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1st Quarter Examination

● UNIT 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research
 Research
- is an area that is commonly misunderstood, but an indispensable
component of academic and industry practices.
 Qualities of a Good Quantitative Inquirer
1. Technical Competency – use available technologies
2. Utility Competency – troubleshoot during unexpected scenario
3. Patience – within and outside group
4. Service – willingness to serve others, to do good
5. Effort – time and skill
6. Guts and Risk – considering options
7. Care – distinct characteristics of a researcher
 Philisophical Worldviews in Research
1. Postpositivist
2. Constructivist
3. Transformative
4. Pragmatic
 The Research Process
1. Conceptualization Phase – where the topic is identified
2. Design Phase – planning phase
3. Empirical Phase – actual data gathering and collection
4. Analytical Phase – most challenging phase
5. Dissemination Phase – most valuable but often neglected
 Qualitative Research – exploring and understanding the meaning individuals
or groups
 Quantitative Research
- testing objective theories
- find out the relationship between one variable to another
 Classification
o Experimental Research
 True experimental design – researcher has
control over the experiment
 Quasi-experimental design – depends on how
participants were recruited for the study
o Non-Experimental Research
 Survey Research – provides a numeric
description of trends, attitude or behavior from a
sample drawn in a specific popularion
 Cross-sectional Study
 Longitudinal Study
 Correlational Research – relationship between
two variables among a single group of people
 Comparative Research – examines the difference
between variable
 Mixed Approach – collecting both quantitative and qualitative data
 The Research Manuscript – final written output
 Variables – are anything that varies.
o Independent variable – presumed cause.
o Dependent variable – presumed effect.
o Extraneous variables – unwanted variables.
 Sources of Research Topic
1. Own experience and interest
2. Colleagues
3. Critical friends
4. Literatures
 3 T’s in Selecting Research Topic
1. Timely – napapanahon
2. Trending – nauuso
3. Trailblazing – nangingibabaw
 Examples of Title
1. Interrogative Form
2. Combinatorial: Question and Title
3. Combinatorial: Powerful Phrase and Title
4. Use of Novel Method
5. Result of the Paper
 Research Problem – is a clear statement of an inquiry or gap that needs to
be addressed through a systematic approach.
o S-pecific
o M-easurable
o A-ttainable
o R-ealistic
o T-ime-bound
 Review of Related Literature – is a summary of the state of existing
knowledge on a research problem or topic.
 Types of Literature
1. Research literature – based on research findings.
2. Non-research literature – not based on research findings.
 Sources of Research Literature
1. Primary source – refers to description of studies written by the
researchers themselves
2. Secondary source – refers to description of studies written by
someone else
 Citation – it signals the location of a source and it reveals that you are
indebted to that source.
 Properly Citing Sources
 Plagiarism
- wrongful use of idea or language of another author and representing
them as if they are your original work.
 Five Types of Plagiarism
1. Plagiarism of Words
2. Plagiarism of Structure
3. Plagiarism of Ideas
4. Plagiarism of Authorship
5. Plagiarism of Self
 Conceptual Framework
- is a graphical presentation of concepts under study and the existing
relationships that exist between or among these concepts.
 Theoretical Framework
- research study based on an existing established theory.
 Research Hypothesis
- is a statement of the researcher’s prediction about relationships
between or among the variables under investigation.
o According to number of variables:
 Simple hypothesis – between one independent and one
dependent variable.
 Complex hypothesis – between more than onr
independent and/or more than one dependent variables.
o According to predicted result:
 Null hypothesis – no relationship exists between the
dependent and independent variable.
 Research hypothesis – also known as alternative or
affirmative hypothesis; a relationship between dependent
and independent variable.
o Directional versus non-directional hypothesis
 Non-directional hypothesis – state that a relationship or
differences exists between the variables but the direction
of that relationship or difference is not explicated.
 Directional hypothesis – state that a relationship exists
between the variables and it also explicates the direction
of that relationship.
 Definition of Terms – concepts and variables need to be defined based on
how they will be used in the study because a definition from the dictionary will
usually not suffice.
o Conceptual definition – what a concept means in abstract or
theoretical terms; may be taken from the dictionary.
o Operational definition – a definition made bybthe researcher
based on how the term(s) will be used in a particular field of
● UNIT 4: Understanding Data and Ways to Systematically Collect Data
 Research Methodology – is written with two purposes in mind: 1) replicate
and 2) evaluate.
o Research Design – discuss the approach and design used in the
o Research Locale – describe the geographic characteristics of the
place of study.
o Population and Sampling/Key Informant Selection – describe the
demographic characteristics of the respondents/participants.
o Research Ethics – where researcher can attest that the study was
conducted with consideration to the rights of the human subjects they
will involve in the study.
o Research Instruments – each instrument or questionnaire used in the
study must be described in detail here.
o Data Collection – step-by-step process must be explained
comprehensively by the researcher.
o Data Analysis – statistical tests used in the study will be mentioned Commented [j1]:
 Data Collection – is the process of gathering and measuring information on
variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to
answer queries, stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate
 Quantitative Data Collection Methods
o Surveys – ask close-ended questions with provided options
o Interview – in quantivative data, it should be more structured tha when
gathering quanlitative data, comprised of a prepared set of standard
o Observation – involves the use of the senses.
o Experiments – manipulation of independent variables while maintaining
varying degrees of control over other variables, most likely the dependent
 Laboratory experiments – conducted in a confined, closed and
controlled environment.
 Field experiments – takes place in the field where the data
collector may still control the variable up to a certain extent.
 Natural experiments – data collector has no control over the
independent variable whatsoever.
 Population – refers to the entire aggregation of the case
 Sampling – process of selecting the sample or portion of the population.
 Sample – subset of the population elements
 Representativeness – refers to how well the sample represents the
 Representative sample – key characteristics closely approximate those of
the population
 Probability Sampling – random selection of sample.
o Simple Random Sampling – most basic probability sampling
o Systematic Random Sampling – uses the kth interval formula.
o Stratified Random Sampling – the population is divided into
subgroups or strata.
o Cluster Sampling – population is larger and widely dispersed.
 Non-probability Sampling – form of bias in the selection of sample.
o Convenience Sampling – samples based on the convenience of the
o Snowball Sampling – sample members are asked to refer other
people who meet the criteria required by the researcher.
o Purposive Sampling – sample is based on the selective judgment of
the researcher.
o Quota Sampling – researcher identifies population sections or strata
and decides how many participants are required from each section.