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BRAIN STRUCTURES, ITS LOCATION AND FUNCTION:

1. Broca’s area
Where: Frontal part of left hemisphere
What: a. language comprehension b. production of speech/ speaking

2. Amygdala
Where: Temporal lobe (one in each R & L hemisphere)
What: plays a role in identifying, remembering and responding to fear and aggression

3. Corpus callosum
Where: Above brainstem, between R & L cerebral hemisphere
What: a. wide bands of axons connecting R & L cerebral hemispheres b. passing information from L
side to R side

4. Cerebellum
Where: midbrain, near brainstem
What: maintaining balance and motor coordination

5. Hypothalamus
Where: At the base of the brain, above pituitary gland, below the thalamus
What: a. homeostasis b. regulation of body functions such as thirst, hunger, biological rhythms and
sexual activities c. 4F behaviours: feeding, fleeing, fighting, fornication (sex)

6. Sympathetic nervous system


Where:
What: a. homeostasis b. preparing the body for flight or fight response

7. Hippocampus
Where:
What: a. essential for formation of long term memories b. storage and retrieval of memories located
elsewhere in the brain

8. Temporal lobe
Where:
What: a. involved in the primary auditory perception such as hearing b. processes some higher visual
system tasks including recognition of objects and faces of familiar people

9. Parietal lobe
Where: directly behind the frontal lobe
What: a. help to localize touch, pain, skin temperature and body position b. processes input about
taste c. engaged in some complex processing of vision by telling us how quickly something is moving
towards us

10. Occipital lobe


Where: back of brain
What: a. home to primary visual cortex whereby it begins the process of interpreting input from the
eyes by responding to basic information about an image

11. Thalamus
Where: large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain
What: a. input from most of our sensory system (vision, hearing, touch and taste) travels first to the
thalamus which then forwards the information along to the cerebral cortex b. involved in memory
and states of consciousness

12. Wernicke’s area


Where: in the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain
What: responsible for the comprehension of speech/ language understanding

13. Medulla
Where: in brainstem
What: a. responsible for automatic functions like breathing, blood pressure, circulation and
heart functions, and digestion b. area responsible for many reflexes like swallowing, vomiting,
coughing, and sneezing.

14. Frontal lobe


Where: adjacent to Broca’s area
What: a. involved in motor function, problem solving, spontaneity, memory, language, initiation,
judgement, impulse control, and social and sexual behaviour b. planning of behaviour, attention and
judgement

15. Right hemisphere


Where:
What: a. processes movements and sensations on the left side of the body b. perform tasks that has
to do with creativity, art, language etc

16. Reticular formation


Where: midbrain/pons/medulla
What: plays a central role in states of consciousness like alertness and sleep.

17. Left hemisphere


Where:
What: a. processes movements and sensations on the right side of the body b. performs tasks that
have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics.
PL1101E TUTORIAL RESPONSE:

Watching a horror movie

1. Thalamus: increased heart rate


2. Amygdala: more active due to fear
3. Occipital lobe: visual pathway is heightened

Karaoke

1. Broca’s area: speech production, it is an experience that requires to multi-task (eg: holding a
mic, reading the screen etc)
2. Temporal lobe: Auditory. Trying to make sense to the stimulus you are responding to.
Comprehension is important too but it is not central.
3. Wernicke’s area
4. Reticular formation: motor senses, so you can track and follow the lyrics

Participating in a group art project

1. Right hemisphere
2. Frontal lobe
3. Thalamus
4. Occipital lobe: visual processing (However, there are many amazing visually impaired artists)
5. Cerebellum: fine motor movements
6. Wernicke’s area: in a group, comprehension is important

Eating at all-you-can-eat buffet

1. Hypothalamus
2. Medulla
3. Thalamus
4. Occipital lobe: visual also important, how the food is laid out
5. Cerebellum: tactile experience, using fork and spoons, chopsticks etc
6. __________: planning of food, maybe sweet and sour etc

Jogging along a park connector

1. Cerebellum: for motor activity


2. Medulla
3. Frontal lobe
4. Parietal lobe: to gauge the distance, navigation purposes

*pick 2 structures and 1 region

*no 2 lobes

PL1101E TUTORIAL NOTES


*Watching horror movies: Auditory is also vital. Perhaps if you mute it, you might get to watch more.

Group activity: getting PTSD from falling down the stairs

Brain structures involved: cerebellum (coordination, motor skills), hippocampus (memory of you
falling), amygdala (fear)

Other groups’ activities:

1. Sleep walking (the brain is semi-conscious): cerebellum, pons


2. Engaging in a debate: frontal lobe (during the final round, thinking on your feet) and
hippocampus (retrieval of information that you have learned during preparation)
3. Reading a romance novel: occipital lobe, frontal lobe? (evoke emotions)
4. Studying with friends: hippocampus (retrieval of information) and frontal lobe (decision
making involved, deciding to study, social interaction as well during sharing of ideas etc)

**While you have to know the modular functions of areas/ structures in the brain, it is important to
note that the left and the right side of the brain fits perfectly.