Sei sulla pagina 1di 103

Synchronous Machines

1
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines
An ideal two-pole; three-
phase stator winding.

2
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

Instantaneous phase
currents under balanced
three-phase conditions.

3
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

𝜔𝑒 t= 0°

4
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

𝜔𝑒 t= 60°

5
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

𝜔𝑒 t= 120°

6
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

7
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

8
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Rotating MMF Waves in AC Machines

9
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Construction Construction

The picture shows the laminated


iron core and the slots (empty
and with winding).
The winding consists of copper
bars insulated with mica and
epoxy resin.
The conductors are secured by empty slots
steel wedges.
In large machines, the stator is
liquid cooled. insulated
winding
The iron core is supported by a
steel housing.

10
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Stator
Laminated iron core
with slots
Steel Housing

11
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Iron core

Stator details Coil


Coils are placed in Slots
slots

Coil end windings are


bent to form the
armature winding.

End winding

12
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Salient pole rotor construction

The poles are bolted to the shaft.


Each pole has a DC winding.
The DC winding is connected to the slip-rings (not
shown).
A DC source supplies the winding with DC through
brushes pressed into the slip ring.
A fan is installed on the shaft to assure air circulation
and effective cooling.

13
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Salient pole rotors

14
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Schematic view
of a simple, two-pole,
single-phase synchronous
generator.

360°Mechanical degrees
360° Electrical degrees
15
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Schematic view
of a simple,
four-pole,
single-phase synchronous
generator

360°Mechanical degrees
720° Electrical degrees
elec= P/2 (mec)

16
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Low - speed machines – Hydro generators

17
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines

18
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous generators

© L. Serrano: Fundamentos de
máquinas eléctricas rotativas

© Mulukutla S. Sarma: Electric


machines
19
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES

Construction
Low speed, large hydro-
generators may have more
than one hundred poles.

These generators are


frequently mounted
vertically.

The picture shows a large,


vertically arranged
machine.

20
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machine - hydro-generators

21
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Housing ,cooling ducts

Stator Rotor

Shaft

Bearing
Rotor winding
Stator winding
Connections

22
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Round rotor
Round rotor
The round rotor is used
for large high speed
(3600rpm) machines.

A forged iron core (not


laminated,DC) is
installed on the shaft.

Slots are milled in the


iron and insulated
copper bars are placed
in the slots.
The slots are closed by
wedges and re-enforced
with steel rings.
23
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Rotor Details

24
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines

Round rotor

Steel ring

Shaft

Wedges

DC current terminals

25
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines

High-speed machines: thermal generators

26
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines

27
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous generators control systems

28
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Speed governor

29
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines
Generator exciter system: this system supplies
the field current (rotor d.c. current) to maintain
generator stator voltage and controls reactive
power flow. There exist a variety of exciter types
in use:
DC generator: driven by the main prime motor
(older power plants)
AC generator: also driven by the main prime
motor. Its voltage is rectified by diodes
mounted on the rotating shaft.
Static exciter: the excitation power is obtained
directly from terminals and rectified and fed
into main generator via slip rings
30
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Generator exciter system

DC exciter:

31
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Generator exciter system

Ac exciter:

32
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machines

Operation concept

The rotor is supplied by DC


current If that generates a
DC flux Ff.

The rotor is driven by a


turbine with a constant
speed of ns.
Flux F f
ns
The rotating field flux
B- C+
induces a voltage in the
stator winding. N

A+ A-
The frequency of the
S
induced voltage depends
upon the speed. C- B+
33
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Generated Voltage
Cross-sectional view of an elementary three-phase
ac machine.

34
MÁQUINAS II: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous Generators

kw  N a F f
Erms = = 4.44 f N a F f kw
2

Erms Is proportional to the machine speed and excitation flux

35
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous Machines
Operation concept
The frequency - speed relation is f = (p / 2) ns = p ns / 2
p is the number of poles.

Typical rotor speeds are 3600 rpm for 2-pole, 1800 rpm for 4
pole and 450 rpm for 16 poles.
The rms. value of the induced voltages are:
Ean = Erms ei O deg Ebn = Erms e −i120 deg Ecn = Erms e −i 240 deg

k w  Na Ff
where: Erms = = 4.44 f Na F f k w
2

kw = 0.85-0.95 is the winding factor.

36
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit characteristic

37
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
The Infinite Bus

38
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Conditions Required for Paralleling

1. The rms line voltages of the two generators


must be equal.

2. The two generators must have the same phase


sequence.

3. The phase angles of the two a phases must be


equal.

4. The frequency of the new generator, called the


oncoming generator, must be slightly higher than
the frequency of the running system.
39
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Conditions Required for Paralleling

How active and


reactive power are
going to be
distributed among
the machines?

40
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Phasor Voltages of the incoming machine
and infinite bus

41
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit (no-load) condition

42
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit (no-load) condition

43
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit condition

Stator

Rotor

44
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machine – No load condition

45
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous machine – No load condition

46
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit condition

Voltage
polarity

47
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit condition

No-load condition phasorial diagram


lp

Ea
48
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open-circuit characteristic

49
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Under load condition, some factors cause the difference


between Ea (internal voltage) and Va (external voltage):

The distortion of the air-gap magnetic field by the


current flowing in the stator (armature reaction). The
current flowing in the stator windings produces a
magnetic field of its own. That flux modifies the
fundamental field flux
The self-inductance of the armature coils.
The resistance of the armature coils.

50
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Devanado inducido

51
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Space Phasor Diagram

ns Flux F f

B- C+

A+ A-

S
Armature
C- B+ flux Far

52
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Resistive load (draw the A. R. field wave)

53
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Resistive load = maximum voltage and maximum


current on the same coil

Current directions

54
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Resistive load

55
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Resistive load:

lp

l A.R. Ia Ea

EA.R.
ERes

56
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Resistive load

lp

Ea

ER.A.

ER.A.
E Res
57
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Inductive load – (draw the A. R. field)

58
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Inductive load:

59
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects
Inductive load: (draw the phasorial diagram)

lp

Ea

60
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Capacitive load – (draw the A. R. field)

61
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects
Capacitive load: (draw the phasorial diagram)

62
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

Capacitive load:

lp

Ea

63
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Armature reaction effects

64
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Diagrama fasorial

Eo
EAR= jXAR

Er

f Vt
I I Xla
I Ra

65
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
66
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
67
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
68
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous-machine equivalent circuits

69
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous-machine equivalent circuits

Synchronous-machine equivalent circuit showing


armature reaction and leakage components of
synchronous reactance.
XS

XAR Xl

Êa E Res

70
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous-machine equivalent circuits

(a) Motor reference direction


(b) Generator reference direction.

Êa Êa

71
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous Motors

72
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Start as an induction motor

73
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Synchronous Machine Model Parameters

The equivalent circuit contains three quantities


that must be obtained in order to completely
describe the behavior of a real synchronous
generator:

1. The relationship between field current Ie


and flux (Ie and Ea)

2. The synchronous reactance (Xs)

3. The armature resistance (Ra)

74
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Open- and short-circuit characteristics of a
synchronous machine

75
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Short-circuit operation

76
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Phasor Diagrams

77
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise II

The following characteristics were obtained for a 10


MVA, 14 kV, 3ϕ, star connected synchronous
machine (P.C. Sen). The armature resistance is
0.07 ohms/phase.
Find the saturated and unsaturated
synchronous impedance. Ohms and p.u
Find the field current required if the
synchronous generator is connected to an
infinite bus and delivers rated MVA at 0.8
lagging power factor.
If the generator (operating as before) is
disconnected from the infinite bus without
changing the field current, find the terminal
voltage. 78
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise II (cont.)

79
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise II (cont.)

80
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power and Torque Characteristics

Ef

f Vt
I I Xsy
I Rs

81
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power and Torque Characteristics

The complex power delivered by the generator is:

 Efn e −i d − Vtn 
S = 3 Vtn I = 3 Vtn   Xs = Xsyn + Xnt
 − i Xs 
After simplification we get:
Efn  Vtn  Efn Vtn Vtn 2 
S=3  sin d + j  3    cos d − 
Xs  X s X s 

Generator jXs Xe = 0 Network


Generator
Ia
Efn d Vtn 0 Ven = Vtn
Network
Bus

82
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power and Torque Characteristics

The real and reactive power are


Efn  Vtn
P=3  sin d
Xs
 Efn Vtn Vtn 2 
Q = j 3   cos d − 
 X s X s 

The real power is maximum if d = 900.

The maximum torque is:


Tmax = Pmax / 
=

83
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power and Torque Characteristics
Power angle
Characteristics Round Rotor Machine
The P(d) curve shows that the
increase of power increases
the angle between the induced
voltage and the terminal
voltage.
100 Pmax
The power is maximum when d
=90o 80

The further increase of input 60


P( d )
power forces the generator out
40
of synchronism. This generates
large current and mechanical 20

forces. 0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
This angle corresponds to the
d
angle between the field flux
and the stator generated
rotating flux.
84
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power and Torque Characteristics

Power angle Round Rotor Machine


Characteristics
The angle d, called power Pmax
angle and it corresponds to 100

the angle between the field 80


flux and the stator Safe operation limit
generated rotating flux. 60
P( d )
The maximum power is the 40

static stability limit of the 20


system.
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
Safe operation requires a
d
15-20% power reserve.

85
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Torque-speed Characteristics

As the speed
remains constant
in a synchronous
machine, the
speed-torque
characteristics is
a straight line.

86
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise III

A 5 kVA, 208V, 3ϕ, four-pole, 60Hz, star-connected


synchronous machine has negligible stator winding
resistance and a synchronous reactance of 8 Ohms
per phase at rated terminal voltage.
The machine is first operated as a generator in
parallel with a 208V, 3ϕ, 60 Hz power supply.
a) Find the excitation voltage and the power
angle when the machine is delivering rated
kVA at 0.8 PF lagging. Draw the phasor
diagram for this condition.
b) If the field excitation current is now increased
by 20%(without changing the prime mover
power), find the stator current, power factor,
and reactive kVA supplied by the machine. 87
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise III (cont)

c) With the field current as in (a) the prime


mover power is slowly increased. What is
the steady-state stability limit? What are
the corresponding values of the stator
current, power factor, and reactive power
at this maximum power transfer condition?

88
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise IV

The synchronous machine in the before exercise is


operated as a synchronous motor from the 208V,
3ϕ, 60 Hz power supply. The field excitation is
adjusted so that the power factor is unity when the
machine draws 3 kW from the supply
a) Find the excitation voltage and the power
angle. Draw the phasor diagram for this
condition.
b) If the field excitation is held constant and the
shaft load is slowly increased, determine the
maximum torque (steady-state stability limit)
that the motor can deliver.

89
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise V

A 125 hp, 460V, 3ϕ, 1200 rpm, 60Hz, synchronous


motor has the following equivalent circuit
parameters.
Ra=0.078 ohms, Xal=0.05, Xar=1.85, Nre/Nse=28.2
For rated conditions the field current is adjusted to
make the motor power factor unity. Neglect all
rotational losses and power lost in the field
winding.
a) For rated operating conditions, determine the
motor current Ia, field current If, and power
angle δ.
b) Draw the phasor diagram.

90
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Complex Power Locus
Efn  Vtn  Efn Vtn Vtn 2 
S=3  sin d + j  3    cos d − 
Xs  X s X s 

91
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Capability curves

A synchronous machine cannot be operated at all


points inside the locus region. The region of
operation is restricted by:
Armature heating, determined by the
armature current.
Field heating, determinated by the field
current.
Steady-state stability limits.
The capability curves that define the limit region
for each consideration can be drawn on the
complex power plane for constant terminal
voltage Vt.
92
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Capability curves

The points M and N determine the optimum operating points.


93
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power Factor Control
E fn Vtn
P=3  sin d = 3Vtn I a cos f
Xs

E fn = Vtn − jI a X s

I a = I a1 , laggin Vt
= I a 2 , in phase with Vt
= I a 3 , leading Vt

94
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise VI

A 5 MVA, 11kV, 3ϕ, 60Hz synchronous machine has


negligible stator winding resistance and a
synchronous reactance of 8 Ohms per phase. The
machine is connected to the 11kV, 60 Hz bus and
is operated as a synchronous condenser.
1. Neglect rotational losses.
a) For normal excitation, find the stator current.
Draw the phasor diagram.
b) If the excitation is increased to 150% of the
normal excitation, find the stator current and
power factor. Draw the phasor diagram.
c) If the excitation is decreased to 50% of the
normal excitation, find the stator current and
power factor. Draw the phasor diagram. 95
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise VI (con)

2. If the rotational losses are 80kW, find the stator


current and excitation voltaje for normal
excitation. Draw the phasor diagram.

96
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Independent generators

Z L = X L For a purely inductive load


Vt = E f − I a X s
= I sc X s − I a X s
= X s ( I sc − I a )
Z L = R For a purely resistive load
Ef X s I sc
Ia = =
RL2 + X S2 RL2 + X S2
Vt = I a RL
From before equations
Vt 2 I a2
1= 2
+ 2
( X s I sc ) I sc

97
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Equivalent circuit and phasor diagrams

98
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
99
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power-angle characteristic

100
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Power-angle characteristic

101
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise VII

A 50 MVA, 11kV, 3ϕ, 60Hz, salient pole,


synchronous machine has reactances Xd=0.8pu
and Xq=0.4pu. The synchronous motor is loaded to
draw a rated current at a supply power factor of
0.8 laggin. Rotational losses are 0.15pu. Neglect
armature resistence losses.

a) Find the excitation voltage Ef in pu.


b) Determine the power due to field excitation
and that due to saliency of the machine.
c) If the field current is reduced to zero, will the
machine stay in synchronism?

102
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA
Exercise VII (cont)

d) If the shaft load is removed before the


field current is reduced to zero, determine
the resultant supply current in pu and the
supply power factor. Draw the phasor
diagram for the machine in this condition.

103
MÁQUINAS III: MÁQUINAS DE CORRIENTE ALTERNA