Sei sulla pagina 1di 12
B a c k t o M e n u IPA09-E-178 PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION

Back to Menu

IPA09-E-178

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION Thirty-Third Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2009

EXTENDING MINAS FIELD LIFE THROUGH SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING

Amin Setyawan*

Agus Masduki*

Dhani Daradjat*

Kris Pedersen*

Bruce Smith*

ABSTRACT

Surfactant-Polymer (SP) flooding is a third generation of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology that is being applied in the Minas Field to further enhance oil recovery and extend the economic life of the field. This new applied

Information (VOI) project to gather sufficient,reliable and accurate information for the effectiveness of SP flooding performance on field scale pattern sizes versus the SFT-2 single small 4.5 acre pattern size.

INTRODUCTION

technology is targeting residual oil in the reservoirs due to the inability of water flooding, currently used

With an area 28 km long and 10 km wide (50,500 acres), the Minas Field is one of the largest oil fields in Southeast Asia with an original oil in place (OOIP) of approximately 8.7 billion barrels. Since initial production began during 1952, the current recovery is estimated to be approximately 52%. As such, this giant field has produced 4.5 BSTBO (billion stock tank barrels of oil) through primary and secondary recovery operations. Minas production currently exceeds 98.5% water cut indicating the field is in a late and mature phase of secondary recovery water flood operations. However, since almost half of the OOIP remains, a large quantity of oil will be left unproduced in the reservoirs due to the inability of water flood operations to recover significant amounts of this oil. The remaining OOIP after water flooding offers a huge EOR prospect. Therefore, a third generation of recovery technology becomes a viable alternative to be applied in the Minas field to further enhance recovery and extend its economic life.

As part of the tertiary recovery development plan, efforts to identify possible EOR options applicable for Minas Field began during the early 1990’s. Figure 1 shows Minas Field production history and applied recovery processes in the field. Several laboratory and field trials have been conducted to find the best tertiary recovery technology, including Surfactant-Polymer (SP) flooding. As part of this study, a small SP field trial was conducted in the southern part of the Minas field during the year 2000. This SP field trial was a value of information

in

the Minas Field as a secondary recovery process,

to

effectively recover remaining oil in place.

The injected Surfactant formulation will mobilize oil by reducing the interfacial tension holding the

oil to the reservoir rock. Polymer will improve the sweep efficiency of injected fluids by increasing the injectant’s viscosity. Core flood laboratory tests of the SP flooding recovered an estimated 98% of remaining oil after water flooding in Minas rock. The field scale potential for SP flooding technology

in

the Minas Field is estimated to have a potential

incremental recovery as high as one (1) billion

barrels of oil.

staged development concept is being pursued in

order to mitigate the risk of the high investment required for SP flooding technology. The continued evaluation of SP flooding in Minas will be conducted in a single 4.5 acre pattern size as Surfactant Field Trial - 2 (SFT-2) and will investigate the economic feasibility and chemical effectiveness of SP flooding in the Minas Field. The SFT-2 project has been approved and is being executed and evaluated between the years 2008 and 2013. Following the SFT-2 project, a second SP project evaluation (Area A) is conceptually envisioned to be conducted on a larger scale (confined 18 acre patterns). The goal of the larger Area A project after SFT-2 will be a Value of

A

*

Chevron Pacific Indonesia

Back to Menu project called the Surfactant Field Trial (now referred to as SFT-1). SFT-1

Back to Menu

project called the Surfactant Field Trial (now referred to as SFT-1). SFT-1 was completed during February 2002 indicating promising results and the need to carry forward with further evaluation. Further strategic decision analysis also indicated the SP flooding as the optimum tertiary recovery alternative for the Minas Field.

Understanding SP flooding is an emerging technology but requires a high capital investment. As such, a staged development is planned for Minas including intensive research and studies addressing reservoir complexity, geological, and chemical aspects needed to mitigate the risk of a high investment (see Figure 2). The project team that was chartered for the implementation of SP flood at a field development scale of 18 acre pattern sizes proposed a modified surfactant chemical system based on SFT-1 lessons learned. The project was proposed as a VOI field trial prior to commercial field expansion of chemical flooding in Minas. However, after discussions with BPMIGAS as the primary stakeholder of this project, decisions were made to first run another small field trial in a single 4.5 acre pattern size (similar size of SFT-1) prior to committing to the larger Area A field scale project. The objective of the SFT-2 field trial is to test the modified chemical in the field and further reduce risks and uncertainties. The SFT-2 field trial has been approved and will serve as a VOI project prior to implementing the larger Area A field scale project. Therefore, the Minas Surfactant Project is being developed in a three stage process incorporating; 1) a first stage (chemical field testing) SFT-2 which is a 4.5 acre SP flood, followed by; 2) a second stage Area A (field scale testing) for a larger SP flood field scale test followed by; 3) a third stage (commercialization) for Minas full field expansion.

RESERVOIR DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

Minas Reservoir Overview

The Minas Field is located in the Central Sumatra Basin on the island of Sumatra in western Indonesia. The Central Sumatra Basin is a large Tertiary basin bounded on the west by the Late Miocene-Recent Barisan Mountain uplift and volcanic arc, on the south by the Kampar-Tigapuluh high, to the north by the Asahan arch, and to the east by the Sunda craton.

The field is informally divided into the Main Segment containing 7.2 BSTBO and the Northwest

Segment containing 1.5 BSTBO (see Figure 3). Hydrocarbon accumulations within the Minas Field are found in the Petani Sand, the Telisa Sand, the “X” Sand and the Bekasap Sands. The largest oil accumulation within the Minas Field, and the main source of oil production, is from the Bekasap A-1 through D Sands, with approximately 99.5% of the total OOIP (see Figure 4). Production from the Bekasap Sands is supported by a combination of natural water drive and peripheral/pattern waterflood operations. It is envisaged that the Minas Surfactant project will be applied to all commercial opportunities within the entire field targeting remaining oil after waterflood.

Geologic zonal isolation between reservoirs in Minas is a concern for the SP project in order to properly design chemical injection and to accurately monitor and measure its results. Geologic zonal isolation is achieved when reservoirs are vertically separated by shale or impermeable rock and when there is no apparent sand on sand connectivity between reservoirs due to faulting. In reviewing the shale interval thickness between the A1 and A2 sands in the SFT-2 field trial area as well as the absence of faulting, the test area for the A1 sand demonstrates good geologic zonal isolation.

Project Location

A strategy was selected to conduct the field trial VOI project in the “best” part of the field that has prime reservoir properties rather than a more “average” part of the field. Next, a rather rigorous approach was taken to identify which areas of the field would respond best to surfactant flooding. This approach involved conducting chemical flood simulation forecasts for 30 sectors across the field and then developing a statistical process to extend these 30 forecasts to a fine-grid description of the Minas. High-graded areas of the field were then compared on the basis of geologic complexity, faulting, surface conditions, land indemnification issues, safety perspectives, impact on local community and environment in order to select the final location for the proposed SP flooding field trial area. The selected SFT-2 field trial area is located on the crest of the anticline structure in the southern part of the field, near Gathering Station (GS) 1 and is in the proximity of the previous SFT- 1 location (see Figures 3 and 5).

The location of SFT-2 was chosen to be in the proximity of a potential 18 acre Area A testing location in order to have a better interpretation of the results and to potentially utilize same SP

Back to Menu facilities. This area also has relatively good Bekasap A-1 and A-2 sand

Back to Menu

facilities. This area also has relatively good Bekasap A-1 and A-2 sand development with little or no other surface problems.

PROJECT DESIGN CONCEPT

Pattern Size and Configuration

The SFT-2 project is a single 4.5 acre pattern selected to resemble the pattern size of the previous SFT-1 field trial and represents half the distance between injector and producer of required 18 acre pattern field scale pattern spacing. The Minas field today is largely developed using 72 acre water flood patterns with an inverted 7 spot configuration. During recent years, an infill water flood optimization (WFO) program has been progressing with inverted 13 spot pattern configurations. Beyond the 72 acre inverted 13 spot WFO program, the next geometric progression for a smaller pattern size would be 18 acre patterns which is proposed for SP flooding in the future (see Figure 6).

The recommendation for SP flooding to select a regular 7 spot configuration is largely based on injectivity capabilities and simulation results. A regular pattern configuration accommodates balanced injection rates of viscous chemical. For field scale development the existing 72 acre pattern sizes, optimum for water flooding, are too large for chemical flooding. The SP injected in to very hot (200 F) Minas reservoirs will simply not survive these reservoir conditions using this large of a pattern. For a field scale Minas SP development, a smaller pattern size (18 to 24 acres) is required for two reasons; 1) to mitigate polymer thermal degradation and 2) reduce surfactant adsorption as the chemical moves from injector to producer in the reservoir.

Reservoir Target

In order to meet the primary objective to measure the chemical response in the field from the newly modified chemical system, a single 4.5 acre pattern size is selected with one layer injection into A1 sand. The A1 sand is considered the best reservoir in the field by having the best chance for success and holds a significant portion of the field’s targeted remaining oil. This small pattern will use a regular 7 spot configuration surrounded by six water injector wells for chemical flooding confinement (see Figure 5).

Wells Construction

Four well types will be completed for SFT-2 project. They are Producer, Chemical Injector, Water Injector and Sampling wells. Sampling wells will be utilized to determine the effectiveness of the injected SP system. In order to cover different areas of the reservoir and to penetrate the reservoir in an optimum direction, the well trajectory will have vertical and directional S type profiles to accommodate surface facility and mitigate land indemnification issues.

The SFT-2 project will utilize 21 wells in three (3) well development stages. A total of 16 wells consisting of one cored producer, six water injectors, six future chemical injectors, and three observation wells will be drilled ahead of the first water flooding stage of the SFT-2 project (2008- 2010). Also during this stage, one (1) existing producer inside the SFT-2 pattern will be recompleted to be a sampling well. Ahead of the SFT-2 chemical flooding second stage (2012-2013), two (2) additional sampling wells will be drilled to assess any saturation changes after the water flooding period and will provide additional sampling points. One of these stage two wells will also be cored. During stage three of the SFT-2 project (2013), another expendable well will be drilled and cored after SP chemical injection to again measure reservoir saturation and determine the effectiveness of the injected SP system.

Chemical System Development

SP flooding improves oil recovery by lowering interfacial tension between oil and water, increasing water wetability and enhancing solubility. The residual oil released by SP flooding will yield movable oil, which is then targeted for displacement by polymer. Polymer is used to displace the movable oil because of its viscous forces and enhanced excellent mobility. After a thorough evaluation using reservoir simulation and laboratory study, the project team was able to modify and optimize the surfactant system that meets design criteria and represents the best surfactant formulation for the Minas Field application.

Core flood tests were conducted in high permeability homogeneous reservoir rock using refined SP formulations prior to using Minas core. This surfactant system has demonstrated satisfactory results in the lab with oil recoveries as high as 98% from both Berea and Minas core floods. Ahead of field trial SP chemical injection,

Back to Menu the reservoir will be water flooded to ensure secondary recovery oil is

Back to Menu

the reservoir will be water flooded to ensure secondary recovery oil is quantified prior to chemical injection. A primary goal of the SP field trial is to assess incremental oil production due to chemical injection. Therefore, it is important to distinguish between secondary movable and tertiary residual oil.

The project area to be swept by SP chemical injection and resulting reservoir volumes are important to understand as the target recovery is measured in incremental oil as a percentage of OOIP. The SFT-2 incremental oil will be measured using a dedicated tank. Therefore, incremental production volumes will have a relatively high degree of accuracy. However, the volume of reservoir swept by chemical will still have a degree of uncertainty due to reservoir heterogeneity and not knowing exactly where reservoir injection chemical stream lines are located. These swept reservoir pore volumes will be history matched in reservoir simulation in addition to running interwell tracers. However, the resulting incremental recovery percentage relative to OOIP will still have a corresponding amount of uncertainty after the SFT-2 field trial since swept reservoir volume is still a calculated estimate. This uncertainty will be further reduced to an acceptable commercial level upon conducting the larger field scale Area A project after SFT-2 and prior to Minas full field SP expansion.

Facility Concept and Flooding Scheme

The basis of SFT-2 production and injection facility design is to deliver sufficient and accurate information which will be used to make a quality decision for the next larger Area A project and subsequent Minas full field development. The SFT-

2 surface facility consists of providing equipment to

blend the surfactant, polymer and soda ash with produced water, inject in the reservoir then gather, separate, treat and meter the resulting produced fluids.

The surfactant-polymer flooding scheme consists of

4 stages (see figures 7 and 8). Stage 1) Inject a slug of surfactant formulation mixed with polymer as the main recovery agent for releasing oil. Stage 2) Follow with a viscous polymer slug as a mobility agent to sweep the oil released by surfactant. Stage 3) Inject a tapered polymer slug for transition to drive water and adjust reservoir conditions. Stage 4) The last stage is to inject water behind the polymer as a final driving fluid to the producing well. Oil production from SFT-2 will be treated and

accurately metered to quantify incremental oil in making assessments if this tertiary recovery method is a viable alternative for subsequent projects leading to Minas full field development. The vision of success for the SFT-2 project is to be able to quantify an incremental oil recovery range due to the modified SP chemical injection and assess all other logistic and operational challenges.

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE AND PREDICTION

SFT-2 is located at the crest of the southern anticline structure of the field with better reservoir properties than other areas. The OOIP of the entire Minas Field based is 8.7 BSTBO. The Minas main Segment (MMS) contains approximately 7.2 billion STBO. At this time, the average OOIP RF from water flooding over the MMS is approximately 52% OOIP

Production Forecast

Extensive reservoir simulation experimental design (ED) studies for SP flooding for entire Minas Field were conducted. The resulting incremental recovery factor for SP flooding in Minas ranges from 6 to 24% of Minas OOIP. Figure 9 shows the projected incremental production forecast for the small 4.5 acre pattern SFT-2 project.

Reservoir Surveillance and Data Gathering

Reservoir surveillance and data gathering, including reservoir, chemical, and production, are critical tasks that will heavily impact the success of reservoir management efforts and quality of decisions made during the Minas Surfactant Project. Aligned with the primary objectives of the SFT-2 project the reservoir surveillance, chemical system sampling and monitoring, and production data gathering effort will be aimed at providing the following data:

a) Saturation Change/Incremental Production This information will answer how effective the chemical systems are to recover incremental oil. This will include pre and post flood evaluation on cores, logs, fluid rates and water cut measurements taken from individual wells and gathering points.

b) Chemical Behavior and Integrity This information will evaluate the efficiency of the chemical system and will be accomplished by sampling fluids from several testing points including monitoring wells. Sampling

Back to Menu evaluation will include measurement of viscosity, concentration, salinity, gravity and water/oil analysis.

Back to Menu

evaluation will include measurement of viscosity, concentration, salinity, gravity and water/oil analysis.

c) Sweep Efficiency and Dynamic Fluid Behavior in the Reservoir:

This information will be obtained by performing pressure monitoring tests, pressure transient test/well tests, injection allocation (spinner), production allocation, and reservoir connectivity (interwell tracer testing and microgravity survey). Saturation log measurements and special core analysis will also fall under this group to improve the characterization of the reservoir.

All surveillance data obtained from the SFT-2 field trial will be integrated in to the reservoir simulation model and history matched to provide best predictive capabilities for Minas full field SP recovery analysis.

CONCLUSIONS

The Minas Surfactant Project is planned as a staged development process. The 4.5 acre pattern SFT-2 project and larger field scale Area A projects are to be conducted as VOI projects prior to evaluating Minas full field commercial SP expansion. The SFT-2 project has been approved and is currently being executed. This field trial will be

conducted to evaluate the performance of a modified chemical and compared to laboratory results. A confined seven spot regular pattern will be used for SFT-2 targeting the Bekasap A1 sand reservoir. Results of the SFT-2 and Area A projects will provide valuable information to history match and optimally tune the reservoir simulation model that will be utilized to evaluate the implementation of this EOR technology for commercial expansion to the entire Minas Field.

REFFERENCES

Siregar, Arsyad., 2005, Area-A Surfactant Project Development Summary, an internal CPI unpublished report.

Minas Surfactant Project Team, 2007, Decision Support Package-Phase 2, an internal CPI technical evaluation report.

Minas Surfactant Project Team, 2009, Project Execution Plan-Early Phase 4, an internal CPI technical evaluation report.

Daradjat, Dhani., 2007, Minas Surfactant Project Overview, Chevron CPDEP Forum, Houston.

Back to Menu 10,000 Water Production Rate Waterflood operation at ~ 98%WC (mature phase of

Back to Menu

10,000 Water Production Rate Waterflood operation at ~ 98%WC (mature phase of secondary process) 1,000
10,000
Water Production Rate
Waterflood operation at ~ 98%WC
(mature phase of secondary
process)
1,000
natural decline
EOR
Pattern
Prospect
Oil Production Rate
100
Waterflood
Waterflood
optimization
Primary
Peripheral Injection
Secondary
Tertiary (?)
10
CDOIL, MBOPD
CDWATER, MBWPD
Jan-65 Jan-70 Jan-75 Jan-80 Jan-85 Jan-90 Jan-95 Jan-00 Jan-05 Jan-10 Jan-15 Jan-20
MBOPD, MBWPD, MBWIPD

Figure 1 - Production history and applied recovery process in Minas Field.

Natural decline in oil

production rate offers an EOR prospect to recover the remaining oil in the Minas Field.

prospect to recover the remaining oil in the Minas Field . Figure 2 - Staged development

Figure 2 - Staged development concept of the Minas Surfactant Project.

Back to Menu SFT-1 Project Location Figure 3 - SFT-2 is located on the crest

Back to Menu

SFT-1 Project Location
SFT-1 Project
Location

Figure 3 - SFT-2 is located on the crest of the anticline structure in the southern part of the field. The map shows top A1 sand structure map with wells location. The field is informally divided into the Main Segment, which contains 7.2 BSTBO, and the Northwest Segment, which contains 1.5 BSTBO.

Back to Menu Figure 4 - Reservoir evaluation focus is given on the Minas Main

Back to Menu

Back to Menu Figure 4 - Reservoir evaluation focus is given on the Minas Main Segment

Figure 4 - Reservoir evaluation focus is given on the Minas Main Segment and the Bekasap Sands, particularly A1, A2, B1, and B2 sands. The largest oil accumulation within the Minas Field, and the main source of oil production, is from the Bekasap A-1 through D Sands, with approximately 99.5% of the total OOIP.

Back to Menu Figure 5 - SFT-2 is a single 4.5 acre pattern size, selected

Back to Menu

Back to Menu Figure 5 - SFT-2 is a single 4.5 acre pattern size, selected to

Figure 5 - SFT-2 is a single 4.5 acre pattern size, selected to resemble the pattern size of the previous SFT- 1 and to represent half of the distance between injector and producer of the potential 18 acre pattern spacing in larger field scale project.

Back to Menu 18 18 Acre Pattern Acre Pattern Today Today In Progress In Progress

Back to Menu

18

18

Acre Pattern

Acre Pattern

Today

Today

In Progress

In Progress

Regular 7-Spot

Regular 7-Spot

In Progress In Progress Regular 7-Spot Regular 7-Spot (6 Acres Well Spacing) (6 Acres Well Spacing)

(6 Acres Well Spacing)

(6 Acres Well Spacing)

18

18

I/P = 2:1

I/P = 2:1

Acre Pattern

Acre Pattern

Inverted 7 Spot

Inverted 7 Spot

72 72

Acres Inverted 7

Acres Inverted 7

72 72

Acres Inverted 13 Spot

Acres Inverted 13 Spot

Spot PWF

Spot PWF

PWF (WFO Program)

PWF (WFO Program)

(24 Acres Well Spacing)

(24 Acres Well Spacing)

(12 Acres Well Spacing)

(12 Acres Well Spacing)

Injector= 1 Injector= 1 Injector= 1 Injector= 1 Producer=2 Producer=2 Producer=5 Producer=5 I/P = 1:2
Injector= 1
Injector= 1
Injector= 1
Injector= 1
Producer=2
Producer=2
Producer=5
Producer=5
I/P = 1:2
I/P = 1:2
I/P = 1:5
I/P = 1:5
For natural Geometric
For natural Geometric
Progression,
Progression,
24 24
acre pattern size
acre pattern size
alternative only possible
alternative only possible
from 72 ac. Inverted 7
from 72 ac. Inverted 7
possible from 72 ac. Inverted 7 from 72 ac. Inverted 7 Natural Natural Geometric Geometric Progression

Natural

Natural

Geometric

Geometric

Progression

Progression

Natural Geometric Geometric Progression Progression (6 Acres Well Spacing) (6 Acres Well Spacing) I/P = 1:2
Natural Geometric Geometric Progression Progression (6 Acres Well Spacing) (6 Acres Well Spacing) I/P = 1:2

(6 Acres Well Spacing)

(6 Acres Well Spacing)

I/P = 1:2

I/P = 1:2

Figure 6 - Well pattern progression in Minas Field. The field today is largely developed using 72 acre pattern water flood with an inverted 7 spot configuration. An infill water flood optimization (WFO) program has been progressing with an inverted 13 spot pattern. The next geometric progression for a smaller pattern size would be 18 acre patterns which will be used for surfactant-polymer flooding in the future

Back to Menu Injection Fluids Injection Production Well Pump Oil Injection Well 4 3 2

Back to Menu

Injection Fluids Injection Production Well Pump Oil Injection Well 4 3 2 1
Injection
Fluids
Injection
Production Well
Pump
Oil
Injection
Well
4 3
2
1

Figure 7 - The surfactant-polymer flooding scheme is consist of 4 scheme stages. 1) Inject a slug of surfactant as main recovery agent for releasing oil. 2) Follow with a viscous polymer slug injection as a mobility agent to sweep the oil released by surfactant. 3) Inject tapered polymer slug for transition to drive water and adjust reservoir condition. 4) The last step is to inject water behind the polymer as a final driving fluid to the producing well.

Surfactant and Polymer Injection Schedule

Surfactant and Polymer Injection Schedule

Water Water Surfactant Surfactant Polymer Polymer Chase Water Chase Water 0.50-1.0 PV 0.50-1.0 PV 0.25
Water
Water
Surfactant
Surfactant
Polymer
Polymer
Chase Water
Chase Water
0.50-1.0 PV
0.50-1.0 PV
0.25 PV
0.25 PV
0.50 PV
0.50 PV
~1.0 PV
~1.0 PV
Production – injector distance ~167 meters Injector Producer Injector -water Pre and - oil Sampling
Production – injector distance ~167 meters
Injector
Producer
Injector
-water
Pre and
- oil
Sampling
Sampling
- water-
-surfactant
Post-flood
- water
well
Well
-polymer
core wells
-
chemical
• Injection Profile
• • Post-flood
• Injection Profile
• Saturation log
Saturation log
• Production rates
• Pressure
• core
• Pressure
• Fluid sampling
Fluid sampling
• Fluid sampling
• Rate
• Rate
• Pressure
• Chemical QC

Figure 8 - Injection sequence and typical well placement in Minas Surfactant Project. Reservoir surveillance and gathering of the data, including reservoir, chemical, and production data, are the critical tasks that will heavily impact on the success of overall reservoir management efforts and the quality of the decisions taken during the life of this project.

Back to Menu 1,200 SFT2 High SFT2 Base 1,000 SFT2 Low 800 600 400 200

Back to Menu

1,200 SFT2 High SFT2 Base 1,000 SFT2 Low 800 600 400 200 0 1 2
1,200
SFT2 High
SFT2 Base
1,000
SFT2 Low
800
600
400
200
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Oil Rate, Bopd

Month

Figure 9 - Oil production rate profile forecast for SFT-2 project. The production profile is indicated P10, P50 and P90 cases resulting from injecting surfactant and polymer.