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124. A solid steel shaft 3” in diameter is subjected to the loading shown in the sketch.

The
1800 lb slab is uniform and symmetric with respect to the shaft. Given that G=11x10 6 psi
; E=28x106psi; Ix = Iy = 3.98 in4; J(Polar M.I)=7.95in4.
(a) Find vertical normal stress at A,B,C
(b) Find shearing stress at points A,B,C
(c) Calculate angle of twist at bottom of shaft.
(d) Calculate elongation of shaft.
(e) Calculate lateral deflection at the bottom of shaft.
(Ref. Fundamentals of Engg. James W Morrison)(p 245)

We have Axial torque = 800x4 = 3200 in.lb(↟)


Axial force = 1800 lb(↓)
Shear force = 800 lb(←)
B.M. = 800h, Where h = distance from slab to particular point in question.

6”

8”

(a)
Fig 94.

∴1. σaxial = 1800/(πx32/4) = 255 psi (tension)


This stress is same at A, B, C
2. Normal stress due to bending, σbending = (M/I).y

At A and C, y=0, thus σbending = 0


At B, y=1.5” ; M = 800x8 ⇒ 6400 in.lb
So, σbending = (6400/3.98) x 1.5 ⇒ 2410 psi(tension)

(a) Net Normal stress at each point (due to axial and bending stresses)
At A, σnormal = 255 + 0 = 255 psi (tension)
At B, σnormal = 255 + 2410 = 2665 psi (tension)
At C, σnormal = 255 + 0 = 255 psi (tension)
3. τ(torsion) = Tr/J ∴At points A and B; τ(torsion) = 3200x1.5/7.95 ⇒ 604 psi
At point C : τ(torsion) = 0.

4.S.F also contributes to shear stress:

(a) τshear = VQ/Ib (or 4/3 V/A for Q = ∫y dA = ŷA


circular cross section) = (4r/3π)x(πd2/4x2) etc.
At point B, Q = 0, thus τshear = 0 I = (πd4/64)

At points A and C: Q = 3.38


∴τshear = (800x3.38)/(3.98x3)
= 226 psi

(b)

(b) Combining these two influences:


At A: τnet = 604 –226 ⇒ 378 psi
At B: τnet = 604 psi
At C: τnet = 226 psi
(c) θ = TL/GJ = (3200x14)/(11x106x7.95) ⇒ 0.00051 radians.

(d) To find δ : E = σ/ε = (F/A)/(δ/L) ⇒ δ = FL/AE


⇒ (F/A)x(L/E) = 255x[14/(28x106)]
δ = 0.00013 in.
(e) Lateral deflection = PL /3EI = 800x14 /(3x28x106x3.98)
3 3

= 0.0066 in.

125. The 1” diameter shaft shown below is frozen at bearing A and free to rotate at
bearing B. To unfreeze the shaft two workmen attempt to twist it, applying axial torques
as shown. Find the internal torque along the shaft.

(dia)

Fig 95.(a)
Considering right hand segments (so that calculation of reaction at point A is avoided)

For a cut between D & B:


ΣM = 0 so T = 0

For a cut between C & D:


ΣM = 0 ; T +1600 = 0
T = -1600
For a cut between A & C:
ΣM = 0 ;
T + 1600 + 960 = 0 (b)
∴T = -2560

A diagram, then, of the internal axial torque as a function of position would have the
following appearance:

(c)

126. What is the limit load? What is the ultimate load?

Limit load is the maximum anticipated load which a structure may be expected to
experience during the performance of missions.

The structure shall have sufficient strength to withstand the limit loads without
excessive elastic or plastic deformations.(Generally no permanent set is allowed at limit
load; but acceptance of permanent deformation may be required in the discontinuity areas
to minimize weight).

Ultimate load is defined as the product of limit load and the ultimate factor of
safety.

The structure must be designed as to withstand ultimate load without failure.

Note:- (i) Margin of safety = allowable load (stress)/applied load (stress) – 1 = M.S.
(ii) M.S. ≥ 0, For minimum weight M.S. should be minimum.
127. What are the different types of loads encountered on aircraft?

Aerodynamic forces, engine thrust, vibration, pressurization, gravitational/inertia forces,


temperature effects etc.

Note:- (i) Shear load = aerodynamic load – structural weight or inertial loads.
(ii) missile axial load at any section = drag load + inertial load.
(iii) Stringer sections must be thick enough to inhibit local crippling.

128. A straight length of steel bar, 1.5m long and 2 cm x 0.5 cm section is compressed
longitudinally until it buckles. Assuming Eulers formula to apply in this case, estimate
the maximum central deflection before the steel passes the yield point at 320 Mpa. Take
E = 210 GPa.(Ref. B.K.Sarkar., Strength of Materials)

Imin = (2x0.53/12) cm4


= (1x10-8/48) m4.
P = π2EI/L2
= π2(210x109)(1x10-8/48)/1.52
P = 191.9 N
Fig 96(a)

There will be no deflection till the Euler load is reached.


Let δ = central deflection.

Maximum B.M. = Mmax = Pxδ = (191.9) δ


Direct stress, f1 = P/A = 191.9/(2x0.5x10-4) = (1.919 x 106)N/m2.
= 1.919 Mpa.
-6
Bending stress, f2 = M/Z = 191.9xδ/(1x10 /12) {Z=I/y; (1x10-8/48)/(0.25x10-2)
= δ.2302.8x106 N/m2 z = 1x10-6/12}

(b)
∴Total Stress:
320x106 = 1.919x106 + (2302.8x106) δ
∴ δ = 0.1381m
δ = 13.81cm

129. Example of plastic buckling of plate under compression: Given a long simply
supported 24s-T3 aluminium alloy flange. b = 1.25”, t = 0.125”.Determine the buckling
stress.

From the table for buckling coefficients for long plates (Ref p 242,Steeve backer: Aircraft
structural materials) We have k = 0.43 (NACA TR 734)

From table 10.1(Ref: p-260, Gerald)


For 24S-T3 aluminium.alloy sheet, σy = 41,000psi
E = 10.5x106psi
n = 10

But (E/σ0.7) εcr = [E/σ0.7] x [(kπ2)/(12(1-ν2))] x [t/b]2


= [(10.5x106)/41,000]x[0.43π2/(12x(1-0.32))] x (0.125/1.25)2
= 0.994

From, fig 10.9 (Ref Gerald,p259)


σcr/σ0.7 = 0.88
σcr=0.88x41,000 = 36,000psi.

σcr/σ0.7

Eε/σ0.7

Non dimensional σ-ε curve TN-902


(a) (b)
Fig 97.
130. Compute the crippling stress of an extruded, 75S-T6-aluminium alloy Z section of
the following dimensions:
bf = 1.8”, bw = 2”, t = 0.125” (tf = tw)

From fig 11.7(p-271, Gerald),


For bf/bw = 0.9, kw = 1.0

Now σcr = kw E(tw/bw)2


= 1x10.5x106x(0.125/2)2
= 42,000 psi

Fig 98(a)

(b)
From table 10.1(p.260, Gerald) for extruded 75S-T6,

we have σcy = 70,000.


Since 0.72σcy = 50,400,

From equations(11.7) (p.274), We have crippling stress


σc
= 0.80(σcr)0.25 (σcy)0.75 (for σu< 0.72σcy)
σc
= 0.80(42,000)0.25 (70,000)0.75
σc
= 49,000 psi.