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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL LIMB USING

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES

Submitted by

B.HARINDRAN (Reg.No:112915114031)
M.KARTHIKEYAN (Reg.No:112915114047)
S.MAREESWARAN (Reg.No:112915114061)
D.SELVAMANI (Reg.No:112915114097)

In partial fulfillment for the award of the


degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

VEL TECH, AVADI, CHENNAI

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

APRIL 2019
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ARTIFICIAL LIMB
USING FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES”is the bonafide work
B.HARINDRAN,M.KARTHIKEYAN, S.MAREESWARAN,D.SELVAMANI who
carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE
Dr.G.PAULRAJ,Ph.D., Mr. B.MURALI, M.E.,
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT INTERNAL SUPERVISOR
Assistant Professor, Assistant Professor,
Department of Mechanical Department of Mechanical
Engineering Engineering,
Vel tech owned by R S Trust, Vel tech owned by R S Trust,
Avadi Avadi
Chennai-600 062. Chennai-600 062.

Submitted for the Viva-Voce held on / 04/2019 at Veltech owned by RS

Trust.

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my first and foremost duty to express our heartily gratitude and


allegiance to our beloved chairman Prof. Dr.R.Rangarajan, B.E (Elec). B.E (Mech).M.S
(Auto).D.Sc .for being our inspiration throughout the entire period of course.

We would like to thank our Principal Dr.B.Nagalingeshwara Raju, Ph.D.,


for his constructive criticism towards improving our project.

We would like to extend our faithful thanks to Dr.G.Paulraj,Ph.D., Head of


the Department, Mechanical Engineering for his sustained help, guidance and
inspiration in doing this project and making this a successful one.

We would like to thank our guide Mr.B.MURALI,M.E., for his guidance


and giving entire support to us in doing this project. We also thank him for
giving his innovative ideas.

We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to all the faculty and
supporting staff of Mechanical Engineering Department for the help they
extended for completion of project.

This project is dedicated to our parents and friends who were with us
during the tough times by extending their full support to us.

i
ABSTRACT

Composites made with natural fibers are finding applications in a wide variety
of engineering fields due to their low cost and eco-friendly nature. The
fabricated composite samples are tested to investigate the various mechanical
and wear properties.This project deals with hybrid composite materials made of
natural fibres namely kenaf and flax fibres. Glass fibre reinforcement polymer
(GFRP) is used for lamination on both sides. The test result shows that hybrid
composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite.
The mechanical and wear properties of the fibers are evaluated under different
combinations as per ASTM standards, and the analysis are compared with a
software analysis using ANSYS software.
LIST OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO.


NO.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i
ABSTRACT ii
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview Of Composite 1
1.2 Classification Of Composites 3
1.3 Fiber Reinforced Composite 5

1.4 Particle Reinforced Composite 6


1.5 Constituents Of Composites 7
1.5.1.Matrix 7

1.5.2. Fibers 8

1.5.2.1 Synthetic Fibers 9

1.5.2.2 Natural Fibers 10


1.6 Advantages Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites 13

1.7 Applications Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites 14


2 LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites 15
2.2 Mechanical Properties Of Composites 19
3 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials 25
3.1.1 Flax Fiber 25
3.1.2Kenaf Fiber 27
3.1.3 S-Glass Fiber 29
3.1.4 E-Glass Fiber 31
3.1.5 Epoxy Matrix 32
3.1.6 Hardener 34
3.2 Fabrication Method 34
3.3 Testing Of Composites 37
iii
3.3.1 Tensile Test 37
3.3.2 Impact Test 38
3.3.3 Flextural Test 39
3.3.4 Wear Test 40
3.4 Fabrication Method 43
3.5 Ansys 44
4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Mechanical Test Result of Composites 47
4.1.1 Tensile Test 47
4.1.2 Impact Test 48
4.1.3 Flextural Test 49
4.2 Wear Test 50
4.3 Analysis Using Ansys 54
CONCLUSION 66
REFERENCES 67

iv
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO.


1.1 Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite 5
1.2 Classification of Natural Fibers 11
1.3 Natural Plant Fiber Types used for 12
Reinforcement
3.1 Flax Fiber 26
3.2 Combed Flax Fiber 27
3.3 Harvested Kenaf fiber 28
3.4 Kenaf Fiber 29
3.5 S-Glass Fiber 31
3.6 E-Glass Fiber 32
3.7 Hand-Layup Technique 36
3.8 Tensile Test 37
3.9 Impact Test 39
3.10 Flextural Test 40
3.11 An Abrasive Wear Tester 41
3.12 Rolling Sliding wear Test 42
3.13 Pin on Disc Wear Test and Arrangement of 43
Samples
4.1 Tensile Test of Laminates 48
4.2 Impact Test of Laminates 49
4.3 Flextural Test of Laminates 50
4.4 Combination 1; N=159 RPM 51
4.5 Combination 1; N=318 RPM 51
4.6 Combination 1; N=428 RPM 52
4.7 Combination 2; N=159 RPM 53
4.8 Combination 2; N=318 RPM 53
4.9 Combination 2; N=428 RPM 54
4.10 Design of artificial limb 55
4.11 Total Meshing 56
4.12 Total Deformation in side view 56
4.13 Total Deformation in Top view 57
4.14 Equivalent Stress 57
4.15 Safety Factor 58
4.16 Maximum Shear Stress 59
4.17 Minimum Deformation 60
4.18 Maximum Deformation 61
4.19 Minimum Equivalent Stress 62
4.20 Maximum Equivalent Stress 63
4.21 Equivalent Elastic Strain in X –Direction 64
4.22 Equivalent Elastic Strain in Y –Direction 65

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TABLE NAME PAGE NO.


3.1 Sequence of Laminates 36
4.1 Mechanical Test Result of Laminates 47
4.2 Wear Values of Combination 1 50
4.3 Wear Values of Combination 2 52
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A composite material is a material made from two or more


constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical
properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics
different from the individual components. The individual components
remain separate and distinct within the finished structure, differentiating
composites from mixtures and solutions.The new material may be
preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which
are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional
materials.

1.1 Overview of Composite

Over the last thirty years composite materials, plastics and


ceramics have been the dominant emerging materials. The volume and
number of applications of composite materials have grown steadily,
penetrating and conquering new markets relentlessly. Modern composite
materials constitute a significant proportion of the engineered materials
market ranging from everyday products to sophisticated niche
applications. While composites have already proven their worth as
weight-saving materials, the current challenge is to make them cost
effective.
The efforts to produce economically attractive composite
components have resulted in several innovative manufacturing techniques
currently being used in the composites industry. It is obvious, especially
for composites, that the improvement in manufacturing technology alone
is not enough to overcome the cost hurdle. It is essential that there be an
integrated effort in design, material, process, tooling, quality assurance,
manufacturing, and even program management for composites to become

1
competitive with metals.
The composites industry has begun to recognize that the
commercial applications of composites promise to offer much larger
business opportunities than the aerospace sector due to the sheer size of
transportation industry. Thus the shift of composite applications from
aircraft to other commercial uses has become prominent in recent years.
Increasingly enabled by the introduction of newer polymer resin matrix
materials and high performance reinforcement fibers of glass, carbon and
aramid, the penetration of these advanced materials has witnessed a
steady expansion in uses and volume. The increased volume has resulted
in an expected reduction in costs. High performance FRP can now be
found in such diverse applications as composite armoring designed to
resist explosive impacts, fuel cylinders for natural gas vehicles, windmill
blades, industrial drive shafts, support beams of highway bridges and
even paper making rollers.
For certain applications, the use of composites rather than metals
has in fact resulted in savings of both cost and weight. Some examples
are cascades for engines, curved fairing and fillets, replacements for
welded metallic parts, cylinders, tubes, ducts, blade containment bands
etc. Further, the need of composite for lighter construction materials and
more seismic resistant structures has placed high emphasis on the use of
new and advanced materials that not only decreases dead weight but also
absorbs the shock & vibration through tailored microstructures.
Composites are now extensively being used for rehabilitation/
strengthening of pre-existing structures that have to be retrofitted to make
them seismic resistant, or to repair damage caused by seismic activity.
Unlike conventional materials (e.g., steel), the properties of the composite
material can be designed considering the structural aspects.
Composite properties (e.g. stiffness, thermal expansion etc.) can be
varied continuously over a broad range of values under the control of the
designer. Careful selection of reinforcement type enables finished product
characteristics to be tailored to almost any specific engineering
requirement. Whilst the use of composites will be a clear choice in many
instances, material selection in others will depend on factors such as
working lifetime requirements, number of items to be produced (run
length), complexity of product shape, possible savings in assembly costs
and on the experience & skills the designer in tapping the optimum
potential of composites. In some instances, best results may be achieved
through the use of composites in conjunction with traditional materials.

1.2Classification of Composites
Broadly, composite materials can be classified into three groups on the
basis of matrix material. They are:
a) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC)
b) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)
c) Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC)
A) METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES

Metal Matrix Composites have many advantages over monolithic


metals like higher specific modulus, higher specific strength, better
properties at elevated temperatures, and lower coefficient of thermal
expansion. Because of these attributes metal matrix composites are under
consideration for wide range of applications viz. combustion chamber
nozzle (in rocket, space shuttle), housings, tubing, cables, heat
exchangers, structural members etc.

B) CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES

One of the main objectives in producing ceramic matrix


composites is to increase the toughness. Naturally it is hoped and indeed
often found that there is a concomitant improvement in strength and
stiffness of ceramic matrix composites.

C) POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES

Most commonly used matrix materials are polymeric. In general


the mechanical properties of polymers are inadequate for many structural
purposes. In particular their strength and stiffness are low compared to
metals and ceramics. These difficulties are overcome by reinforcing other
materials with polymers. Secondly the processing of polymer matrix
composites need not involve high pressure and doesn’t require high
temperature. Also equipments required for manufacturing polymer matrix
composites are simpler. For this reason polymer matrix composites
developed rapidly and soon became popular for structural applications.
Composites are used because overall properties of the composites are
superior to those of the individual components for example
polymer/ceramic.
Two types of polymer composites are:

 Fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRPC)


 Particle reinforced polymer composite (PRPC)

Fig. 1.1 Fiber reinforced polymer composite

1.3 Fiber Reinforced Composite


Common fiber reinforced composites are composed of fibers and a
matrix. Fibers are the reinforcement and the main source of strength
while matrix glues all the fibers together in shape and transfers stresses
between the reinforcing fibers. The fibers carry the loads along their
longitudinal directions. Sometimes, filler might be added to smooth the
manufacturing process, impact special properties to the composites, and /
or reduce the product cost.

Common fiber reinforcing agents include asbestos, carbon /


graphite fibers, beryllium, beryllium carbide, beryllium oxide,
molybdenum, aluminium oxide, glass fibers, polyamide, natural fibers
etc. Similarly common matrix materials include epoxy, phenolic,
polyester, polyurethane, poly etheretherketone (PEEK), vinyl ester etc.
Among these resin materials, PEEK is most widely used. Epoxy, which
has higher adhesion and less shrinkage than PEEK, comes in second for
its high cost.
1.4 Particle Reinforced Composite

Particles used for reinforcing include ceramics and glasses such as


small mineral particles, metal particles such as aluminium and amorphous
materials, including polymers and carbon black. Particles are used to
increase the modules of the matrix and to decrease the ductility of the
matrix. Particles are also used to reduce the cost of the composites.
Reinforcements and matrices can be common, inexpensive materials and
are easily processed. Some of the useful properties of ceramics and
glasses include high melting temperature, low density, high strength,
stiffness; wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.
Many ceramics are good electrical and thermal insulators. Some
ceramics are magnetic materials; some are piezoelectric materials; and a
few special ceramics are even superconductors at very low temperatures.
An example of particle reinforced composites is an automobile tire,
which has carbon black particles in a matrix of poly-isobutylene
elastomeric polymer.Polymer composite materials have generated wide
interest in various engineering fields, particularly in aerospace
applications. Research is underway worldwide to develop newer
composites with varied combinations of fibers and fillers so as to make
them useable under different operational conditions. Against this
backdrop, the present work has been taken up to develop a series of
PEEK based composites with glass fiber reinforcement and with ceramic
fillers and to study their response to solid particle erosion.
1.5 CONSTITUENTS OF COMPOSITE
1.5.1 Matrix

The role of matrix in a fiber-reinforced composite is to transfer


stress between the fibers, to provide a barrier against an adverse
environment and to protect the surface of the fibers from mechanical
abrasion. The matrix plays a major role in the tensile load carrying
capacity of a composite structure. The binding agent or matrix in the
composite is of critical importance. Three major types of matrices have
been reported: Polymeric, Metallic and Ceramic. Most of the composites
used in the industry today are based on polymer matrices.

Polymer resins have been divided broadly into two categories:


 Thermosetting
 Thermoplastics.
THERMOSETTING
 Thermoset is a hard and stiff cross linked material that does not
soften or become moldable when heated. Thermosets are stiff and
do not stretch the way that elastomers and thermoplastics do.
Several types of polymers have been used as matrices for natural
fiber composites. Most commonly used thermoset polymers are
epoxy resins and other resins (Unsaturated polyester resins (as in
fiberglass) Vinyl Ester, Phenolic Epoxy, Novolac and Polyamide).

 Unsaturated polyesters are extremely versatile in properties and


applications and have been a popular thermoset used as the
polymer matrix in composites. They are widely produced
industrially as they possess many advantages compared to other
thermosetting resins including room temperature cure capability,
good mechanical been widely reported. Polyester-jute, Polyester-
sisal, polyester-coir polyester- properties and transparency. The
reinforcement of polyesters with cellulosic fibers has banana-
cotton, polyester-straw, polyester-pineapple leaf ,and polyester-
cotton-kapok, are some of the promising systems.
THERMOPLASTICS
Thermoplastics are polymers that require heat to make them
processable. After cooling, such materials retain their shape. In addition,
these polymers may be reheated and reformed, often without significant
changes in their properties. The thermoplastics which have been used as
matrix for natural fiber reinforced composites are as follows:

 High density polyethene (HDPE)


 Low density polyethene (LDPE)
 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)
 Polypropylene (PP)
 Normal polystyrene (PS)
 Poly Vinyl chloride (PVC)

Only those thermoplastics are useable for natural fiber reinforced


composites, whose processing temperature (temperature at which fiber is
incorporated into polymer matrix) does not exceed 230°C. Technical
thermoplastics, like polyamides, polyesters and polycarbonates require
processing temperatures > 250°C and are therefore not useable for such
composite processing without fiber degradation.

1.5.2 Fibers
Fibers are the principal constituent in a fiber reinforced composites. They
occupy the largest volume fraction in a composite structure and share the
major load acting on it. Proper selection of the fiber type, fiber volume
fraction, fiber length, and fiber orientation is very important in
composites.
Fiber influence the following characteristics of composite structure
1. Density
2. Tensile strength and modulus
3. Compressive strength and modulus
4. Fatigue strength and as well as fatigue failure mechanisms
5. Electrical and thermal conductivities
1.5.2.1SYNTHETIC FIBERS
Glass Fibers
Glass fibers are the most common of all reinforcing fibers for
polymeric (plastic) matrix composites (PMCs). The principal advantages
of glass fiber are low cost, high tensile strength, high chemical resistance
and excellent insulating properties. The two types of glass fibers
commonly used in the fiber reinforced plastics industries are E-glass and
S-glass. Another type known as C-glass is used in chemical applications
requiring greater corrosion resistance to acids than is provided by E-glass.
Carbon Fibers
Carbon fibers are used for reinforcing certain matrix materials to
form composites. The physical properties of carbon fiber reinforced
composite materials depend considerably on the nature of the matrix, the
fiber alignment, the volume fraction of the fiber and matrix, and on the
molding conditions. Carbon fiber composites, particularly those with
polymer matrices, have become the dominant advanced composite
materials for aerospace, automobile and other applications due to their
high strength, high modulus, low density, and reasonable cost for
application requiring high temperature resistance as in the case of
spacecrafts
Kevlar Fibers
Kevlar belongs to a group of highly crystalline aramid (aromatic
amide) fibers that have the lowest specific gravity and the highest tensile
strength to weight ratio among the current reinforcing fibers. They are
being used as reinforcement in many marine and aerospace applications.
1.5.2.2 NATURAL FIBERS
The interest in natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite
materials is rapidly growing both in terms of their industrial applications
and fundamental research. They are renewable, cheap, completely or
partially recyclable, and biodegradable. Plants, such as flax, cotton,
hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, pineapple, ramie, bamboo, banana, etc., as well
as wood, used from time immemorial as a source of lignocelluloses
fibers, more often applied in reinforcement of composites.
Their availability, renewability, low density, and price as well as
satisfactory mechanical properties make them an attractive ecological
alternative to glass, carbon and man-made fibers used for the
manufacturing of composites. The natural fiber-containing composites are
more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation
(automobiles, railway coaches, aerospace), military applications, building
and construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards),
packaging, consumer products, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL FIBERS

Natural fibers include those made from plant, animal and mineral
sources. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin.
Natural Fibers

Animal Fibers Mineral Fibers Plant Fibers

Animal hair Asbestos Seed fiber, Leaf fiber


Silk fiber Ceramic fibers Skin fiber, Fruit fibe
Avian fiber Metal fibers Stalk fiber

Fig. 1.2 Classification of Natural Fibers

(A) ANIMAL FIBER


Animal fiber generally comprises proteins. Examples: wool, silk,
alpaca, angora.
 Animal hair (wool or hair): Fiber taken from animals or hairy
mammals. E.g. Sheep’s wool, goat hair (cashmere,
mohair), alpaca hair, horse hair, etc.
 Silk fiber: Fiber collected from dried saliva of bugs or insects
during the preparation of cocoons. Examples include silk from silk
worms.
 Avian fiber: Fibers from birds, e.g. feathers and feather fiber.

(B) MINERAL FIBER


Mineral fibers are naturally occurring fiber or slightly modified
fiber procured from minerals. These can be categorized into the following
categories:
 Asbestos: The only naturally occurring mineral fiber. Variations
are serpentine and amphiboles, anthophyllite.
 Ceramic fibers: Glass fibers (Glass wood and Quartz), aluminum
oxide, silicon carbide, and boron carbide.
 Metal fibers: Aluminum fibers.
(C) PLANT FIBER
Plant fibers are generally comprised mainly of cellulose: examples
include cotton, jute, flax, ramie, sisal and hemp. This fiber can be further
categorizes into following
 Seed fiber: Fibers collected from the seed and seed case e.g. cotton
and kapok.
 Leaf fiber: Fibers collected from the leaves e.g. sisal and agave.
 Skin fiber: Fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding
the stem of their respective plant. These fibers have higher tensile
strength fibers. Some examples
are flax, jute, banana, hemp, and soybean.
 Fruit fiber: Fibers are collected from the fruit of the plant, e.g.
coconut (coir) fiber.
 Stalk fiber: Fibers are actually the stalks of the plant. E.g. straws
of wheat, rice, barley, and other crops including bamboo and grass.

Fig. 1.3 Natural Plant Fiber types used for Reinforcement


1.6 Advantages Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites
The main advantages of natural fiber composite are:
 Low specific weight, resulting in a higher specific strength and
stiffness than glass fiber.
 It is a renewable source, the production requires little energy, and
CO2 is used while oxygen is given back to the environment.
 Producible with low investment at low cost, which makes the
material an interesting product for low wage countries.
 Reduced wear of tooling, healthier working condition, and no skin
irritation.
 Thermal recycling is possible while glass causes problem in
combustion furnaces.
 Tensile strength of composites is four to six times greater than that
of steel or aluminium (depending on the reinforcements).
 Improved torsional stiffness and impact properties.

 Higher fatigue endurance limit (up to 60% of ultimate tensile


strength)30%-40% lighter for example any particular aluminium
structures designed to the same functional requirements.
 Composites are less noisy while in operation and provide lower
vibration transmission than metals.
 Long life offer excellent fatigue, impact, environmental resistance
and reduce maintenance.
 Composites enjoy reduced life cycle cost compared to metals.
 Composites exhibit excellent corrosion resistance and fire
retardancy.
 Improved appearance with smooth surfaces and readily
incorporable integral decorative melamine are other characteristics
of composites.
1.7 Applications Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites

The natural fiber composites can be very cost effective material for
following applications:
 Building and construction industry:
panels for partition and false ceiling, partition boards, wall, floor,
window and door frames, roof tiles, mobile or pre-fabricated
buildings which can be used in times of natural calamities such as
floods, cyclones, earthquakes, etc.
 Storage devices: Post-boxes, grain storage silos, bio-gas
containers, etc.
 Furniture: chair, table, shower, bath units, etc.
 Electric devices: Electrical appliances, pipes, etc.
 Everyday applications: Lampshades, suitcases, helmets, etc.
 Transportation: Automobile and railway coach interior, boat, etc.
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

This chapter outlines some of the recent reports published in


literature on mechanical behavior of natural fiber based epoxy composites
with special emphasis on bast fiber reinforced epoxy composites.
As a result of the increasing demand for environmentally friendly
materials and the desire to reduce the cost of traditional fibers (i.e.,
carbon, glass and aramid) new bio-based composites have been
developed. Researchers have begun to focus attention on natural fiber
composites (i.e., bio composites), which are composed of natural or
synthetic resins, reinforced with natural fibers. Natural fibers exhibit
many advantageous properties; they are a low-density material yielding
relatively lightweight composites with high specific properties. Recent
advances in the use of natural fibers (e.g., cellulose, jute, hemp, Straw,
switch grass, kenaf, coir and bamboo) in composites have been reviewed
by several authors [1].

2.1 Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites


The mechanical properties of a natural fiber-reinforced composite
depend on many parameters, such as fiber strength, modulus, fiber length
and orientation, in addition to the fiber-matrix interfacial bond strength. A
strong fiber-matrix interface bond is critical for high mechanical
properties of composites. A good interfacial bond is required for effective
stress transfer from the matrix to the fiber whereby maximum utilization
of the fiber strength in the composite is achieved [2]. Modification to the
fiber also improves resistance to moisture induced degradation of the
interface and the composite properties [3].
In addition, factors like processing conditions/techniques have
significant influence on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced
composites [4]. Mechanical properties of natural fibers, especially flax,
hemp, jute and sisal, are very good and may compete with glass fiber in
specific strength and modulus [19, 20]. A number of investigations have
been conducted on several types of natural fibers such as kenaf, hemp,
flax, bamboo, and jute to study the effect of these fibers on the
mechanical properties of composite materials [5,6].

Bast fibers are defined as those obtained from the outer cell layers
of the stems of various plants and comprises one-third of the weight. Bast
fibers are made up of bundles of fibers. These bundles are broken down
mechanically or chemically to achieve the fineness required.The
filaments are made of cellulose and hemicellulose, bonded together by a
matrix, which can be lignin or pectin. Natural Bast Fibers are strong,
cellulosic fibers obtained from the phloem or outer bark of jute, kenaf,
flax and hemp plants [7].
The fibers find use in textile applications and are increasingly
being considered as reinforcements for polymer–matrix composites as
they are perceived to be ‘‘sustainable’’. The fibers are composed
primarily of cellulose which potentially has a Young’s modulus of 140
GPa (being a value comparable with manmade aramid [Kevlar/Twaron]
fibers). The plants which are currently attracting most interest are flax
and hemp (in temperate climates) or jute and kenaf (in tropical climates)
[8].

Natural fibers found to have extensive applications inbuilding and


civil engineering fields. In case of syntheticfiber based composites,
despite the usefulness in service,these are difficult to be recycled after
designed servicelife. However, natural fiber based composites are
environment friendly to a large extent [9]. Though hydrophilic character
of natural fibers would leads to composites with weakinterface but
pretreatments of natural fibers are aimed atimproving the adhesion
between fibers and matrix. In pre-treatments, either hydroxyl groups get
activated or newmoieties are added that can effectively interlock with
thematrix [10–20].
Unsaturated polyesters [21] are extremely versatile in properties
and applications and have been a popular thermoset used as the polymer
matrix in composites. They are widely produced industrially as they
possess many advantages compared to other thermosetting resins
including room temperature cure capability, good mechanical been widely
reported. Polyester-jute [22,23], Polyester-sisal [24], polyester- coir [25]
polyester- properties and transparency. The reinforcement of polyesters
with cellulosic fibers has banana-cotton [26], polyester-straw [27],
polyester-pineapple leaf [28], and polyester- cotton-kapok [29], are some
of the promising systems.
Impact strength of abaca composite is 16 J which is quite highwhen
compared with the jute and hybrid composite whoseimpact values are 15
J and 12 J respectively. The tensile strength of abaca and jute composite is
the relativelymore than jute composite and much higher when
comparedwith abaca composite. It has a value of 7.1075 kN. The
percentage elongation of single fiber in tensile testing is
found to be less than that of the hybrid composite. Therefore,the hybrid
composite withstands more strain before failure intensile testing than the
single fiber composite. The flexural strength of the composite is in
decreasing orderfrom abaca, abaca and jute hybrid, jute composite. Abaca
hasthe highest flexural strength since its strength increases withincrease
in interfacial adhesion. Flexural modulus is also foundto be highest for
the abaca–jute–GFRP composite[30].
The banana-glass fiber hybrid composites have more tensile
strength than other composites can withstand thetensile strength of
39.5MPa followed by the hemp-glass fiber reinforced composites which
holds the value of37.5MPa[31].

The mean tensile strength of jowar fiber composite at


highestvolume fraction of fiber in the present study is much higher
thanthat of sisal composites and is nearly equal to that of bamboo
composite.It is also concluded that the mean tensile modulus of jowar
fiber composite is higher than those of sisal and bamboo fiber composites
at highest volume fraction of fiber. As the volume fractionof fiber
increases in the composite the specific tensile strength ofjowar fiber
composite is higher than that of sisal composite andthe specific tensile
modulus is also higher than those of sisal andbamboo fiber composites in
the present study [32].
Due to the high cost ofmaterial and fabrication, applications of
synthetic fiber compositesare limited to aeronautical and defense
applications. Natural fiberreinforced composites are best suited to any
design that demandsweight savings, finite tolerances, precision
engineering and simplifiedproduction and operations.
It has been found that when the fiber orientation increases from0 to 90
degree the resistance to delamination fracture increases by a factorof two
. The wear rate of the composite is minimum whenthe orientation of the
fibers is normal to the direction of the slidingmovement. The presence of
glass fibers tends to increase theerosive wear rate of the composite. The
effect of fiber orientationon the erosive wear rate is more pronounced at
lower impactangles (300) and there is no significant difference at higher
angles.Experiments show that during tensile loading, composites sustain
greater loads as the angle between the fiber orientation and the load
direction increases.FRP can be used to strengthen the structural members
even afterthey have been severely damaged. Fibers provide toughness,
impactresistance, and energy absorption to the composite. The modulusof
elasticity can be increased by increasing the volume of fiberin the
composite. But, this leads to the decrease of ultimate tensilestrength[33].
2.2 Mechanical Properties Of Composites
Tensile and flexural strengths of coconut spathe and spathe-fiber
reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of
using it as a new material in engineering applications. Samples were
fabricated by the hand layup process (30:70 fiber and matrix ratio by
weight). Tensile and flexural strengths for the coconut spathe-fiber-
reinforced composite laminates ranged from 7.9 to 11.6 MPa and from
25.6 to 67.2 MPa respectively, implying that the tensile strength of
coconut spathe-fiber is inferior to other natural fiber such as cotton,
coconut coir and banana fibers [ 34].
The tensile strength on the pseudo-stem banana woven fabric
reinforced epoxy composite is increased by 90% compared to virgin
epoxy. The flexural strength increased when banana woven fabric was
used with epoxy material. The results of the impact strength test showed
that the pseudo-stem banana fiber improved the impact strength
properties of the virgin epoxy material by approximately 40%. Higher
impact strength value leads to higher toughness properties of the material.
The banana fiber composite exhibits a ductile appearance with minimum
plastic deformation.
The composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibers are found to have
higher tensile, flexural and impact properties than kenaf core fiber
composites. The results showed that the optimum fiber content to obtain
the highest tensile strength and flexural strength for both kenaf bast and
core fiber composites were 20%wt. The optimal value to obtain the
highest impact strength for kenaf bast and core fiber composites were
10%wt and 5%wt respectively. The elongation at break for both
composites decreased as the fiber content increased
Kenaf fiber can be a good reinforcement candidate for high
performance polymer composites. The alkalization treatment has
improved the mechanical properties of the composites. Kenaf provides an
opportunity of replacing existing materials with a higher strength, low
cost alternative that is environmentally friendly.
The Arengapinnatafibers were mixed with epoxy resin at the
various fiber weight percentages of 10, 15 and 20% Arengapinnatafiber
and with different fiber orientations such as long random, chopped
random and woven roving. Results from the flexural tests of
Arengapinnatafiber reinforced epoxy composite are that the 10 wt %
woven roving Arengapinnatafiber showed the highest value for maximum
flexural properties. The flexural strength and flexural modulus values for
10 wt % of woven roving Arengapinnatafiber composite are 108.157
MPa and 4421.782 MPa respectively [35].
In flexural stress test, flexural modulus decreased with the
increasing of volume fraction of pseudo-stem banana fiber in the matrix.
Pseudo-stem banana fiber improved the impact strength properties of the
epoxy material. Higher impact strength value leads to the higher
toughness properties of the material [35].
Impact strength value leads to higher toughness properties of the
material. The banana fiber composite exhibits a ductile appearance with
minimum plastic deformation [35].
The composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibers are found to have
higher tensile, flexural and impact properties than kenaf core fiber
composites. The results showed that the optimum fiber content to obtain

20
the highest tensile strength and flexural strength for both kenaf bast and
core fiber composites were 20%wt. The optimal value to obtain the
highest impact strength for kenaf bast and core fiber composites was
10%wt and 5%wt respectively. The elongation at break for both
composites decreased as the fibers content increased [36].
Kenaf fiber can be a good reinforcement candidate for high
performance polymer composites. The alkalization treatment has
improved the mechanical properties of the composites. Kenaf provides an
opportunity of replacing existing materials with a higher strength, low
cost alternative that is environmentally friendly [37].
The Arengapinnata fibers were mixed with epoxy resin at the
various fiber weight percentages of 10, 15 and 20% Arengapinnata fiber
and with different fiber orientations such as long random, chopped
random and woven roving. Results from the flexural tests of
Arengapinnata fiber reinforced epoxy composite are that the 10 wt %
woven roving Arengapinnata fiber showed the highest value for
maximum flexural properties. The flexural strength and flexural modulus
values for 10 wt % of woven roving Arengapinnata fiber composite are
108.157 MPa and 4421.782 MPa respectively [38].
In flexural stress test, flexural modulus decreased with the
increasing of volume fraction of pseudo-stem banana fiber in the matrix.
Pseudo-stem banana fiber improved the impact strength properties of the
epoxy material. Higher impact strength value leads to the higher
toughness properties of the material [39].
Okra woven FRP composites showed the highest tensile strength
and modulus of 64.41 MPa and 946.44 MPa respectively. Specific tensile
strength and modulus of untreated and treated okra FRP composites is
34.31% and 39.84% higher than pure polyester specimen respectively
[40].
Uniaxial tensile behavior of Kenaf bast fiber bundles (KBFB) and
Kenaf fiber epoxy composite strands were evaluated at various loading
rates. Statistical elastic properties are presented based on a relatively
large testing sample set due to a large scatter in tensile properties caused
by the random arrangement of single fibers in the KBFB. The KBFB is
fairly brittle and demonstrated a rate-dependency in the strain rate range
of 10-4 ~10-2/s. No significant variations in tensile modulus were observed
after these high temperature treatments [41].
Banana and pandanus woven reinforced unsaturated polyester
composites werefabricated. Improvement in flexural and impact
properties of the resin was obtainedwith the use of these two woven
fabrics. Banana woven composites effectively reinforcedpolyester resin
and the flexural and impact performances are maximum at 10 and 15 vol
%loadings, respectively. Pandanus woven composites exhibits lower
flexural and impactproperties than those of banana composites. Water
absorption studies indicates pandanusfiber composites shows higher
water absorption when compared to banana fiber composites,and as
expected higher water up-take was observed at higher fiber content. This
isdue to poor fiber–matrix adhesion and the existence of defect such as
voids at high fibercontent. The present work is still preliminary because
of limited testing used to comparethe properties of these two fiber
composites [42].
There are a quite few research studies on the effects of operating
conditions on tribological performance,such as applied load, sliding
distance and sliding speed. However, studies on the effects of temperature
and fibercomposition are limited in exploring tribological behaviour.
Thus, the aim of this work was to explore the influenceof temperature and
fiber composition on the coefficient of friction (COF) and the wear rate
of oil palm fiber/epoxycomposite (OPF/E) and kenaf fiber/epoxy (KF/E)
composites. To date, several wear mechanisms have beenproposed for
different natural fiber composites. These include micro-cracks,
debonding, deformation, delamination,detachment, pull-out, breakage of
fibers, and torn fibers. Studies have demonstrated that wearmechanisms
change with the severity of contact conditions. Therefore, a wear
mapping approach was alsoundertaken to represent mild to severe wear
transition and predominant wear mechanisms in these two regimes as
afunction of temperature and fiber composition factors. Hence, this paper
as well explored the possibility of using thisnatural fiber reinforce epoxy
as a new candidate tribo-material for bearing applications related to the
previousstudy’s aim by Chin and Yousif that using kenaf fibers as
reinforcement for tribo-composite. Hereby, it isdesired to have a low
friction coefficient with low specific wear rate [43].
It can be concluded that epoxy composites reinforced with basal
fiber and modifiedwith basalt powder indicate good thermomechanical
properties. Hybrid effect, caused by anintroduction of both powder and
fibrous filler into epoxy matrix, was obtained. Theintroduction of basalt
powder improves stiffness and thermal resistance of the
compositesTherefore, both elastic modulus values and storage modulus
values of these materialsincreased. Complex modification of mechanical
properties caused by hybridization of basaltfiber reinforced composites
was observed. The most advantageous mechanical andthermomechanical
properties for the sample containing 2.5 wt% of basalt powder
wereobtained, due to sufficient dispersion of basalt powder particles in
epoxy matrix. Moreover, itwas found that incorporation of low amounts
(2.5 wt%) of basalt powder led to a decrease incomposites’ brittleness in
comparison to unmodified epoxy composites. Introduction of
higheramounts of the powder may cause formation of agglomerates
(defects) in epoxy matrix [44].
The wear properties of all the form of composites mentioned
hereinbefore was analysed, wherein the SN composite had shown severe
abrasion loss of 0.3991g. S15 composite had shown the least abrasion
loss of 0.2729g among all the form of composites, which is 31.62% less
than that of SN composite. This indicates that the addition of
molybdenum sulphide to the resin matrix had considerably increased the
wear properties of the composites. The tensile properties of the S15
composites were found to be better, which shows that the rigidity of the
composite was increased with increase in the addition of molybdenum
disulphide. The tensile strength and tensile modulus of S15 composite
was found to be 32.47MPa and 1623MPa, respectively. In analogous to
the tensile properties, flexural properties too was found to be better in the
case of S15 composites because of the increase in stiffness of the
composite on addition of molybdenum disulphide. The flexural strength
of the S15 composites was 21.9% more than that of SN composites [45].
CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS AND METHODS

This chapter describes the details of processing of the composites


and the experimental procedures followed for their mechanical
characterization.
The raw materials which are used in this projectare :
 Flax fiber
 Kenaf fiber
 S-glass fiber
 Epoxy resin
 Hardener
3.1 MATERIALS

3.1.1 Flax Fiber


Flax (Linumusitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed,
is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and
fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. The textiles made
from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally
used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. The oil is known as
linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may
refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. Flax fiber is extracted from the
bast beneath the surface of the stem of the flax plant. Flax fiber is soft,
lustrous, and flexible; bundles of fiber have the appearance of blonde
hair, hence the description "flaxen" hair. It is stronger than cotton fiber,
but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as
damasks, lace, and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the
manufacturing of twine and rope, and historically, for canvas and
webbing equipment. Flax fiber is a raw material used in the high-quality
paper industry for the use of printed banknotes, laboratory paper(Blotting
and Filter).

Fig. 3.1Flax Fiber


Flax is the strongest among the natural cellulosic fibers Flax fiber
is soft, lustrous, and flexible Flax is a very strong fiber because it’s very
crystalline polymer system the average length of fiber various from 18-30
inch.
The elongation at break is approximately 1.8% (dry) & 2.2%
(Wet). Flax is two to three times stronger than cotton fiber, but less
elastic. Flax fiber has an important application as composite material. It is
a cellulosic fiber, like wood and plant fibers; it has the potential for use as
load-bearing constituents in composite materials due to their attractive
properties such as high stiffness-to-weight ratio that makes cellulosic
fiber composites ideal for many structural applications.
Fig. 3.2 Combed flax fiber
Fibers from flax plants are extracted by any one or in combination
of mechanical and chemical retting processes. The choice of the
extraction method depends largely upon the quality of fiber to be
regained. For centuries, the use of hand scrapers, blunt and crescent
shaped knives, wooden beater and hand comber has been common for
fiber extraction. Nowadays, fibers are extracted mechanically. The flax
stalk passes through various processes of extraction, viz, retting and
scutching after harvesting. Flax is harvested just before the seed is ripe,
tied in bundles and after a few days drying, seed and leaves are removed
by a process called rippling. The plants after rippling are spread out on
grass and left to ferment for some weeks by the action of weather. The
fiber is extracted from the stalks by differentretting processes. Water
retting is commonly used in India. Dew retting is practiced in European
continent.
3.1.2 Kenaf Fiber

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a bast fiber, is allied to the jute


fiber and shows similar characteristics. Kenaf is a member of the genus
Hibiscus in the family Malvaceas. Kenaf has many applications including
in the production of natural fiber composites materials. This fiber also has
the potential to be used in low density panels, pulp and paper.Kenaf fiber
is produced mainly in India and China, followed by Bangladesh. The
Kenaf plant is an example of a number of woody-stemmed herbaceous
dicotyledonsgrown in the tropics and subtropics. The fibers can be
extracted from the bast of the stems or stalks.
The first step in processing is cutting of the kenaf stalk close to the
ground and then left to defoliate. Then the stalks are stripped in
decorticating equipment, washed and dried in the sun.The world kenaf
production in 2008 is estimated at 272.000 tonnes. The kenaf fiber
production in India in 2008 was approx. 120.000 tonnes.

Fig. 3.3 Harvested kenaf fiber


It is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant growing to 1.5-3.5 m
tall with a woody base. The stems are 1–2 cm diameter, often but not
always branched. The leaves are 10–15 cm long, variable in shape.
The fibers in kenaf are found in the bast (bark) and core (wood).
The bast constitutes 40% of the plant. "Crude fiber" separated from the
bast is multi-cellular, consisting of several individual cells stuck together.
[5]
The individual fiber cells are about 2–6 mm long and slender. The cell
wall is thick (6.3 µm). The core is about 60% of the plant and has thick
(≈38 µm) but short (0.5 mm) and thin-walled (3 µm) fiber
cells.Paper pulp is produced from the whole stem, and therefore contains
two types of fibers, from the bast and from the core.

Fig. 3.4 Kenaf fiber


Kenaf has already been used in commercial applications
such as composite boards, automotive panels, insulation mats and
geotextiles. Major global corporations such as Toyota Motor Corporation
and Panasonic Electric Works have taken the lead in the global kenaf
industry. Toyota has developed kenaf fibers for automotive interior
applications, and Panasonic, a structural wall board to replace timber-
based plywood. The kenaf board is far stronger and lighter than
plywood.Kenaf fibers are produced by separating the core of kenaf from
the fibrous outer layers. The extracted layers are chemically or bacterially
retted to convert it into fibers. Retting is a wet process by which bundles
of cells in the outer layer of the stalk is separated from the non fibrous
material by removing pectins and other gummy substances. There after
they are separated into strands through carding.
3.1.3 S-Glass Fiber
S-glass ("S" for "Strength") is used when high tensile strength
(modulus) is important, and is thus important in composites for building
and aircraft construction. Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous
extremely fine fibers of glass. Glassmakers throughout history have
experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was
only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. In 1893,
Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian
Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk
fibers.
Glass fiber has roughly comparable mechanical properties to other
fibers such as polymers and carbon fiber. Although not as strong or as
rigid as carbon fiber, it is much cheaper and significantly less brittle when
used in composites. Glass fibers are therefore used as a reinforcing agent
for many polymer products; to form a very strong and relatively
lightweight fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite material called
glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), also popularly known as "fiberglass". This
material contains little or no air or gas, is more dense, and is a much
poorer thermal insulator than is glass wool.
S-Glass is generally used for polymer matrix composites that
require improved mechanical properties compared to E-glass based
composites. This is often the case when the material is operated under
more extreme conditions. S-Glass has a typical nominal composition of
SiO2 65wt%, Al2O3 25wt%, MgO 10wt%. Some other materials may also
be present at impurity levels. Glass fibres are generally produced using
melt spinning techniques. These involve melting the glass composition
into a platinum crown which has small holes for the molten glass to flow.
Continuous fibres can be drawn out through the holes and wound onto
spindles, while short fibres may be produced by spinning the crown,
which forces molten glass out through the holes centrifugally. Fibres are
cut to length using mechanical means or air jets.Fibre dimension and to
some extent properties can be controlled by the process variables such as
melt temperature (hence viscosity) and drawing/spinning rate. It should
be noted that S-glass is more difficult to process compared to E-glass.
As fibres are being produced, they are normally treated with sizing
and coupling agents. These reduce the effects of fibre-fibre abrasion
which can significantly degrade the mechanical strength of the individual
fibres. Other treatments may also be used to promote wetting and
adherence of the matrix material to the fibre.
High stiffness, Relatively low density, Non-flammable, Resistant
to heat, Good chemical resistance, Relatively insensitive to moisture,
Able to maintain strength properties over a wide range of conditions are
some of the unique properties which differentiate S- glass fiber from
other types of glass fibers.

Fig. 3.5 S-glass fiber

3.1.4 E-GLASS FIBER

E-glass ("E" because of initial electrical application), is alkali free,


and was the first glass formulation used for continuous filament
formation. It now makes up most of the fiberglass production in the
world, and also is the single largest consumer of boron minerals globally.
It is susceptible to chloride ion attack and is a poor choice for marine
applications.
Epoxy resins are low molecular weight pre-polymers or higher
molecular weight polymers which normally contain at least two epoxide
groups. The epoxide group is also sometimes referred to as a glycidyl or
oxirane group. A wide range of epoxy resins are produced industrially.
The raw materials for epoxy resin production are today largely petroleum
derived, although some plant derived sources are now becoming
commercially available (e.g. plant derived glycerol used to make
epichlorohydrin).

Epoxy resins are polymeric or semi-polymeric materials, and as such


rarely exist as pure substances, since variable chain length results from
the polymerisation reaction used to produce them. High purity grades can
be produced for certain applications, e.g. using a distillation purification
process. One downside of high purity liquid grades is their tendency to
form crystalline solids due to their highly regular structure, which require
melting to enable processing.

Fig 3.6 E-GLASS FIBER

3.1.5 Epoxy Matrix

Epoxy resins are low molecular weight pre-polymers or higher


molecular weight polymers which normally contain at least two epoxide
groups. The epoxide group is also sometimes referred to as a glycidyl or
oxirane group.A wide range of epoxy resins are produced industrially.
The raw materials for epoxy resin production are today largely petroleum
derived, although some plant derived sources are now becoming
commercially available (e.g. plant derived glycerol used to make
epichlorohydrin).

Epoxy resins are polymeric or semi-polymeric materials, and as


such rarely exist as pure substances, since variable chain length results
from the polymerisation reaction used to produce them. High purity
grades can be produced for certain applications, e.g. using a distillation
purification process. One downside of high purity liquid grades is their
tendency to form crystalline solids due to their highly regular structure,
which require melting to enable processing.

The specific amount of substance of epoxide groups is used to


calculate the mass of co-reactant (hardener) to use when curing epoxy
resins. Epoxies are typically cured with stoichiometric or near-
stoichiometric quantities of curative to achieve maximum physical
properties.As with other classes of thermoset polymer materials, blending
different grades of epoxy resin, as well as use of additives, plasticizers or
fillers is common to achieve the desired processing or final properties, or
to reduce cost.

The applications for epoxy-based materials are extensive and


include coatings, adhesives and composite materials such as those using
carbon fiber and fiberglass reinforcements (although polyester, vinyl
ester, and other thermosetting resins are also used for glass-reinforced
plastic). The chemistry of epoxies and the range of commercially
available variations allows cure polymers to be produced with a very
broad range of properties. In general, epoxies are known for their
excellent adhesion, chemical and heat resistance, good-to-excellent
mechanical properties and very good electrical insulating properties.
Many properties of epoxies can be modified (for example silver-filled
epoxies with good electrical conductivity are available, although epoxies
are typically electrically insulating). Variations offering high thermal
insulation, or thermal conductivity combined with high electrical
resistance for electronics applications, are available.

3.1.6 Hardener

Curing may be achieved by reacting an epoxy with itself


(homopolymerisation) or by forming a copolymer with polyfunctional
curatives or hardeners. In principle, any molecule containing a
reactive hydrogen may react with the epoxide groups of the epoxy
resin. Common classes of hardeners for epoxy resins include amines,
acids, phenols, alcohols and thiols.We are using Aradur HY951 as the
hardening agent here as it is economically available.

3.2 FABRICATION METHOD

Hand Layup Technique

The hand layup technique is one of the oldest and most commonly
used methods for manufacture of the composite parts. The infrastructural
requirement for this method is less. The processing steps are quite simple.
In the beginning a liquid paraffin is sprayed on the mould surface to
avoid the sticking of fiber to the mould surface. Thin plastic sheets are
used at the top and bottom of the mould to get good surface finish of the
product. The fibers which are in the form of woven mats are cut as per the
mould size and placed at the surface of mould. Then the liquid form
epoxy resin and the prescribed hardner (polymer) is mixed thoroughly in
suitable proportion with a ratio of 10:1 and it is poured on to the mould
surface where the fiber is placed. The polymer is uniformly spread with
the help of roller. Second layer of the fiber is then placed on the polymer
surface and a roller is moved with a mild pressure on the fiber-polymer
layer to remove any air trapped as well as the excess polymer present.
The process is repeated for each layer of polymer and fiber, till the
required layers. After placing the plastic sheet, liquid paraffin is sprayed
on the inner surface of the top mould plate which is then kept on the
stacked layers and the pressure is applied.
Then the finished product is kept at room temperature or at some
specific temperature, mould is opened and the developed composite part
is taken out and further processed. The time of curing depends on type of
polymer used for composite processing. It is lead to a normal curing time
of room temperature of 24-48 hours. This method is mainly suitable for
thermosetting polymer based composites. Capital and infrastructural
requirement is less as compared to other methods. Production rate is less
and high volume fraction of reinforcement is difficult to achieve in the
processed composites. Hand lay-up method finds application in many
areas like aircraft components, automotive parts, boat hulls, diase board,
deck etc. Curing the part can be cured at elevated temperatures using an
oven (usually somewhere around 160 degrees F) or at room temperature.
Generally, the proper curing time of each type of resin-hardener, as well
as the working time, is given by the supplier on the back of the
containers.Most plastic sheet available from hardware stores
(polyethylene) may melt. If planning the layup part is going to be moved
to a curing oven, then layup should be done on a caul plate- generally a
sheet of aluminum or steel >1/8” thick .
Fig. 3.7 Hand-layup technique

COMBINATIONS OF FIBERS

In this project we are going to fabricate 3 different variants using


the natural fibers in between the synthetic fibers. We are using different
combinations to determine the best combination based on the test results.

S.NO SEQUENCE OF S1 S2
LAMINATES

1 Top layer E-Glass fiber 1 nos S-Glass fiber 1 nos

2 Second layer Kenaf fiber 1 nos Kenaf fiber 1 nos

3 Third layer E-Glass fiber 1 nos S-Glass fiber 1 nos

4 Fourth layer Flax fiber 1 nos Flax fiber 1 nos

5 Fifth layer E-Glass fiber 1nos S-Glass fiber 1nos

Table 3.1 SEQUENCE OF LAMINATES


3.3 TESTING OF COMPOSITES

3.3.1 TENSILE TEST

Tensile testing, is also known as tension testing, is a fundamental materials


science test in which a sample is subjected to a controlled tension until failure.
Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength,
breaking strength, maximum elongation and reduction in area.From these
measurements the following properties can also be determined: Young's modulus,
Poisson's ratio, yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics.Uniaxial tensile
testing is the most commonly used for obtaining the mechanical characteristics of
isotropic materials. The results from the test are commonly used to select a material
for an application , for quality control,and to predict how a material will react under
other types of forces.

Fig 3.8 TENSILE TEST MACHINE


37
3.3.2 IMPACT TEST

The impact test is a method for evaluating the toughness and notch sensitivity
of engineering materials. It is usually used to test the toughness of metals, but
similar tests are used for polymers, ceramics and composites. Metal industry
sectors include Oil and Gas, Aerospace, Power Generation, Automotive, and
Nuclear. The notched test specimen is broken by the impact of a heavy pendulum
or hammer, falling at a predetermined velocity through a fixed distance. The test
measures the energy absorbed by the fractured specimen.

Charpy Impact Test

A test specimen is machined to a 10mm x 10mm (full size) cross-section, with


either a "V" or "U" notch. Sub-size specimens are used where the material
thickness is restricted. Specimens can be tested down to cryogenic temperatures.

Izod Impact Test

The test specimen is machined to a square or round section, with either one ,
two or three notches. The specimen is clamped vertically on the anvil with the
notch facing the Hammer.

38
Fig 3.9 IMPACT TEST

3.3.3 FLEXURAL TEST

This mechanical testing method measures the behavior of materials


subjected to simple bending loads. Like tensile modulus, flexural modulus
(stiffness) is calculated from the slope of the bending load vs. deflection curve.
Flexural testing involves the bending of a material, rather than pushing or pulling,
to determine the relationship between bending stress and deflection. Flexural
testing is commonly used on brittle materials such as ceramics, stone, masonry
and glasses. It can also be used to examine the behavior of materials which are
intended to bend during their useful life, such as wire insulation and other
elastomeric products. The three points bending flexural test provides values for the
modulus of elasticity in bending, flexural stress, flexural strain and the flexural
stress-strain response of the material. The main advantage of a three point flexural
test is the ease of the specimen preparation and testing. However, this method has
also some disadvantages: the results of the testing method are sensitive to
specimen and loading geometry and strain rate Specimen and equipment: 1. Instron
Series 8500 2. Vernier caliper 3. Test jig 4. Loading block 5. Flexural specimens

Fig 3.10 FLEXURAL TEST MACHINE

3.3.4 WEAR TEST

There are three types of wear testing machines.They are

 Abrasive wear tester


 Rolling sliding wear tester
 Pin on disc wear tester

 An abrasive wear tester


Abrasive wear is a schematic of an abrasive wear tester, in which a wheel or
a ball is driven by a motor, rotating and sliding against a fixed sample in the
presence of abrasive particles. The specimen is in the form of a plate or a block.
Contact pressure is controlled by dead weight through a loading lever. The
abrasive particles, such as silica, are added through a nozzle connecting to a
hopper above, giving a three-body wear situation. After a set time of running, the
sample is removed, and wear loss is measured. The parameters to be controlled
include contact load, sliding speed, type of abrasive particles and its flow rate.
Fig 3.11 An abrasive wear tester
 A rolling sliding wear tester
Rolling-sliding wear tester is the most popular tribometer for investigating
wear as well as frictional behaviour of a materials under conditions of rolling,
sliding, or a combination of both. Two discs (wheels), as show in Fig. 2a), are
fixed to two parallel shafts and pressed against each other under a constant
contact load. Driven by a motor through a train of gear, the specimens are
rotating along with the shafts. The rotating speed can be controlled, so that when
the linear speeds of two wheels are equal at the contact point (V1=V2), a pure
rolling contact is achieved. When V1 and V2 are different (V1 ? V2) and both
wheels are rotating, a combined rolling-sliding can be realised. Whilst when one
of the specimen is fixed, and the other is rotating, then wear is a pure sliding. In
this case, the fixed specimen can be a block, so that a name of block-on-wheel is
used. Abrasive particles may be added to the contact area, achieving a three body
abrasive wear testing.
a) Wheel-on-wheel a) Block-on-wheel
Fig 3.12 Rolling sliding wear test
 A pin-on-disc wear tester
In a pin-on-disc wear tester, a pin is loaded against a flat rotating disc
specimen such that a circular wear path is described by the machine. The
machine can be used to evaluate wear and friction properties of materials under
pure sliding conditions. Either disc or pin can serve as specimen, while the other
as counterface. Pin with various geometry can be used. A convenient way is to
use ball of commercially available materials such as bearing steel, tungsten
carbide or alumina (Al2O3) as counterface, so that the name of ball-on-disc is
used.
a) pin-on-disc-machine
b) arrangement on samples c) geometry of pin
Fig 3.13 Pin-on-disc wear test and the arrangement of samples

3.4 FABRICATION METHOD

 Procasting Process
A metal mold of rectangular shape is taken with a size of 30x30x5 mm
width, length, and depth. The fiber mat that has been prepared is taken with equal
ratio of two mixtures (hybrid fibers). The matrix of epoxy resin is poured in to the
ingredient with 1:1 ratio of hardner and resin and mix up gradually to get as free of
air gaps. The fine mixture of fiber and matrix is filled in the rectangular wooden
mold and dry it under room temperature
3.5 ANSYS

ANSYS is a general purpose software, used to simulate interactions of all


disciplines of physics, structural, vibration, fluid dynamics, heat transfer and
electromagnetic for engineers. So ANSYS, which enables to simulate tests or
working conditions, enables to test in virtual environment before manufacturing
prototypes of products. Furthermore, determining and improving weak points,
computing life and foreseeing probable problems are possible by 3D simulations in
virtual environment. ANSYS software with its modular structure as seen in the
table below gives an opportunity for taking only needed features. ANSYS can
work integrated with other used engineering software on desktop by adding CAD
and FEA connection modules. ANSYS can import CAD data and also enables to
build a geometry with its "preprocessing" abilities. Similarly in the same
preprocessor, finite element model (a.k.a. mesh) which is required for computation
is generated. After defining loadings and carrying out analyses, results can be
viewed as numerical and graphical. ANSYS can carry out advanced engineering
analyses quickly, safely and practically by its variety of contact algorithms, time
based loading features and nonlinear material models .ANSYS Workbench is a
platform which integrate simulation technologies and parametric CAD systems
with unique automation and performance. The power of ANSYS Workbench comes
from ANSYS solver algorithms with years of experience. Furthermore, the object
of ANSYS Workbench is verification and improving of the product in virtual
environment. ANSYS Workbench, which is written for high level compatibility
with especially PC, is more than an interface and anybody who has
an ANSYS license can work with ANSYS Workbench. As same as ANSYS
interface, capacities of ANSYS Workbench are limited due to possessed license.

The first commercial version of Ansys software was labeled version 2.0 and
released in 1971. At the time, the software was made up of boxes of punch cards,
and the program was typically run overnight to get results the following morning.
In 1975, non-linear and thermo-electric features were added. The software was
exclusively used on mainframes, until version 3.0 (the second release) was
introduced for the VAXstation in 1979. Version 3 had a command line interface
like DOS.

In 1980, Apple II was released, allowing Ansys to convert to a graphical user


interface in version 4 later that year. Version 4 of the Ansys software was easier to
use and added features to simulate elctromagnetism. In 1989, Ansys began working
with Compuflo.Compuflo'sFlotran fluid dynamics software was integrated into
Ansys by version 5, which was released in 1993. Performance improvements in
version 5.1 shortened processing time two to four-fold, and was followed by a
series of performance improvements to keep pace with advancements in
computing.Ansys also began integrating its software with CAD software, such as
Autodesk.

In 1996, Ansys released the DesignSpace structural analysis software, the


LS-DYNA crash and drop test simulation product, and the Ansys Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulator.Ansys also added parallel processing support for
PCs with multiple processors.The educational product Ansys/ed was introduced in
1998. Version 6.0 of the main Ansys product was released in December
2001.Version 6.0 made large-scale modeling practical for the first time, but many
users were frustrated by a new blue user interface. The interface was redone a few
months later in 6.1. Version 8.0 introduced the Ansys multi-field solver, which
allows users to simulate how multiple physics problems would interact with one
another.

Version 8.0 was published in 2005 and introduced Ansys' fluid-structure


interaction software, which simulates the effect structures and fluids have on one
another. Ansys also released its Probabilistic Design System and DesignXplorer
software products, which both deal with probabilities and randomness of physical
elements. In 2009 version 12 was released with an overhauled second version of
Workbench. Ansys also began increasingly consolidating features into the
Workbench software.

Version 15 of Ansys was released in 2014. It added a new features for


composites, bolted connections, and better mesh tools. In February 2015, version
16 introduced the AIM physics engine and Electronics Desktop, which is for
semiconductor design.The following year, version 17 introduced a new user
interface and performance improvement for computing fluid dynamics problems.
In January 2017, Ansys released version 18. Version 18 allowed users to collect
real-world data from products and then incorporate that data into future
simulations.The Ansys Application Builder, which allows engineers to build, use,
and sell custom engineering tools, was also introduced with version 18.
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1MECHANICAL TEST RESULTS OF COMPOSITES

LAMINATES TENSILE FLEXTURAL IMPACT


STRENGTH(MPa) STRENGTH(MPa) STRENGTH(JOULES)
S1 110 146.83 4
S2 98 134.38 3.33

Table No 4.1 Mechanical Test Results of Laminates

4.1.1 TENSILE TEST

The combination of s1fibre is kenaf and flax with e-glass gives the more
tensile strength compared to s2 fibre which is combination of s1fibre is kenaf and flax
with s-glass.
Laminate s1=Kenaf+Flax+E-glass
Laminate s2=Kenaf+Flax+S-glass

This is shown in the following graph


Tensile
112
110
108
106
104
102
100
98
96 Tensile
94
92

s1s2

Fig 4.1 Tensile Test of Laminates

4.1.2 IMPACT TEST

The combination of s1fibre is kenaf and flax with e-glass gives the more
impact strength compared to s2 fibre which is combination of s1fibre is kenaf and flax
with s-glass.
Laminate s1=Kenaf+Flax+E-glass
Laminate s2=Kenaf+Flax+S-glass

This is shown in the following graph


Impact
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2

Impact

1.5
1
0.5
0

s1 s2

Fig 4.2 Impact Test of Laminates

4.1.3 FLEXTURAL TEST

The combination of s1fibre is kenaf and flax with e-glass gives the more
flextural strength compared to s2 fibre which is combination of s1fibre is kenaf and
flax with s-glass.
Laminate s1=Kenaf+Flax+E-glass
Laminate s2=Kenaf+Flax+S-glass

This is shown in the following graph


Flextural
148
146
144
142
140
138
136
134
132 Flextural
130
128

s1s2

Fig 4.3 Flextural Test of Laminates


4.2 WEAR TEST
S.No RPM Time Co-Efficient of Specific Wear Wear
Taken Friction Rate Loss
1 159 13 6.5480 0.5036 0.1025
2 17 6.5480 0.3851 0.0784
3 20 6.4014 0.32007 0.0651
4 318 13 6.4009 0.4923 0.1002
5 17 6.3142 0.3714 0.0756
6 20 6.3138 0.3156 0.0642
7 478 13 6.5394 0.5030 0.1024
8 17 6.5391 0.3846 0.0783
9 20 6.5391 0.3269 0.0665

Table 4.2 Wear values of Combination 1


Combination 1 ; N=159 RPM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.548 6.548 6.4014
Specific Wear Rate 0.5036 0.3851 0.32007
Wear Loss 0.1025 0.0784 0.0651

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.4 Combination 1 ; N=159 RPM

Combination 1 ; N=318 RPM


7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.4009 6.3142 6.3138
Specific Wear Rate 0.4923 0.3714 0.3156
Wear Loss 0.1002 0.0756 0.0642

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.5 Combination 1 ; N=318 RPM


Combination 1 ; N=428 RPM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.5394 6.5391 6.5391
Specific Wear Rate 0.503 0.3846 0.3269
Wear Loss 0.1024 0.0783 0.0665

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.6 Combination 1 ; N=428 RPM

S.No RPM Time Co- Specific Wear


Taken Efficient Wear Loss
of Rate
Friction
1 159 13 6.0918 0.4686 0.0954
2 17 6.6605 0.3917 0.0797
3 20 6.6593 0.3329 0.0678
4 318 13 6.0841 0.4680 0.0953
5 17 6.0818 0.3577 0.0728
6 20 6.4334 0.3217 0.0655
7 478 13 6.4307 0.4946 0.1007
8 17 6.4398 0.3788 0.0771
9 20 6.4874 0.3243 0.0660

Table 4.3 Wear values of Combination 2


Combination 2 ; N=159 RPM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.0918 6.6605 6.6593
Specific Wear Rate 0.4686 0.3917 0.3329
Wear Loss 0.0954 0.0797 0.0678

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.7 Combination 2 ; N=159 RPM

Combination 2 ; N= 318 RPM


7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.0841 6.0818 6.4334
Specific Wear Rate 0.468 0.3577 0.3217
Wear Loss 0.0953 0.0728 0.0655

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.8 Combination 2 ; N=318 RPM


Combination 2 ; N=428 RPM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
13 17 20
Co-Efficient of Friction 6.4307 6.4398 6.4874
Specific Wear Rate 0.4946 0.3788 0.3243
Wear Loss 0.1007 0.0771 0.066

Co-Efficient of Friction Specific Wear Rate Wear Loss

Fig. 4.9 Combination 2 ; N=428 RPM

4.3 Analysis using ANSYS

Using ANSYS APDL , we are analyzing the acting on the different fiber
combinations , a constant load of 981N is applied at on the product and the
stresses acting on them is evaluated
Modelling

Fig 4.10 Design of Artificial Limb


Meshing

Fig 4.11 Total Meshing

Deformation

Fig 4.12 Total Deformation in Side View


Fig 4.13 Total Deformation in Top View

Fig 4.14 Equivalent Stress


Fig 4.15 Safety of Factor
Fig 4.16 Maximum Shear Stress
Fig 4.17 Minimum Deformation
Fig 4.18 Maximum Deformation
Fig 4.19 Minimum Equivalent stress
Fig 4.20 Maximum Equivalent Stress
Fig 4.21 Equivalent Elastic Strain at X-Direction
Fig 4.22 Equivalent Elastic strain at Y-Direction
CONCLUSION

The Experimental results from testing the different composite combinations


under static loading condition the impact strength and the wear properties are
calculated. Multi layered hybrid composites were fabricated for the main objective
of minimization of weight and improve the physical properties of the material.The
objective was to find wear characteristics and analyze the specimens with
minimum weight which is capable of carrying given static external forces by
constraints limiting stresses and displacement. From the test results, we conclude
that the combination S1 has a higher impact strength compared to S2
combinations. On the other hand, the combination S1has better wear properties
when tested under normal conditions, and better stress distribution when analyzed
using ANSYS APDL software.
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