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UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE BUCARAMANGA

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD


PROGRAMA DE PSICOLOGÍA
NÚCLEO INTEGRADOR II

Relationship of the empowered domestic worker, peasant and merchant


women that work in the surroundings of the main park in Floridablanca and
their affective mother-son bond

Del Vecchio, Ximena


López, Sandra
Oviedo, Ma Gabriela
Rueda, José

Profesora
Mg, Luz Adriana Aristizabal

Bucaramanga, 30 de abril de 2019


INDEX

1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………1

2. Objectives…………………………………………………………………..3

3. Framework & investigative background………………………………....3

4. Method……………………………………………………………………...5

Type of research……………………………………………………………...5

Sample…………………………………………………………………………5

Instruments…………………………………………………………………….6

Procedure………………………………………………………………………7

5. Results………………………………………………………………………8

6. Discussion…………………………………………………………………10

7. Conclusions and recommendations……………………………………..11

8. Annexes…………………………………………………………………….15

Informed consent……………………………………………………………..15
Instruments…………………………………………………………………....16

PBI………………………………………………………………………16

Empowerment………………………………………………..………..18

Objective tree…………………………………………………………………..20

Logical Matrix…………………………………………………………………..21
1

INTRODUCTION

The role of the peasant woman has been built and inherited throughout history,
a thing that has been the task of the task, the homes in the middle of the work, of social
skills. Traditionally, rural families collectively perform housework and agriculture,
including all members of the family since the first years of life, assuming labor and
support commitments; a series of responsibilities that spirally lead to greater
commitments, skills development and resistance that in another medium does not
report the same development. The peasant woman has many things to teach in
society, in her role, work in the field of rural identity. But how can they cope with such
long journeys and not argue a simple exhaustion of sight. Is it really true that there is
satisfaction and not exhaustion? Are their mother-child bonds functional? There is
much to learn and much to discover. In the words of Ban Ki-moon, in his message for
the International Day of Rural Women in 2015: "Leadership in rural women is crucial
to end hunger and poverty. By denying rights and opportunities to women, we deny
their children and societies the possibility of enjoying a better future” (p.p)
The stimulating environment for the emergence of rural women's movement
takes possession in the 20s when popular protests emerge and take hold.
Associations were established in the peasant, indigenous and agrarian union
movements and this was combined with the first female textile strikes, capacheras,
telephone operators and workers of transport, brewing production and others (Díaz,
2002). In general terms, an influence of world feminism was established, dividing these
movements into periods: the first wave, which began, according to some opinions, at
the end of the nineteenth century and the 20s of the twentieth century in the United
States and Europe and from the 30s and 40s in Latin America. The second wave
corresponds to the 60s and 70s and had great Influence in Colombia in the movements
of the 70s and 80. (López y Herrera, 2017)
It becomes essential to understand from a sociocultural context all the forms of
empowerment that have welcomed Colombian women throughout history. When the
concept of empowerment was introduced, in which was articulated the concept of
gender, development and equity, there was a maintain on the need that women have
(like political agents) access to social, political, economic and psychological power to
influence the decisions that affect them.This concept has gained ground especially in
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the women's social movement. The Rural Mission Agenda proposal developed this
gender perspective when it spoke of “empowering rural women” (Ospina, 1998)
According to statistics published by the colombian Ministry of Health, the farmer
women produces approximately 45% of the food that's consumed in her home.
(Castaño, 2015) In the last years of the twentieth century women have taken the reins
of self-management of production in their homes, becoming heads of families, not only
as the mother but as the provider of resources. Academic investigations about the
composition of families and their dynamics in colombia are relatively recents.
In a research performed in 2014 that took place in Madrid, Spain, The Adecco
Group was discovered that the empowerment of the working women has only
increased in a 1.2% annually, and that in the past six years it had decreases in an
approximate 3%. The research estimates that in the next 5 years the empowerment in
working women increases in a 1.5-2% annually (Adecco quoted in Asián, 2014).
According to Patricia Villalobos in her book “Derechos de las Mujeres Trabajadoras”
(2003) the defense for equal rights does not implies giving privileges to a determined
group of people, this wouldn't be right. The difference on the ambits of work for women
are intended to protect the biological process of maternity and its social function of
reproduction. The rights given to women because of maternity are not privileges, so
they shall not be considered as such a thing, they should be seen as a method to
protect the reproduction of the human being.
Considering all this, it becomes interesting and important to study how do this
women confront being a mother, a wife, and a hard worker with extended hours of
work while assuming the responsibilities of having a family at home. Therefore arises
the problem about; how does having a hard work, and being an empowered women,
whom are mothers, farmers and merchants affects their mother-child bond?
3

Overall objective:
Address the peasant work of the farmer women and the women with domestic
work, in its social and economic context in which it performs and observe the quality
of the bond mother-child that this empowerment arouses.

Specific objectives:

● Cause an impact according to a feedback in order to strengthen the level of


awareness of their empowerment and its function.
● Determine if the empowerment of Floridian peasant women has a positive or
negative impact on the quality of parental ties.
● Contemplate if there is a significant difference in the degree of empowerment
among rural women who work independently or dependent on the Municipality
of Floridablanca.
● Establish whether there is a significant difference between the bonds mother-
childs of the women that have their own business and the women that work
for someone else.

FRAMEWORK

Approaching to the women's context


The working women, that works more than 10 hours a day, encounters herself
with a conflict between job-family, finding difficulties when its about how to perform the
role of being a mother and a wife while also succeeding at the role of the work. This
women find themselves in an enormous amount of pressure, and most of them have
trouble with their family because of the extenze hours of work, although they find this
upsetting, they would not change their jobs or leave them because they want to
improve and conquer their career. (Álvarez y Gómez, 2010)
An investigation on pennsylvania about intra-family dynamic has shown that the
ability of a parent–adolescent dyad to maintain connectedness and repair conflicts is
contingent on the dyad’s ability to adjust patterns of engagement to meet the changing
developmental needs of parent and adolescent. Optimally functioning families are able
to balance self-stabilization processes (short-term return to equilibrium) and self-
4

organization (longer term adaptation) in ways that preserve well-being of the family
and its members. However, identifying optimal family dynamics has been difficult, but
nevertheless parent–adolescent connectedness serves a key function in how and
when adolescents disengage from the family, engage in problem behavior, and/or
become isolated and depressed. Parent–adolescent connectedness—feelings of
closeness, trust, and support—is a protective factor against substance use, antisocial
behavior, depression, suicidal ideation and poor self-esteem. Adolescents who are
more connected to their parents are more likely to seek out guidance as they navigate
through difficulties, however, adolescents who feel less connected with their parents
may disengage from the family and become isolated and depressed. (Miriam Brinberg,
Gregory M. Fosco. 2017)

Direct and indirect consequences in the family environment


Attachment theorists have argued that responsive and consistent caregiving
during early childhood promotes children’s exploration of the environment and positive
interpersonal relationships with adults and peers, supporting children’s emotional and
behavioral development. Family instability, on the other hand, disrupts family
relationships and in turn may contribute to problematic functioning among children.
Indeed, longitudinal work has demonstrated that relationship changes are stressful for
families and that disruptions in early childhood may have longer term implications for
development in middle childhood and early adulthood. Family stability also improves
the economic resources available to children, whereas entrances and exits of partners
in the household lead to low or inconsistent levels of resources, limiting children’s
access to enriching materials and interactions. When children are forming
expectancies about the consistency of their care and forming a sense of their
competencies and social standing, significant numbers of low-income children are
adjusting to multiple changes in their home environment and caregiving arrangements.
Until recently, less attention was paid to children’s exposure to multiple relationship
entrances and exits, especially transitions into and out of cohabiting unions. Future
research should explore how instability may alter family processes that in turn
exacerbate children’s emotional and behavioral problems. Recent work suggests that
family instability is associated with increased maternal stress and less effective
parenting in early childhood, but more work is needed, particularly for older children in
low-income and minority populations. (Heather Bachman, 2011)
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Relative theories; Bowlby's attachment theory


According to bowlby's attachment theory the attachment behavior of life is
conceived as a form of behavior that consists of a person who is in another
differentiated person and a person who is, in general, stronger and / or wiser.
Especially evident during early childhood, the behavior of attachment is considered to
be proper to humans from the cradle to the grave. Includes the subject of
communication and the subject. With age, the intensity with which this behavior
manifests itself is continuously maintained. However, all these forms of behavior
become an important part of man's endowment of behavior. Attachment theory is a
way of conceiving the propensity shown by human beings to establish strong affective
bonds with other determined people and to explain the multiple forms of emotional
upheaval and of alterations of the personality, including here the anxiety, the anger,
the depression and emotional treatment, which is cause because of involuntary
separation and loss of loved ones. (John Bowlby, 1979)

METHOD
Type of research
Quantitative; It is conclusive in its purpose as it tries to quantify the problem
and understand how prevalent it is by looking for projectable results to a larger
population (SIS, 2018). Is a structured way of collecting and analyzing data obtained
from different sources, it involves the use of mathematical, statistical, and
computational tools to obtain the results.

Sample
This project was carried out with two different groups of women, both from
Floridablanca; one was conformed by the working women in the floridablanca´s
marketplace, these women were reached one by one and asked to participate willingly
in the investigation. It was carried out with a total of 25 women; these women had to
have the following characteristics to be able to participate in the project: being the
owner of her own business, and having at least one children, their ages oscillate
between 25 and 70 years old. The other group consisted in 25 women, whom are
mothers, peasants and work as domestic help for other houses, thereby they are not
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independent workers, they were approach in the same way as the first group was.
They had between 20 and 69 years old.

Instrument
For the research two instruments were applied, one for measure the type of
bond the mother have with her childrens, and another one to measure the
empowerment of these women. For empowerment measurement each of the mothers
answered a 25 item questionnaire developed to measure empowerment in four action
spheres: an economic sphere, 5 Items, community participation ,5 Items, a family
sphere ,7 Items, and an individual on 8 Items. For the bonding measurement the
Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) which classifies the bonding into four
types:1.Optimal bonding OB 2. Absent or weak bonding WB, 3.Constriction bonding
CB, and 4. Control without affection. this instrument is meant to be answered by the
children but it was modified to be able to be answered by the mother.
The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) is a questionnaire based on John
Bowlby's bonding Theory, P.B.I. measures the perception of the behavior and attitude
of parents in relation to the subject in their childhood and adolescence, up to 16 years.
(Melis, Dávila, et al… 2001) it is a self-report questionnaire for people over 16, of both
sexes. The original test consists of 25 statements, which make up two scales: Care
(12 items) and Overprotection (13 items); Each item is scored through the Likert
method. In this way each answer is scored in a range of 0 to 3 points, leaving the Care
scale with a maximum score of 36 points and the Overprotection score with 39 points.
(Melis, Dávila, et al… 2001). The care factor is defined, on one hand, as
affectionateness, emotional restraint, empathy and closeness, and on the other, as
emotional coldness, indifference and negligence, pointing in this way to the presence
or absence of this variable. The Overprotection factor points equally to the presence
or absence of this, and is defined as: control, overprotection, intrusion, excessive
contact, infantilization and prevention of autonomous behavior
The empowerment instrument came from an early investigation: “Interaction
between empowerment, economic activity and mother-child bonding” (Aristizabal, et
al… 2015) the instrument was created for the purpose of this investigation and
validated during the application of it. The test consists on 25 affirmations where the
choices of answers are: never, almost never, almost always and always. The
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empowerment was measured by values stipulated for the purpose of the investigation
made by A. Aristizabal in 2015; those values are the following:

Empowered Relative Minimum No empowered


empowerment empowerment

51-75 26-50 10-25 0-9

Approach to the women


The application of the instruments was carried out in a personal way by the
researchers.
Approach of the women that work independently at the marketplace in Floridablanca:

● Visits to the marketplace and approach each women individually while in their
work zone.
● Explained to the women the purpose of th the investigation and the steps of it;
It was also clarified that their participation was completely voluntary and the
data obtained, completely confidential.
● Proceed to answer the instruments, they were accopained by the members of
the research, helping them in any doubt that arose

Approach to the women that work doing domestic work:


● Visits to their homes “Vereda Casiano Bajo” in the Municipality of
Floridablanca.
● Explained to the women the purpose of th the investigation and the steps of it;
It was also clarified that their participation was completely voluntary and the
data obtained, completely confidential.
● Proceed to answer the instruments, they were accopained by the members of
the research, helping them in any doubt that arose
Note
The application of the instruments did not last more than 20 min with each
respondent; at the end, three "lokiños" chewy candies were handed to each one. It
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was explained that the group would come back and give a feedback once the results
of the instruments were analyzed.

RESULTS

The results obtained from the two groups of women, 25 women each, from
floridablanca were analyzed, the working and independent peasant, and the peasant
with domestic work, to see the relation that women empowerment has on the type of
mother-child bond. In Table 1 the results from the working peasant women in the
central park of Floridablanca shows how the fact that the mothers with an independant
job do not have a bad bond with their children, mayor tendency to high care and low
overprotection, the relationship in the variables is significant (X2=12,772 and α=
0,002). The results were analyzed using Pearson's Chi square, according to this, the
results are significant with an asymptotic significance of 0,02, this proves that there is
a relevant relation between the variables with an error range of 5%, this proves there
is a strong relation between the variables, although 40% of this women had a score
that places them on the relative empowerment category, almost all of them had a good
bond with their children, with only one score on the overprotection and low care
category, meaning only 4% have a minimum empowerment, and this 4% has a bond
under the category of overprotection and low care, this shows that the type of
empowerment women have, directly affects the relationship with their children.

In TABLE 2 the results obtained from the 25 women that do domestic work,
therefore have a dependant job (they have an employer), are useful to see how the
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type of bond is affected directly from the type of empowerment the mother has. With
this women it was expected to have a lower empowerment, and that was the case,
compared to the group of women in table 1. These women although they have to be
responsible for maintaining the home with all the shores this carries, they managed to
have low income jobs with the neighbours such as sew or clean the houses every once
in a while. The results obtained from the two instruments were analyzed with the
Pearson's Chi square statistics (X2=9,075 and α=0,011) with the asymptotic
significance obtained we are safe to say there is a relation between variables, because
this is under 0,05, this shows the results have an error range of 5%. the application
with housewives have shown a slightly difference with the type of empowerment
comparing them with the independent working women, in this case the 16% of women
obtained a score that locates them on the minimum empowerment category, and the
75% of this women have a tendency to overprotection and low care, which can be
interpreted as a bad parental bond, this shows there is a dependence of the type of
bond with the type of empowerment.

The results obtained from the fifty women helps us understand the relation
between mother-child bond and empowerment, showing that if a women is
unempowered or minimally empowered there is a tendency to be overprotective and
have a low care on her children, however, women that are empowered show a better
relationship with their children, they are less restrictive and more loving to them.
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Discussion

The approach of this investigation raised new personal hypotheses, a few of


them, took root in practice, research and group analysis of the results, allowed us to
infer about the influence of the empowerment of rural women in their home and in
particular.

According to a research about empowerment and mother-child bonding,


differencing between three groups of women, one group did independent work, other
group were employees (dependent work) and the third group were traditional women
that were housewifes. The investigation took place in Mexico on 2015 it was called
“Interaction between empowerment, economic activity and mother-child bonding”
(Aristizabal, et al, 2015) The results were similar to the ones in this investigation;
although it had a bigger sample and a third group. It was found that the women with
independent work had higher levels of empowerment and a strong mother-child bond
(tendency to high care and low overprotection); and the women that were employees
had lower levels of empowerment and less strong mother-child bond.
Therefore the level of empowerment has a direct relation with the type of bond a
mother has with their children.

It's important to clarify that even though this investigation was made on a
quantitative field the relevance of the obtained data and results commits the
investigators on qualitative analysis in order to some data they found out without
searching it directly, that’s the reason why there is no way to be detached when some
that suggest abuse.

During the applications of the instruments of data collation, in one of the houses
of the casiano path, without pretending to obtain information about the proposed
investigation; one of the researchers was informed of an apparent intrafamily violence,
situation that engaged a son without an undefined mental disability. This is one of the
other circumstances. The information that is given in the investigation regarding the
quality of the relationship with their children.

Considering this, doors are opened to other categories such as abuse,


intrafamily violence, mother-child bond in relation to mental disability and many other
aspects and variables that are not having in count and previous researchers either.
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CONCLUSIONS

The elaboration of the present investigation allowed to know a population group


of peasant women with a tendency of empowerment that has allowed them to be
generators of economic and affective resources without contradiction. Considering the
reciprocal intrafamilial relations of the particular roles and responsibilities of each
member. Contributing innovatively that being a contributor of sustainable resources
gives gratification and family guidelines.

The applied instruments allow us to visualize an empowerment associated with


equivalent parental bonds; however, it is imprecise to assign a solid relationship
between empowerment and low care or overprotection. Diverse sociodemographic
variables detected during the interviews may tend to a relative or minimum
empowerment without diminishing the quality of mother-child bonds.

The results obtained from the instruments applied in parallel to independent


working peasant women or dependents of the Municipality of Floridablanca, show
similarity in the levels of empowerment, but there is a little difference, the women with
independent work have higher levels of empowerment and better mother-child bonds,
while the women with dependent job have lower levels of empowerment and some of
them have a bad mother-child bond.

The empowerment of women and social skills, facilitate the sale of products,
being sellers with great productivity and empathy perceived by consumers.

There are some investigative scopes built on the objectives that were reached
in differents fields, impact caused in participators, investigators formation and the
academic relevance that this study could have in this social research field, first of all,
the proper feedback that is being made since the first day when investigators were
approaching to the participators.That’s how the importance of the empowerment as
investigation topic was shared and argued in previous investigations and social
importance of healthy intrafamiliar bonds in order to motivate and explain
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RECOMMENDATIONS

The development of the present research project, had a couple of difficulties in


the establishment and collection of the population sample, as well as in the adaptation
of the same initial project, which was designed to work with women of the Association
of rural women of Floridablanca; but given the circumstances and the nature of the
subject of the data collection instruments, an inconvenience occurred that generated
the application of the instrument on one of the Associates, generating discomfort and
resistance on the whole of the group, making it necessary to resort to peasant women
of the Municipality of Floridablanca who sell their generally agricultural products in the
periphery of the municipal park and around the marketplace. This group complements
and contrasts with equally rural women from the municipality of Floridablanca, who
work as dependents in domestic work.
The application of the instrument generated consumption of the women's
working time, due to the displacement in the urban and rural areas, due to the content
of the questions; The women stated that it would be more comfortable and quick for
them to talk about their lives without having to describe each situation on their own.
The information corresponding to sociodemographic data reflected resistance
and discomfort, possibly associated with beliefs of loss of privacy. It is considered that
the obtaining of said information requires previous approaches to the population.
The instrument to obtain the type of bond mother-child (PBI) is typically applied
to the children of the families; for convenience and facility of this research it was
applied to the mothers, therefore there is a slight chance that the answers are biased.
In this research the sample used was too small, with a larger sample the results
would have been more relevant.
13

REFERENCES

Álvarez, A. Gómez, I. (2010) Conflicto trabajo-familia, en mujeres profesionales que


trabajan en la modalidad de empleo. Instituto de Psicología, Universidad del
Valle Cali, Colombia. Retrieved on March 17 from:
http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1657-
89612011000100007

Aristizábal, L. Gurri, F. Molina, D. Sánchez, G. (January 2015) Interaction between


empowerment, economic activity and mother-child bonding. International
Journal Advances in Social Science and Humanities. ISSN: 2347-7474

Asián, A. (7 de marzo de 2014) Ser Mujer y Trabajadora Sigue Siendo Complicado. MuyPymes.
Madrid, España. Retrieved on March 16 from:
https://www.muypymes.com/2014/03/07/mujer-trabajadora

Ban-Ki Moon. (October 2015) Speech on International Rural Women day in the United
Nations. Retrieved on March 17 from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2015/10/512692-
rural-women-are-backbone-sustainable-livelihoods-ban-declares-international-day

Bachman, Heather. (2011). Maternal Relationship Instability Influences on Children’s Emotional


and Behavioral Functioning in Low-Income Families. Journal of abnormal child
psychology. November 2011, Volume 39, Issue 8, pp 1149–1161

Bowlby, John. Vínculos afectivos: formación, desarrollo y pérdida (6a. ed.), Ediciones Morata, S.
L., 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central,
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/unabsp/detail.action?docID=5307791

Castaño, T. (Junio, 2015) Las mujeres rurales y la agricultura familiar. Ministerio de Salud y
Protección Social. Colombia. Retrieved on March 17 from:
https://www.minsalud.gov.co/sites/rid/Lists/BibliotecaDigital/RIDE/VS/PP/SNA/Boletin
-01-2015-Mujeres-rurales-agricultura-familiar.pdf

Dávila, M. Gloger, S. Greppi, C. Melis, F. Ormeño, V. Vera, V. (Abril, 2001) Adapting the
PBI (Parental Bonding Instrument) to the Greater Santiago Population Aged
16-64. Revista chilena de Neuro-psiquiatría. 39(2): 132-139. Santiago de Chile,
Chile.
Díaz, D. (Diciembre, 2002) Percepción de la mujer rural en Colombia, perspectiva de
Género.Tierra y Justicia. Bogotá, Colombia. Ediciones Antropos. Retrieved on March
30 from: https://scielo.conicyt.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-
92272001000200005

Kurczyn, V. P. (2003). Derechos de las mujeres trabajadoras. Retrieved on March 15 from:


https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.aure.unab.edu.co

Herrera, G. López, L. (Abril, 2017) Un estado de los estados del arte de familia en Colombia: el
lugar de la familia y de las disciplinas. Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Familia,
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9, 148-164. Retrieved on March 17 from:


http://revlatinofamilia.ucaldas.edu.co/downloads/Rlef9_10.pdf

Ospina, R. (1998) Para empoderar a las mujeres rurales. Vol 8. TM Editores. Bogotá, Colombia.
Retrieved on March 18 from:
https://books.google.com.co/books?id=zasOA9krB9sC&printsec=frontcover&hl=es&sourc
e=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Ribas, B. M. A., & Sajardo, M. A. (2006). La diferente participación laboral de las mujeres entre
las cooperativas y las sociedades laborales. Retrieved on March 15 from:
https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.aure.unab.edu.co

SIS International Market Research. (2018) What is Quantitative Research? Retrieved on April 19
from: https://www.sisinternational.com/what-is-quantitative-research/

Brinberg Miriam, Fosco, Gregory. (2017).Examining Inter-family Differences in Intra-family


(Parent–Adolescent) Dynamics Using Grid-Sequence Analysis. Journal of Family
Psychology 2017, Vol. 31, No. 8, 994–1004, American Psychological Association.
15

ANNEXES

Informed Consent

Consentimiento Informado

De manera voluntaria manifestó mi autorización para participar en la investigación


titulada: “La relación entre el empoderamiento y el tipo de vínculo madre-hijo
entre las mujeres campesinas con un trabajo independiente y mujeres
campesinas con trabajos dependientes; ambas del municipio de Floridablanca,
Santander, Colombia’’

Si, acepto participar en este estudio y fui informado que se me hará una encuesta, en
la cual habrá una serie de preguntas acerca del tema investigado, tomando en cuenta
categorías cuantitativas de: determinar la relación que se tiene entre el
empoderamiento de las mujeres campesinas y sus relaciones madre-hijo. Esta
encuesta está realizada por un grupo de estudiantes de Psicología de la Universidad
Autónoma de Bucaramanga, como parte de la materia Núcleo Integrador II.

La información obtenida a través de las respuestas en la encuesta será respetada,


tendrá un carácter confidencial, de tal manera que mi nombre no se hará público por
ningún medio. Si tengo alguna duda sobre este proyecto, estoy en mi derecho de
realizar preguntas, igualmente puedo retirarme de la investigación en el momento que
desee sin que eso lo perjudique de ninguna forma.

(Yo) Nombre del participante ________________________________________, con


cédula de ciudadanía _______________, expresó voluntaria y conscientemente mi
deseo de participar en la entrevista en la fecha y lugar propuesto por el investigador.

Firma_____________________________
Teléfono
16

Instruments

1. Parental Bonding Instrument

INSTRUMENTO PARA MEDIR VÍNCULOS PARENTALES


Este cuestionario lista varias actitudes y comportamientos sobre usted. Tal como
usted recuerde o considere que se comporta, colocará “x” en el cuadrito más apropiado
para la afirmación.

Afirmaciones Muy Un poco Un poco Muy


parecido parecido diferente diferente

1. Le hablo en una voz cálida y amigable

2. No estoy para él tanto como considero que lo


necesita

3. Le dejo hacer las cosas que le gustan hacer

4. Parezco emocionalmente fría hacía el/elllos

5. Llego para entender sus problemas y


preocupaciones

6. Soy afectuosa (cariñosa) con el/ellos

7. Me gusta que el/ellos tomen sus propias


decisiones

8. No quiero que el/ellos crezcan

9. Trato de controlar todo lo que haga/n

10. Invado su privacidad

11. Disfruo hablar las cosas con el/ellos

12. Frecuentemente le/s sonrio

13. Tiendo a tratarlo/s como un bebe

14. No parezco entender lo que quieren o


necesitan
17

15. Lo/s dejo decidir cosas por el/ellos mismos

16.Siento que le he hecho sentir como que no


lo(s) quiero

17. Le hago sentir mejor cuando esta(n) triste

18. No hablo mucho con el/ellos

19. A veces lo hago sentir dependiente de mí

20. Siento que el/ella no puede cuidar de sí


mismo a menos que yo esté alrededor

21. Le(s) doy toda la libertad que quiera(n)

22. Le(s) dejo salir tan seguido como quiera(n)

23. Soy sobreprotectora con el/ellos

24. No lo(s) elogio

25. Lo(s) dejo vestir en la forma como se


sienta(n) bien
18

2. Empowerment instrument

1 Ahora
Afirmaciones
Nunca Casi Casi Siempre
Nunca siempre

1. Mi situación económica es mala

2. Tengo proyectos en mente para tener más dinero


propio.

3. Tengo que pedirle permiso a mi esposo o a alguien


para gastar el dinero que tengo

4. Pienso que administró adecuadamente el dinero o


los recursos con los que cuento

5. Yo soy la que decide cómo distribuir el dinero que


tengo para gastarlo

6. Me da miedo defender mis derechos y los derechos


de otros

7.Formo parte de algún grupo comunitario

8. En mi colonia/comunidad ayudó a resolver los


conflictos y/o problemas que se presentan

9. Sé quién es la persona que nos representa en la


comunidad

10. Tengo idea de los proyectos que tienen los


gobernantes para mejorar las condiciones de mi
colonia/comunidad

11.Puedo decidir usar un método anticonceptivo


cuando no quiero tener hijos

12. Decido si mis hijos pueden salir a la calle o no

13. En la casa, a los hombres se les sirve más comida


que a las mujeres

14. Tengo libertad para moverme de un lugar a otro


sin necesidad de pedir permiso

15. Puedo comprar ropa para mi sin el consentimiento


de mi esposo.
19

16.Puedo visitar a mis familiares o amigas cuando


desee

17. Me da miedo que mi esposo sepa que estoy en


desacuerdo con el

18. Me es difícil expresar mi opinión públicamente

19. Me siento insegura al tomar mis propias


decisiones

20. Me gusta tomar la iniciativa para hacer las cosas

21. Busco la solución a un problema aunque otros me


digan que no la hay

22. Me da pena equivocarme

23. Hago menos cosas de las que soy capaz

24. Me da pena cobrar lo que me deben

25. Tengo que aguantarme (acostumbrarme)


la vida que me tocó
20

Problem tree

Poor communication
Stress
skills in the family

Better economy for


Dysfunctional family
the family

Child rearing
guidelines

How does having a hard work, being an empowered woman and a


mother, farmer and merchant; affects their bond with their children?

Gender Work
discrimination Overload
Economic
Feeling of
instability
inferiority
21

Objective tree

Address the peasant work of the farmer women and the


women with domestic work, in its social and economic context
in which it performs and observe the quality of the bond
mother-child that this empowerment arouses.

Cause an impact Determine if the Contemplate if Establish whether


according to a empowerment of there is a significant there is a
feedback in order Floridian peasant difference in the significant
to strengthen the women has a degree of difference between
level of positive or negative empowerment the bonds mother-
awareness of impact on the among rural women child of the women
their quality of parental who work that have their own
empowerment ties. independently or business and the
and its function. dependent on the women that work
Municipality of for someone else.
Floridablanca.

Attend to the work Attend to the work


zone of the
zone of the women
merchant women Apply the
that Works doing
domestic tasks and (independent Apply the Parental
obtain information work) and obtain Empowerment Bonding
information about instrument to the Instrument
about their
empowerment and their two groups of (PBI) to the
quality of bond empowerment and women. two groups of
mother-child. quality of bond women.
mother-child.
22

Ask the women Obtain the results of Obtain the results


sociodemographics the empowerment of the PBI thru the
questions to stablish instrument; analyze software PSP;
certain characteristics them and form a analyze them and
about the population. conclusion. form a conclusion.

Logical matrix

Narrative summary Verifiable Indicators Means of Important


verification assumptions
Goals Establish whether Tests applied. The Time of the
there is significant PBI to measure the women, location
difference of type (tendency) of and disposition to
empowerment and the mother-child contribute with the
mother-child bond bond and the test to research
between the two measure the
samples of women empowerment
Purpose Address the Analyze the results Time of the women,
peasant work of the of the tests applied commitment of the
farmer women and thru a software. women and the
the women with Give feedback to researches,
domestic work, in the women once organization
its social and the results are done
economic context and discussed.
in which it performs
and observe the
quality of the bond
mother-child that
this empowerment
arouses.
Components Cause an impact Stay in touch with Agreement of the
according to a both group of women to the
feedback in order women and see if feedback, time
to strengthen the there has been any disposition
level of awareness change according
of their to the giving
empowerment and feedback
its function.
Activities Attend the work Use of resources Time,
zone of both as time, paper, responsability,
groups of women records of the visits commitment
and obtain (photos)
23

information about
them and their
environment.