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MTH601 Operations Research


Final Term Examination - February 2005
Time Allowed: 150 Minutes

Instructions
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:

1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.


2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing,
make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
3. In Q3 you can either draw the network diagram or simply write the asked
terms for each activity in the exam software, whichever you think is easy for
you. But remember that you have to show your work on exam application
correspond to each question.

Total Marks: 50 Total


Questions: 8

Question No. 1 Marks : 4

Define the followings.

(a) Impossible Assignment


(b) Unbounded Solution.

Question No. 2 Marks : 10

Consider the problem


max imize z = x1 + 5x2 + 3x3
Subject to
x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 3
2x1 − x2 =4
x1 , x2 , x3 ≥ 0
x3
The variable plays the role of a slack. Use big M-method to solve the problem.

Question No. 3 Marks : 4

How the problem of the degeneracy arises in a transportation problem?

Question No. 4 Marks : 4

Define the followings in Queuing Theory.

a. Customer
b. Server
c. Priority

Question No. 5 Marks : 4

What are the variants of the simplex method? Write few lines about the followings.

(a) Unbounded solution.


(b) Unrestricted variables.

Question No. 6 Marks : 10

Five different machines can process any of the five required jobs with different profits
resulting from each assignment.

Find the maximum profit possible through optimum assignments.

Question No. 7 Marks : 4

How can the linear programming be applied to management problem?


Question No. 8 Marks : 10

Consider the transportation problem having the following parameter table.

Use the northwest corner rule to obtain an initial basic feasible solution.
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FINALTERM EXAMINATION
FALL 2006 Marks: 65
MTH601 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH Time: 120min

StudentID/LoginID:

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

Exam Date:

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make
an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
3. This examination is closed books, closed notes.
4. Calculator is allowed.
5. Symbols by using math type should be pasted on the paper direct from the
math type not from the
word document otherwise it would not be
visible.
6. In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair means.
Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

For Teacher's use only


Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question 11
Marks

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 10 )

Children Hospital Lahore has monthly demand of 6000 units of a tablet named
Flagyl. Each tablet cost Rs. 6 and the cost of one purchase is Rs. 950.
Keeping that stock for a year in the hospitals cost Rs. 3 per unit. The shortage cost for a
year is Rs. 10 per unit, Determine the following
(i). The Optimum Order Quantity
(ii). The time between the orders
(iii). The number of orders per year
(iv). The Optimum Shortages
(v). The time of orders being held

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 10 )

Solve the following problem with Big M – Method.


Minimize. Z = 3 X 1 + 2 X 2 + X 3
Subject to.
X1 + X 2 = 7
3 X 1 + X 2 + X 3 ≥ 10
X1 , X 2 , X 3 ≥ 0

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 10 )

Write the DUAL of the following primal problem.


Maximize. Z = − 5 X 1 + 2 X 2
Subject to.
− X1 + X 2 ≤ − 2
2 X1 + 3 X 2 ≤
5
X1 , X 2 ≥ 0

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 10 )

Solve the transportation model starting with the Vogal’s Approximation


Method.

1 2 3 4 Supply
1 10 2 20 11 15
2 12 7 9 20 25
3 4 14 16 18 10
Demand 5 15 15 15

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 10 )


In a college, every 15 minutes one student arrives for admission information. The
staff in the only information counter takes 10 minutes for serving a student on an
average. State suitable assumption and find.

I. The average queue length.


II. Increase in the arrival rate in order to justify for second counter (when the
waiting time of a student is atleast 15 minutes the management will increase one
more counter).

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 10 )

A machine costs Rs. 8000. Annual operating cost are Rs. 1000 for the first year,
and then increase by Rs. 500 every year. Resale price are Rs. 4000 for the first year
and then decrease by Rs. 500 every year. Determine at which age it is profitable to
replace the machine.

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

An unrestricted primal variable will result in an equality dual constraint.

► True

► False
Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In purchasing model with shortage, the formula of order size is

► Q* =
2C2 D
C3

► Q* =
2C2 D C3 +C4
C3 C4

► Q* =
2C2 D R
C3 R−D

► Q* =
2 C2 D C3 +C4
C3 (1−D R) C4

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


In Above Network Diagram the critical path is

► (a) A – B – D – G

► (b) A – C – E – H

► (c) A – C – F – G

► (d) Both (a) and (c)


Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In assignment problem each job requires

► Exactly one resource

► At least one resource

► At most one resource


Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The dual of the dual problem yields the original primal

► True

► False
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MTH601 Operations Research


Final Term Examination – Spring 2005
Time Allowed: 150 Minutes

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is
missing, make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the
problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
3. The duration of this examination is 150 minutes.
4. This examination is closed book, closed notes and closed neighbors.
5. Calculator is allowed.
6. Symbols by using math type should be pasted on the paper direct
from the math type not from the word document otherwise it would
not be visible.
7. In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair
means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

Total Marks: 50 Total Questions: 17

Question No. 1 Marks : 01


o

o
o None of the above

Question No. 2 Marks : 01

According to strategy, replace an item if it fails before the optimum


period 'P'

o IR
o IPR
o CPR (Common Preventive Replacement)

Question No. 3 Marks : 03

Question No. 4 Marks : 05


Question No. 5 Marks : 01

In purchasing model with shortage, the formula of Ordering Size is

Question No. 6 Marks : 01

Similarity between CPM and PERT is

o Both are used to plan the scheduling of individual activities that make up a
project
o Both can be used to determine the earliest/latest stat and finish time for each
activity
o All of the above

Question No. 7 Marks : 05


The arrival rate of customers at a banking counter follows Poisson distribution with a
mean of 45 customers per hour. The service rate of the counter clerk also follows Poisson
distribution with a mean of 60 customers per hour.
Find the following
1. The probability of having 10 customers in the system
2. Average number of customers waiting in the system
3. Average number of customers waiting in the queue
4. Average waiting time of customers in the system
5. Average waiting time of customers in the queue

Question No. 8 Marks : 01

The formula for expected number of customers in a system is

o L = λ /(µ - λ)
o L = λ /(λ - µ)
o L = µ /(λ - µ)
o L = µ /(µ - λ)

Question No. 9 Marks : 01

For LP problem with 'n' decision variables, each of its corner point solution is at the
intersection of constraint boundaries.

o (n – 1) constraint boundaries
o 'n' constraint boundaries
o (n + 1) constraint boundaries
o None of the above

Question No. 10 Marks : 01

In two dimensional LP problem we need only two lines to identify an extreme point. If in
any two dimensional problem there are three or more intersecting lines at the corner point
then this indicate that

o Problem has Degenerate Solution


o One of the constraints is redundant
o Both First and Second
o None of the above

Question No. 11 Marks : 10


Question No. 12 Marks : 01

A transportation problem is degenerate, if while deriving a feasible solution an allocation


to any cell

o Satisfies the Column requirements


o Satisfies the Row requirements
o Satisfies column as well as row requirements simultaneously
o None of the above

Question No. 12 Marks : 01

o Problem has Multiple Optimal Solutions


o Problem has Unbounded Solutions
o Problem has Infeasible Solutions
o None of the above

Question No. 12 Marks : 07


Question No. 12 Marks : 05

Question No. 12 Marks : 01

o Dividing the Big-M method's objective function by 'M' and then dropping
the negligible terms
o Dividing the Big-M method's objective function by '–M' and then dropping
the negligible terms
o Multiply the Big-M method's objective function by 'M' and then dropping
the negligible terms
o Multiply the Big-M method's objective function by '–M' and then dropping
the negligible terms

Question No. 12 Marks : 05


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MTH601 Operations Research


Final Term Examination - February 2005
Time Allowed: 150 Minutes

Instructions
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:

1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.


2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make
an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
3. In Q3 you can either draw the network diagram or simply write the asked terms
for each activity in the exam software, whichever you think is easy for you. But
remember that you have to show your work on exam application correspond to
each question.

Total Marks: 50 Total


Questions: 8

Question No. 1 Marks : 4

Define the followings.

(a) Impossible Assignment


(b) Unbounded Solution.

Question No. 2 Marks : 10

Consider the problem


max imize z = x + 5x + 3x
Subject to
x1 + 2x + x3 = 3
2x1x− =4
2

x,x ,x ≥0
x3
The variable plays the role of a slack. Use big M-method to solve the problem.

Question No. 3 Marks : 4

How the problem of the degeneracy arises in a transportation problem?

Question No. 4 Marks : 4

Define the followings in Queuing Theory.

a. Customer
b. Server
c. Priority

Question No. 5 Marks : 4

What are the variants of the simplex method? Write few lines about the followings.

(a) Unbounded solution.


(b) Unrestricted variables.

Question No. 6 Marks : 10

Five different machines can process any of the five required jobs with different profits
resulting from each assignment.

Find the maximum profit possible through optimum assignments.

Question No. 7 Marks : 4

How can the linear programming be applied to management problem?


Question No. 8 Marks : 10

Consider the transportation problem having the following parameter table.

Use the northwest corner rule to obtain an initial basic feasible solution.
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MTH601 Operations Research


Mid Term Examination - November 2004
Time Allowed: 90 Minutes

Instructions
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:

1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.


2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing,
make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
3. In Q3 you can either draw the network diagram or simply write the asked
terms for each activity in the exam software, whichever you think is easy for
you. But remember that you have to show your work on exam application
correspond to each question.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of


unfair means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in
this course.

Total Marks: 30 Total


Questions: 3

Question No. 1 Marks : 10

A small plant makes two types of automobile parts Part A and Part B. It buys castings that
are machined, bored and polished. You are given the following data.
Castings for Part A cost Rs. 20/- each and for Part B they cost Rs. 30/- each. They sell for
Rs. 50/- and Rs.60/- respectively. The three machines have running costs of Rs. 200/-,
Rs.140/- and Rs. 175/- per hour. Assuming that any combination of Part A and B can be sold.
Formulate a linear programming model.
Or

Solve the following problem using simplex method:

Maximize Z = 9x1 + 8x2 + 7x3


Subject to
2 x1 + x 2 + 2 x 3 ≤ 5 0
x1 + 3 x 2
+ x3 ≤ 2 5
x1 + 2 x 2
+ x3 ≤ 26
x1, x2 , x3 ≥ 0
Question No. 2 Marks : 10

Consider the following Network, figures in the boxes are the durations. Determine
(a) The earliest expected completion time for each period,
(b) The latest allowable event completion time for each event
(c) The slack time (all floats) for each event
(d) The Critical Path through the Network
Question No. 3 Marks : 10

The demand for a purchased item is 2000 units per month and the shortages are allowed. If the
unit cost is Rs 20 per unit, the cost of making one purchase is Rs 1000, the holding cost for 1
unit is Rs 20 per year and the cost of one shortage is Rs 500 per year, determine:
(a) The economic purchase quantity.
(b) The time between orders.
(c) The number of orders per year.
(d) The optimum shortages.
(e) The maximum inventory.
(f) The time of items being held.
(g) The optimum annual cost.
Or
A company produces 36000 units per year and the demand of the product is 2400 items per year.
The unit cost is Rs 10 per item, the holding cost is one rupee per month per item and the set up
cost is Rs 100, determine the following if no shortages are allowed
(a) Optimum manufacture quantity
(b) The maximum inventory
(c) The time between setups
(d) The number of setups
(e) The manufacturing time
(f) The total optimum annual cost
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MIDTERM EXAMINATION
FALL 2006 Marks: 40
MTH601 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH Time: 60min
StudentID/LoginID:

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

Exam Date:

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting


any of the questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question
2. Paste the bitmap image for the tables, diagrams etc while solving
your questions
3. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination
from anyone
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is
missing, make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the
problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
4. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.
5. Calculator is allowed

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair means.
Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

For Teacher's use only


Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total
Marks
Question No: 1 ( Marks: 10 )

2 F=2 7 K=4 8

D=4
A=6 L = 10

E=9 5

1 B=2 3 10
I=7

G = 10 6
C = 13 M=5
J=3

4 H=6 9

Calculate the
(i). EST, EFT, LST and LFT for each activity.
(ii). Total Float, Free Float and Independent Float.
(iii). Critical activities and Critical Path.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 15 )

An Automobile factory manufacturers a particular type of gear within the factory. This gear is
used in the final assembly. The particulars of this gear are:
Demand rate =14000 units/year
Manufacturing rate =35000 units/year
Set up cost =Rs 500 per set up
Holding cost = Rs 15/units/year
Determine:
(a) The optimum manufacturing quantity.
(b) The maximum inventory.
(c) The time between orders.
(d) The number of orders/year.
(e) The time of manufacture.
(f) The optimum annual cost if the cost of the item per unit is Rs. 25

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 10 )


Consider the following problem, Solve graphically

Minimize. Z = 3X1 + 2X2


Subject to
2X1 + X2 ≥ 10
-3X1 + 2X2 ≤ 6
X1 + X2 ≥ 6
X1 , X2 ≥ 0

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which one is best describe Sectoral planning

► Inventory Planning in agriculture

► Improving the layout of a workshop in a company

► Simulation Modeling of the Economy of the country

► None of these.
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

is the most appropriate to situations where we maintain a relative stable


employment levels and utilize the resource at a more constant rate

► (a). Resource Leveling Program

► (b). Resource Allocation Program

► (c). Both a & b

► (d). None of these.


Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

If the slack time is zero, it means that the project will be

► Delayed

► Completed on schedule
Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The amount of an activity can be delayed without affecting the early start time of any
other job, is called
► Free Slack

► Independent Slack

► Total Slack

► None of these.

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Let FS = Free Slack, TS = Total Slack, INDS = Independent Slack, then which relation is
true

► (a). TS ≤ FS

► (b). INDS ≤ FS

► (c). FS ≤ TS

► (d). Both (b) & (c)

► (e). Both (a) & (c)


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MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Total Marks: 50
SEMESTER SPRING 2005
MTH601 – Operational Research Duration:90mins

1/2
Maximum Time Allowed: (1 Hour)

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question
2. Paste the bitmap image for the tables, diagrams etc while solving your questions
3. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions, attempt it
to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make an
appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
4. The duration of this examination is 90 minutes.
5. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.
6. Calculator is allowed

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair means. Anyone
found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

For Teacher’s use only


Descriptive Multiple Choice Questions Total
Question Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 4+10=14
Marks + =

Question No: 1 Marks: 10

For the following project diagram find out Earliest start time (EST), Earliest finish time (EFT), Latest start time
(LST), Latest finish time (LFT) for each activity. Also find the Critical Path.

NOTE: There is no need of making diagram corresponds to each step, you have to write down only the required terms correspond to
each activity and the justification for the critical path.

Solution:

Activity EST EFT LST LFT


A(1 – 2) 0 5 0 5
B(2 – 3) 5 12 5 12
C(2 – 4) 5 14 8 17
D(3 – 5) 12 23 12 23
E(4 – 6) 14 17 18 21
F(4 – 5) 14 20 17 23
G(5 – 7) 23 29 23 29
H(6 – 7) 17 25 21 29

To find the Critical Path we’ll find the Slack (Float) of each activity.

Activity Slack
A(1 – 2) 0
B(2 – 3) 0
C(2 – 4) 3
D(3 – 5) 0
E(4 – 6) 4
F(4 – 5) 3
G(5 – 6) 0
H(6 – 7) 4
Critical Path: A – B – D – G
Question No: 2 Marks: 10

Suppose the following estimates of activity times of a project,

Activity Optimistic Time Most Likely Time Pessimistic Time


A 1 2 3
B 3 6 8
C 5 8 20
D 10 13 28
E 4 7 12
F 2 4 5
G 8 12 16
H 2 2 2

If the critical path of the project is A, D, G, H, then calculate the Expected Completion Time (Length of the
path) and corresponding Variance of the project.

Solution:

Most Expected
Critical Optimistic Pessimistic
Likely Duration Variance
Activities Time (t0) Time (tp)
Time (tm) (te)
A 1 2 3 2 0.11
D 10 13 28 15 9
G 8 12 16 12 1.78
H 2 2 2 2 0

Expected Completion time = 2 + 15 + 12 + 2


= 31
Variance (of the project) = 0.11 + 9 + 1.78 + 0
= 10.89

Question No: 3 Marks: 10

Demand for the product is 600 units per year, and the items are withdrawn at a constant rate. The setup cost for
placing an order to replenish inventory is $25. The unit cost of each item is $3, and the inventory holding cost is
$0.05 per item per week.
(a). Assuming shortages are not allowed, determine how often to make a production run and what size it
should be.
(b). If shortages are allowed but cost $2 per item per month, determine how often to order and what size the
order should be.

Solution:
D=600 unit/year
Ordering Cost (C2) = $25/order
Item Cost (C1) = $3/item
Holding Cost (C3) = 0.05/item/week
= 0.05*52/item/year
=2.6/item/year
(a). Shortages are not allowed:
Q* =?
t* = ?
Q* = 2C D / C
2 3

Putting all the values in the above formula we have


Q* = 2 * 25 * 600 / 2.6
Q* = 107.42

t* = Q*/D
= 107.41/600
= 0.1796
(b). Shortages are allowed:
Shortage Cost (C4) = $2 /item/month
= 24 item/year
Q* = 2C D / C (C + C ) / C
2 3 3 4 4
*
= 107.41 * (2.6 + 24) / 24
= 223.606
t* = Q*/D
= 0.3726

Question No: 4 Marks: 10

Rabbani and Sons of Sialkot manufacture sports goods like hockey sticks, cricket bats etc .Each hockey stick
yields a profit of Rs.20 and each cricket bat Rs 25.A hockey stick requires four hours of processing at machine A
and two hours at machine B. A bat requires six hours of processing at machine A and five hours at machine Band
one hour at machine C. Machine A has a maximum of 135 hours of availability capacity, machine B has 75 hours
and machine C has 20 hours.

Read the above problem carefully and formulate it as an LP model to maximize the company’s profit.

Solution:

Decision variables
x1 = Number of hockey stick
x2 = number of cricket bats

Objective function
Since each hockey stick yields a profit of Rs.20 so x1 number of hockey stick yields a profit of Rs.20x1
Since each cricket bat yields a profit of Rs 25 x2 number of cricket bats yields a profit of Rs.25x2

As we want to maximize the company profit so objective function is


Maximize Z = 20x1 + 25x2

Constraints

Product Machine A Machine B Machine C


Hockey 4 2 0
Bat 6 5 1

Hourly Availability of machine A = 135


Hourly Availability of machine B = 75
Hourly Availability of machine C = 20

4x1 + 6x2 ≤ 135


2x1 + 5x2 ≤ 75
0x1 + x2 ≤ 20
x1 ,x2 ≥0

Now LP problem is
Maximize Z = 20x1 + 25x2
Subject to
4x1 + 6x2 ≤ 135
2x1 + 5x2 ≤ 75
0x1 + x2 ≤ 20
x1, x2 ≥ 0

Question No: 5 Marks: 10


Select the best choice (Only one) from the given four choices against each question.

1. employs a different modeling and solution logic than linear programming


(a). Transportation Model
(b). Inventory Control Model
(c). Dynamic Programming
(d). None of the above

2. To identify and maintain the proper precedence relationship between activities those are not connected by
event, we introduce
(a). Parallel Activity
(b). Dummy Activity
(c). Sequential Activity
(d). None of the above

3. EST and EFT of activities are calculated in


(a). Forward pass
(b). Backward pass

4. Critical path is obtained by connecting the jobs having


(a). Activities having same EST and LST
(b). Activities having same EFT and LFT
(c). Activities having zero slack
(d). All of the above

5. The Variance Vt of expected time is calculated as


t − t0
(a). Vt = ( m )
2

(b). Vt 6
t 0− t p 2
=( )
(c). Vt 6
t p − tm 2
=( )
6
(d). None of the above

6. In LP problems Additivity means that


(a). The effect of two different programs of production is the same as that of a joint program
(b). The doubling (or tripling) the product will exactly double (or triple) the profit and the required
resource
(c). Both (a)& (b)
(d). None of the above

7. Two of the first steps of OR process encompass the actual use of OR techniques. These steps are
(a). Model Construction and Model Solution
(b). Observation and Implementation
(c). Definition of the problem and Model Solution
(d). Model Solution and Implementation of results

8. Let FS = Free Slack, TS = Total Slack, INDS = Independent Slack, then which relation is true
(a). TS ≤ FS
(b). INDS ≤ FS
(c). FS ≤ TS
(d). Both (b) & (c)

9. Best possible time estimate that a given activity would take under normal conditions which often exist, is called
(a). Most Likely time estimate
(b). Pessimistic time estimate
(c). Smallest time estimate
(d). None of the above
10. Standard Deviation S.D is
(a). One sixth of the difference between pessimistic time estimates and optimistic time estimates
(b). One sixth of the difference between pessimistic time estimates and most likely time estimates
(c). One sixth of the difference between optimistic time estimates and most likely time estimates
(d). One sixth of the difference between most likely time estimates and optimistic time estimates