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Terms and Definitions

A computer- is an electronic device that accepts information, manipulates this information for some results that is based on a stored program or sequence of instructions on how the information is to be processed. The stored program may be written by a user and may be changed depending on the problem being solved. Thus, a computer can solve an almost unlimited number of problems. Modern computers inherently follow the stored program concept, i.e., the program is stored in the memory of the computer, read and executed one instruction at a time.

Information and Communication Technology- is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (text, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms). It is a technology created by the convergence of the computer technology and telecommunications technology. The stores program can be changed thus making it solve almost an unlimited set of problems.

Computer technology- deals with the computer hardware and the software that run on them. The computer technology is responsible for the creation, storage and use of information.

Telecommunication technology- deals with the transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. The telecommunication technology is responsible for the transmission or exchange of information.

Types of Software

Operating Systems (OS)-

Mobile OS- operating system for smartphones and tablets( iOS, Android, ChromeOS, BlackberryOS, Symbian)

Desktop OS - operating systems for personal computers including laptops and netbooks. ( Windows, Mac, Linux, Unix etc.)

Applications (Apps)-

Desktop Apps- are basically programs that you install in a computer and that you can only access from that particular computer.

Portable applications can be installed in a storage device, such as a USB flash drive, and can be run in any computer that lets you access that drive.

Mobile Apps- some applications may exist only in mobile form, such as the apps you would install in a mobile device.

Web-based applications -easy to access anywhere since all you need is a computer or device that has an internet connectivity.

App Functions

Collaboration- tools that allow you to share work with other people.

Syndication- tools that allow you to broadcast and collect information from multiple sources.

Aggregation- tools that allow you to collect or compile information from multiple sources, for your own personal collection.

Extension- tools that allow you to amplify the functionality of an existing tool by adding ancillary software

Production- tools that enable the user to create content.

Maximizing Technology

Personal Learning Network- is an informal learning network that consists of the people a learner interacts with and derives knowledge from in a personal learning environment.

Personal Learning Environment- is a self-directed learning space; a virtual framework that consists of tools to collect, curate and construct knowledge that is customized to an individual’s learning goals and interests.

Current Trends in ICT’s

Artificial Intelligence- is intelligence exhibited by machines. In computer science, an ideal "intelligent" machine is a flexible rational agent that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.

Example: Google Car. Google Bike, Non-People Characters(NPC), Deep Blue Player AI

Machine Learning-is a subfield of computer science (more particularly soft computing and granular computing) that evolved from the study of pattern recognition, computational intelligence, and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence.

Ex. Google Translate

Robotics-is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

Ex. Car Factory Assembly Robots

Drones- are more formally known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Essentially, a drone is a flying robot. The aircraft may be remotely controlled or can fly autonomously through software-controlled flight plans in their embedded systems working in conjunction with GPS.

Ex. Amazon Delivery Drone, Military Attack and Surveillance Drones

Augmented reality (AR)- is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.

Ex. Pokemon Go!

Virtual world or massively multiplayer online world (MMOW) is a computer-based simulated environment populated by many users who can create a personal avatar, and simultaneously and independently explore the virtual world, participate in its activities and communicate with others.

Ex. ESO- Elder Scrolls Online, Ragnarok, etc.

Cloud Computing- the practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

Crowdsourcing- the practice of obtaining information or input into a task or project by enlisting the services of a large number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet.

Privacy and Security

Many web sites collect personal information and some are more obvious about it than others. Some web sites ask you for personal information before granting access you may be asked for your full name, age, address, telephone number, and even about your personal preferences

IP Addresses- this is your online or computer address. An address that is unique to your computer or mobile device and can be traced back to you

Cookies- collect and store information like your IP address ; how many times you visit the site; your preferences, such as preferred language; your user name and password; items in your “shopping cart”; web sites you’ve visited; your name; and any unique alphanumeric character string that can be linked to your personal information.

Spam- annoying junk e-mails that pop up, unwanted mail. That is digital spam and you can get it when certain organizations collect, use and disclose your e-mail address without your consent.

Phishing: This is an attempt to commit fraud on the Internet, often by someone sending you an e-mail asking for your credit card numbers or passwords.

Viruses/worms: This scenario is one everyone wants to avoid: you open an e-mail and it introduces a virus, worm or Trojan into your computer system. Through these viruses, remote surveillance tools can be installed that monitor and transmit your online behaviour or allow hackers to take control from another computer outside of your home

Profiling- Employers can sometimes access social networking sites to find out more information about the kind of person you are.

Netiquette- is network etiquette, the do's and don'ts of online communication.

THINK - before you click a Netiquette Guideline:

Is it True, Helpful, Inspiring, Necessary and Kind

No To Bullying, Harassment, Spreading Rumors, Identity Theft, Stalking, Threats

Citation Basics

APA- American Psychological Association

APA citation format uses the Author-Date format for in-text citation.

Citing a Reference Book Guide

Author Last Name, First Name Initial.(Year Published) Title of Reference, Book or Work. Place of Publication:Publisher.


Smager-Tryth, A. (1993). The acquisition of Pig Latin as a second language. New York: Random Hut.

Citing Internet Resources

language . New York: Random Hut. Citing Internet Resources Content in that egg white area may

Content in that egg white area may seem confusing to cite, but the template for references from this area is actually very simple, with only four pieces (author, date, title, and source):

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

Here’s an example (a blog post) in which we have all four necessary pieces of information:

Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Mathis, T. (2015, August 12). What is human systems integration? [Blog post]. Retrieved from

No Author

Here’s an example where no author is identified in this online news article:

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from

No Author and No Date

Here’s an example where no author and no date on information about a college mission statement.

The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from

Online Encyclopedia

Example 1.


(Feminism, n.d)

Reference Format

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from

Example 1.


(Psychology, n.d.)

Reference Format

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from

Copyright- the legal right to be the only one to reproduce, publish, and sell a book, musical recording, etc., for a certain period of time.

Copyleft- is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.

Creative Commons- helps you legally share your knowledge and creativity to build a more equitable, accessible, and innovative world unlocking the full potential of the internet to drive a new era of development, growth and productivity.

Attribution Types:

CC BY- This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even

commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most

accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

CC BY-SA This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial

purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. This is the license used by Wikipedia, and is recommended for materials that would benefit from incorporating content from Wikipedia and similarly licensed projects.

CC BY-ND- This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it

is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.

CC BY-NC- This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially,

and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial,

they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

CC BY-NC-SA -This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-

commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical


CC BY-NC-ND This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, only allowing others to

download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.


Videography- refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e.g., videotape, direct to disk recording, or solid state storage) and even streaming media. The term includes methods of video production and post-production.

Video sequence- is a series of shots on the same subject that are edited together to tell a story. A well-edited video sequence adds visual variety to video storytelling.

Five shot rule- in a five-shot sequence, the first shot is a close-up of a subject’s hands, the next shot is a close-up of the subject’s face, the third shot, move back from the action and capture a medium shot of the subject. The fourth shot, move to an “over-the-shoulder” shot. For the fifth and final shot, think of the most creative composition possible.

Stages in Video Production

Preproduction- involves writing the script, creating storyboards, preparing a production schedule,

auditioning talent and preparing the cast, hiring and preparing a crew, securing equipment, finding and securing locations, preparing and signing necessary contracts, revising the client’s original proposal, getting supplies and props, preparing locations, selecting wardrobes

Production- The main task of production (AKA “principle photography”) is to capture the project assets – whether that entails animation, filming or design. Production is the moment where all of the time and energy spent preparing culminates into something special.

Post Production- The main task of post-production is to finish the project. In this phase you’ll:

edit the picture, add music, audio effects and voice over, edit for sound and color, review the project, add titles and credits, create special effects, encode the project, create publicity materials, release the project for your target audience

Basic Shot Types

Wide Shots (WS) show the entire person or area. They’re great for establishing the scene and allow for good action of the characters. Sometimes this is known as the long shot.

Medium Shots (MS) frame the subject from the waist up. This is the most common shot and allows for hand gestures and motion.

Close Ups (CU) show a particular part of your subject.(Hand, Face, Eyes etc.)

Camera Angles

Camera Angle-the angle from which a director chooses to shoot gives audiences some subtle clues about a scene.

High-angle shot- positions the camera above eye level, looking down on the subject. Depending on how extreme the angle is, this makes the subject look small, insignificant, weak or helpless.

Eye level shot- gives a neutral, factual impression.

Low-angle shot- positions the camera looking up at the subject from below. This angle makes the subject appear important, powerful or dominating.

Reverse-angle shot- positions the camera as if it were the subject’s own eyes. So rather than looking at the subject, the camera shows what the subject sees.

Camera Moves

Tracking or Trucking -when the camera moves on a track to the left or right.

Dollying- when the camera is moving forward or backward

Panning -when the camera stays in the same position and turns left or right

Tilting -when the camera stays in the same position and points upwards or downwards.

Zoom in or out - focusing can also make the camera appear to move closer to its subject or further away from it.