ œ œ œ œ
Tba.

œ œ
245

(223345-7) (22-345-67)
GbAb DF C#F BbA EbAb EA
__
203 ___
F __
E __
C 4 __
G ___
C C#

∑ 4 ∑
Alto & 4
Ϫ
bœ œ œ
& bœJ ≈œ‰ œJ ‰ œœ œ™
‰ 4Œ
4 ‰ bœ bœ #œ nœ
Gtr.
R J
æ J n¿ ¿ œ œ
? ≈œ‰ œ ‰ #œr ‰ nœj j
œ œ ‰ 4‰ œ œ
4
j
ŠϪ
j
≈#œ ™
Bass R R
3

? 4 j j
‰ ‰ ‰™ r ‰™ r 4 ≈ œ™ ≈#œ ™
Tba.
œœ œœ
œ ˙
œ œ
(2456677) (223467) (-2356677) (223345-7)
DC#
__ GAb
__ AC#
__ F#D FD
__ AbC AbC
205 F# Eb G# __
F C# 5 __
F __
G

∑ 3 ∑ ∑ ∑ 4
Alto & 4 4
j

& bœ bœ Œ bœnœ œ œ 43 ≈bœ ™ ≈#œj™ #œ ™ œœ œ œJ ‰ œ ™#œ nœ Œ œJ ‰ 44
Gtr.
¿¿ œ
? Œ ≈ nœj™ 43 bœ ˙ œ œ#œ bœbœ bœ œœœ ‰ nœj 44
Bass
#œ œ 3

? Œ ‰ j ≈ j 43 ≈ r‰ ≈ Œ Œ bœ ‰ j 44
Tba.
#œ œ #œ ™ bœ #œ œ œ œ™ # œj œ nœ

(-2-3+4566) (-233446)
GC# BG FGb
__ GAb CDb
209 __
C __
E Bb __
D __
G
4 ∑ 5 ∑
Alto &4 4
4 j j 5 r j r j
‰ bœJ œJ ‰
& 4 ‰ #œJ œJ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ bœ 4 ≈bœ ‰ œ ≈ œ œ ‰
œ œ œ
Gtr.
œœ œ œ œ œœ œ
? 44 œ œ Œ 5
Ϫ R ŠŠR 4
Bass ≈ Œ J ≈R

? 44 Œ ‰ bœj ‰ œ 5
4 ≈ œR ≈ œR ‰™ œ ‰ ™ œr ≈ œr ≈ œr ‰ ™ r
Tba.
J R œ
œ
246

(223345-7)
GbAb DF C#F
211 ___
F __
E __
C

Alto & ∑
j Uæ
Gtr. & b œ ≈ œr ‰ œ
j ‰ œ
j
˙æ
œ bœ ¿ U
Bass
? R ‰ R ‰ J Œ #˙

? r U
‰™ ≈ ‰™ r
Tba.
œ œ œ œ ˙
247

Appendix 1.3: To Undertake My Corners Open transcriptions

To Undertake My Corners Open


(written material score)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)

(223467) (-2-34-677) (-23447)


BbB FA DB DG GF#
A
4 2
Gb G# A F# C#
Fl. & ‰™ Œ Œ 4 ∑ 4 ∑ ∑
œ œ œ
& ‰™ Œ Œ 4‰œ
4 œ œ œ ‰ J 42 Œ ≈R ≈R ‰ ™ #œR ≈ œR ‰
Gtr.
J
bœ œ œ bœ œ œœ œ #œ #œ œ nœ #œ
Tbn.
? œb œ
‰ ‰ ≈ R 44 J ‰ ‰ J J ≈ R œR ‰ ™ 42 œœ œ#œ R ‰ ™ ‰
œ

j j
3 3

? ‰™ Œ Œ 4 2
Bass 4 bœ ™ #œ ™ œ 4 #œj ‰ ‰ #œ Œ ‰ #œ

FF# (-2445-6) EbA


__ (-23445-67) GbDb (-2445-6)
4 ___
7
C Bb F
Fl. & ∑ ∑ ∑ 4
r j œ œ 7
Gtr. & ≈ #œ ‰ ‰ œ
J ‰ J ‰ ‰ bœJ œ œ 4
# œ n œ œ œ™ œ œ
Tbn.
? ‰ ≈ bœ œ œ
J
œ ‰ 7
4
? <#>œ j 7
nœ œ ‰ ‰ bœ ‰ ‰ j j ‰ 4
Bass
œ œ
AG# (-23445-67> FC# EA
7 C# F
7 4
C

Fl. &4 ∑ 4
#œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ n œ æœ œœ
Gtr.
7
&4 Œ œ #œ ææ æR ‰ ™ ≈ œ nœ œ nœ œ 44

Tbn.
? 47 ∑ 4
4

? 47 ≈ #œr ≈ œr ≈ œ bœ ≈ ‰ ™ nœ n œR œ bœ 4
Bass R ‰™ ≈ #œR ≈ œr ≈ #œR ≈ œR œ ≈ 4
248

EbBb >-2-34-677) BbE D#E


(22-345-67) A#B CE
(23+4-6-7)
bœ œ œ
___ __
E Eb G# C F#
4 J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ œ™
8

∑ 2 ∑ 5
Fl. &4 J 4 4
bœ œ œ nœ œ
4 J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ œ™ œ
‰ J œ œ™ Œ J 2 œ™ 5
Gtr. &4 J 4‰ 4
œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
3

? 44 ≈ ≈≈ œ #œ ‰ ‰ œ#œ nœJ ‰ ‰ ™ œR 42 œ ™ #œ œ #œ 5
4
Tbn. J
3 3

Bass
? 44 Œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ™ œ 2 #œ ™
J 4
œ 45
J

n œ GA
(224667) (223347)
AD G#F F#A FG
œ
5 #œ œ ™#œ#œ nœ# œ R ‰™ ‰ J 6 Œ #œ ‰ ≈nœ ≈ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈ #œJ ≈
11 C# A F# F E
4
Fl. &4 4 J J J J 4
œ œ
5 Œ æ J ‰ ‰ œ ™ 6 ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰™ œr œj ‰ ‰ œj 4
Gtr. &4 4 œ #œ 4
œ
# œ œ™# œ #œ œ 6 #œnœ œ œ œ n œ œ œ# œ œ
Tbn.
? 45 R ‰™ ‰™ R J ‰ 4 Œ ≈ J ‰ ≈ œ 4
4

? 45 ‰#œj œ™ œ œ™ 6
4 #œ œ œ
4
Bass œ ˙ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4

(22334-67) EbGb
___ (-2+45-67>

bœ bœnœ œ œ B
FE GB Db G#A DA
13 E¨ A¨
4 6
D C#

Fl. &4 Œ ‰ J ‰ ≈ ∑ 4
œbœ œ œnœ #œnœ
&4
4‰ œ œ
J ≈ œ Œ ‰ #œ J ≈nœr 46
J
Gtr.

b œ b œ
? 44
œbœnœ œ œb œ œ n œ nœ œ 6
Tbn. ‰ ≈ ≈ ∑ 4
#œ œ
? 44 bœ ™ œ bœ bœ ‰ J ‰ #œnœ œ #œ 6
4
Bass
J
249

>-2+45-67)
DE¨ EbA GD DE¨ AbEb DG#
15 __ ___
6 4 3
A¨ Ab A¨ G D C#
Fl. &4 ∑ 4 ∑ 4
b œ b œ œœb œ œ n œ œ
6 b œ œ œnœ ≈ ≈ bœnœ ™ 4 ≈#œ œnœ œ œœ ≈≈ œœ ≈ ≈ ≈ 3
Gtr. & 4 ææ nœ 4 #œ œ 4

Tbn.
? 46 ∑ 4
4 ∑ 3
4
œ œ
? 46 ‰ j r j ‰ 44 œ ≈≈ R ‰ œ ≈ R ‰ #œj ‰ 43
Bass b¿ œ ‰ ™ œ œ œ œ ¿ R J

œbœ
(-2-34466) EC EbB (-2356677) AbDb (-2-3446)
GE __ DB ___
17 D C
3 2 7
B E¨ C#

Fl. &4 ∑ 4 ∑ Œ ‰ ≈ 4
œ
3

3 œ œ 2 bœ œ œ 7
Gtr. &4 Œ 4 ‰ œ ‰
J
œ
J 4
nœ œ #œ œ
? 43 j b œ œ œ œ 2bœ œ bœ nœ œ œ ≈b œ 7
‰ œ 4 ≈≈ 4
œ
Tbn.

Bass
? 43 ‰ œ™ bœ 2
4 œ™ #œ
j
nœ œ 7
4

(2245667)
EbC
C
œ
__ FC BbG
n œ b œ œ bœ œ nœ E¨œ bœ n œB bœ
E __

œ œ J ‰ ‰
20
7 4
&4 J ‰ ≈
Fl.
nœ œ J ‰ 4
œ œ œ
7<b>œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ J ‰ Œ 4
Gtr. &4 ææ J æJ æ 4
œ œ
nœ œ
Tbn.
? 47 Œ ‰ bœJ Œ ‰ J ‰ J Œ 4
4

? 47 œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ™
bœ ™ J ≈ 44
œ ˙
Bass
250

(34457) (22334-67) DE
F#G#
œ™ # œ n œ œnœnœ#œ
GF# DG
#œ œnœ
F#
G
# œ n œ œ
C
#œ nœ œ

b œ
21
4 nœ J ‰ ‰ ™ R 45 R ≈ ≈ R 6
Fl. &4 ≈ 4

4 #œ œ
≈ œr œr ≈ J ≈ œ 5 #œ œ œ™ œ™
J ≈ ‰ nœJ œ œ 6
&4 J œæ œæ 4 ‰ J 4
æ æ ™
Gtr.

#œ ™ #œ
? 44 #œ œ ‰ ™ ‰ ™ n œR 5 #œ œ nœ ™
‰ R ≈ ≈ J ‰ #œR ≈ 46
Tbn. R 4 ‰ J Œ
? 44 ‰ œ™ ‰ bœj œ œ 45 Œ 6
4
Bass
œ œ™ œ œ #œ œ

(-2-34466) C#D

EbBb F#B
œ b œ n œ ™ #œ œ
___ G#
nœ #œ #œ J
23 A F
6
Fl. &4 Œ ≈ ‰ ‰
œ œ
6 bœ œ ≈ œJ ™ J J
Gtr. & 4 ‰™ R Œ ‰ ‰

? 46 ≈ nœ ™ œ #œ nœ #œ œ œ nœ œ
Tbn. J Œ ‰™ R #œ œ œ
3

? 46 j
Bass œ™ œ œ #œ nœ œ œ

D (-2-345-6-7)
AC F#B AC
24
B E¨ E
Fl. & ∑

& ‰ œ œ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œJ
Gtr.
J J J
nœ ™ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ # œ n œ
? R ≈ J œ œ #œ
Tbn. ‰ ‰ ≈ ‰

œ œ
? œ œ™ bœ
≈ bœJ ™ ≈ R ≈ nœR ≈ œR ≈ œR œ

Bass
251

(223345-7) (-2334466)
AC# FF# EbGb BbB GB BE¨
___
F __
25 G# C# Ab F# B¨

∑ 4 ∑ 7
Fl. & 4 4

‰ # œ œ ‰ ‰ j bœJ ‰ ≈œR ‰ ≈ œ ™ 44 Œ ‰œ Œ bœ 7
4
& J J #œ J J bœ
Gtr.

œ n œ b œ n œ œ
? ≈#œ œnœn œ œ ≈# œJ ≈ ≈œR‰ œ bœnœ bœ ‰ 44 # œ œ™ R ‰™ 7
4
Tbn.
3
J

? #œ ‰ œ≈ j bœ 4 # œ # œ nœ#œ bœ œ 7
Bass J ‰ J #œ ™ œ œœ œ ≈ R‰4 ≈ J ‰ ‰™ R ≈ nœ 4

(-2334577)
bœ œ
GB (34457)
œœ
DF# EB
œ™ b œ œ
F#B CB
b˙ œ™ n œ # ˙
A¨ F
27 B G G¨
7 ‰ ™ R J ‰ 43 Œ 4
Fl. &4 4
œœ #œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ
7 J 3 J 44
Gtr. &4 Ó ‰ ≈ ≈J ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ 4‰J Œ ‰
œb œ œbœ œ œ bœ œœ bœ œ
3

Tbn.
? 47 ŠϪ
J
œ
‰ #œ œ œ œ 3 œ
‰ R 4 bœ
™ 4
4
3 3

? 47 bœ ‰bœnœœbœ œ œnœ œ™ œ œ œ ‰ nœJ œ 3 ™ 4


4 bœj ≈ œr œ œ œ œ 4
Bass
J 3
3

AbB (223345-7)
b œ GB
__

œbœ
G FA (3344-67)
EbA
œnœ
BbA
__ __
29 F# E F Bb
4 J ‰™ R J ‰
Fl. &4 ‰ Œ Œ ≈ Ó

4 ‰ œ œ ‰ ‰ œj œ œ œ œœœœ œœ
&4 J J ‰ J ≈ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ ≈ œœ
R R
Gtr.

œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œbœ

Tbn.
? 44 ‰ ™ R J ‰ ‰ nœ œ œ œ œ J ‰ ≈ Œ
# œ œ œ™
3
bœ œ
œ
? 44 ‰ j nœ œ ≈ œ œ ‰ ™ RJ ‰
œ œ
Bass
252

To Undertake My Corners Open


(full transcription)
Henry Threadgill (trans. G Hill)

written material (223467) (-2-34-677)


BbB FA DB DG
A Gb G# A F#
4 2
Fl. & 4 ‰™ Œ Œ ∑ 4 ∑
œ œ œ
4 J 42 Œ
Gtr. & 4 ‰™ Œ ‰ œ Œ œ œ œ ‰
J
≈R ≈R
bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ
? 44 œb œ ‰ ‰ ≈R J ‰ ‰ J J ≈ R œR ‰ ™ 2 œ œ œbœ# œR ‰™
Tbn. 4
? 44 ‰ ™ Œ Œ œ
2
4 #œj ‰ ‰ #œj
Bass
bœ ™ #œ ™

GF# (-23447) FF# (-2445-6) EbA GbDb


__ (-23445-67) ___ (-2445-6)
3 C# C Bb F

∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 7
Fl. & 4
#œ œ œ œ 7
‰ R ≈ R ‰ ≈ r‰ ‰ j J ‰ J ‰ ‰ bœJ œ œ 4
Gtr. & ™ #œ œ
#œ œ nœ #œ œ œ™ œ œ
œ # œ n œ bœ
Tbn.
? ‰ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ
J ‰ 7
4
j j
3 3
? Œ ‰ #œ œ nœ œ ‰ ‰ bœ ‰ ‰ j j ‰ 7
Bass
œ œ 4

Guitar/Bass figure 1 (-23445-67>


AG# FC# EA
7 C# F
7
C

Fl. &4 ∑
#œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ n œ æœ œœ
Gtr.
7
&4 Œ œ #œ æ æR ‰ ™ ≈ œ nœ œ nœ œ

Tbn.
? 47 ∑
? 47 ≈ #œr ≈ œr ≈ œ bœ ≈ ‰ ™ nœ n œR œ bœ
Bass R ‰™ ≈ #œR ≈ œr ≈ #œR ≈ œR œ ≈
253

AG# FC# EA
8 C# C F

Fl. & ∑
#œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ n œ æœ œ œ œ nœ œ nœ œ
Gtr. & Œ æ æR ‰ ™ ≈

Tbn.
? ∑

? ≈ #œr ≈ œr ≈ œ bœ ≈ ‰ ™ nœ n œ r
Bass R R ‰™ ≈ #œR ≈ œ ≈ #œR ≈ œR ≈ œ œ ≈

AG# FC# EA
9 C# C F

Fl. & ∑
#œ œ œ nœ œ œœ
Gtr. & Œ #œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ æ ææR ‰ ™ ≈ œ nœ œ nœ œ

Tbn.
? ∑

Bass
? #œ #œ ≈ œr ≈ œR ≈ œr ≈ œr ≈ œR R ≈ ‰ ≈ #œR ≈ œr ≈ œR ≈ œR ≈ œ œ ≈

AG# FC# EA
10 C# F
4
C

Fl. & ∑ 4
#œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ n œ æœ œ œ œ nœ œ nœ œ 4
Gtr. & Œ æ æR ‰ ™ ≈ 4

? ∑ 4
Tbn. 4

? #œ #œ ≈ œr ≈ œ r œ n œR ≈ ‰ ≈ #œR ≈ œr ≈ œR ≈ œR ≈ œ œ 4
Bass œ œ≈R
≈ 4
254

>-2-34-677) (22-345-67) (23+4-6-7)


EbBb BbE D#E A#B CE
bœ œ œ
___ __
E Eb C G# F#
4 J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ œ™
11

∑ 2 ∑ 5
Fl. &4 J 4 4
bœ œ œ œ œ œ™ Œ n œJ œ
4 J ‰ J ‰ ‰ J ≈ œ™ ‰ 2 œ™ 5
Gtr. &4 J J 4‰ 4
œ œ œœ œ œ œœ
3

? 44 ≈ ≈ ≈ œ #œ ‰ ‰ œ #œ nœJ ‰ ‰ ™ œR 42 œ ™ #œ œ #œ 5
4
Tbn. J
3 3

? 44 Œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ™ œ 2 #œ ™ œ 45
Bass œœ J 4 J

(224667) (223347)
AD G#F nœ GA F#A FG

# œ # œ œ
™ #œ nœ R ‰ ™ ‰ J 6 ≈nœJ ≈ ‰ œJ œJ ‰ ≈ #œJ ≈ 44
14 C# A F# F E
5
Fl. & 4 #œ œ 4 Œ #œ
J

œ œ
5 Œ æ J ‰ ‰ œ™ 6 ‰ œj ‰
j r j j
œ ‰ ™ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ #œ 44
Gtr. &4 4
œ
# œ œ™# œ #œ œ #œnœ œ œ œ n œ œœ œ# œ œ
Tbn.
? 45 R ‰™ ‰ ™ R J ‰ 46 Œ ≈ J ‰ ≈ 4
4

? 45 ‰#œj œ™ œ œ™ 6
4 #œ œ œ œ
4
4
Bass œ ˙ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ

(22334-67) EbGb
___
œ œ
FE GB Db
16 E¨
bœ A¨ bœ nœ
4 J 8
Fl. &4 Œ ‰ ‰ ≈ 4

4 œ œ 8
Gtr. &4 ‰ J ≈ œ™
J
Π4

œ bœ nœ bœ œ œ bœ œ n œ nœ œ
Tbn.
? 44 ‰ ≈ ≈ 8
4

? 44 bœ ™ œ bœ 8
Bass
J bœ 4
255

Trombone solo 1st form (long meter)


A BbB (223467) FA DB
17 Gb G# A
8 4
Fl. &4 Ú 4
8 j
Gtr. &4 Œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 44
bœnœ œ bœnœnœ œ œ
œœ œ
Tbn.
? 48 Œ ‰ J ‰ ‰ Œ ≈ ≈ ≈ nœ #œ 44

? 48 j 4
4
Bass
bœ ™ œ œ #œ œ œ œ n˙

DG (-2-34-677) GF# (-23447)


18 F# C#
4 ∑ ∑
Fl. &4

4
Gtr. & 4 #œj ‰ Œ œœ‰ ≈ r‰ Œ #œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ
# œ œ #œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Tbn.
? 44 #œ œ ™ œ Œ ‰ œ
œ
≈R ≈ ≈
6

? 44 j ‰ ‰ j Œ j j
‰ #œ ‰ œ œ nœ œ œ
Bass
#œ œ œ œ

FF# (-2445-6) EbA


__ (-23445-67)
20 C Bb

Fl. & ∑ ∑

‰ ™ n#œœr ≈n#œœr ‰ ‰ n#œœr ≈ Ó j


Gtr. & Œ œ bœœ ™™ œœ ‰
#œ n œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ™ # œ œ œ œ bœ
Tbn.
? Œ Œ ≈

? nœj ‰ ‰ œj œ œ ™ ‰ bœj j
œ ‰ ‰ j j
Bass œ œ ‰ œ
256

rpt to bar 2, A section


GbDb DG (-2-34-677)
22 ___
F
(-2445-6)
F#

Fl. & ∑ ∑

& Œ j ‰ bœ œ bœ œ ‰ Œ Ó
Gtr.
bœ œ™ nœ œ

#œ œœ œ b œ œ œ nœ
? ≈ œ œ œ ‰ ™ ≈ #œR ≈ R œ œ #œ œ œ
Tbn. R
? ‰ j ‰ j j ‰ #œ œ
Bass
œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ

GF# (-23447) FF# (-2445-6)


24 C# C

Fl. & ∑ ∑
j
& Œ ‰ ‰ #œR ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ≈#nœœ ™™ œ œœ
œ œœ
# œ œ œ
Gtr.
<b> œ œ œ œœ #œ #œ œ
œ # œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ nœ
3

? n¿ #œ#œ nœ#œ R
Tbn. ‰™ R ≈ Œ ‰™ R
#œ ™ nœ
? #œ nœ #œ œj ‰ ≈J Œ nœ Œ
3

Bass œ œ œ

EbA
__ (-23445-67) GbDb
26 Bb ___
F
(-2445-6)

∑ ∑ 7
Fl. & 4
bœ œ 7
& j ‰ ≈bœœ œœ œœœbœ b œ
Œ ≈
œ œ œ œ œ 4
bœ œœœœ œ
Gtr.

œ œ bœ

œ
Tbn.
? bœ œ ≈ œR œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ nœ
≈ 7
4

? bœj ‰ ‰ j j 7
Bass œ Œ œ ‰ ‰ j ≈ j
œ œ œ œ™ œ œ 4
257

(regular meter) (-23445-67>


AG# FC# EA
28 C# F
7 8
C

Fl. &4 ∑ 4

7 #œ ™ œ 8
& 4 #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ 4
#œ œ œ œ
Gtr.

#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ # œ œ
Tbn.
? 47 ΠŠ8
4

Bass
? 47 #œ œ œ n˙ œ œ 8
4

(long meter) >-2-34-677)


EbBb BbE
__
___
E
29 Eb
8
Fl. &4 Ú

8 ‰™ bœr ≈ j
œœ ™ ≈ œ ‰ ‰ œ ≈ œ ‰ ‰ nœœ œœ ‰ œ nœ œ œ œ œ
3

&4 b œ R n Rœ b Rœ b œ
Gtr.
™ ™
˙ œ œbœ œ œ nœbœ nœ
Tbn.
? 48 Œ ‰™ R ≈ bœ nœ

? 48 j bœ œ œ œ
œ™ œ œ œ œ œ
Bass

(22-345-67)
D#E A#B
30 G#
2
C

Fl. & Ú 4
r j
Gtr. & Œ ≈#œœR ≈œœR œœJ ‰ œ œ Œ ‰™ #nœœ ≈ œœ ™™ œœœœœœœœ 42
œ n œ œ œ ™ #œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ # œ n œ # œ 2
Tbn.
? nœ ≈ R ≈R Œ 4
œ œ œ
3

? œ™ J #œ œ 2
Bass
œ œ #œ œ œ™ œ nœ 4
258

(regular meter) (23+4-6-7)


CE
31 F#
2 ∑ 10
Fl. &4 4

2 œj ‰ œœ
j
‰ 10
Gtr. &4 œ 4
œ œ
#œ nœ
Tbn.
? 42 ‰ ™ R ≈ R 10
4

? 42 j 10
4
Bass
#œ ™ œ

(long meter) (224667)


AD G#F
32 C# A
10 ∑
Fl. &4

Gtr.
10
&4 Œ ≈ œR ≈ œr Œ œœ‰ Œ ‰ œœœœ Œ ≈ œ œ œ œœœ œ
œ œ™ œ œ ™ # œ œ™ n œ # œ œ œœ nœ œ œ œnœ
#œ#œ #œnœ#œnœ ‰ ™
? 10
4 R ‰™ Œ ≈
Tbn. R
3

? 10 j œ œ œ œ
Bass 4 #œ ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ J

(223347)
GA
33 F#
12
[split bar]
Fl. &4 ∑

12 r ≈ œj™
Gtr. & 4 œr ‰ œ œ œ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ

Tbn.
? 12
4 ≈ œ œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ ˙

? 12 #œ œ œ™ œ
6

4 J J ‰
Bass
#œ ™
259

F#A FG
F E
8
Fl. & Ú 4

8
Gtr. & ≈ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ™
j Œ‰ ‰ œœœœœ≈4
œ œ
? <#>œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ ‰ ‰™

R 48
≈#œ œ œ#œ œ Œ
Tbn.
J R
? ≈ j nœ œ #œ 8
Bass
nœ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ
4

(22334-67)
FE GB EbGb
___
34 E¨ A¨ Db
8 4
Fl. &4 Ú 4

8
&4 Œ ≈ œ #œ œJ ‰ Œ ‰ œ œ œ œR ≈ œj #œ œ 4
4
Gtr.
J
b œ œ œ œ œ œœ
bœ œ b œ œ œ n œ œ b œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ
n œ n
Tbn.
? 48 ‰™ R ≈ ‰™ R 4
4

? 48 bœ œ œ œ nœ bœ ™ œ bœ œ œ b œ 4
Bass œ bœ n œ œ bœ ™
4

Trombone solo 2nd form: starting bar 2


DG (-2-34-677) GF# (-23447)
35 F# C#
4 ∑ ∑
Fl. &4

4 r ‰ ™ #œr