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Any building in general is considered to have two parts
1. Substructure or foundation
2. Super structure
1. Substructure or foundation
The substructure or foundation is that part of the structure which is in direct
contact with the ground and transfers the load of the structure to the sub soil. A
footing is the portion of the foundation that transmits loads directly to the soil.
The upper part of the earth mass carrying the load of the structure is called the
sub soil or the foundation soil.
2. Super structure
The part of a building or structure which is above the ground level or above
the foundation is called super structure.
The part of the super structure located between the ground and floor is
called plinth.

Building components may be divided into two classes namely. Load
bearing structures and non-load bearing structures.
The structure which supports the load coming on it in addition to the self-
weight is called the load bearing structure.
There structure provide support for all gravity loads as well as resistance
to lateral loads. But lacks in providing redundancy for the vertical and lateral load
Non-load bearing structures carry no loads other than their self-weight and
they primarily serve to divide the building into rooms.
A framed structure consists of a series of frames, formed columns or pillars
which are connected by means of beams at floor and roof levels. The wall are
constructed within these frames. These walls are known as the panel walls or
infillings. Thus the loads of the floors, roofs and panel wails are supported by the
beams which in turn, transmit the loads to the columns and these, in turn, carry
the whole weight of the structure to the foundations.
To construct framed structures the following materials may be used
1. Wood
2. Steel
3. R.C.C.
For light framed structure wood is used. For multi-storey buildings, frames
of mild steel or R.C.C. are formed.
It is the term used to denote the thin sheets required to enclose the panels
of the light framed structures.
Asbestos cement sheets, corrugated galvanised iron sheets, thin concrete
slabs, tiles etc. may be used as cladding.
Advantages of framed Structure
1. Thin wall panels, which incidentally increases the floor area.
2. Economy in construction.

3. Speed in construction.
4. Better resistance to vibration.
5. A framed structure permits greater freedom in planning.
6. For made up and unreliable soils framed structures are found to be more
7. A framed structure divides the members of building into two group, load
bearing and non-load bearing materials of inferior quality can be used for
the non-load bearing members where strength is not the main

Foundation is the most important part of any structure, which is in direct
contact with and transmitting loads to the ground.
1. To distribute the load of the super structure on a large area so that the
intensity of load does not exceed the safe bearing of the underlying soil.
2. To provide a levelled and hard surface.
3. To distribute the load of the structure on the soil uniformly and thus to
prevent unequal settlement.
4. To give enough stability to the structures, against various disturbing forces
like wind, rain etc.
The load carrying capacity of a soil per unit area referred to as its bearing
The ultimate bearing capacity is defined as the minimum gross pressure
intensity at the base of the foundation at which the soil fails in shear or the
minimum load on unit area, causing failure is called the ultimate bearing capacity
of soil.
The maximum pressure which the soil can carry safely without risk of shear
failure is called the safe bearing capacity.
The various factors which affects the bearing capacity of soil are
1. Type of soil and its physical properties such as density shear strength
2. Position of water table.
3. Amount of allowable total and differential settlement.
4. Type of foundation
5. Size and shape of foundation
The following are the requirements of a good foundation:
1. The foundation should be stable or safe against any possible failure.
2. The bearing pressure of the foundation should be within in the
allowable soil pressure.
3. The settlement of the foundation should be within reasonable limits.

4. The differential settlement is so limited as not to cause any damage to
the structure.
Foundations may be broadly classified into two types :
1. Shallow foundations
2. Deep foundations
1) Shallow foundation
A foundation is said to be shallow foundation if its depth is equal to or less
than its width. Following are the types of shallow foundation
1. Spread footings
2. Isolated column footing
3. Combined footing
4. Continuous footing
5. Raft foundation
a. Spread foundation
In such foundation spread is given under the base of the wall or column.
This spread of the foundation is known as footing and such foundations are
known as spread footing.
Spread is given to the foundation so that the load of the structure is
distributed on large area of the soil in such a way safe bearing capacity of the soil
is not exceeded. This is the cheapest type of foundation and is largely used for
ordinary building.

B.Isolated Footing

These type of footings are used to support the individual columns. They
can be either stepped or tapered. In case of heavy loaded columns, steel
reinforcement is provided in both the directions in concrete bed. Generally 15 cm
offset is provided on all sides of concrete bed. In case of brick masonry columns,
an offset of 5 cm is provided on all the four sides in regular layers.
c. Combined footing
A common footing provided for two or more columns is known as a
combined looting. This footing may be rectangular or trapezoidal.

Rectangular combined footing is provided in the following situation.
a. When the columns are very near to each other and their individual footings
b. When the bearing capacity of the soil is less, requires more area under
individual footing.
Trapezoidal footing is provided in the following situation.
a. When the end column is located at or near the property line and its footing
cannot be extended on the side of the property lime.
b. When the columns carry unequal loads. The object of providing combined
footing is to get uniform pressure distribution under the footings. This can
be achieved by brimming the C.G. of the footing area should coincide with
the C.G. of combined loads of the column.
d. Continuous footing

When the footings of two or three adjacent columns are made continuous
by providing beams between the successive footings are called continuous
footing. It is cheaper than raft foundation and is adopted to avoid differential or
unequal settlement of the structure and to make the structure safe from earth
quake disturbances.

e. Raft foundation

The foundation which covers the entire area under the structure is called
raft foundation. In which the load is transferred to the soil by continuous slab of
the footing. This footing is used for the soil having low bearing capacity. If the
sum of the base areas of the isolated footing requires to support a structure
exceeds about half the total building area, it is preferable to combine the footing
in to a single raft.
Rafts are used for the following purposes.
1. To give increased area of foundation due to poor bearing capacity.
2. To span over small soft or loose pockets.
3. To counter act the effect of hydrostatic uplift.
2. Deep foundation
A foundation is said to be deep foundation if the depth is equal to or greater
than the width. In case the bearing capacity of the soil is very poor and space is
restricted to allow for spread footings, then we go for deep foundation. The
various types of deep foundations are
a. Pile foundation

i. Bearing pile
ii. Friction pile
b.Under reamed pile.
The term pile foundation denotes a construction for the foundation of a
wall or pier which is supported on piles. Piles may be used individually or in the
form of a cluster, throughout the length of wall.
i) Bearing piles
These piles are driven through the soft overlay soils A and their bottom is
made to rest on a hard structure or bed. The bearing piles act as vertical column.
They form a medium to transmit load of a structure through piles to hard stratum.
The soft soil through which the piles are driven also provides lateral support to
the piles and hence helps in increasing the bearing capacity of piles.

ii. Friction piles

When overlay soft soil is available for large depths and it is not economical
or possible to rest the bottom end of the piles on the hard stratum, the load is taken
by the piles through friction developed at the sides of the piles between Fig.3.8
Friction piles surrounding soil and surface of the pile. This friction is called skin

The piles are driven upto such a depth that skin friction developed equals the load
coming on the piles.

b. Under-reamed pile
In black cotton soil and other expansive soils, buildings often cracks due
to relative movement of the ground. It is because of alternate swelling and
shrinking of the soil due to changes in its moisture content. To prevent the
development of cracks, the structure is to be anchored to deep depth where the
volumetric change of soil due to seasonal variations is negligible. This has been
obtained in shallow as well as deep layers of expansive soil using under reamed

These are R.C.C. piles which are provided with bulb shaped enlargement
near its bottom end. If pile is subjected to heavy loads, more than one bulb may
be provided.
A pile having one bulb near its bottom is known as single under reamed
piles. Based on the number of bulb used the pile is called as one, double under
reamed piles. With one additional bulb the bearing capacity is increased by about
50%. Hence to increase the load carrying capacity, the number of bulbs may be
1) Unequal settlement of sub soil adjacent to structure.
2) Horizontal movement of the soil adjacent to structure.
3) Alternate swelling and shrinkage in wet and dry cycles of the season.
4) Lateral pressure due to lateral movement of earth tending to overturn the
5) Action of weathering agencies (eg) sun, wind or rain.
6) Lateral escape of the soil beneath the foundation of a structure and
7) Roots of trees and shrubs which penetrate the foundation.
1) Foundation should be on a hard rock.
2) Safe bearing capacity of the soil should not be exceeded.
3) The loading should be axial. If the loading is eccentric, it should be within
permissible limit.
4) The mortar used in the masonry should be as stiff as possible, consistent
with workability.
5) The height of masonry should be carried up to an even level throughout.
6) The height of wall raised in a day should not be more than 1.5 m.
7) Constructing the foundations over damp soils overlaying a layer of sand or
gravel should be avoided or the foundation should be strengthened by
driving piles up to hard rock.
8) A sufficient base area should be provided below the walls and columns.
9) The soil should be well confined by driving sheet piles or such positions
should be avoided if possible.

A construction made by using stone blocks with mortar is known as stone
1. Natural bed
The surface on which the materials was originally deposited in the form of
rock is called as natural bed. The rocks from which stone for masonry is obtained
have distinct planes -of division along which stones can easily be split. This plane
represents the natural bed of the stone.
2. Sill
The bottom surface of a door or window opening is known as sill.
3. Corbel
It is a projection provided on the inside face of the wall by projecting
stones. The projection is used to serve as a support for wall plates (wooden beam)
for roof trusses, beams etc.

4. Coarse
A layer of stones or bricks is known as coarse and its thickness is generally
equal to the thickness of a stone or a plus .the thickness of one mortar joint.
5. Cornice:
A cornice is a course of atone provided at the top of wall. It is generally
moulded and given ornamental treatment it may be provided at the junction of the
wall and ceiling near the top of building.

6. Coping
It is a course of stone which is laid at the top wall so as to protect the wall
from rain water through joints at the top most course of the wall. It is normally
provided at the top of a parapet wall or compound wall.

7. Weathering
It is a term to indicate levelled top surface of the stone. It is sloped so as to
allow easy flow of rain water.
8. Throat
A groove is provided on the underside of a sill, cornice and coping so that
rain water can be discharged clear of the wall surface. This is known as throating.
9. Spalls
The chips of stones used to fill up the empty spaces in the stone masonry
are known as spalls or snacks.

10. Quoins
The external corner or angles of a wall are known as quoins and the stones
or bricks forming the quoin are known as quoin stones or quoin bricks.
11. String course
It is a continuous horizontal course of masonry, generally provided at every
floor level. This course remains protecting from the face of the wall and is
intended to improve the elevation of the structure.
12. Lacing course

The horizontal course provided to strengthen a wall of regular thall stones

is known of a lacing course.
13. Through stone

In stone work, some stones at regular intervals are placed right across the
wall. Such stones are known as through stones.

14. Plinth

The protecting course at ground floor level is known as plinth. It is also

used to indicate the height of ground floor level from ground level. It '1‘rotects
the interior of the building from rain, water, frost etc. Its sometimes moulded and
given ornamental treatment. The offset at plinth level is sometimes omitted for
architectural purpose.
15. Jambs
The vertical sides of the opening of masonry such as doors windows etc.
are known as jambs.
The stone masonry is classified under two categories as given below.
Rubble masonry Ashlar masonry
1. Coursed rubble masonry Ashlar fine masonry
2. Uncoursed rubble masonry Ashlar chamfered
3. Random rubble masonry Ashlar facing Rubble Masonry
The stones as obtained from the quarry is used without dressing for the
construction of masonry is Called rubble masonry. The excess projection of
stones may be removed with the help of hammers before using in the masonry.
1. Coursed rubble masonry
In this type of rubble masonry, the height of stones vary from 50 mm to 20
cm. The stones are sorted out before the work starts.
The masonry work is then carried out in courses such that stones in a
particular course are of equal heights. This type of masonry is used for the
construction of public buildings, residential buildings etc.

2. Uncoursed rubble masonry

In this type of rubble masonry the stones are not dressed. But they are used
as they are available from the quarry, excepting some corners. The courses are
not maintained regularly. The larger stones are laid first and the spaces between
them are then filled up by means of spans. The wall is brought to a level every 30
cm to 50 cm. This type of rubble masonry being cheaper, is used for the
construction of pound walls, godowns, garages, labour quarters etc.

3. Random rubble masonry

The stones of irregular sizes and shapes are used for t construction of
masonry. The stones are arranged so as to have a good appearance. More skill is
required to make this masonry structurally stable. The face stones are chisel
dressed and the mortar joints does not exceed 6 mm to 12 mm. This type masonry
is used for the construction of residential buildings compound walls etc.

16 Ashlar Masonry
In this masonry the entire construction is done using square or rectangular
dressed stones. The stones used in masonry are all dressed timely with chisel. The
height of stones varies from 25 to 30 cm.
1. Ashlar fine masonry

In this type of masonry, the beds, sides and faces are finely chisel-dressed.
The stones are arranged in proper bond and the thickness of the mortar joints does
not exceed 3 mm. This type of construction gives perfectly smooth appearance.
It is costly in construction.
2. Ashlar chamfered

In this masonry, 2.5 cm chisel drafting around this face is levelled at an an
angle of 45° with the help of chisel. Another chisel drafting about 10 mm to 12
mm wide is again developed around the perimeter inside the chamfered drafting.
The remaining enclosed space is left as such. However projections of more than
8 cm are removed with the help of hammer.
3. Ashlar facing or Ashlar block in course
This masonry may be called as combination of rubble masonry and ashlar
masonry. The faces of the stones are generally hammer dressed and the thickness
of mortar joints does not exceed 6mm. The depth of courses varies from 20 cm
to 30 cm. This type of construction is used for heavy engineering works such as
retaining walls, sea-walls etc.


1. The stones used should confirm the required specification.
2. The stones should be well watered before use.
3. All stones should be laid on the natural bed.
4. The dressing of the stones should be properly done.
5. Proper bond with sufficient number of through stones should be
6. No tensile stress should develop in masonry.
7. Good quality of mortar should be used in construction.
8. Stone work should be raised uniformly.

9. In stone work, small pieces and chips should not be used.
10.The stone work should be carried out as per line and I level.
11.After the construction stone work should be well watered for the
required period.
1. Trowel - To lift and spread mortar
2. Square - To set right angle
3. Spirit level - To check the horizontality of the surfaces.
4. Plumb bob - To check the verticality of the wall.
5. Chisels - To dress stones
6. Line and pins - To maintain the alignment of the work in progress
7. Spall hammer - For rough dressing of stones.
8. Punch - It is used for rough dressing.
9. Pitching tool - To make the stones of required size.

The construction carried out using bricks and mortar is known as brick
1. Header
The face of the brick showing breadth is known as header.

2. Stretcher
Long face of the brick is known as stretcher.

3. Bed joint
The mortar joint parallel to the beds of brick is called the bed joint.

4. Lap
The horizontal distance between the vertical joints o successive courses is
known as lap.

5. Perpends
The vertical joints separating the bricks in length or section are known as

6. Closer
It is a piece of brick used to create bond in brick work.

7. King closer
It is obtained by cutting a corner of the brick joining the half header and
half the stretcher. King closers are used for the construction of splayed doors or
window jambs.
8. Queen closer
It is a piece of brick obtained by cutting a brick longitudinally into two
equal’s parts. It is placed next to the quoin header in header course.
9. Bevelled closer
It is obtained by cutting a triangular portion of the bricks joining half the
header and full stretcher. It is used for splay brick work like jambs of doors and

10. Bat
It is a piece of brick designated according to its length, it is half the length
of bricks, and it is called half bat. A three quarter bat is one whose length is 3/4
of a brick.
1. Brick masonry in mud - 140 kN/m2
2. Brick masonry in C.M.I class - 880 kN/m2
3. Brick masonry in L.M. I class - 440 to 550 kN/m2
4. Ordinary brick work in C.M - 440 to 550 kN/m2
5. Ordinary brick work in L.M. - 220 to 400 kN/m2
3.4.4 BOND
The inter locking arrangement of bricks, so as to prey the occurrence of
continuous vertical joints is called bond.
Types of Bond
1. Header bond
2. Stretcher bond
3. English bond
1. Header bond
In this type of bond all the bricks are arranged in header course. This type of
arrangement is suitable for one brick thick walls.

2. Stretcher bond
In this type of bond all the bricks are arranged with their lengths in the
direction of the walls. This pattern is used only for walls having 10 cm thickness.
As this bond does not develop proper internal bond, it should not be used for walls
having thickness greater than that of one brick wall.

3. English bond
This type of bond is generally used in practice. It is considered as the
strongest bond in brick work. Principles of English bond:
 The alternate course consists of stretches and headers.
 The queen closer is placed next to the quoin header to develop the face lap.
 Each alternate header is centrally supported over a stretcher.
 If the wall thickness is in multiples of an even number of half bricks, the
same course will show either headers or stretchers or both, the face and the
 If the wall thickness is an uneven multiple of half brick, a course showing
stretcher on the face shows header on the back and vice versa.
 Continuous vertical joints are avoided.
 For walls having thickness of two bricks or more the heating or the interior
should be filled with header only.

English Bond -11/2 bricks wall
1. The bricks to be used should confirm to the requirement of the specification
of work.
2. The brick work should comply with requirements of the specification for
the work.
3. The mortar to be used for the work should be of quality and of proportions
as specified.
4. The bricks should be immersed in water before placed in its position so as
to prevent absorption of moisture from the mortar.
5. The bricks should be properly laid with the frog printing upward.
6. The brick work should be carried out in proper bond.
7. As far as possible the brick work should be raised uniformly.
8. In brick work, brick bats should not be used except as closers.
9. Single scaffolding should be adopted to carry out the brick work at a higher
level. Required headers are taken out to create supports for the scaffolding
and they should be inserted when the scaffolding is removed.

10.The brick work should be carried out as per line and level. The vertical face
should be checked by means of a plumb lob and the inclined surfaces if
any should be checked by means of wooden templates.
11.After construction the brick work should be well watered for period of 2 to
3 weeks if L.M. is used and for about 1 to 2 weeks if cement mortar is used.
The bond having bricks laid in alternate courses in such a way that headers
are laid on bed and the stretchers are laid on edge, forming a continuous cavity
throughout length of the wall is called cavity bond.
This type of bond is economical but provides less strength to the wall. It is
normally used for garden walls, partition walls etc..


1. If inferior quality bricks are used, it will cause small depressions at the
points. It also causes expansion and cracking in brick work.
2. Presence of sulphate in mortars causes expansion of mortar joints which
results in cracking of brick work, spalling of brick edges and damages of
3. Sulphate salt present in the brick reacts with aluminium salts of portland
cement in the presence of water. This may cause failure of brick work.
4. Sometimes salts coming from the bricks, from the soil contact or other
weathering agencies form white deposits on the surface of the brick work.
This may cause disintegration of brick work.

5. In case of reinforced brickwork the reinforcement c# iron and steel gets
corroded in the presence of moisture. This results in the increased volume
of masonry which causes cracking.
6. In snowbound area if the water is present in the brick work, this causes
freezing of water. This increasers in volume due to this may cause cracking
of masonry.
7. The shrinkage cracks in the brick work appear due to first long spell of dry
weather after construction. These cracks allow rain water to seep in which
results in deterioration of brick work.
1. The painted wall should be repainted to prevent the spoiling of bricks.
2. The fine textured and hard burnt bricks should be cleaned with steam or
steam and hot water jets. Sand blasting can also be done to clean the brick
3. To improve the appearance of old brick work and to make it water tight the
repointing of old brickwork should be resorted to.
4. The efflorescence on the wall caused due to dampers can be removed by
scrubbing the wall in the water and a stiff brush. Instead a 10% solution of
nurriatic acid may be used and the walls revised with pure water
5. To prevent efflorescence moisture movement should be checked by
improving damp prevention of the building.
Plain brick masonry cannot take any tensile stress. Brick work when
reinforced can withstand tensile and shear stresses quite effectively. The areas
where earthquakes take place frequently, reinforcement is always used in the
structure and no structure is allowed to be made in plain brick work.
The reinforced brick walls may consist of simple iron bars or expanded
metal mesh. Another type of reinforcement which is used in walls is made up of
hoop iron. These are steel flats about 20 mm to 30 mm in width and about 2 mm
thick. To resist against rusting these flats are dipped in tar and are immediately
sanded so as to increase the grip with mortar. The reinforcement is provided in
every six course of wall and the joints at the corners are hooked. The
reinforcements can also be provided in the form of vertical bars. To have
continuous vertical bars grooves should be suitably made in the bricks.

A partition may be defined as a wall or division or screen provided for the
purpose of dividing one room into a number of small apartments. Usually they
are designed as non-load bearing walls.
1. The partition wall should be strong enough to carry its over load.
2. The partitions wall should be strong enough to resist impact to which the
occupation of the building is likely to subject them.
3. The partition wall should have the capacity to support suitable decorative
4. A partition wall should be stable and strong enough to support some wall
fixtures, wash-basin etc.
5. A partition wall should be as light as possible.
6. A partition wall should be as thin as possible.
7. A partition wall should act as a sound barrier, especially when it divides
two rooms.
8. A partition, wall should be fire resistant.
1. Brick partition
2. Concrete partition
3. Glass partition
4. Aluminium frame with glass sheet partition
5. Timber partition
6. Straw board partition
7. Wood wool partition
8. Asbestos cement board partition
9. Plastic board partitions.

I. Brick partition

These partitions are constructed with plain bricks, reinforced bricks or

brick nagged.
In plain brick partitions, half bricks are placed stretchers in cement mortar.
The usual thickness of a brick partition is about 10 cm and the height is restricted
to 2 meters they are not capable of taking heavy loads.
The construction of a reinforced brick partition wall similar to that of plain
brick partition except that at every t or fourth course the bricks are reinforced with
wire mesh or mm dia m.s. bars.
In brick nagged partitions, brick work is built with' frame work of timber
members. The purpose of wooden frame work is to increase the stability of the
wall both along the length and the height. The bricks are laid either flat or on edgy
both the sides are plastered.
2. Concrete block partition

Concrete blocks of solid ox hollow or precast slabs may of ordinary
concrete or of concrete made by using light weight aggregates.
Precast concrete slabs and suitable concrete posts with rebates are
employed for the construction of partition walls Partition wall consists of one or
two thin precast concrete slabs held in position held in position by concrete posts,
which are suitably spaced. The partition slab are usually of 40 mm.
Concrete blocks cast in T or L shapes are also used for the construction of
The construction joints are pointed neatly. Every points of the joint, the
web and the opposite vertical post is overlapped by solid shoulder of the L or T
which is placed.
3. Glass partitions
They provide good aesthetics and allow light. They are damp, sound and
heat proof. They are easy to clean and maintain .They can be made of different
thickness and sizes. Glass is used either in the form of sheets or hollow blocks.
Glass sheets are fixed in timber frame by applying putty. The glass sheets can be
of different colours. But, the hollow glass blocks are used without any timber
frame work upto a panel area of 11 sqm. A special arrangement for the expansion
of hollow blocks is made.
4. Aluminium frame with class
The usual materials for door and windows are wood, ply wood, glass and
metals. The commonly used metals are steel, bronze and aluminium.
Aluminium is silver white in colour. Pure aluminium is very soft and is
unsuitable for structural purposes. Aluminium is most suited for making doors,
window frame, railing of shops and corrugated sheets for roofing system. The
doors, windows and partition made of aluminium frames with glass panels are
becoming more popular nowadays. These frames can be directly fixed in the
reveals of the opening. The glass panel admit more light. Therefore to get more
light in addition to that are coming from the windows, glazed aluminium partition
are used which may be fully or partly glazed.
The aluminium doors and windows are used in buildings like hospitals,
offices, libraries, show rooms, banks, shopping units etc. These windows are

decent in appearance and they require no maintenance and paintings. They are
costly and are not very strong.
5. Timber or wooden partition
The timber partitions can be divided in to two types.
a.Common partitions
b. Trussed partition
a. Common partition:
It consists of horizontal members as nagging pieces and vertical members
known as studs in a frame work. These partitions should not rest on the floor
boards. The finishing may be given either by providing plywood’s or hard boards
or by inserting wooden panels etc. in the hollow spaces. Head Puncheons Studs r

b) Trussed partition

The principle of truss is used for the design of trussed partitions. It is useful
where it is possible to provide supports only. Its finishing is similar to that of
common partition. Steel traps or steel bolts are used at the joints where tension is
likely to develop. The size of frame work and the arrangement of its member
depends on span, number of openings and amount of floor load.
If plywood is used to fill the gaps in the frame work then it is called
plywood partitions. If hard board is used then it is called hard board partition.
6. Wood wool slab partition
These slabs are prepared by mixing port land cement and wood wool. A
small quantity of gypsum is added. These slabs of various sizes are available in
the market. II They have good heat and sound resisting properties.
7. Straw Board partitions
Straw boards are manufactured by compressing straw with suitable
adhesives and covering surfaces with thick paper or hard board. They can be fixed
in a wooden or steel frame. They possess good heat and sound insulating property
and are most commonly used where frequent removal of partition is expected. It
is very light in weight.
8. Asbestos cement board partitions
They are light in weight, imperious, durable water tight and fire proof
These partitions are made of asbestos cement sheets fixed in to the timber frame
work. Some special attachments are used to the horizontal and the vertical
members of the frame work. Opening for doors and windows are conveniently
left in these partitions.
9. Plastic Board partitions
A number of varieties of plastic boards are available in the market. They
are made of burnt gypsum or plaster of paris. In order to reduce the density, some
fibrous materials are added. Suitable grooves are made in the slab so as to form
rigid joints while jointing. It is also possible to drive screws and nails through
these slabs.

The moisture in a building finding its way through walls, or roof is called
Damp proofing
The process of preventing the entry of moisture in to the ding by giving
some treatments during the construction of ding is called damp proofing.
Water Proofing
Prevention of flow of water inside buildings due to hydraulic pressure
(from rains or groundwater) is called waterproofing.
The water absorbed by the materials is the chief cause’s dampness. The
following are the causes for the entry of dampness in to the structure.
1. Rising of ground water table
If the ground water table rises, it is likely to rise to the vecinity of the
foundation of the structure and affect it. The ding materials used in foundation
absorb water by capillary n and pass it inside the building.
2. Rain water penetration
If external walls of the building are not protected rain water hitting it may
find its way and cause dampness inside. Leaking roof may also allow rain water
to enter the building
3. Exposed tops of walls
Top of parapet walls if not properly plugged against en of rain water,
dampness may find its way through then also
4. Inadequate slop to flat roofs
It slope of the roof is not adequate to drain off rain water effectively, the
water may get stored at the roof and may seep in to the building.
5. Poor quality materials and construction

Poor workmanship in the construction of walls, roofs, parapets etc., and
use of the porous materials for the construction result in dampers of the structure.
1. Stones, bricks, etc., may disintegrate due to the effect of efflorescence of
2. Plaster gets softened and may crumble.
3. It may decay timber.
4. It may corrode the metallic fittings.
5. The electrical fittings may get damaged.
6. It may promote the growth of termite.
7. The distempers and paints may flake off, the damaging their good
appearance. 8. Damp buildings create unhealthy conditions occupants.
8. It causes unsightly patches in the walls, floors and ceilings.
9. The life of structures may get reduced because of dampness.
Damp proofing of a building is done by interposing a layer of damp proof
material between the source of dampness and building itself and this layer is
known as damp proof course. It is abbreviated as D.P.C.
The following materials are commonly used for damp proofing.
1. Hot bitumen
2. Metal sheets of lead, copper and aluminium
3. Dense brick
4. Bituminous felt
5. Mastic asphalt
6. Dense stones laid in cement mortar
7. Cement concrete layer
8. Cement mortar with water proofing agents
9. Combination of metal sheets and felts
Damp proof course is provided on the outside of walls and underside of
floor basements.

It is provided in such a way that the later may provide the support necessary
to withstand such water pressure may be exerted on the outer face of the structure.
For this purpose where adequate space is available for excavation, the
basement should be of sufficient dimensions to provide the following.

Damp-proofing of a basement under heavy pressure

1. Adequate arrangement for pumping out subsoil water, to keep the water
level below the basement level.
2. Provide suitable sheltering to prevent the sides of the excavation from

3. On the floor of the excavation a slab base of weak cement concrete 100 mm to
150 mm thick should be laid. This slab should project 150 mm beyond the outer
face of wall.
4. The damp proofing course consisting of two layers of mastic asphalt is applied
on the entire area of the base slab including projection.

5. A protective floor of brick or cement concrete 1: 3: 6 about 50 mm thick-is to

be provided to protect the D.P.C. from drainage during the construction, of the
6. Suitable water proofing compound should be added to the concrete flooring
7. Over flooring course of D.P.C. walls capable of withstanding the anticipated
lateral pressure are too constructed.
8. The outside face of the walls should be plastered and finished with water
proofed cement plaster
9. The full course of D.P.C. is then applied to the outside face of the walls joining
at the base. Sufficient care should be taken to ensure a perfect bond between
D.P.C. on the base slab and that provided on the outside of the walls
10. A thin protective half brick wall should be constructed over the projective
slab and the gap between walls should be granted so as to ensure that no air is
trapped between the D.P.C. and the walls.

In case of deep basements, it is convenient to apply D.P.C. on the outside
of the walls in stages of convenient heights and complete construction of the
protective wall as well as back filling the earth progressively. This will enable the
shuttering to be removed earlier and arrest any tendency of D.P.C. to slip down.
For the basement subjected to a severe hydrostatic pressure the continuous
D.P.C. may not give satisfactory result. In that situation the basement should be
kept continuously drained. Open jointed drainage pipes may have to be laid below
the floor of the basement at the time of construction. To get satisfactory results,
the drainage pipes may be enclosed in selected filter media.
Damp proofing of basement is known as asphalt tanking. Following are the
important facts to be observed while asphalt tanking.
1. The thickness of horizontal D.P.C. at basement floor level is 30 mm and it
is laid in 3 coats.
2. The thickness of vertical layer is 20 mm and it is laid in 3 coats.
3. Asphalt layers should be continuous.
4. Vertical D.P.C. should be carried above ground level for a minimum height
of 15 mm.
5. The vertical end of asphalt layer should be ended in a horizontal layer of
A building or structure needs waterproofing as concrete itself will not be
watertight on its own. The conventional system of waterproofing involves
membranes. This relies on the application of one more layers of membrane
(available in various materials. e.g. bitumen, silicate, PVC, HDPE etc.) that act
as a barrier between the water and the building structure, prevailing the passage
of water. However, the membrane system relies on exacting application,
presenting difficulties. Problems with application or adherence. To the substrate
can lead to leakage.
Admixtures are obtained in powder, paste or liquid form and may consist
of pore filling or water repellent materials. The chief materials are silicate of soda,
aluminium and zinc sulphates and aluminium and calcium chloride. Adding

calcium chloride brings down water-cement ratio, even up to the limit of 0.25,
and it gives quick setting concrete. But it is not suitable for R.C.C works.
The chemically inactive pore filling materials are chalk, fuller’s earth and
talc and these are usually very finally ground.
The admixtures are chemically active pore fillers. They activate the setting
time of concrete and thus render the concrete more impervious at early age. The
chemically inactive materials improve the workability and facilitate the reduction
of water for given workability and make dense concrete which is basically
Acceletraters are used as grouting agents to haster the set in situation where
a plugging effect is disired. In such a case calcium chloride or triethanolamine
are used. Retarders
Retarders are used in a grout to aid pumpability and to effect the
penetration of grant into fine cracks or seams. They include music acid, gypsum
and a commercial brand known as RAY (Ray Lig Blinder) etc.
Aquaproof Materials
It is a white powder to be mixed at 1 kg per bag of cement. It increases
unpermiability of concrete. Impermo this is also a water proofing compound
added to cement to make it impervious.
It is one of the very popular waterproofing additive to cement. It is a
colourless paste to be mixed at 3 kg of CiCo to 100 kg of cement (3%). The paste
is dissolved in the concrete mixing water and used for making concrete.
Temporary Structures
 A structure without any foundation or footing and removed when the
designated time period, activity or use for which the temporary structure
was erected has ceased.

 Any structure that is not attached to a permanent foundation.
 A structure which is erected for not more than a year such structure shall
include tents, portable bandstands, bleachers, reviewing stands.
Permanent Structures
It is a structure with strong and good foundation.
Life of the Structure
The nominal design life of the Building is generally considered to be
around 60 years.
Advantages with respect to strength and Earthquake resistance
 Masonry buildings are brittle structures and one of the most vulnerable of
the entire building stock under strong earthquake shaking.
 The ground shakes simultaneously in the vertical and two horizontal
directions during earthquakes.
 However the horizontal vibrations are the most damaging to normal
masonry buildings.
 Horizontal inertia force developed at the roof transfers to the walls acting
either in the weak or in the strong direction.
 If all the walls are not tied together like a box, the wall located in their
weak direction tend to topple.
 To ensure good seismic performance, all walls must be joined properly to
the adjacent walls.
 In this way, walls loaded in their weak direction can take advantage of the
good lateral resistance offered by walls loaded in their strong direction.
 Further walls are need to be tied to the roof and foundation to preserve their
overall integrity.
 Masonry walls are slender because of their small thickness compared to
their height and length.
 A simple way of making these walls behave well during earthquake
shaking is by making them act together as a box along with the roof at the
top and with the foundation at bottom.
 A number of construction aspects are required to ensure this box action.
 Firstly the connection between the walls should be good.

 This can be achieved by
o Ensuring good interlocking of the masonry course at the junctions.
o Employing horizontal bands at various levels, particularly in Lintel
 Secondly the size of doors and windows opening need to be kept small.
The smaller the opening, the larger is the resistance offered by the wall.
 Indian stands IS 4326-1993 and IS 13828-1993 provides sizes and details
of Lintel bands.
 Also Plinth band, and roof band of the buildings is to improve their
earthquake performance.
To prevent the leakage of ground water into the underground sump, at
present lot of methods adopted to control seepage.
Some Granular finish is a quality touch applied membranes are used in
Advantages of membrane systems
1. High strength reinforcement gives excellent resistance to puncture and
2. Easily torch applied.
3. Bonds well to the substrate.
4. Readily formed to contours. ,
Application methodology (External face only)
 Pond the tank with water for minimum 3 days and mark the damp areas if
any in the wall.
 Treating the construction joints and damp areas by injecting cement slurry
mixed with expanding agents using pressure grouting pump with a pressure
of 3 to 4 kg.
 Surface of RCC shall be free from frost, surface laitance and
 Surface preparation by mechanical means to remove the loose particles,
which may hinder band strength of the water proofing system.
 Finishing the base slab with C.M.1:4.
 Bore packing shall be done with micro-concrete.
 Apply the primer.
 Unroll the torch seal membrane and hold it in correct position.
 Each roll must overlap the next layer by minimum cm at the adjacent and
minimum 15 cm at the ends.
 The rolled membrane is lightly heated with the help propane gas hence the
membrane subsequent adhesion to the surface.
• The PCC shall be free from loose aggregate or other sharp projections, with
fairly smooth for application of water proofing coatings.
 Standing water must be removed.
 Applying the Bonding materials at 1.5 kg to RCC surface
 The treated surface shall be kept moist by fog spraying to 4 time daily for
a period of 48 hours after application of bonding materials.
 Then apply two coats of bonding.
 Sprinkle fine aggregate immediately after the application of bonding coat.
 Cure the system for minimum 48 hours.
 Then protect the surface with the help of bonding material for 18 mm thick
C.M. 1: 4 mortar plaster.
Method of Application
1. Preparation of surface
2. Injection pressure grouting
3. Application of seal coats
Surface preparation
 Proper preparation of the surface is essential for better adhesion with the
forthcoming surface.
 The surface should be dry and free from contamination such a soil, grease,
loose particles.
 To create best adhesive by rubbing wire brushing.
 Make sure all joints are finished flush and blow holes filled with cement
sand slurry.
 All surfaces to be treated, with water proofing coating must be presoaked
with clean water.

Injection pressure grouting
 Drilling 12 mm dia holes with electric drilling machines along the weak
concrete or honeycombed area @ c/c 1 metre to a depth of half of the slab
thickness and fixing PVC nozzles of 10 mm 'dia or less in place using quick
setting compound.
 Pressure grouting should be carried by using hand operated grouting
machine of pressure 3.5 kgs/cm2 through the nozzles starting from one
nozzle and stopping the operations when the grout starts coming out from
adjacent nozzle, this is done similarly in all the nozzles.
Application of seal coat
Finally the seal coat is applied.