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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

composite plates

S. Mahmoudia, A. Kervoelena, G. Robinb, L. Duigoua, E.M. Dayab, J.M. Cadoua

a

Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme, UMR CNRS 6027, IRDL, F-56100 Lorient, France

b

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, F-57000 Metz, France

Keywords: In this paper, the vibration behaviour and damping performances of Flax Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (FFRE) are

Composite structure investigated. Static tests using FFRE composite beams are carried out leading to the identification of elastic

Damping properties of each layer. Then, three FFRE composite plates are elaborated and used in experimental vibration

Flax fibers tests to identify their eigenfrequencies and their modal damping. In numerical part, a constant complex re-

Vibration

presentation of the stiffness is assumed and the loss factors are supposed constants and identified from the first

Asymptotic Numerical Method

Finite elements

experimental vibration mode. The homogenization technique and the finite element method are applied to

Visco-elasticity describe their damped dynamic behaviour. The resolution of the resulting non-linear problem is carried out

using the Asymptotic Numerical Method (ANM). Experimental results show that the modal damping is greater

when the flax fibers are oriented at 90°. Comparing numerical and experimental results, the proposed finite

element modelling enables to estimate the damped eigenfrequencies with high accuracy. However, the predicted

modal loss factors are over-estimated compared to experimental ones. It is concluded that the present modelling

should be improved considering the frequency dependence of damping.

fraction and fiber orientation. For the polymeric matrix, Chung [1]

Over the last decades, the use of composite materials has significantly showed that thermoplastic polymers are more dissipative than thermosets

increased. They have gradually replaced the metal materials in various which are more widely used for their better elastic properties. For syn-

industrial fields such as water sports, ship-building, air- and railroad- thetic composites, the effect of fiber volume fraction is investigated

transport, automotive industry and also leisure activities or renewable through several research works [2–4]. They confirm that damping de-

energies. As an example, in the aeronautical domain, this exponential use creases with respect to the fiber volume fraction. Similarly, the influence

of composite materials is evidenced nowadays in the composition of the of fiber orientation on dissipative capacity is studied in the context to

AIRBUS A350 XWB and the Boeing 787 Dreamliner where respective optimize composites regarding both mechanical and damping properties

composite material weights amount to 53% and 50% of the total weight. [3,5,6]. Several investigations are focused on comparing different syn-

This is due to numerous beneficial properties of composites compared to thetic fiber materials. It is concluded that glass fibers have higher damping

traditional materials: weight reduction with high strength and rigidity, characteristics than Kevlar [7] and carbon fibers [8].

corrosion resistance, thermal properties, resistance to fatigue and wear. In the last few years, there has been significant interest in natural fibers

Weight reduction also decreases carbon dioxide emissions and generates motivated by their potential benefits of lower commodity prices, ecolo-

significant energy savings. This is a key-issue in a context where energy gical advantages of using renewable resources [9,10] and especially by

prices keep increasing and finite resources are gradually depleting. their damping performance. In fact, the use of composite materials started

Composite structures can be subjected to large excitation amplitudes with natural fibers. In ancient Egypt, about 3000 years ago, clay was re-

when they are in use. This can induce high vibrational and acoustic levels. inforced with straw to build walls. Later, natural fibers lost much of their

Thus, according to the safety and comfort requirements, the use of com- interest due to the use of other more durable materials such as metals and

posite components puts forward promising perspectives thanks to their synthetic composites. This can be explained by the fact that natural fibers

interesting dissipative capacity. Energy dissipation in composites results exhibit poorer mechanical properties [11] and greater variability of these

mainly from the damping capacity of the constituent materials (matrix and characteristics [12] compared to synthetic fibers. However, recently de-

fiber). Indeed, similarly to other mechanical properties, damping depends veloped treatments have considerably improved these properties [13] for

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.10.030

Received 17 April 2018; Received in revised form 11 September 2018; Accepted 8 October 2018

Available online 10 October 2018

0263-8223/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

the Flax Fiber Reinforced Polymer composites (FFRP). In addition to the through these models [27–29], especially for synthetic composites and

common source of damping in composites such as the viscoelastic beha- sandwich structures. However, there are few studies dealing with the

viour of the matrix and/or fibers, energy dissipation in FFRP is enhanced damping modelling of natural composites.

through the friction within flax fiber bundles [14]. The aim of the present work is to characterize the damping perfor-

Damping characterisation of FFRP was the subject of several ex- mance of FFRE structure using experimental and numerical investiga-

perimental investigations. Using the Dynamic Mechanical Analysis tions. Herein, a first modelling approach is proposed. In order to simplify

(DMA), the damping of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) was the numerical modelling, the viscoelastic behaviour is described through

compared to Flax Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (FFRE) by Wielage et al. [15]. a complex representation of mechanical properties considered constant

They showed that FFRE are characterized by a higher loss factor and the in all layers. These constant complex representations for each mechanical

recycling processing has a negligible effect on mechanical properties. parameter are identified from the first experimental modes. For the

Prabhakaran et al. [16] have shown that the FFRE can improve the damped vibration numerical simulation, the homogenization technique

damping coefficient by more than 50% while enabling a weight reduc- and the discretization method are applied considering a finite isopara-

tion of 33% compared to GFRE plates with the same thickness. Duc et al. metric shell element. The resolution of the resulting non-linear problem

[17] have tested various composites made of glass, carbon and flax fi- is carried out using the Asymptotic Numerical Method (ANM). This

bers associated with various thermosets and thermoplastic matrices. method associates a high order perturbation method and a homotopy

They have shown that the use of unidirectional FFRE increases the loss technique. The initial complex problem is linearized and a set of linear

factor by 200% and 133% compared to unidirectional Carbon Fiber Re- algebraic systems is obtained, which is easier to be solved. In order to

inforced Epoxy (CFRE) and GFRE, respectively. In addition, their results validate the numerical modelling, three FFRE plates with the same

show that the use of thermoplastic matrices makes it possible to further thickness and composed of 12 unidirectional layers are investigated. The

increase the damping composite properties [18]. El Hafidi et al. [19] mechanical properties are identified experimentally by tensile tests and

found that the damping property of FFRE can be 5 times higher than for loss factors are obtained using the half-power bandwidth method. Then,

unidirectional CFRE and 2 times higher than for GFRE. In order to numerical and experimental results are compared and discussed.

improve the damping of FFRE, the effect of the impregnation quality,

the fiber/matrix adhesion, the fiber quality, the twist angle of the flax

2. Problem formulation

yarns, the crimp in the flax fabrics [20] and fiber treatment [21] are

investigated. It is observed that the fiber twist and crimp and the fiber

The theories used for the numerical formulation of composite struc-

treatment via polyol additions enhance the loss factor of FFRE sig-

tures are essentially divided into two categories. The first one is the

nificantly. Thus, composites reinforced with natural fibers generate

equivalent single layer theory, including Classical Laminate Theory (CLT),

higher vibration damping properties. As a result, numerous studies

First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT), and Higher-order Shear

have been carried out on hybrid composites [16,22], for example

Deformation Theory (HSDT). The second is based on the Layer-Wise

mixing carbon fibers and flax fibers to achieve better compromise be-

Theory and includes theories of independent and dependent layers. These

tween mechanical and damping performances.

theories are detailed in the works of Berthelot [30] and Reddy [31].

Different models are developed in order to describe the damping of

The choice of one of these formulations is mainly conditioned by the

composites. The most commonly used models are linear viscoelastic

structure thickness. For thin composite structures, the use of a for-

ones, complex modulus approach and strain-energy methods. Since the

mulation from the first category is recommended [31] when the pur-

main damping source is induced by the polymer matrix, linear viscoe-

pose of the study is the determination of the overall response such as

lastic models such as Kelvin–Voigt, Maxwell or Zener models are pro-

time response and eigenfrequencies.

posed. These models need a low number of parameters to represent the

damping. They benefit from their availability in commercial software

but they cannot give a full representation of the energy dissipation 2.1. Finite element modelling

mechanisms [23]. In the complex modulus approach, the material

stiffness is divided into two parts. A real part called storage modulus In the present works, the FSDT theory is retained for its lower

representing elastic stiffness and an imaginary part called loss modulus computational cost and also for its simplicity of implementation in a

describing the dissipative behaviour. Herein, the damping capacity of finite element code. The composite structure has a overall thickness h

the material is expressed with the ratio between storage and loss and n layers. The global coordinate system ( x , y , z ) is chosen such as

modulus. This approach was proposed by Neumark [24] to investigate the plane ( x , y ) is located in the structure mid-plane ( x , y ) and z is

forced and free vibrations. Then, some researchers [25,26] proposed oriented in the thickness direction as shown in Fig. 1. The kth layer has

that the damping be evaluated with the ratio between the stored and hk = z k + 1 z k as thickness, where z k + 1 and z k are the thickness co-

the dissipated energy in composites. The damping dependance on dif- ordinates of the upper and lower surfaces of the layer as shown in

ferent parameters such as frequency and temperature are investigated Fig. 1. Only three translations (u0 , v 0, w 0 ) and two rotations ( x , y )

Fig. 1. Coordinates system of a multilayered composite structure and its mid-surface plane.

427

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

Specimens

Epoxy (a)

+ Counter mould

Flax fibres Curing + Cutting (b)

Frame Base mould

Heated press

Fig. 2. Process to perform the flax/epoxy composites, (a) and (b) are the specimens used for static and dynamic tests respectively.

samples with 0° and 45° fibers orientations.

Table 1

Engineering constants of the 50% flax reinforced composite materials.

EL [GPa] ET [GPa] GLT [GPa] LT kg/m 3

normal stress in z direction is null, the displacement field {u} in the

( x , y , z ) plane can be expressed as:

u (x , y , z ) u0 (x , y ) x (x , y)

u x , y, z = v (x , y , z ) = v 0 (x , y ) + z y ( x , y)

w (x , y , z ) w 0 (x , y ) 0

u0

v0

= A (z ) w0 Fig. 4. Experimental equipment for the vibration tests.

x

y (1) 0 0 0 0 u0

x

v0

with Eb = 0 0 0 0 y w0

1 0 0 z 0 x

0 0 0

A (z ) = 0 1 0 0 z y x y (5)

0 0 1 0 0 (2)

u0

where u , v and w represent the displacement along the axes x , y and 0 0 1 0 v0

z , respectively. u0 (x , y ), v 0 (x , y ) and w0 (x , y , t ) denote the corre- Es =

x

w0

sponding displacement of mid-surface plane in the ( x , y , z ) directions 0 0 0 1 x

y

and ( x , y ) are the rotations with respect to y and x axes. y (6)

The strain tensor can be written as:

In this study, the viscoelastic behaviour is introduced by the complex

1

=2 ( u + uT ) modulus approach by assigning a viscous coefficient to the elastic

properties. Therefore, the mechanical properties

Em

EL, ET , GLT , G LT , GTT of the composite structure can be expressed,

= z Eb

Es in the fiber reference, as:

(3)

EL = EL (1 + i L)

where represents the gradient function.

ET = ET (1 + i T )

Em , Eb and Es are the strains due to the membrane, bending and

shear effects, respectively. They can be written in matrix form based on GLT = GLT (1 + i LT )

the displacement field {u0 , v 0, w 0, x , y}T as follows: GLT = GLT (1 + i LT )

GTT = GTT (1 + i TT ) (7)

0 0 0 0 u0

x

v0 where i is the unit imaginary number = 1. E and G are the Young’s

i2

Em = 0 0 0 0 w0

y modulus and the shear modulus respectively. The L, T, T′ indices re-

0 0 0

x

present respectively the longitudinal direction, the transverse direction

y x y (4) in layer plane and the transverse direction in thickness.

428

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

n

Table 2 Aij = Aij + iAij = (Qij )k [hk hk 1 ]

Mean values of the first six eigenfrequencies of flax/epoxy specimens [Hz]. k=1

n

° Mode 1

Bij = Bij + iBij = 2

(Qij )k [hk2 hk2 1 ]

k=1

1 2 3 4 5 6 n

1

58.82 125.70 377.96 481.35 562.1 858.27

Dij = Dij + iDij = (Qij )k [hk3 hk3 1]

0° 3

k=1

45° 24.56 122.12 187.95 344.83 625.74 929.78

90° 18.24 95.59 119.42 304.04 340.94 573.67 (i , j ) = 1, 2, 3 (10)

The real part represents the elastic material constant while the • Shear

imaginary part denotes its viscous contribution and represents the

N

damping ratio in a given direction layer. This allows to decompose the

Sij = Sij + iSij” = (Qij )k [hk hk 1], i , j = 4, 5

behaviour matrix as follows: n= 1 (11)

A B 0 A B 0 A B 0

[D ] = B D 0 = B D 0 +i B D 0

0 0 S 0 0 S 0 0 S (8)

The constant Qij are the classical engineering constants [30,31].

= [D ] + i [D ] (9) For the finite element discretization, the Serendip Q8 quadrangular

element is used. The Q8 element is chosen based on its high perfor-

• Membrane-bending mances in the finite element modelling of thin and thick composite

structures [32,33]. Hence, the displacement can be expressed in the

local coordinates ( , , z ) as:

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S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

Fig. 7. Mean values of the first sixth modal loss factors for the 0°, 45° and 90° flax/epoxy specimens.

Loss factors i of the 50% flax reinforced composite materials.

1 1

[K 0e]= 1 1

[B ]T [D ][B ] det (J ) d d

L T LT

1 1

[K ve]= 1 1

[B ]T [D ][B ] det (J ) d d (13c)

2.95 × 10 2 4.87 × 10 2 3.95 × 10 2

is the volumic density and J the Jacobian and det represent the de-

terminant.

Table 4 K 0e : Real part represents the elastic stiffness.

Experimental (fEXP ) and numerical (fEVE ) eigenfrequencies [Hz] of flax/epoxy K ve : Imaginary part represents the viscous part of the structure.

laminates according to the orientation of fibers. [B ] is a strain interpolation matrix and it is expressed as:

Mode 0° 45° 90°

Ni

0 0 0 0

x

fEXP fEVE fEXP fEVE fEXP fEVE Ni

0 0 0 0

y

1 58.8 59.8 24.5 26.0 18.2 17.8 Ni Ni

2 125.7 127.7 122.1 129.0 95.5 100.9

0 0 0

y x

3 377.9 371.1 187.9 174.5 119.4 111.9 Ni

0 0 0 0

4 481.3 488.5 344.8 366.2 304.0 313.2 x

5 562.1 507.1 625.7 509.8 340.9 319.0

[B ] = Ni

0 0 0 0

6 858.2 861.8 929.7 660.3 573.6 514.9 y

Ni Ni

0 0 0

y x

Ni

Table 5 0 0 Ni 0

x

Experimental ( EXP ) and numerical ( EVE ) modal damping factors of flax/epoxy Ni

0 0 0 Ni

laminates according to the fiber orientation y (14)

Mode 0° 45° 90° These integrals are evaluated using the four Gauss integration points

= ±

1

3

,±

1

3 ). The global matrices are obtained by as-

1 0.0295 0.0293 0.0395 0.0415 0.0487 0.0484 sembling the elementary matrices. In the absence of external force, the

2 0.0237 0.0365 0.0401 0.0415 0.0342 0.0404 damped dynamic behaviour of the structure is described by Eq. (15):

3 0.0172 0.0294 0.0288 0.0393 0.0270 0.0484

4 0.0237 0.0337 0.0298 0.0434 0.0401 0.0484 [K 0 + iKv 2M ] U =0 (15)

5 0.0407 0.0464 0.0266 0.0392 0.0322 0.0412

6 0.0432 0.0401 0.0388 0.0441 0.0346 0.0472 where K 0, Kv , M are respectively global elastic stiffness, viscoelastic

stiffness and mass matrix. and U are the eigenfrequency and the

corresponding mode shape.

{u ( , , z )} = [A (z )](3 × 5) [N ( , )](5× 40) { ue} (40 × 1) (12) For each mode, the solution of Eq. (15) allows characterisation of

the structural damping properties as following classical formula [34]:

where [A (z )] is the matrix of z-coordinates along the thickness direc-

tion, [N ( , )] is the matrix of the shape functions and { ue} is the ele-

2 = 2 (1 +i ) (16)

mentary nodal displacements. Then, using the variational Hamilton where is the damped eigenfrequencies and is the loss factors of the

principle, the elementary mass and stiffness matrices are carried out, as structure.

follows:

1 1

2.2. Resolution procedure

[M e] = h [N T A (z )T A (z ) N ] J d d (13a)

1 1

These last decades, several methods have been developed for the

430

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

Fig. 9. Numerical first six mode shapes of the 45° flax/epoxy plate.

Fig. 10. Numerical first six mode shapes of the 90° flax/epoxy plate.

evaluation of both the resonant frequency and the loss factor from [42] which combines a homotopy technique, perturbation and con-

the complex eigenvalue problem (15). The main reason is the com- tinuation methods. This method solves (15) with a fast convergence and

mercial codes such as Abaqus or Ansys are unable to solve Eq. (15). a moderate computational cost. More details can be found in [42].

These numerical methods are: the direct frequency response method

[35], the modal strain energy method [35,36], the complex eigenvalue 3. Experimental procedure

method [37,38], the asymptotic method [39], the order-reduction-

iteration method [40], the asymptotic numerical method [41–43. A 3.1. Materials

detailed overview presenting advantage and drawbacks of these

methods can be found in [44]. In this paper the asymptotic numerical In this paper, the investigated composite structures are made of

method is applied using the so-called high order iterative L algorithm unidirectional long flax fibers (200 g/m2 of flax) manufactured by

431

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

LINEO and the Epolam 2020 epoxy manufactured by AXSON. FRFs of each specimen are determined and their mean values are listed

Composite samples of flax/epoxy plates are produced through a manual in Table 2.

lay-up process where the volume percentage of flax fibers is about 50%. Fig. 7 depicts the modal loss factors which are obtained by com-

The resin is poured progressively during the deposition of the flax puting the mean values of the modal damping ratios for all tested

layers into a mould made of a frame between two steel plates re- samples. The damping ratio is calculated for all the modes of each

presenting the base and the counter mould. The role of the frame is to sample using the 3 dB method. It also can be observed on Fig. 5, that

define the thickness of the plates. Then, the mould is introduced in a the fiber orientations have a significant effect on the first mode.

press at constant pressure of 50 bars for consolidation. Finally, once the At this stage, the assumption of the constant complex representation

curing step is completed, the produced plates are demoulded and cut of the mechanical properties is considered (Eq. (7)). The loss factors i

into different specimens for testing (Fig. 2). Samples from composites are defined from the first mode of each considered flax/epoxy speci-

are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (Jeol JSM 6460 mens (Table 3).

LV). Images are analysed to control the fiber volume content and por-

osity as depicted Fig. 3. The specimens are coated with a thin gold–- 4. Results and discussion

palladium layer to avoid charging. The mean value of porosity is less

than 2.5% . The numerical resolution is carried out using in-house (EVE) code

In order to determine the longitudinal modulus EL , the transverse based on the FORTRAN® software. The mechanical properties of the

modulus ET and the Poisson’s ratio LT , 12 layers are used to perform investigated structures are taken equal to the averages given in

two flax/epoxy plates with 0° and 90° as fiber directions and 3.1 mm as Table 1. The thickness is about h = 3.2 mm and the density is

thickness. For the shear modulus, a plate with 4.5 mm thickness and = 1117 kg/m3 . The boundary conditions are similar to the experi-

made of 16 flax layers oriented at ± 45° is elaborated. Then, the spe- mental tests (CFFF).

cimens for the mechanical tensile tests are rectangular plates with the It is assumed that the storage modulus and the Poisson’s ratios

following dimensions: a width of 25 mm and a length of 250 mm . do not depend on frequency. Roger [46] proposed a method for

An universal MTS Synergie 1000RT tensile machine with a 10 kN characterizing the loss factors by determination of L , T and LT .

load cell is used to perform the static tests. To avoid slippage at the These damping parameters are identified using 0°, 90° unidirec-

testing clamps, glass fiber composite end-tabs are glued to the speci- tional beam specimens and ± 45° angle-ply beam specimens. Roger

mens remaining 24 h at room temperature followed by 12 h at 60 °C for [46] affirmed that only the first resonant frequency must be utilized

bonding and curing. Then, all specimens are conditioned for at least for loss factor determination. This restriction is due to the fact that

24 h at a controlled temperature of 23 °C and a relative humidity of it was unknown what effect the different modes of vibration would

RH = 48% [45]. A biaxial gauge of a 10 mm length is bonded at the have on the resulting loss factor. Thereby, based on the previous

middle of each specimen and the load is applied at a constant cross- experimental investigation, the numerical values of loss factors are

head-displacement rate of 1 mm/min up to 10 kN . The determination of taken as the average values of the tested specimens.

mechanical properties is carried out with respect to the DIN EN ISO 527- In order to validate the finite element modelling, the experimental

1 and DIN EN ISO 14129 standards. The obtained mean values of the and numerical eigenfrequencies of the flax/epoxy laminates are

engineering constants referred to the material directions (L, T , T ) of compared. Table 4 shows that the finite element model, given in

flax/epoxy tested samples are indicated in Table 1. The density in Section 2, allows to estimate the structure eigenfrequencies with great

Table 1 is obtained using a density determination kit. accuracy.

The experimental and the computed modal loss factors are listed in

3.2. Vibration tests Table 5 and the first six mode shapes of the investigated plates are

depicted in Figs. 8–10. It is observed that the present modelling ap-

The dynamic characteristics of the investigated flax/epoxy compo- proach can predict the modal loss factors with a good agreement to the

sites are derived from the analysis of the clamped-free vibrations of the experimental values for the bending modes. Taken into account the

test specimens as shown in Fig. 2. The samples for vibration tests are experimental and numerical results, the three first modes can be clearly

rectangular (Fig. 2(b)), where the geometrical dimensions are 250 mm identified and compared as function of orientation. The orientation

in length and 100 mm in width and the mean thickness is 3.1 mm . The produces shifting on the order and the shape of the mode. For example,

composite plates are fixed to the shaker (ets solution-10 kN -100 g ) with the mode number 5, have the same modal displacement for the 0° and

the Clamping-Free-Free-Free (CFFF) boundary condition. 50 mm of the 90° orientation contrary to the 45° orientation. However, it over-esti-

specimen length is clamped directly to the shaker thanks to clamping mates the modal damping for non-bending modes. The relative error

system (Fig. 4). An accelerometer is placed directly on the surface of the between the experimental and numerical eigenfrequencies increases

shaker to control the excitation. Thus the acceleration vibration of the depending on the number of eigenmode: 1.1% for the first mode and

shaker is set and constant to 0.4 g for the frequency range (15–1500 Hz) . 1.8% for the third mode to 0° fiber orientation for example. Regarding

The second accelerometer is fixed to the free end of the specimen to the mode number, Fig. 7 shows that, for the bending modes Figs. 8–10

measure the vibration. Three positions, (A, B and C), are assigned to the the loss factor is much greater with respect to the layer orientation. We

accelerometer in order to determine the different vibration mode can note that the loss factor is higher for 90° orientation in the two first

shapes of the structure as shown in Fig. 4. At least, four samples of each bending and twisting modes. Then, this behaviour is reversed.

fiber orientation, (0°, 45°, 90°) , are tested. From the obtained results, the principal remarks can be pointed out:

The normalized spectrum of the displacement around the first mode

is depicted in Fig. 5. We can observe the effect of the fiber orientations. – The damping properties of the FFRE structure depend on the fiber

On the first mode, for instance, the resonante frequency decreases de- orientation.

pending on the fiber orientations. – The complex constant representation of the mechanical properties is

In order to dissociate the vibration mode, measures are taken on two not sufficient.

different points (A and B). Two FRFs measured at A and B of a specimen – The stiffness and the damping of the FFRE seem to be frequency

are presented in Fig. 6. One can observe that there are some modes dependent.

which are not detectable when the test is limited to position A where

only the bending modes are detected. So, the data from position B In order the improve the proposed approach, the frequency dependent

permits to identify the non-bending mode shapes. viscoelastic models have to be considered such as Kelvin or Maxwell

The eigenfrequencies corresponding to the peaks of the measured ones.

432

S. Mahmoudi et al. Composite Structures 208 (2019) 426–433

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