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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DEMOCRATIC Spanish Government Structure

PHILIPPINES • The Spanish colonizers organized a highly


centralized form of government. By this, it
Early History (pre-hispanic) meant that the central or national government
• The Philippine archipelago was settled at least was so powerful that almost everything had to
30,000 years ago be done with its knowledge and consent.
• Over time, social and political organization
developed and evolved in the widely scattered
islands
• The basic unit of settlement was the barangay
(Malay word for boat)
• Led by a Datu (chief)
• His responsibilities were attuned in
maintaining peace and order,
community organization, and executor
of the justice system.
• Not centralized government
• There were social divisions: Nobles; Freemen;
and Dependents
• They paid tribute called “buwis” Governor General
• Laws were written or customary • King’s official representative in the colony.
• Council of elders will the Datu to enact a law • He possessed vast executive legislative, and
• Judicial process: judicial powers.
• Datu will be the judge • He issued orders with the force of law, which
• Trial by ordeal were called superior decrees. King of Spain
• The coming of different traders brought were called Royal decrees or orders.
changes in Pre-Hispanic Philippines • Vice royal patron in the Philippines
• Chinese • He could appoint minor officials in the
• Indians government, including the parish priest.
• Arabs • Commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

SPANISH PERIOD Rise of Filipino Nationalism


• The coming of Ferdinand Magellan (March • The injustices suffered by the Filipinos planted
1521) the seed that sprouted into Filipino
• He claimed land for the King of Spain Nationalism.
• The expeditions after Magellan were fruitful • British invasion and Occupation in 1762
• Villalobos named what is now Leyte as “Las Islas (Seven Years War 1756-63). This event
Filipinas”, in honor to King Philip II marked the beginning of the end of the
• The first permanent settlement was established old order.
in Cebu in 1565. • Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang Revolt
• The Spanish (Legazpi) set up their capital at • Laissez-Faire and the Opening of the
Ports (1834)
Manila in 1571
• Propagated the Catholic faith (union of church • Opening of Suez Canal—resulted to the
and state). Six and half million converts at the influx of progressive books and
end of Spanish period in 1898. periodicals
• Spaniards organize a central government • The Rise of the Filipino Middle Class
through the plaza complex, or reduccion (ilustrados—enlightened ones)
(resettlement).
• Attracted the native Filipinos with • Liberalism in the Philippines under
colorful procession and Fiestas. Governor-General Ma. De la Torre
• Sinakulo (Pasyon play) • Execution of GomBurZa
• Moro-moro (Christian-Muslim drama)
• The natives who rejected Spanish domination AMERICAN PERIOD
went to the hills became “Tulisanes” • The Americans entered the Philippines when
• Meaning, they wanted the natives to the Spanish-American ignited. Spain’s fleet was
become “civilized” and law-abiding easily defeated at Manila.
people • At first, the Filipinos thought that the Americans
will help the Filipinos in achieving
independence. They were wrong.
• Aguinaldo returned in the Philippines, “Las Islas Filipinas”. There was a union of
requested by the Americans, to continue the Church and State. Centralized government.
Revolution 3. The sufferings of the Filipinos in the hands of
• Declaration of Independence– June 12, 1898 the Spaniards led to the rise of Filipino
• Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 by United nationalism that resulted to Philippine
States and Spain ceded the Philippines to the Revolution.
United States, and gave US$20 million to Spain. 4. In American period under the “political
tutelage, the Filipinos adapted the American
• A revolutionary congress convened at Malolos, system of government.
promulgated a constitution on January 21, 5. Remember, Philippines is a very young country.
1899, and inaugurated Aguinaldo as president The system is not perfect but the people are
of the new Republic two days later. He was aiming and striving for better Philippines.
considered as the first president of the
Philippines.
Philippine democracy has developed and, in certain
ways, decayed over a span of a century, covering six
constitutions and three organic acts. These are:
• 1. The 1899 Malolos Constitution of the
Philippine Republic which was the first Asian
democracy to be established, during the
Philippine Revolution that culminated in Asia–
ending the more than 300 years of Spanish
colonial rule in the islands;
• 2. President McKinley's instructions to the
Second Philippine Commission on organizing
and establishing civil government, including
local governments, and civil liberties of the
Filipinos.
• 3. The US Philippine Bill of 1902 that served as
the organic act of the Philippine Government
until August 1916, and which authorized the
establishment of the Philippine Assembly that
came into being in 1907;
• 4. The US Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916 or
Jones Law that enlarged Filipino self-rule by the
establishment of the all-Filipino Philippine
Legislature, among other ways, and promised
independence following the establishment of a
stable government by the Filipinos;
• 7. The 1973 Marcos Constitution that was
adopted under President Marcos’s authoritarian
rule which lasted from September 21, 1972 to
February 25, 1986, a period of over 13 years;
• 8. The 1986 Aquino Freedom Constitution under
which President Corazon Aquino ruled in the
year following the EDSA revolution while a new
constitution was being drafted and ratified; and
• 9. The 1987 Constitution that goes much further
than any constitution in defining the
institutions, functions, and purposes of the
Filipino democracy, and under which President
Corazon Aquino led the government and the
nation reestablishing Filipino democracy
(Abueva 1997, 4).
Conclusion
1. In pre-Hispanic period, the government is called
barangay and headed by the Datu. Not
centralized government.
2. In Spanish period, Philippines was headed by
the governor-general. They named the islands