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Geography Summary

KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack


Project three – The Big Debate

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The Big Debate


summary
Today’s world, from the local scale outside our front door to the
global scale, is faced with a number of fundamental and critical
issues. These issues affect people irrespective of gender, ethnicity,
nationality or wealth. The issues include crime, inequality, health
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

and global warming. However, though many of the issues are


genuinely global, their origins and potential can be traced down
to local-scale activity. That is where this project begins.
School students are entitled to learn about these issues: how they were
caused, their effects and the possible ways of dealing successfully with
them. In addition, students should be encouraged to become part of the
solutions to these issues – participating creatively to offer ideas and act
on them.
In this project, the students will look in detail at the issue of car use as
this is an issue that ranges from the local scale to the global scale and
has implications for the entire world. The students will be able to:
• Identify different car uses
• Discuss the reasons for car use and its effects, including the effects
on a personal level
• Suggest and explain alternatives to car use, with a focus on a sustainable
solution – cycling
• Evaluate the different perspectives and values within the debate,
including the political and economic aspects.
The project consists of three lessons:
Lesson 1 – No more cars, anymore?
Lesson 2 – Decisions, decisions
Lesson 3 – Cycling versus cars: viewpoints and opinions
The project is structured so that teachers may choose a number of strategies.
The Big Debate might be part of a week of cross-curricular project work, or it
could be used as part of a scheme of work to deliver a number of successive
lessons, or as stand-alone lessons to support other topics.
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teaching delivery map
Areas within the Key Stage 3 (KS3) Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA)
scheme of work
Unit no. Subject Unit summary
1.1 Place Understanding the physical and human

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


characteristics of real places.
1.3 Scale Appreciating different scales at the personal
and local to national scales.
Making links between scales to develop
understanding of geographical ideas.
1.4 Interdependence Exploring the social, economic, environmental
and political connections between places.
1.2 Space Understanding the interactions between
places and the networks created by flows
of information, people and goods.
1.5 Physical and human processes Understanding how sequences of events
and activities in the physical and human
worlds lead to change in places, landscapes
and societies.
1.6 Environmental interaction and Understanding that the physical and human
sustainable development dimensions of the environment are interrelated
and together influence environmental change.
Exploring sustainable development and its
impact on environmental interaction and
climate change.
1.7 Cultural understanding Appreciating how people’s values and
and diversity attitudes differ and may influence social,
environmental, economic and political issues,
and developing their own values and attitudes
about such issues.
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The Big Debate


teaching delivery map
Areas within the KS3 QCA scheme of work (continued)
Unit no. Subject Unit summary
2.1 Geographical enquiry Students should be able to:
a) ask geographical questions, thinking critically,
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

constructively and creatively


b) display information
c) analyse and evaluate evidence, presenting
findings to draw and justify conclusions
d) find creative ways of using and applying
geographical skills and understanding to create
new interpretations of place and space
e) solve problems and make decisions to
develop analytical skills and creative thinking
about geographical issues
2.3 and Graphicacy and visual literacy and Students should be able to:
2.4 geographical communication a) use photographs and other geographical data
b) communicate their knowledge and
understanding using geographical vocabulary
and conventions in both speech and writing
The study of geography should include:
a) a variety of scales, from personal, local,
regional, national, international and continental,
to global
b) a range of investigations, focusing on places,
themes or issues
c) key aspects of the UK, including its changing
human geography, current issues and its place
in the world today
d) human geography, built and managed
environments and human processes
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The Big Debate


teaching delivery map
Areas within the KS3 QCA scheme of work (continued)
Unit no. Subject Unit summary
e) interactions between people and their
environments, including causes and

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


consequences of these interactions, and how
to plan for and manage their future impact
During the key stage students should be
offered the following opportunities that are
integral to their learning and enhance their
engagement with the concepts, processes
and content of the subject.
The curriculum should provide opportunities
for students to:
a) build on and expand their personal
experiences of geography
b) explore real and relevant contemporary
contexts
c) use varied resources, including maps, visual
media and geographical information systems
d) examine geographical issues in the news
e) make links between geography and other
subjects, including citizenship and ICT, and
areas of the curriculum including sustainability
and the global dimension

Source: www.qca.org.uk
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teaching delivery map
Areas within a School Travel Plan (STP)
Section of the STP How does the project link to the STP criteria?
Part 1 – Tell us about your school • The school is the starting point of a number of the
activities within The Big Debate and will offer ample
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opportunity for this to be covered, for example in


Lessons 2 and 3
Part 2 – What are the issues • A brief description of the travel/transport problems
at your school? faced by the school/cluster of schools, including
students’ travel needs:
– journeys to and from school at normal start/
finish times
– journeys to attend pre- and after-school events, and
– journeys made during the school day to attend
activities at other locations.
The Big Debate will discuss personal travel journeys
and the issues that students see and experience,
including specific focus on transport issues within
the school’s catchment area
Part 3 – How has everyone • Involves whole classes across KS3 and can be the
been involved? basis of displays and assemblies to raise awareness
across all ages of students
• Discussions cover how students currently travel
to/from school and how they would like to travel
to/from school
• All interested parties have been consulted: student
participation is key to much of the content of The
Big Debate
Part 4 – What exactly do you • Raises awareness of traffic issues
want the plan to achieve? • Develops sustainable and practical solutions
• influences behaviour at individual, collective and
organisational levels
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Areas within a School Travel Plan (STP) (continued)
Section of the STP How does the project link to the STP criteria?
Part 5 – How are you going • Makes proposals to develop sustainable transport
to achieve it? integral to The Big Debate

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• Uses The Big Debate as the starting point for
a whole-school approach to healthier and
sustainable travel
Part 6 – Monitoring, reviewing • The themes of The Big Debate can be revisited
and progress reporting and reviewed throughout KS3 and KS4
• One of the activities is specifically aimed at contacting
Transport for London (TfL) with the students’ ideas
and plans for transport solutions
Source: Transport for London

Areas within Every Child Matters (ECM)


Objective How does the project link to the ECM objective?
Be healthy Promotes healthy form of travel and discusses pollution
and the health issues of using motorised transport.
Stay safe Considers the hazards of cycling on the public road,
and also the hazard of pedestrians in urban areas.
Enjoy and achieve Innovative, active and practical learning which will form
the basis of a competitive and sustainable learning.
Make a positive contribution Contributes to the debate about local transport issues,
sustainability and congestion and will increase the
capacity of young people to engage in debate within
their communities.
Achieve economic well-being Raises the issue of how local issues and transport
issues impact on the well-being of everyone.
Source: Department for Children, Schools and Families
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Areas within Healthy Schools (HS)
Core themes In what way does the project link to the HS core theme?
Personal, Social and Health PSHE and The Big Debate contribute significantly to all
Education (PSHE) five national outcomes for children/young people: being
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a


positive contribution and economic well-being.
PSHE provides children/young people with the
knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes to make
informed decisions about their lives, which includes
The Big Debate project containing decision making,
community awareness, healthy living and unhealthy
living awareness, progression and achievement, team
skills and confidence building, among others. Its raising
of the context of government priorities is a bridge to
the wider decision-making environment.
Healthy eating By inference a healthier lifestyle will include healthy
diets and this can form part of the evaluation and
discussions within The Big Debate.
Physical activity • The Big Debate encourages and promotes cycling
• Physical activity contributes significantly to the
‘being healthy’ national outcome for children
• Students are provided with a range of opportunities
to be physically active
• They understand how physical activity can help them
to be more healthy, and how physical activity can
improve and be a part of their everyday life, which
is emphasised by the raising of awareness of the
cycling routes and support available in London
The Big Debate is a fully consultative and
participatory project.
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Areas within Healthy Schools (HS) (continued)
Core themes In what way does the project link to the HS core theme?
Emotional health and well-being • Emotional health and well-being contributes
significantly to all five national outcomes for

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


children/young people: being healthy, staying
safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive
contribution and economic well-being
• The promotion of positive emotional health
and well-being helps children/young people to
understand and express their feelings, build
their confidence and emotional resilience, and
therefore their capacity to learn
• The Big Debate’s emphases on team work, respect
for the views of others, the need for cooperation
and mutual support in learning, the fusion of
different skill and talent bases, and the emphasis
on achievement and relevance all contribute to a
positive project for emotional well-being that will
develop confidence and enjoyment of learning
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teaching delivery map
Areas within Sustainable Schools (SS)
By 2020 the Government would like all schools to be models of sustainable travel, where
vehicles are used only when absolutely necessary and where there are exemplary facilities for
healthier, less polluting or less dangerous modes of transport. The rising number of vehicles
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

on the roads leads to congestion, increased road accidents and pollution. During term time cars
on the school run account for 16 per cent of early morning traffic and a measurable increase
in pollutants such as carbon monoxide near schools. It also decreases students’ independent
mobility, reduces their amount of daily exercise and detracts from their awareness of road
safety. Walking and cycling offers a sustainable alternative, providing a valuable boost to
students’ fitness levels, increasing students’ concentration and instilling positive habits for life.1
The Big Debate is an effective and active contributor to the delivery of the
sustainability agenda.
The Travel and Traffic doorway In what way does the project link to the SS doorway?
Curriculum The Big Debate cultivates the knowledge, values and
skills needed to address travel and traffic issues, and
reinforces this through positive activities in the school
and in the local area.
Campus The Big Debate raises the issue of the impact of
students’ travel behaviour and promotes individual
responsibility and policies and facilities for promoting
safe cycling; and reduced motorised transport journeys
to lessen their environmental impact and promote
healthier lifestyles.
Community The Big Debate can be seen in its community context
to encourage students, staff and families to promote
awareness of travel decisions among their stakeholders.
The raised awareness of the issues among students will
allow them to participate more in the decisions and
actions within their own communities.

1
Source: Sustainable Schools National Framework, www.teachernet.gov.uk
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teaching delivery map
Areas within other central government initiatives/programmes
Initiative/programme Explain the project’s link to this initiative/programme
Extended Schools The Big Debate can be the foundation, or an integrated
part, of an extended school activity on transport, travel

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and local community where students become more
actively involved in setting the agenda and offering real
solutions to issues.
Personal Learning and The Big Debate develops a wide range of PLTS and
Thinking Skills (PLTS) can be used as a platform for further development or
as a means of appraising current levels of PLTS. PLTS
in The Big Debate includes: verbal, visual and written
communication; team work; decision making; numeracy;
independent enquiry; self-management; reflective
learning and evaluation; effective participation and
creative thinking.
Enterprise Education The economic and social context of The Big Debate
helps schools deliver enterprise awareness. Enterprise
education includes the capability to handle uncertainty
and respond positively to change, to create and
implement new ideas and ways of doing things, to make
reasonable risk/reward assessments and act upon them
in one’s personal and working life; innovation; risk-
management; a ‘can-do’ attitude and the drive to make
ideas happen – all of which are features of various
aspects of the decision making and judgements that
are part of The Big Debate.
Social and Emotional Aspects The Big Debate develops the qualities and skills that
of Learning (SEAL) help promote positive behaviour and effective learning.
It will develop and promote self-awareness, managing
feelings, motivation, empathy and social skills.
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lesson plans
There are three lessons in this project, based on the following themes:

Lesson 1
No more cars, anymore
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Lesson 2
Decisions, decisions

Lesson 3
Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions
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The Big Debate


lesson 1 – introduction

No more cars, anymore?


This lesson considers the arguments for and against the banning of cars
in London, and the likely impact of this action. There have been a number
of attempts to deal with the urban traffic problem of congestion in cities

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


across the world, from London’s congestion charge to Oxford’s park and
ride scheme, to the integrated transport networks in Curitiba, Brazil and
Lille, France and Birmingham’s experiment of having designated car-share
lanes on the A47. However, the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) has
raised the prominence of another solution – car use restriction – by the
following announcement, published in October 2007:
‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games…
sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the
Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example
of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of
encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by
public transport, walking and cycling.’
Lesson 1 of The Big Debate takes as its focus the scenario that the
car restriction scheme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic
Games could be made city-wide in London. This will encourage students
to reflect on car use, alternatives to car use and the sustainability of cities.
Pedestrianisation of urban areas has occurred in UK cities on a small scale,
but this idea would allow public transport access, but not private cars.
The lesson will evolve through three stages:
i) Individual student reflection and ideas
ii) Small group discussion
iii) Whole-class active debate
The latter stage might lend itself to student-led videoing of the discussion,
which might be shown in an assembly.
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The Big Debate


lesson 1 – introduction

No more cars, anymore? (continued)


Teachers might like to start the lesson by referring back to Project 2 (Local
Community, Local Discovery), Lesson 3, which covers the idea of students
cycling to the Olympic Stadium, ODA’s statement on non-car transport
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modes and related issues.


Students will be asked to consider a proposal that emerges from the above
quote from the ODA:
‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car
modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide
between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’
What are your views of this idea, which in effect bans the use of private cars
between these times?
The students would then be asked initially to research their own ideas on
the internet, by searching for information on the policies and actions of
cities such as Amsterdam, Curibita, Lille, Zurich, Birmingham, Oxford,
Los Angeles, Singapore and Rio de Janeiro, as well as existing policies
in London.
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lesson 1 – worksheet 1

No more cars, anymore?


Read the following two quotes:
‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games…
sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example
of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of
encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by
public transport, walking and cycling.’
The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), published in October 2007

‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car
modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide
between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’
What are your views of an idea which might in effect ban the use of private
cars between these times?

1. Using websites, textbooks, other resources and your own ideas, write
down three advantages of the idea of car restriction across the whole
of London, 07:00 to 19:00 five days a week, and three disadvantages:

Advantage1:

Advantage 2:

Advantage 3:

Disadvantage 1:

Disadvantage 2:

Disadvantage 3:
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lesson 1 – worksheet 1

No more cars, anymore? (continued)


Advantages might include: reduced air pollution; reduced noise pollution;
reduced visual pollution; increased health due to more cycling and walking;
greater safety for pedestrians; more jobs for TfL as more demand for buses
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and Underground services; reduced emissions that contribute to global


climate change; reduced stress from traffic jams.
Disadvantages might include: strain on bus and Underground services
leading to overcrowding; need for more investment in TfL services – who
pays?; impact on shops as ‘passing trade’ decreases; impact on business
as companies move out of London to where car transport is allowed, thus
leading to a fall in income for London; there would need to be provision
for the disabled, elderly and young; politically unpopular in the short term.

2. On balance, do you think that this scheme is a good idea or not?


Ask the students to weigh up the arguments here and think what is best
for London as a whole, not just for them as individuals.

3. Do you think that the scheme would be better if it was less extreme?
For example, if only parts of London were affected or if the times of
the car restriction were shorter?
The principle of car restriction as stated by ODA might be sound, but is
the proposal on the worksheet too extreme? Would the idea still have an
effect if it was for certain parts of London only, or only at peak times?
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lesson 1 – worksheet 1

No more cars, anymore? (continued)


4. From your research and your own ideas, can you briefly describe three
other ways that have been used in named cities to try to reduce the
impact of traffic congestion?

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1.

2.

3.

There are many examples of innovative and successful practice, and some
schemes which have been less successful, or are in their early stages.
These are some of them:
• Amsterdam’s cycling advocacy
www.velomondial.net/velomondiall2000/PDF/LANGENBE.PDF
www.mobility-consultant.com/brm/indu/trafdept/id_tra1.htm
http://asp01.amsterdam.nl/fiets/pdf/Amsterdam_bicycle_policy.pdf
• Cycling more generally
www.camcycle.org.uk/newsletters/65/article15.html
• Birmingham’s car share lanes
www.birmingham.gov.uk/carsharelane.bcc
• Curitiba’s sustainable transport system
www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/curitibaecocity.htm
www.dismantle.org/curitiba.htm
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lesson 1 – worksheet 1

No more cars, anymore? (continued)


• Lille’s integrated transport system
see David Waugh’s The New Wider World, Second Edition,
Nelson Thornes, 2003, ISBN 0 7487 7376 2
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• UK government’s policies
www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/cycling/cyclingpolicyoverview
• London’s cycling promotion
tfl.gov.uk/cycling
• Singapore’s management of transport
urbantransportasia.blogspot.com/2006/01/challenges-for-singapores-
public.html
www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/drivers_urb_change/urb_infrastructure/
pdf_transport/HABITAT_BestPractice_Yuan_Transportation.pdf
http://cars.st701.com/articles/view/345
There are a host of other schemes in cities across the world. The key
ideas from these cities are: car sharing; car pricing; encouraging cycling
and walking; efficient, clean and safe public transport; and integrated
approaches. ‘Car banning’ as such is relatively rare, but restrictions on
car use, both for specific areas and during certain times of the day,
do exist.
Next, students should form into small groups of about four students per
group and discuss the issues, mainly by listening to each other’s ideas about
the ‘ban’ on cars and alternatives to the car that students have discovered
through their research.

5. Now, join up with two or three other people in your class and listen to
each other’s ideas and opinions. Note down the key points that each
person makes in the box below:
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lesson 1 – worksheet 1

No more cars, anymore? (continued)


Finally, the whole class should join up in a debate which starts with
a consideration of four viewpoints similar to these:
1. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for all of London from

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


07:00 to 19:00, Monday to Saturday.’
2. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for the City of London
and Inner London, but not the suburbs, from 07:00 to 19:00, Monday
to Saturday.’
3. ‘I think that there should be a ‘no car policy’ for the City of London and
Inner London for just the morning and evening rush hours, Monday to
Friday, but not for any other times or areas of London.’
4. ‘I think that there should not be a ‘no car policy’ at all and we should
look at other solutions.’
Divide the classroom up into four zones, perhaps guided by four corners
of the room, so that each zone represents one of the four viewpoints
above. Ask each student to stand in one of the zones according to what
they believe is the best solution. If you think it is appropriate, there can
be a neutral zone in the middle of the room, although this might get
overcrowded if students ‘hedge their bets’. Once all the students are in
one of the four zones, ask each zone to speak and debate the issue and
viewpoints. At regular intervals, offer students the chance to swap zone
if they have been influenced by the arguments they’ve heard during the
debate. Remember to head count at the beginning and end of the debate
to see if and by how much opinion has changed. Encourage concise and
evidenced contributions.
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The Big Debate


lesson 2 – introduction

Decisions, decisions
This lesson builds naturally from Project 2, Lesson 3 and Project 3, Lesson 1,
and adds a layer of decision making and a political dimension to the issue
of urban transport. This lesson is based on a decision-making exercise for
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

methods of solving transport issues local to a London school. Teachers


are encouraged to adapt the generic structure offered here to their own
local context and circumstances. There are financial levels placed on each
possible solution to urban transport problems, but these are for illustrative
purposes only and thus can fit into local contexts, or indeed be adapted.
Students will be offered a number of possible schemes and programmes
that could help solve local transport issues. However, a total spending
budget has also been included so that students have to discuss and agree
which of the methods offered is the best solution for their local area.
There are no ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ answers in most cases, but the most
appropriate solutions will reflect local circumstances and the other work
already underway or completed by local councils, TfL or other agencies.
Once teachers have set the scene, as above and in the context of the
previous relevant lessons, then Worksheet 1, Lesson 2 should be issued
to students to work through.
This project lends itself to display work and/or to a class presentation
in an assembly.
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lesson 2 – worksheet 1

Decisions, decisions
Read the information in the box below and then answer the
questions underneath:

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


As you will probably know, the British Government needs to make
important decisions about transport issues that will affect everyone’s lives.
They may affect your journey to school, people’s travelling to work and
national-scale travelling. The Mayor of London and the London Assembly
are also concerned to adopt solutions that will work and support local
communities in the long term and be in harmony with the physical and
built environment, while also encouraging economic growth – that is,
they are looking for sustainable solutions. This balance between being
environmentally friendly, economically responsible, creating jobs and being
fair to all local people is very hard! Therefore, you are now asked to think
about your local transport issues, consider the possible solutions and
then write a letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor proposing
some solutions.

1. Think of your local area, where you live and go to school.


i) Where is your school located?
Ask the students to be specific – road, area and postcode ideally. You might
want them to locate the school on an Ordnance Survey (OS) map or on aerial
photographs, or to draw a sketch map of the location as other activities.
These sketch maps could be part of display work for the project.
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lesson 2 – worksheet 1

Decisions, decisions (continued)


ii) What are the main transport problems that affect your local area?
Be as specific as you can.
These will depend upon where in London the school is located. However,
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

look for issues that impact on the local area. These might include: gridlock
on the roads; overcrowded public transport; unreliable public transport;
slow-moving traffic and long journey times; the conflict between motor
traffic and cyclists and pedestrians; and the dangers to cyclists and
pedestrians. Encourage the students to be specific, for example by writing
about a traffic jam on a specific road at a specific time, accident points
and areas of particularly high pollution (air, noise, visual). This might be
an opportunity for students to take photographs and create a display of
the problems in addition to this worksheet.
iii) Why are these problems causing difficulties to the local area and people?
In this answer, encourage students to think of impacts on local people
and the physical and built environments. For example, the blackening of
buildings, high noise impact, dangers for pedestrians and cyclists, difficulties
for local shopkeepers and the modern frenetic but stressful lifestyle.
iv) Study the list of possible solutions to the transport issues facing your
local area given in Figure 1. If you could advise TfL about the best
solutions for your area, which of the ideas in Figure 1 would you
choose and why? Please note that each possible solution has a cost,
and that you may only recommend up to £300 million of expenditure.
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.22

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 2 – worksheet 1

Decisions, decisions (continued)


Figure 1: Some possible solutions to local transport problems,
with costs in millions of pounds.

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


Proposed solution to transport problem Cost in
£ millions
Road widening to allow cars to travel more quickly 175
Road widening to allow more bus lanes 190
New cycle routes, with lighting, maps and safety features 95
Park and ride scheme 230
New traffic lights and roundabouts 160
Pedestrianisation of local shopping street(s) 205
Extension of London Underground to meet local needs 300
More bus routes and new buses 230
Greater subsidies for bus and Underground fares 160/year
Taxi and bus only roads 115
Road widening for better cycle lanes 175
Road narrowing and pavement widening to encourage walking 120
Car-sharing only lanes 60
Free lunches for school pupils and employed people 125/year
who cycle or walk to school or work
More security staff on buses, Underground and Overground services 120/year
Education on the value of cycling and walking 65
Subsidised bicycles available to all schoolchildren and low-income adults 110
More safe areas to leave bicycles during the day 65

Remember that you have a maximum of £300 million to spend.


Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.23

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 2 – worksheet 1

Decisions, decisions (continued)


In the box below, write down what you as an individual would choose to
help solve the transport issues in your area:
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

There will be few right or wrong answers, but clearly some will be more
appropriate for the local conditions and transport geography. Encourage
discussion in pairs or small groups after students have had some time
for individual thoughts, as this will encourage all students to start to
formulate ideas by themselves. Consider advising the students which
ones are sustainable solutions, which will benefit the environment, and
how the different ideas can fit together.

Now, discuss your ideas with another student(s) in your class. Do you agree
about the possible solutions? How do you differ? Why? Put some ideas
down in the box below:

This discussion should be simply an exchange of views rather than a full-


blown debate. An emphasis on listening and learning is encouraged.
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.24

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 2 – worksheet 1

Decisions, decisions (continued)


2. Write a formal letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor
outlining the following:

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


i) the local transport issues for where you live and go to school
ii) your ideas for solving the problems, based on the list above or other
ideas you might have
In this activity, encourage a formal letter to be written. It is advisable that
a check is made with the school’s English department about their approach
to teaching letter-writing skills so that there is a consistent whole-school
approach. The letters should be addressed to your local School Travel
Advisor. This letter summarises the lesson’s content but with a focus that
is relevant and credible and could form part of a display based on this
lesson. Students might also wish to consider producing a video of their
ideas, and use the video as additional evidence, as well as for use within
the school.
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.25

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 3 – introduction

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions


This is a role play-based lesson that asks students to consider the values,
attitudes, judgements and perceptions of different stakeholders within
the urban transport debate. The theme of this role play is centred on the
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

potential for promoting cycling as an alternative to motorised car transport


in the local area.
Introduce the lesson by explaining that London is seeking sustainable
solutions to issues such as congestion, air pollution, noise pollution,
the economic cost of congestion and the social aspects of mass
urban transport.
Then explain the role play basis of the lesson and give out Worksheet 1,
Lesson 3. Students should work in small groups of five, with each person
in the group acting out one of the role play parts. Encourage the students
to plan their role play characters’ speech and then ask each group to act out
a debate where students each take the role of one of the characters.
It might be interesting to video the role play, and use this as the basis for
an evaluation lesson or as a presentation to an assembly.
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.26

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 3 – worksheet 1

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions


Governments the world over are searching for sustainable solutions to
traffic problems in cities. London is no exception to this. Many cities are
proposing to:

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


i) reduce car use in cities
ii) increase cycling in cities
iii) increase walking and pedestrian areas in cities
Amsterdam is a good example of a city that is increasing cycling.
Firstly, read what the five characters below think about increasing
cycling and reducing car use in London. Each person in the group
should then choose to be one of the characters. Prepare a speech
which reflects the ideas of the character and then all five of you
should debate whether:
‘Cycling is a better form of urban transport than private cars’
d‘I support more cycle lanes and cycle paths,
and fewer cars and car lanes. Cycle lanes need to
have good lighting and be safe, but cycling is so
environmentally friendly (there are no pollutants)
and sustainable, as well as being fun, it helps
keep me fit and I get to see so much more of
my surroundings.’
Environmentalist

a‘I am supporting more cycle paths and routes –


they are really important as an alternative to cars.
Cars worry me – they emit gases such as carbon
monoxide, are noisy and there are just too many
of them on the roads. So many drivers seem to
use our area as a route to work, and don’t even
stop to use our local shops.’
Councillor 1
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.27

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 3 – worksheet 1

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions


(continued)
d‘I am worried about trying to reduce cars –
cars are essential to our economy and our own
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

independence and freedom. Cars mean that


people can get to shops easily and it is very
difficult to carry large numbers of shopping bags
on a bus. Also, for the elderly, young and young
families cycling is not really an option and buses
tend to be overcrowded already.’
Councillor 2

a‘My concern is that people like to drive to the


shops, such as mine, and load up their shopping
into the cars. Cars make these journeys easy,
especially in bad weather and at night. Can people
really do this sort of journey on a bicycle? I fear
that I might go out of business and lay off my
staff of six people if there are any more anti-
car policies.’
Shopkeeper

d‘I have lived here for 10 years and am fed up


with all the traffic. So many people just jump in
their cars to go a few metres down the road to
the video shop or takeaway – why don’t they walk
or cycle? Bicycles are fine, as you just put a bag
over your shoulder or have a bag or basket on
the bicycle itself. Our area is noisy, smelly and
dangerous because there are too many cars…’
Local resident
Geography Teaching notes and
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack lesson plans
Project three – The Big Debate

Page 3.28

Teachers
only

The Big Debate


lesson 3 – worksheet 1

Bicycle versus the car – viewpoints and opinions


(continued)
What character were you in the role play?

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


1. What were the main points that your character made about cycling
and cars?
Encourage students to reflect on their character’s views and summarise
the ideas.

2. Out of the five characters, whose view do you think is the most
important, and why?
This is a good opportunity for students to consider all of the arguments and
draw a conclusion. Look here for comments which show an understanding
of how different viewpoints can carry weight at the local level.

3. Overall, do you think that cycling is an effective solution to your local


area’s transport problems? Explain your answer.
Here, students can show that they understand the different issues at work
locally and that they can relate cycling to them.
Geography
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack
Project three – The Big Debate

The Big
Debate...
Handouts and worksheets for photocopying
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009
Geography Lesson 1
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 1 of 3

Page 3.31

Name Date

Class

No more cars, anymore?

Read the following two quotes:


‘London 2012 has made a commitment to be a truly sustainable Games…
sustainability principles were incorporated into the transport strategy for the
Games from the start of the planning process. The following [is an] example
of these principles: at the heart of the Olympic Transport Plan is the goal of
encouraging 100 per cent of ticketed spectators to travel to the Games by
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

public transport, walking and cycling.’


The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), published in October 2007

‘As the ODA wishes to encourage access to the 2012 Games by non-car
modes of transport, it might be logical to extend this policy city-wide
between the hours of 07:00 and 19:00, Monday to Friday.’
What are your views of an idea which might in effect ban the use of private
cars between these times?

1. Using websites, textbooks, other resources and your own ideas, write
down three advantages of the idea of car restriction across the whole
of London, 07:00 to 19:00 five days a week, and three disadvantages:

Advantage1:

Advantage 2:

Advantage 3:

Disadvantage 1:

Disadvantage 2:

Disadvantage 3:
Geography Lesson 1
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 2 of 3

Page 3.32

Name Date

Class

No more cars, anymore?

2. On balance, do you think that this scheme is a good idea or not?

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


3. Do you think that the scheme would be better if it was less extreme?
For example, if only parts of London were affected or if the times of
the car restriction were shorter?

4. From your research and your own ideas, can you briefly describe three
other ways that have been used in named cities to try to reduce the
impact of traffic congestion?

1.

2.

3.
Geography Lesson 1
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 3 of 3

Page 3.33

Name Date

Class

No more cars, anymore?

5. Now, join up with two or three other people in your class and listen to
each other’s ideas and opinions. Note down the key points that each
person makes in the box below:
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009
Geography Lesson 2
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 1 of 3

Page 3.34

Name Date

Class

Decisions, decisions

Read the information in the box below and then answer the
questions underneath:

As you will probably know, the British Government needs to make


important decisions about transport issues that will affect everyone’s lives.
They may affect your journey to school, people’s travelling to work and
national-scale travelling. The Mayor of London and the London Assembly

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


are also concerned to adopt solutions that will work and support local
communities in the long term and be in harmony with the physical and
built environment, while also encouraging economic growth – that is,
they are looking for sustainable solutions. This balance between being
environmentally friendly, economically responsible, creating jobs and being
fair to all local people is very hard! Therefore, you are now asked to think
about your local transport issues, consider the possible solutions and
then write a letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor proposing
some solutions.

1. Think of your local area, where you live and go to school.


i) Where is your school located?

ii) What are the main transport problems that affect your local area?
Be as specific as you can.

iii) Why are these problems causing difficulties to the local area and people?
Geography Lesson 2
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 2 of 3

Page 3.35

Name Date

Class

Decisions, decisions

iv) Study the list of possible solutions to the transport issues facing your local area given
in Figure 1. If you could advise TfL about the best solutions for your area, which of the
ideas in Figure 1 would you choose and why? Please note that each possible solution
has a cost, and that you may only recommend up to £300 million of expenditure.

Figure 1: Some possible solutions to local transport problems, with costs


in millions of pounds.
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

Proposed solution to transport problem Cost in


£ millions
Road widening to allow cars to travel more quickly 175
Road widening to allow more bus lanes 190
New cycle routes, with lighting, maps and safety features 95
Park and ride scheme 230
New traffic lights and roundabouts 160
Pedestrianisation of local shopping street(s) 205
Extension of London Underground to meet local needs 300
More bus routes and new buses 230
Greater subsidies for bus and Underground fares 160/year
Taxi and bus only roads 115
Road widening for better cycle lanes 175
Road narrowing and pavement widening to encourage walking 120
Car-sharing only lanes 60
Free lunches for school pupils and employed people 125/year
who cycle or walk to school or work
More security staff on buses, Underground and Overground services 120/year
Education on the value of cycling and walking 65
Subsidised bicycles available to all schoolchildren and low-income adults 110
More safe areas to leave bicycles during the day 65

Remember that you have a maximum of £300 million to spend.


Geography Lesson 2
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 3 of 3

Page 3.36

Name Date

Class

Decisions, decisions

In the box below, write down what you as an individual would choose to
help solve the transport issues in your area:

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


Now, discuss your ideas with another student(s) in your class. Do you agree
about the possible solutions? How do you differ? Why? Put some ideas
down in the box below:

2. Write a formal letter to your local authority School Travel Advisor


outlining the following:
i) the local transport issues for where you live and go to school
ii) your ideas for solving the problems, based on the list above or other
ideas you might have
Geography Lesson 3
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 1 of 3

Page 3.37

Name Date

Class

Bicycle versus the car –


viewpoints and opinions
Governments the world over are searching for sustainable solutions to
traffic problems in cities. London is no exception to this. Many cities are
proposing to:
i) reduce car use in cities
ii) increase cycling in cities
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

iii) increase walking and pedestrian areas in cities


Amsterdam is a good example of a city that is increasing cycling.
Firstly, read what the five characters below think about increasing
cycling and reducing car use in London. Each person in the group
should then choose to be one of the characters. Prepare a speech
which reflects the ideas of the character and then all five of you
should debate whether:
‘Cycling is a better form of urban transport than private cars’
d‘I support more cycle lanes and cycle paths,
and fewer cars and car lanes. Cycle lanes need to
have good lighting and be safe, but cycling is so
environmentally friendly (there are no pollutants)
and sustainable, as well as being fun, it helps
keep me fit and I get to see so much more of
my surroundings.’
Environmentalist

a‘I am supporting more cycle paths and routes –


they are really important as an alternative to cars.
Cars worry me – they emit gases such as carbon
monoxide, are noisy and there are just too many
of them on the roads. So many drivers seem to
use our area as a route to work, and don’t even
stop to use our local shops.’
Councillor 1
Geography Lesson 3
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 2 of 3

Page 3.38

Name Date

Class

Bicycle versus the car –


viewpoints and opinions
d‘I am worried about trying to reduce cars –
cars are essential to our economy and our own
independence and freedom. Cars mean that
people can get to shops easily and it is very
difficult to carry large numbers of shopping bags

Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009


on a bus. Also, for the elderly, young and young
families cycling is not really an option and buses
tend to be overcrowded already.’
Councillor 2

a‘My concern is that people like to drive to the


shops, such as mine, and load up their shopping
into the cars. Cars make these journeys easy,
especially in bad weather and at night. Can people
really do this sort of journey on a bicycle? I fear
that I might go out of business and lay off my
staff of six people if there are any more anti-
car policies.’
Shopkeeper

d‘I have lived here for 10 years and am fed up


with all the traffic. So many people just jump in
their cars to go a few metres down the road to
the video shop or takeaway – why don’t they walk
or cycle? Bicycles are fine, as you just put a bag
over your shoulder or have a bag or basket on
the bicycle itself. Our area is noisy, smelly and
dangerous because there are too many cars…’
Local resident
Geography Lesson 3
KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Worksheet 1
Project three – The Big Debate Page 3 of 3

Page 3.39

Name Date

Class

Bicycle versus the car –


viewpoints and opinions

What character were you in the role play?

1. What were the main points that your character made about cycling
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009

and cars?

2. Out of the five characters, whose view do you think is the most
important, and why?

3. Overall, do you think that cycling is an effective solution to your local


area’s transport problems? Explain your answer.
Geography. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. January 2009