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PSYC200A: UNDERGRADUATE THESIS 1

RESEARCH PLAN

Group Barrantes, John Denver O.


Members Enoc, Joana L.
Gravador, Camille Alexandra G.
Research Title Stress, Burnout, Resilience and Coping Strategies of Firefighters in BFP
Imus: A basis for KUF (Koi Under Fire) Program
Statement of Generally, this study intends to evaluate if there is a relationship
the Problem between stress, burnout, resilience and coping strategies among the
firefighters of the BFP Imus.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of stress of the firefighters?


2. What is the level of burnout of the firefighters?
3. What is the resilience level of the firefighters?
4. Is there a significant relationship between stress and burnout of the
firefighters?
5. Is there a significant relationship between stress and resilience of the
firefighters?
6. Is there a significant relationship between stress and coping strategies
of the firefighters in terms of:
6.1 Cognitive Appraisal
6.2 Social Support
6.3 Problem-solving
6.4 Religiosity
6.5 Tolerance
6.6 Overactivity
6.7 Relaxation/Recreation
6.8 Substance Abuse
7. Is there a significant relationship between burnout and resilience of the
firefighters?
8. Is there a significant relationship between burnout and coping
strategies of the firefighters?
8.1 Cognitive Appraisal
8.2 Social Support
8.3 Problem-solving
8.4 Religiosity
8.5 Tolerance
8.6 Overactivity
8.7 Relaxation/Recreation
8.8 Substance Abuse
9. Is there a significant relationship between resilience and coping
strategies of the firefighters?
9.1 Cognitive Appraisal
9.2 Social Support
9.3 Problem-solving
9.4 Religiosity
9.5 Tolerance
9.6 Overactivity
9.7 Relaxation/Recreation
9.8 Substance Abuse
10. What are the challenges that the firefighters experienced?
Hypothesis This study will be designed to examine the relationship between stress,
burnout, resilience and coping strategies among the firefighters of the BFP
Imus.

The researches came up with these null hypotheses:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between stress and burnout of the


firefighters.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between stress and resilience of
the firefighters.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between stress and coping
strategies of the firefighters in terms of:
3.1 Cognitive Appraisal
3.2 Social Support
3.3 Problem-solving
3.4 Religiosity
3.5 Tolerance
3.6 Overactivity
3.7 Relaxation/Recreation
3.8 Substance Abuse
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between burnout and resilience of
the firefighters.
Ho5: There is no significant relationship between burnout and coping
strategies of the firefighters in terms of:
5.1 Cognitive Appraisal
5.2 Social Support
5.3 Problem-solving
5.4 Religiosity
5.5 Tolerance
5.6 Overactivity
5.7 Relaxation/Recreation
5.8 Substance Abuse
Ho5: There is no significant relationship between resilience and coping
strategies of the firefighters.
6.1 Cognitive Appraisal
6.2 Social Support
6.3 Problem-solving
6.4 Religiosity
6.5 Tolerance
6.6 Overactivity
6.7 Relaxation/Recreation
6.8 Substance Abuse
Theoretical The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Transactional
Framework model of stress and coping that was developed by Lazarus and Folkman,
the Maslach’s Multidimensional Theory of Burnout (MMT) and the
Resilience Theory.

The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (TMSC) that was


developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) states that stress is not simply
events that trigger negative emotional responses but it is a two-way
process where individuals interact with their environment. Lazarus (1966)
further emphasized that phenomena in the environment (e.g., extreme
weather conditions) may lead to the development of stressors (Milen,
2009). It is also said that stress occurs whenever a person’s environmental
demands outweigh one’s resources. The main theme conveyed in the
TMSC is focused on stress transitions, social change and the ways in
which people cope with them effectively. Environmental stressors and
ecological factors may increase the amount of stress that individuals
experience (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).

The theory of stress and coping stressors was initially identified in the
earlier work of Lazarus and Cohen (1977). They identified three types of
stressors:
1. Mass casualty stressors such as man-made and natural
disasters, major catastrophes and uncontrollable phenomena that
affect a large number of people.
2. Major changes which affect a single person or a small group of
people.
3. Daily hassles are the small, day-to-day situations or events that
irritate or distress people.

The types of stressors discussed above had always been part of the
firefighting career. As firefighters whose job is to deal man-made and
natural disasters (environmental stressors and ecological factors), they
tend to be more prone to stress.

There are various ways for people to cope with stressors and feelings of
stress in their lives. Firefighting personnel use diverse methods to combat
stressors. Lazarus and Folkman (1984) defined coping as “constantly
changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external
and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the
resources of the person” (p. 141). Their theory conceptualizes that coping
is a process that a person employs to handle stressors (Milen, 2009).

According to the theory, an individual select the coping mechanism to use


accordingly to their coping resource such as problem-based coping or
emotion-based coping. As firefighters experience the stimuli of fire and
rescue situations, each has a cognitive response, and this response can
lead to coping with trauma or letting it escalate to a heightened stress
response (Milen, 2009). Moreover, an unrelenting feeling of stress could
lead to burnout.

According to Maslach’s Multidimensional Theory of Burnout (MMT)


(2003), burnout is an exacerbated and extended stress condition, as a
psychological syndrome that is associated with prolonged exposure to
stress in the workplace (as cited by Hanson, 2019). Maslach (2003)
defines job burnout as a prolonged response to chronic emotional and
interpersonal job stressors characterized by the three dimensions of
exhaustion, cynicism, and sense of inefficacy (as cited by Hanson, 2019).
The theory was designed to evaluate and measure burnout.

Hanson (2019) refers to the ideas of Arya, & Pandey (2016) and Mandal et
al. (2016): Maslach and Jackson (1981) developed a comprehensive
model to measure burnout includes examining six identifying factors in the
workplace that signal burnout: workload, control, reward, community,
fairness, and 34 values (Mandal, Arya, & Pandey, 2016). Burnout emerges
when one or more of these six areas is chronically incongruent between an
individual and his/her job. Over time, passion eventually diminishes when
these six factors become disconnected (Mandal et al., 2016).
Resilience Theory

Resilience is the act of “bouncing back” or resisting to crack under


pressure. According to the American Psychological Association, resilience
is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy,
threats or even significant sources of risk (Positive Psychology, 2019).

Firefighting involves a lot of pressure as they are expected to carry out a


heavy responsibility. People are supposed to depend on them during
occurrence of man-made and natural disasters, mass casualties and such.
Ergo, it is important for the firefighters to bounce back and not crack under
pressure especially during emergencies.

Psychologists have identified some of the factors that make a person


resilient, such as a positive attitude, optimism, the ability to regulate
emotions, and the ability to see failure as a form of helpful feedback.
Research shows that optimism helps blunt the impact of stress on the
mind and body in the wake of disturbing experiences. And that gives
people access to their own cognitive resources, enabling cool-headed
analysis of what might have gone wrong and consideration of behavioral
paths that might be more productive (Psychology Today, 2019).
Conceptual For better understanding of the process and goal of the study, the
Framework conceptual framework below was designed by the researchers:

Stress

Burnout Basis for the ALAB


Interview
Program
Resilience

Coping Strategies

The study will begin with a quantitative approach by assessing whether the
variables (stress, burnout, resilience and coping strategies) are correlated
with each other or not. After collecting and analyzing the quantitative data,
the researchers will conduct use a qualitative approach through an
interview to support the quantitative results. When the qualitative data was
collected and analyzed, the researchers will analyze the overall data
collected (qualitative and quantitative). With this, the researchers will
develop the ALAB Program.
METHODOLOGY
Research The study will utilize a Mixed Methods Research which involves the use of
Design both the Qualitative and Quantitative method. Specifically, the researchers
used the Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design.

Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design is a two-phase mixed


methods design which involves the use of quantitative method followed by
the qualitative method to support the quantitative results.

Under the Exploratory Sequential Method, the Follow-up Explanations


Model will be utilized. In this method, the qualitative data are used to
follow-up the results of the quantitative method with an in-depth qualitative
study and to explain the quantitative results.

For the quantitative part of the study, the study utilized the Correlational
Research Design. It is a non-experimental research method in which two
or more variable are measured to understand and evaluate the statistical
relationship between the variables without any influence from any
extraneous variable. This method will be used to evaluate the relationship
between stress, burnout, resilience and coping strategies of the firefighters
in BFP Imus.
Respondents The respondents of this study will be the firefighters of Bureau Of Fire
Protection in the City of Imus Cavite. The whole population of the
firefighters in the BFP Imus will be taken for the quantitative part of the
study while only the selected participants will be taken for the qualitative
part of the study.

The firefighting is one of the highest risk professions in which repetitive


exposure to traumatic experiences may lead to serious psychological
consequences. Firefighting personnel also are exposed to stressful
situations; traumatic incidents; and environmental extremes, such as heat,
cold wind, and noise, all of which require adaptive measures (i.e., personal
coping strategies; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Working under adverse
conditions may increase the amount of stress that firefighting personnel
experience while they are performing emergency work on scene (Milen,
2009). If stress was unrelenting, stress may lead to excessive prolonged
called burnout. With what the risk that career firefighting brings in relation
to stress and burn-out, it is essential to assess the coping strategies and
level of resiliency of the firefighters in order to prevent psychological
consequences in the future and to develop further more interventions,
programs etc. to help the firefighters deal with the stress.
Research The study will be conducted at the Bureau Of Fire Protection in the City
Locale of Imus, Cavite.

To prevent and suppress destructive fires, to investigate its cause, to


give rescue services to the victims of any man-made and natural disasters
and other emergencies and to enforce fire-related laws for the welfare of
the public, the Imus City Fire Station was established. It aims to be able to
provide a modern fire service that is fully capable of ensuring a fire safe
nation by 2034.
Sampling In this study, the Purpose Sampling Technique will be used in selecting
Technique participants. Purposive Sampling is an approach in which the selection of
the participants will solely depend on the judgement of the researchers.

For the quantitative part of the study, the Total Population Sampling will be
used. The Total Population Sampling Approach is a type of Purposive
Sampling Technique that involves taking in the entire population that has
the particular set of characteristics needed for the study as participants.
For this study, all the firefighters of the Bureau Of Fire Protection in the
City of Imus, Cavite will be the participants.

For the qualitative part of the study, the researchers will used the Follow-
up Explanation Model in which we will randomly select participants for the
interview or follow-up.
Instrumentation Coping Strategy
 Filipino Coping Strategies Scale

The Filipino Coping Strategies Scale is a 37-item, 4-point Likert scale


developed by John Robert Rivleria (2018) which primarily aims to measure
the coping strategies of Filipinos towards stress and to generate a coping
dispositional profile which can be used to aid in the assessment of coping
behaviors. The scale was based on the qualitative data on the resilience of
Filipinos and the ways by which they cope with stressful life experiences
and the quantitative data on foreign measures of coping. Integration of
both data led to the formulation of nine coping strategies: cognitive
reappraisal, social support, problem-solving, religiosity, tolerance,
emotional release, overactivity, relaxation/recreation, and substance use
(Rilveria, 2018).

The Reliability analysis revealed items that are internally consistent with
each other. Furthermore, construct validity was established via a) factor
analysis through principal components analysis extraction method and
varimax rotation method and b) test for convergent validity by correlating
each domain of the Filipino Coping Strategies scale with the corresponding
domains of Ways of Coping by Folkman and Lazarus and the COPE
Inventory by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Independent samples t-test
revealed significant differences among males and females in each coping
strategy which served as the basis for norm groups (Rilveria, 2018).

The coefficient alpha for each coping strategy ranges from .60 to .95. The
overall coefficient alpha for the Filipino Coping Strategies Scale is .716.

Domains:
a) Cognitive Appraisal: 1, 8, 17, 23 and 30
b) Social Support: 9, 24 and 31
c) Problem Solving: 2, 10, 18 and 32
d) Religiosity: 3, 11, 19 and 33
e) Tolerance: 12 and 25
f) Emotional Release: 4, 13, 26 and 34
g) Overactivity: 5, 14, 20, 27, 35
h) Relaxation/Recreation: 6, 15, 21, 28 and 36
i) Substance Abuse: 7, 16, 22, 37 and 39

Scoring:

The score is computed by dividing the total raw score by the number of
items per domain.

BURNOUT

Maslach Burnout Inventory for Health and Human Services Scale

The Maslach Burnout Inventory for Health and Human Services Scale is a
subset of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was specifically developed to
measure burnout indicators for helping professions like the firefighters. The
scale is a 22-item survey which utilizes a 7-point Likert type scale (0-6
rating). The MBI-HSS is subdivided into three categories of burnout: (9)
emotional exhaustion which assesses the feelings of being emotionally
overextended and exhausted by one’s work, (5) depersonalization which
evaluates an unfeeling and impersonal response toward recipients of one’s
service, care treatment, or instruction, and (8) personal accomplishment
which measures one’s feelings of competence and successful
achievement in one’s work.

The reliability of the instrument equated to personal exhaustion .90,


depersonalization .79, and lack of personal accomplishment .71 (Maslach,
Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Additionally, Leiter and Durup (1996) reported
that the MBI instrument, based off the review of previous studies, was
found to be stable over time, with .50 to .82 correlations in spans between
three months to a year for the subscales (as cited by Ortlieb, 2013).

Interpretation

Emotional Exhaustion
 ≥27: High
 17-26: Moderate
 0-16: Low

Depersonalization
 ≥14: High
 9-13: Moderate
 0-8: Low

Personal Achievement
 0-30: High
 31-36: Moderate
 ≥37: Low

Higher mean scores for the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization


subscales correlate positively with higher degrees of job burnout.
Alternatively, lower mean scores in the lack of personal accomplishment
subscale correlate positively with higher degrees of job burnout. An
important note by Maslach et al. is it should not be assumed that a person
with lower mean scores of personal accomplishment is the opposite of
higher mean scores of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion
(Ortlieb, 2013).

RESILIENCE

Resilience Scale (Wagnid & Young)

The Resilience Scale is a 25-item scale that was developed by Gail


Wagnid and Heather Young (1993). The scale measures the degree of
resilience in various populations. The scale encompasses the 5
characteristics of resiliency such as purpose, self-reliance, perseverance,
equanimity and authenticity.

Scoring

 >145: Moderately High to High Level


 125-145: Moderately Low to Moderate Levels
 <120: Low Level
STRESS

Perceived Stress Scale (Sheldon Cohen)

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a prominent psychological instrument


for measuring the perception of stress. Items were designed to tap how
unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives.
The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of
experienced stress. It measures the degree to which situations in one’s life
are appraised as stressful.

Scoring

The PSS scoring process:

1. Reverse the scores for questions 4, 5, 7, and 8 like this:


0 = 4, 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1, 4 = 0.
2. Add up the scores for each item to get the final score.

Interpretation

Scores can range from 0 to 40. The higher the score is, the higher the
perceived stress of an individual.

 0-13: Low stress.


 14-26: Moderate stress.
 27-40: High perceived stress.
Data Gathering
Procedure
Conceptualization

The researchers identified their variables and participants for


the study. They did their research by read journals, articles
and other literatures related to their variables and
participants. They also looked for scales that are considered
valid and reliable to measure their variables.

Quantitative Data Collection

To collect the quantitative data needed for the study, the


tests will be administered to the firefighters.

Quantitative Data Analysis

After the needed qualitative data were collected, the


researchers will analyze and interpret the quantitative data
using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS).

jjj

After
Qualitative Data Collection

To collect the qualitative data needed for the study, selected


participants will be interviewed for a follow-up regarding the
quantitative findings.

Qualitative Data Analysis

Interpretation of the Entire Analysis

Development of the KUF Program


WALA LANG TO HAHAHA

The purpose of the study is to explore the stress level, resiliency, burnout level and coping
strategies of the firefighters and to develop a program that would aid the needs of the
firefighters.

REFERENCE:

http://www.imus.gov.ph/departments-and-units/bureau-of-fire-protection/

Hanson, A. (2019). The relationship between stress, burnout, and mindfulness among
firefighters (Order No. 13902152). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses Global. (2282579383). Retrieved from
https://search.proquest.com/docview/2282579383?accountid=173015

 When burnout is left untreated, firefighters are at a greater risk for more severe
stress conditions due to prolonged unaddressed stress exposure (Carter, Kofler,
Forster, & McCullough, 2015). Maslach and Jackson (1981) created the Maslach
Burnout Inventory to evaluate burnout based on measures of exhaustion, cynicism,
and sense of inefficacy (Hanson, 2019).
 Recent burnout research in firefighters demonstrates consistent findings. Burnout
continues to plague firefighters nationally and internationally, as recent studies
demonstrate (Hagan, Lien, Hauff, & Heir, 2016; Heitman, 2016; Krok, 2016). Most of
the research on firefighter burnout includes studies involving international populations
(Bai & Li, 2015; Lee et al., 2018; Sommerfeld, Wagner, Harder, & Schmidt, 2017).
Sommerfeld et al. (2017) through a qualitative approach, studied Canadian
firefighters regarding behavioral health interventions and its relationship on burnout.
Burnout is influenced by environment, with significant differences between national
and international ecologies. Yet, commonalities in national and international burnout
experience suggest certain constants in its appearance and effect of firefighters.

Ortlieb, D. (2013). Self-determination as a moderator of stress and burnout in


firefighters (Order No. 3560238). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses Global. (1356052177). Retrieved from
https://search.proquest.com/docview/1356052177?accountid=173015

Resiliency Quiz

The Resiliency Quiz was developed by Al Sievert, PhD., over years ofgathering
observations, interviews and anecdotes to help people assess their own progress
towards resiliency. Siebert stated that healthy resilient people have stress-resistant
personalities and learn valuable lessons from rough experiences. Resilience is the
process of successfully adapting to difficult or challenging life experiences. Resilient
people overcome adversity, bounce back from setbacks, and can thrive under
extreme, on-going pressure from traumatic experiences stronger, better, and wiser.
When hurt or distressed, resilient people expect to find a way to have things turn out
well. They feel self-reliant and have learning and coping reaction rather than the
victim or blaming reaction that is so common these days.

The test was proven to be reliable and valud due to some studies that were
conducted by several psychologists and professionals who used this as their
instrument. Some psychologist like Sabine, PhD, Fredrickson, PhD, the author of
Positivity (Crown Archetype, 2009) Darcy

The participants will answer 20 items quiz by rating their selves according to their
own perspective. The following is the given rating scale:

1= very little
2= little
3: Moderate
4: Strong
5: Very Strong

Milen, D. (2009). The ability of firefighting personnel to cope with stress. Journal of
Social Change, 3(1), 38-56. Retrieved from
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bbc8/163425043ede34872e9d3025837942191629.p
df

Firefighting personnel experience stress each day in their work settings. Their ability to cope
with stress affects their capacity to function effectively in emergency situations. Society has
a stake in the ability of firefighting personnel to carry out their responsibilities effectively.
Given the threat of natural disasters, the threats from terrorist attacks, mass casualties, and
major environmental incidents, society depends on the services of firefighting personnel who
work long hours with little relief in these situations (Milen, 2009).

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/basics/resilience