Sei sulla pagina 1di 55

A TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT ON

3D PASSWORD

Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the


degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

Submitted by

VISLAVATH PRIYA 16BD1A05DA

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


KESHAV MEMORIAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
1
(Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH)
Narayanaguda, Hyderabad, Telangana-29
2019-20
KESHAV MEMORIAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(Approved by AICTE, Affiliated to JNTUH)

Narayanaguda, Hyderabad.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certified that seminar work entitled “3D PASSWORD” is a


bonafide work carried out in the seventh semester by “VISLAVATH PRIYA
16BD1A05DA” in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology
in “COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING” from JNTU Hyderabad
during the academic year 2019 - 2020 who carried out the seminar work under
the guidance of “B. Anantharam, Assistant Professor” and no part of this
work has been submitted earlier for the award of any degree.
SIGNATURE OF GUIDE SIGNATURE OF CSE-
HOD

Table of Contents Page No.

1. Abstract 1

2. History 2

3. Introduction 8

4. Principle 10

5. Types of Virtual Reality 11

6. Technologies of Virtual Reality 14

7. User Interaction Techniques 20

8. Immersive and Non-Immersive Technology 22

9. Architecture of Virtual Reality System 24

10. Impact 26
11. Public’s Perception 27

12. Mass Media 28

13. Applications of Virtual Reality 31

14. Advantages 39

15. Disadvantages 39

16. Current problem 40

17. Virtual Reality as a social evolution or society threat? 41

18. Future of Virtual Reality 42

19. Conclusion 44

20. References 47

List of Figures Page No.

1. Virtual Reality headset 7

2. Telepresence using Virtual Reality 12

3. Head Mounted Display 14

4. BOOM 15
5. Data Glove 16

6. CAVE 17

7. VRML Platform 19

8. Shared virtual environments 23

9. Architecture of Virtual Reality System 24

10. Virtual Reality in Military 31

11. Virtual Reality in Education 32

12. Virtual Reality in healthcare 33

13. Image Guided Surgery 36

14. Virtual Reality in designing aspects 37

15. High Fidelity Systems 42


ABSTRACT

Virtual reality or virtual realities, which can be referred to as immersive


computer- simulated reality, replicates an environment that simulates a physical
presence in places in the real world or unimagined world, allowing to interact with
that work. Virtual realities artificially create sensory experience, which can
include sight touch, hearing, and smell. Most of the virtual realities are displayed
either on mw computer screen or with an HD VE special stereoscopic display, and
some simulations add additional sensory information and focus on real sound
through speakers or headphones large led towards WR users.

Some advanced haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known
as fierce feedback in medical gaming and military applications. Furthermore,
virtual reality covers remote communication environments, which provide virtual
presence if users with the concepts of telepresence virtual artefact either through
the use of standard devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal
devices such as a wired phones or directional treadmills.

The immersive environment can be similar to the real world in a life like
experience for example, in simulations for pilot or combat ramming, I can differ
significantly from realty, such as in WR pares. Virtual reality is an artificial
environment that created with software and presented to the user m such a way
that they were suspends belief and accepts it as areal environment. On a computer,
virtual reality primarily experienced through the five senses: sight and sound. The
simplest form of virtual really a 3-D image that can be explored interactively at a
personal computer, usually by manipulating keys are the mouse so that the content
of the take moves in same direction in or out. More sophisticated efforts involve
such approaches as wrap-around display screens, actual roams augmented with
wearable computers, and haplic devices that let you feel the display on ages.

1
HISTORY OF VIRTUAL REALITY:

The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed, partly because of how difficult it
has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence. The
development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions
of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of
artificial worlds". Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s.
Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality,
advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama
on stage as reality. The first references to the more modern concept of virtual
reality came from science fiction.

Late 20th century


Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could
encompass all the senses in an effective manner, thus drawing the viewer into the
onscreen activity. He built a prototype of his vision dubbed the Sensorama in
1962, along with five short films to be displayed in it while engaging multiple
senses (sight, sound, smell, and touch). Predating digital computing, the
Sensorama was a mechanical device. Heilig also developed what he referred to as
the "Telesphere Mask" (patented in 1960). The patent application described the
device as "a telescopic television apparatus for individual use...The spectator is
given a complete sensation of reality, i.e. moving three dimensional images which
may be in colour, with 100% peripheral vision, binaural sound, scents and air
breezes."

In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his students including Bob Sproull,
created what was widely considered to be the first head-mounted display system
for use in immersive simulation applications. It was primitive both in terms
of user interface and visual realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so
heavy that it had to be suspended from the ceiling. The graphics comprising the

2
virtual environment were simple wire-frame model rooms. The formidable
appearance of the device inspired its name, The Sword of Damocles.

1970–1990
The virtual reality industry mainly provided VR devices for medical, flight
simulation, automobile industry design, and military training purposes from 1970
to 1990.

David Em became the first artist to produce navigable virtual worlds


at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from 1977 to 1984. The Aspen Movie
Map, a crude virtual tour in which users could wander the streets of Aspen in one
of the three modes (summer, winter, and polygons), was created at the MIT in
1978.

In 1979, Eric Howlett developed the Large Expanse, Extra Perspective (LEEP)
optical system. The combined system created a stereoscopic image with a field of
view wide enough to create a convincing sense of space. The users of the system
have been impressed by the sensation of depth (field of view) in the scene and the
corresponding realism. The original LEEP system was redesigned for
NASA's Ames Research Center in 1985 for their first virtual reality installation,
the VIEW (Virtual Interactive Environment Workstation) by Scott Fisher. The
LEEP system provides the basis for most of the modern virtual reality headsets.

By the 1980s, the term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of
the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier had founded the company VPL
Research in 1985. VPL Research has developed several VR devices like
the DataGlove, the EyePhone, and the AudioSphere. VPL licensed the DataGlove
technology to Mattel, which used it to make the Power Glove, an early affordable
VR device.

Atari founded a research lab for virtual reality in 1982, but the lab was closed after
two years due to the Atari Shock (North American video game crash of 1983).
However, its hired employees, such as Tom Zimmerman, Scott Fisher, Jaron
Lanier, Michael Naimark, and Brenda Laurel, kept their research and development
on VR-related technologies.

3
In 1988, the Cyberspace Project at Autodesk was the first to implement VR on a
low-cost personal computer . The project leader Eric Gullichsen left in 1990 to
found Sense8 Corporation and develop the WorldToolKit virtual reality SDK,
which offered the first real time graphics with Texture_mapping on a PC, and was
widely used throughout industry and academia.

1990–2000

The 1990s saw the first widespread commercial releases of consumer headsets. In
1992, for instance, Computer Gaming World predicted "affordable VR by 1994".

In 1991, Sega announced the Sega VR headset for arcade games and the Mega
Drive console. It used LCD screens in the visor, stereo headphones, and inertial
sensors that allowed the system to track and react to the movements of the user's
head.[16] In the same year, Virtuality launched and went on to become the first
mass-produced, networked, multiplayer VR entertainment system that was
released in many countries, including a dedicated VR arcade at Embarcadero
Center. Costing up to $73,000 per multi-pod Virtuality system, they featured
headsets and exoskeleton gloves that gave one of the first "immersive" VR
experiences.

That same year, Carolina Cruz-Neira, Daniel J. Sandin and Thomas A.


DeFanti from the Electronic Visualization Laboratory created the first cubic
immersive room, the Cave automatic virtual environment(CAVE). Developed as
Cruz-Neira's PhD thesis, it involved a multi-projected environment, similar to
the holodeck, allowing people to see their own bodies in relation to others in the
room. Antonio Medina, a MIT graduate and NASA scientist, designed a virtual
reality system to "drive" Mars rovers from Earth in apparent real time despite the
substantial delay of Mars-Earth-Mars signals.

In 1992, Nicole Stenger created Angels, the first real-time interactive immersive
movie where the interaction was facilitated with a datagloveand high-resolution
goggles. That same year, Louis Rosenberg created the virtual fixtures system at
the U.S. Air Force's Armstrong Labsusing a full upper-body exoskeleton, enabling
a physically realistic mixed reality in 3D. The system enabled the overlay of

4
physically real 3D virtual objects registered with a user's direct view of the real
world, producing the first true augmented reality experience enabling sight, sound,
and touch.

By 1994, Sega released the Sega VR-1 motion simulator arcade


attraction, in SegaWorld amusement arcades. It was able to track head movement
and featured 3D polygon graphics in stereoscopic 3D, powered by the Sega Model
1 arcade system board. Applereleased QuickTime VR, which, despite using the
term "VR", was unable to represent virtual reality, and instead displayed 360
photographic panoramas.

Nintendo's Virtual Boy console was released in 1995. A group in Seattle created
public demonstrations of a "CAVE-like" 270 degree immersive projection room
called the Virtual Environment Theater, produced by entrepreneurs Chet Dagit
and Bob Jacobson. Forte released the VFX1, a PC-powered virtual reality headset
that same year.

In 1999, entrepreneur Philip Rosedale formed Linden Lab with an initial focus on
the development of VR hardware. In its earliest form, the company struggled to
produce a commercial version of "The Rig", which was realized in prototype form
as a clunky steel contraption with several computer monitors that users could wear
on their shoulders. The concept was later adapted into the personal computer-
based, 3D virtual world program Second Life.

21st century

The 2000s were a period of relative public and investment indifference to


commercially available VR technologies.

In 2001, SAS Cube (SAS3) became the first PC-based cubic room, developed by
Z-A Production (Maurice Benayoun, David Nahon), Barco, and Clarté. It was
installed in Laval, France. The SAS library gave birth to Virtools VRPack. In
2007, Google introduced Street View, a service that shows panoramic views of an
increasing number of worldwide positions such as roads, indoor buildings and
rural areas. It also features a stereoscopic 3D mode, introduced in 2010.

5
2010-present

In 2010, Palmer Luckey designed the first prototype of the Oculus Rift. This
prototype, built on a shell of another virtual reality headset, was only capable of
rotational tracking. However, it boasted a 90-degree field of vision that was
previously unseen in the consumer market at the time. Distortion issues arising
from the lens used to create the field of vision were corrected for by software
written by John Carmack for a version of Doom 3. This initial design would later
serve as a basis from which the later designs came. In 2012, the Rift is presented
for the first time at the E3 gaming trade show by Carmack. In
2014, Facebook purchased Oculus VR for what at the time was stated as $2
billion but later revealed that the more accurate figure was $3 billion. This
purchase occurred after the first development kits ordered through Oculus'
2012 Kickstarter had shipped in 2013 but before the shipping of their second
development kits in 2014. Zenimax, Carmack's former employer, sued Oculus and
Facebook for taking company secrets to Facebook the verdict was in favour of
Zenimax, settled out of court later.

In 2013, Valve Corporation discovered and freely shared the breakthrough of low-
persistence displays which make lag-free and smear-free display of VR content
possible. This was adopted by Oculus and was used in all their future headsets. In
early 2014, Valve showed off their SteamSight prototype, the precursor to both
consumer headsets released in 2016. It shared major features with the consumer
headsets including separate 1K displays per eye, low persistence, positional
tracking over a large area, and fresnel lenses. HTC and Valve announced the
virtual reality headset HTC Vive and controllers in 2015. The set included
tracking technology called Lighthouse, which utilized wall-mounted "base
stations" for positional tracking using infrared light.

In 2014, Sony announced Project Morpheus (its code name for the PlayStation
VR), a virtual reality headset for the PlayStation 4 video game console. In 2015,
Google announced Cardboard, a do-it-yourself stereoscopic viewer: the user
places their smartphone in the cardboard holder, which they wear on their
head. Michael Naimark was appointed Google's first-ever 'resident artist' in their
6
new VR division. The Kickstarter campaign for Gloveone, a pair of gloves
providing motion tracking and haptic feedback, was successfully funded, with
over $150,000 in contributions. Also in 2015, Razer unveiled its open
source project OSVR.

By 2016, there have been at least 230 companies developing VR-related


products. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Sony and Samsung all
had dedicated AR and VR groups. Dynamic binaural audio was common to most
headsets released that year. However, haptic interfaces were not well developed,
and most hardware packages incorporated button-operated handsets for touch-
based interactivity. Visually, displays were still of a low-enough resolution
and frame rate that images were still identifiable as virtual.

In 2016, HTC shipped its first units of the HTC Vive SteamVR headset. This
marked the first major commercial release of sensor-based tracking, allowing for
free movement of users within a defined space. A patent filed by Sony in 2017
showed they were developing a similar location tracking technology to the Vive
for PlayStation VR, with the potential for the development of a wireless headset.

Fig 1

7
INTRODUCTION:

“Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with
computers and extremely complex data”.

Here the word visualization refers to the computer-generated outputs such as


computer graphics, simulations, and other such as the CAD models. Here the
outputs may be animations that can be controlled easily by scripts. Here the
human can directly interact and manipulate with these animations.

The definition of virtual reality comes, naturally, from the definitions for both ‘virtual’
and ‘reality’. The definition of ‘virtual’ is near and reality is what we experience as
human beings. So the term ‘virtual reality’ basically means ‘near-reality’. This could,
of course, mean anything but it usually refers to a specific type of reality emulation.

We know the world through our senses and perception systems. In school we all
learned that we have five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. These are
however only our most obvious sense organs. The truth is that humans have many more
senses than this, such as a sense of balance for example. These other sensory inputs,
plus some special processing of sensory information by our brains ensures that we have
a rich flow of information from the environment to our minds.

The most difficult thing in the Virtual Reality is to produce the interaction
between Virtual world and the human but not the production of the Virtual world.
The type of Virtual Reality in which the human is actually immersed into the
Virtual world is called the immersive Virtual Reality. In such a type of Virtual
Reality the human is completely isolated from the outside world and he is placed
an entirely computer generated world.

Everything that we know about our reality comes by way of our senses. In other words,
our entire experience of reality is simply a combination of sensory information and our
brains sense-making mechanisms for that information. It stands to reason then, that if
you can present your senses with made-up information, your perception of reality
8
would also change in response to it. You would be presented with a version of reality
that isn’t really there, but from your perspective it would be perceived as real.
Something we would refer to as a virtual reality.

Answering "what is virtual reality" in technical terms is straight-forward. Virtual reality is


the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which
can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this
virtual world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to
manipulate objects or perform a series of actions.

The concepts behind virtual reality are based upon theories about a long held human
desire to escape the boundaries of the ‘real world’ by embracing cyberspace.

The applications being developed for Virtual Reality are wide range utilities.
Among them the real time applications occupy the prominent place.

9
PRINCIPLE

The Virtual Reality System works on the following principle - It tracks the
physical movements in the real world, then a rendering computer redraws the
virtual world to reflect those movements. The updated virtual world is sent to the
output (to the user in the real world).

In this case, the output is sent back to a head mounted display. Hence, user feels
"immersed" in the virtual world - as if she was in the virtual world itself as all she
can see is her rendered movements in the virtual world.

However, to really be able to relate to the concept, we need to look for something
from our real lives that works on this concept. In 2010, Microsoft introduced
Kinect for Xbox 360. This is essentially a virtual reality system which does not
need any equipment on the user - no head mounted display, no equipment on
hands or body to track movements. Everything is done by a camera & a
microphone on the device itself.

The film Ra One where Ra One was meant to be a Virtual Reality System (as a
game) but it eventually gets integrated into the real world using holography. So,
they've basically tried to combine VR & Holography. But failed to impress.

10
TYPES OF VIRTUAL REALITY:

1) Windows on World (WoW):

With this kind of system, also known as "Desktop VR" the user sees the 3-D world
through the 'window' of the computer screen and navigates through the space with a
control device such as a mouse. Like immersive virtual reality, this provides a first-
person experience. One low-cost example of a 'Through the window' virtual reality
system is the 3-D architectural design planning tool Virtus WalkThrough that makes
it possible to explore virtual reality on a Macintosh or IBM computer. Developed as a
computer visualization tool to help plan complex high-tech filmmaking for the movie
The Abyss, Virtus WalkThrough is now used as a set design and planning tool for
many Hollywood movies and advertisements as well as architectural planning and
educational applications. A similar, less expensive and less sophisticated program that
is starting to find use in elementary and secondary schools is Virtus VR (Law, 1994;
Pantelidis, nd).

2) Immersive VR:

Usually when we think of virtual reality, we think of immersive systems involving


computer interface devices such as a head-mounted display (HMD), fiber-optic wired
gloves, position tracking devices, and audio systems providing 3-D (binaural) sound.
Immersive virtual reality provides an immediate, first-person experience. With some
applications, there is a treadmill interface to simulate the experience of walking
through virtual space. And in place of the head-mounted display, there is the BOOM
viewer from Fake Space Labs which hangs suspended in front of the viewer's face,
not on it, so it is not as heavy and tiring to wear as the head-mounted display. In
immersive VR, the user is placed inside the image; the generated image is assigned

11
properties which make it look and act real in terms of visual perception and in some
cases aural and tactile perception (Brooks, 1988; Trubitt, 1990; Begault, 1991;
Markoff, 1991; Minsky, 1991; Gehring, 1992). There is even research on creating
virtual smells; an application to patent such a product has been submitted by
researchers at the Southwest Research Institute (Varner, 1993).

3) Tele presence:
The concept of cyberspace is linked to the notion of telepresence, the feeling of being
in a location other than where you actually are. Related to this,

teleoperation means that you can control a robot or another device at a distance. In
the Jason Project, children at different sites across the U.S. have the opportunity to
teleoperate the unmanned submarine Jason, the namesake for this innovative science
education project directed by Robert Ballard, a scientist as the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institute (EDS, 1991; Ulman, 1993; McLellan, 1995).

Fig 2

4) Augmented VR:

12
A variation of immersive virtual reality is Augmented Reality where a see-through layer
of computer graphics is superimposed over the real world to highlight certain features
and enhance understanding. One application of augmented reality is in aviation, where
certain controls can be highlighted, for example the controls needed to land an airplane.
And many medical applications are under development (Taubes, 1994b). Recently, for
the first time, a surgeon conducted surgery to remove a brain tumor using an augmented
reality system; a video image superimposed with 3-D graphics helped the doctor to see
the site of the operation more effectively (Satava, 1993).

5) Video Mapping

This is a technique used to map the motion of a human using special electronic
device like cameras. Here the input to the computer is the motion of the human
and the output is the 2d graphical image of the human showing his human.

6) Mixed Reality

This is a technique combining the Virtual Reality systems and the telepresence.
Here the inputs to both the telepresence and Virtual Reality systems are fed as
inputs. The fighters see the maps generated by the computers and correlate them
with the data available with them. The surgeons correlate the images taken by the
CAT scans and the ones taken by the computers.

13
TECHNOLOGIES OF VR:

1) Head-Mounted Display (HMD):

Head-mounted displays or HMDs are probably the most instantly recognizable objects
associated with virtual reality. They are sometimes referred to as Virtual Reality
headsets or VR glasses. As we might have guessed from the name, these are display
devices that are attached to our head and present visuals directly to our eyes. At a
minimum, if a device conforms to those two criteria we may conside it an HMD in the
broadest sense.

HMDs are not the sole purview of virtual reality, they have been used in military,
medical and engineering contexts to name but a few. Some HMDs allow the user to see
through them, allowing digital informatio n to be projected onto the real world.
Something which is commonly referred to as augmented reality.

When we look at the diversity of HMDs that exist today within the context of virtual
reality, it becomes apparent that there’s much more to these devices than strapping two
screens to our eyes. In order to allow for an immersive experience either as a personal
media device or as a full-on virtual reality interface, there are a number of technologies
that can be incorporated in an HMD.

14
Fig 3

2) BOOM

The BOOM (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor) from Fakes pace is a head-


coupled stereoscopic display device. Screens and optical system are housed in a
box that is attached to a multi-link arm. The user looks into the box through two
holes, sees the virtual world, and can guide the box to any position within the
operational volume of the device. Head tracking is accomplished via sensors in
the links of the arm that holds the box. The BOOM, a head-coupled display
device:

15
Fig 4

3) Data Glove:

A data glove is an interactive device, resembling a glove worn on the hand, which
facilitates tactile sensing and fine-motion control in robotics and virtual reality. Data
gloves are one of several types of electromechanical devices used in haptics
applications.

Tactile sensing involves simulation of the sense of human touch and includes the ability
to perceive pressure, linear force, torque, temperature, and surface texture. Fine-
motion control involves the use of sensors to detect the movements of the user's hand
and fingers, and the translation of these motions into signals that can be used by a
virtual hand (for example, in gaming ) or a robotic hand (for example, in remote-
control surgery).

16
Fig 5

4) CAVE:

A CAVE is typically a video theatre sited within a larger room. The walls of a CAVE
are typically made up of rear-projection screens, however flat panel displays are
becoming more common. The floor can be a downward-projection screen, a bottom
projected screen or a flat panel display. The projection systems are very high-
resolution due to the near distance viewing which requires very small pixel sizes to
retain the illusion of reality. The user wears 3D glasses inside the CAVE to see 3D
graphics generated by the CAVE. People using the CAVE can see objects apparently
floating in the air, and can walk around them, getting a proper view of what they would
look like in reality. This was initially made possible by electromagnetic sensors, but has
converted to infrared cameras. The frame of early CAVEs had to be built from non-
magnetic materials such as wood to minimize interference with the electromagnetic
sensors, obviously the change to infrared tracking has removed that limitation. A CAVE
user's movements are tracked by the sensors typically attached to the 3D glasses and
the video continually adjusts to retain the viewer’s perspective. Computers control both
this aspect of the CAVE and the audio aspect. There are typically multiple speakers
placed at multiple angles in the CAVE, providing 3D sound to complement the 3D
video.

17
Fig 6

5) Software Packages:

The most commonly used tools for developing 3d worlds are VRML v1.0,
VRML97, VRML v2.0, 3d Studio max, Rhino3d, Amapi3d, ALICE99,
BLENDER and other such software. The VRMLv1.0 is the child language
developed from the XML family. There aren’t many differences between the later
versions of VRML (VRML97 and VRML v2.0). The programming paradigms are
entirely different from VRMLv1.0 to VRMLv2.0. There are many companies
dedicated to develop the tools for creating virtual worlds, such as Parallel Graphics
Co, and Trapezium Co.

Also there are many concepts of developing the virtual worlds using the software.

They are:

a) Rendering

In this we are conscious about the rendering techniques. Here we use the
technique of wire framing. A sample output and its wire frame model are shown
below. After developing the wire frame model what we have to do is simply to
apply the texture to it. This is called texturing. The texture applied can be a
photograph or any predefined textures such as metal, rock, wood and cement
flooring.

b) Programming
18
The other tool available for developing the virtual worlds is by programming.
There are many programming languages by which we can develop the virtual
worlds. The best one we prefer is by using VRML v2.0. Prior to this language,
people used to develop the virtual worlds using the traditional programming
language, JAVA. As we have mentioned earlier VRML is a language born from
the family of XML.

6) VRML:

VRML stands for virtual reality modelling language. It is a standard language for
interactive simulation within the World Wide Web. This allows to create virtual worlds
network via the internet and hyperlinked with the World Wide Web. Aspects of virtual
world display, interaction and internetworking can be specified using VRML without
being dependent on special gear like HMD.VR models can be viewed by Netscape or
IE with a browser plug-in.

Other VR-related technologies combine virtual and real environments. Motion


trackers are employed to monitor the movements of dancers or athletes for
subsequent studies in immersive VR. The technologies of 'Augmented Reality'
allow for the viewing of real environments with superimposed virtual objects.
Telepresence systems (e.g., telemedicine, telerobotics) immerse a viewer in a real
world that is captured by video cameras at a distant location and allow for the
remote manipulation of real objects via robot arms and manipulators.

19
Fig 7

7) 3D Sound:
The use of 3D sound in virtual reality applications improve the immersion of the
user in bringing added value when interacting with virtual objects as well as audio
ambiance in the scenario of the application. Because of the difficulty to compute a
synthetized 3D sound in real time, 3D audio has been introduced in virtual reality
in using existing real sound and spatializing it in virtual environment. Thereafter,
it has been used as a feedback in case of interaction with the virtual object. The
3D sound has to be precise in order to allow the user to identify the localization of
the sound event in virtual space. Human hearing depends on several factors as the
slight difference on perceived sound for both ears in terms of intensity (inter-aural
level difference) and time delay (inter-aural time difference), the effect of human
body and human listening system (which can be experimentally measured and
modeled by the head-related transfer function), and the environmental acoustics
(reverberation and reflections of the sound on different parts of the environment).
Technologies to render 3D sound in virtual environment are constituted by real-
time head-tracking system, a headphone system or multichannel systems, and real-
time computing 3D sound system (software and hardware). Softwares dedicated to
real-time computing of 3D sound are based on image-rendering principles. To

20
improve the precision of sound localization, sound metaphors can be designed as
an added value for the sound perception.

USER INTERACTION TECHNIQUES

1) Navigation

Navigation in virtual environment requires devices both for controlling the motion
of the user’s avatar and for perceiving the motion. Regarding the application
requirement, different types of technologies can be used. As mentioned
previously, walking or biking systems can be used. Devices coming from the
video game domain (as gamepad) or motion tracking technologies can also be
utilized. These navigation devices are used with dedicated navigation technique to
control the navigation parameters (e.g., speed, acceleration, translation, rotation).
Thus, different techniques (more or less intuitive) can be chosen for the same
device. Walking in-place technique proposes the user to mimic the motion of
walking when standing in place on a force measurement platform. Grab-the-air is
a technique where the user has to pull the virtual environment to him by gestures
in the air. Gogo navigation technique is controlling a virtual hand in the virtual
environment to guide the direction of navigation. Route-planning is a technique
where the user points his path in the virtual environment and his motion is
computed according to the path. Target navigation proposes the user to point the
destination and teleporting him to the designated location. Virtual companion
technique gives the user the control of a virtual companion to move around in a
virtual environment. The user’s avatar is attached to the virtual companion during
navigation (by virtual rope). Several classifications can be found in the
literature.[4] Table 2 proposes a classification of different navigation techniques
according to two different considerations. The first consideration belongs to the
way the action is realized. If the action is realized directly from the avatar, the
interaction process is made in an egocentric way (coming from the user’s
reference). If the action is realized from the virtual environment, the interaction
process is made in an exocentric way (external from the user). The second

21
consideration belongs to the nature of the interaction process. In the case of a
natural interaction process, the interaction is considered as concrete. In the case of
the interaction process requiring a specific learning process, this interaction is
considered as abstract.

2) Manipulation

Manipulating the virtual object is another important task the user needs to perform
in the virtual environment. The user manipulates the virtual environment to select
and change the position of the virtual object or to act on different features of the
virtual object. As for navigation techniques, several manipulation techniques can
be used depending on the task and the device. Virtual hand is a virtual extension
of the user’s arm to interact (beyond the peripersonal space) in the virtual
environment. Virtual pointer enables the user to reach the virtual object in the
virtual space as he would do in 2D using mouse control. Ray casting consists of a
virtual ray controlled by the user and interacting with the virtual objects over the
distance. Aperture technique enables the user to adjust the precision of interaction
with the virtual object. Image plane technique is a representation of the virtual
environment using a 2D projection. Voodoo doll technique uses a miniature copy
of the object to facilitate the interaction process. World-inminiature replicates the
virtual environment in miniature to interact with it. Virtual menu as virtual tablet
is 3D adaptation of the 2D menu to interact with the object proposes a
classification of different manipulation techniques with the same typology as the
one used for navigation techniques. Of course, different techniques can be
combined to accomplish a task. For example, the user can select the virtual object
with one technique and manipulate it with another one. Using such hybrid method
enables the user a larger degree of freedom on object manipulation but
necessitates to take care of compatibility between the techniques used during the
same task as well as learning requirement.

3) Tactile Interfaces

22
The large diffusion of tactile interfaces through smartphone and tablet promoted
the practice of finger interaction language. In touching a sensible interface with
fingers, a user can interact with a virtual environment for navigating or
manipulating an object. Several types of gestures are common for zooming,
rotating, moving forward or backward, catching, and so on. These interaction
techniques can also be transposed in a fully immersive virtual reality technology.

IMMERSIVE AND NON IMMERSIVE TECHNOLOGY

Characteristics of Immersive VR

The unique characteristics of immersive virtual reality can be summarized as


follows:
 Head-referenced viewing provides a natural interface for the navigation in three-
dimensional space and allows for look-around, walk-around, and fly-through
capabilities in virtual environments.
 Stereoscopic viewing enhances the perception of depth and the sense of space.
 The virtual world is presented in full scale and relates properly to the human size.
 Realistic interactions with virtual objects via data glove and similar devices allow
for manipulation, operation, and control of virtual worlds.
 The convincing illusion of being fully immersed in an artificial world can be
enhanced by auditory, haptic, and other non-visual technologies.

 Networked applications allow for shared virtual environments (see below).

Shared Virtual Environments

In the example illustrated below, three networked users at different locations


(anywhere in the world) meet in the same virtual world by using a BOOM device,
a CAVE system, and a Head-Mounted Display, respectively. All users see the
same virtual environment from their respective points of view. Each user is
23
presented as a virtual human (avatar) to the other participants. The users can see
each other, communicated with each other, and interact with the virtual world as a
team.

Fig 8

Non-immersive VR

Today, the term 'Virtual Reality' is also used for applications that are not fully
immersive. The boundaries are becoming blurred, but all variations of VR will be
important in the future. This includes mouse-controlled navigation through a three-
dimensional environment on a graphics monitor, stereo viewing from the monitor via
stereo glasses, stereo projection systems, and others. Apple's QuickTime VR, for
example, uses photographs for the modeling of three-dimensional worlds and
provides pseudo look-around and walk-through capabilities on a graphics monitor.

24
ARCHITECTURE OF VR SYSTEM:

Fig 9

Architecture of virtual system consists of input processor, simulation processor,


rendering processor and world database.

Input Processor:

It controls the devices used to input information to the computer. The main objective of
input processor is to get the coordinate data to the rest of the system with minimal lag
time. The main components of input processor include keyboard, mouse, 3D position
trackers, a voice recognition system, etc.

Simulation Processor:

25
The process of imitating real things virtually is called simulation. This is the core of
the virtual reality system. It takes the user inputs along with any tasks programmed into
the world and determine the actions that will take place in the virtual world.

Rendering Processor:

Simulation processor imitates the real things but sensation are not produced to produce
this sensation we use rendering processor .It creates the sensation that are output to the
user. Separate rendering processes are used for visual, auditory, haptic and other
sensory systems. Each renderer take a description of the world stat from the simulation
process or derive it directly from the world database for each time step.

World Database:
This is also known as World Description Files. It stores the object that inhabit the
world, scripts that describes actions of those objects.

This database contains all the objects which we are going to experience virtually. For
instance if we want to experience the space virtually then the world database must have
all the objects that are in space like the sun, the moon, stars, planets, etc.

26
IMPACT

There has been increasing interest in the potential social impact of new
technologies, such as virtual reality (as may be seen in utopian literature, within
the social sciences, and in popular culture). Perhaps most notably, Mychilo
Stephenson Cline, in his book, Power, Madness, and Immortality: The Future of
Virtual Reality, argues that virtual reality will lead to a number of important
changes in human life and activity. He argues that:

 Virtual reality will be integrated into daily life and activity and will be used in
very human ways.

 Techniques will be developed to influence human behavior, interpersonal


communication, and cognition (i.e., virtual genetics).

 As we spend more and more time in virtual space, there will be an gradual
“migration to virtual space,” resulting in important changes in economics,
worldview, and culture.

 The design of virtual environments may be used to extend basic human rights into
virtual space, to promote human freedom and well-being, and to promote social
stability as we move from one stage in socio-political development to the next.

27
PUBLIC’S PERCEPTION

The general public’s fascination and expectations of the Virtual Reality field and
applications have been greatly influenced by the coverage it has received in the
mass media (see Mass Media section below). The high expectations raised from
the coverage, and from movies such as The Lawnmower Man have led to
disappointment and ambivalence concerning VR and its value to the individual.
VR’s success in the entertainment marketplace has been uneven at best, in part
driven by disappointment with the reality of virtual reality versus the mass media
notions and because the cost still after decades is nearly prohibitive for immersive
equipment owners, forcing them to pass the cost onto the users of the
equipment—and the experience using contemporary VR equipment still has not
demonstrated it is superior to satisfaction gained from other entertainment
alternatives of similar or lesser cost.

To date, the exceptions in the public sector have been theme parks and similar
venues and video gaming (with a population willing to engage with the imaginary
environments on the developers' terms). However, the public seems more than
willing to embrace VR as a common media, provided the experience provided
matches up to tremendously high expectations created by illusions of what VR
could be provided by movies and television alongside actual news coverage. For
the technology to work well enough to support a business model, it must break
through the "novelty barrier" with a killer application to commoditize the industry.
With the goal of ideal simulated reality itself possibly unattainable, virtual reality

28
technologies have found their best success in industry where they line up with pre-
existing business needs. To be able to mock up the physical world with relatively
high fidelity is difficult but technically feasible, to be able to mock up a person’s
perception/imagination to the same level is a task far more complex.

MASS MEDIA

Mass media has been a great advocate and perhaps a great hindrance to its
development over the years. During the research “boom” of the late 1980s into the
1990s the news media’s prognostication on the potential of VR--and potential
overexposure in publishing the predictions of anyone who had one (whether or not
that person had a true perspective on the technology and its limits)--built up the
expectations of the technology so high as to be impossible to achieve under the
technology then or any technology to date. Entertainment media reinforced these
concepts with futuristic imagery many generations beyond contemporary
capabilities.

1) Fiction Books

Many science fiction books and movies have imagined characters being "trapped
in virtual reality". The first modern work to use this idea was Daniel F. Galouye's
novel Simulacron-3, which was made into a German teleplay titled Welt am Draht
("World on a Wire"). Other science fiction books have promoted the idea of
virtual reality as a partial, but not total, substitution for the misery of reality (in the
sense that a pauper in the real world can be a prince in VR), or have touted it as a

29
method for creating breathtaking virtual worlds in which people would regularly
live, play and socialize. One of the best examples of both ideas was Neal
Stephenson's novel Snow Crash. However, in 2003, Stephenson admitted to Wired
magazine that Snow Crash was a "failed prophecy." An early short science fiction
story - "The Veldt" - about an all too real 'virtual reality" was included in the 1951
book The Illustrated Man, by Ray Bradbury and may be the first fictional work to
fully describe the concept.

2) Television

The first major television series to showcase virtual reality was Star Trek: The
Next Generation. They featured the holodeck, a virtual reality facility, generally
on star ships and star bases that enabled its users to recreate and experience
anything they wanted. One difference from current virtual reality technology,
however, was that replicators and transporters were used to actually create and
place objects in the holodeck, rather than relying solely on the illusion of physical
objects, as is done today.

3) Motion Pictures

Steven Lisberger's film TRON was the first mainstream Hollywood picture to
explore the idea, which was popularized more recently by the Wachowski brothers
in 1999's The Matrix. The Matrix was significant in that it presented virtual reality
and reality as often overlapping, and sometimes indistinguishable. Cyberspace
became something that most movies completely misunderstood, as seen in The
Lawnmower Man and Hackers (film). Also, the British comedy Red Dwarf
utilized in several episodes the idea that life (or at least the life seen on the show)
is a virtual reality game. This idea was also used in Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over.

30
The popular classic of The Matrix is about the world of the future, where most of
the human species is kept docile by a race of sentient machines (which humankind
created) in a "Virtual Reality" computer program called The Matrix. The
machines use their human population as energy generators feeding off them as
their brains act out their lives completely oblivious of the real world while inside
the Matrix.

4) Games

In the Mage: The Ascension role-playing game, the mage tradition of the Virtual
Adepts is presented as the real creators of VR. The Adepts' ultimate objective is to
move into virtual reality, scrapping their physical bodies in favour of improved
virtual ones. Also, the .hack series centers around a virtual reality video game.

5) Marketing

A side effect of the chic image that has been cultivated for Virtual Reality in the
media is that advertising and merchandise have been associated with VR over the
years to take advantage of the buzz. This is often seen in product tie-ins with
cross-media properties, especially gaming licenses, with varying degrees of
success. The NES Power Glove from the 1980s was an early example. Marketing
ties between VR and video games are not to be unexpected, given that much of the
progress in 3D computer graphics and virtual environment development
(traditional hallmarks of VR) has been driven by the gaming industry over the last
decade.

31
APPLICATIONS OF VIRTUAL REALITY:

The applications being developed for Virtual Reality run over a wide spectrum
from 3d games to architectural planning of buildings. The applications may be
scientific and technical that cannot be viewed in actual life. The flexibility of the
Virtual Reality makes it use in the scientific applications like architectural
planning, rocket launching, war strategies, cockpit simulation, robotics and
medical related applications.

32
1) Virtual Reality in the Military:

Fig 10

Virtual reality has been adopted by the military – this includes all three services (army,
navy and air force) – where it is used for training purposes. This is particularly useful for
training soldiers for combat situations or other dangerous settings where they have to
learn how to react in an appropriate manner.

A virtual reality simulation enables them to do so but without the risk of death or a
serious injury. They can re-enact a particular scenario, for example engagement with an
enemy in an environment in which they experience this but without the real world
risks. This has proven to be safer and less costly than traditional training methods.

SIMNET is the first war related Virtual Reality application. This project is
standardization being pushed by the USA Defense Department to enable diverse
simulators to be interconnected into a vast network. The soldiers can be trained to
the war by developing a Virtual world that looks exactly the war field. This helps
them in knowing how to deal in war fields. Distributed Interactive System (DIS)
protocol has been developed by the Orlando Institute of Training and Simulation,
which is the future of Virtual Reality in war strategies.

33
2) Virtual Reality and Education:

Education is another area which has adopted virtual reality for teaching and learning
situations. The advantage of this is that it enables large groups of students to interact with
each other as well as within a three dimensional environment.

It is able to present complex data in an accessible way to students which is both fun and
easy to learn. Plus these students can interact with the objects in that environment in
order to discover more about them.

Fig 11

3) Virtual Reality in Healthcare:

Healthcare is one of the biggest adopters of virtual reality which encompasses


surgery simulation, phobia treatment, robotic surgery and skills training.

One of the advantages of this technology is that it allows healthcare professionals to


learn new skills as well as refreshing existing ones in a safe environment. Plus it
allows this without causing any danger to the patients.

A popular use of this technology is in robotic surgery. This is where surgery is


performed by means of a robotic device – controlled by a human surgeon, which
34
reduces time and risk of complications. Virtual reality has been also been used for
training purposes and, in the field of remote telesurgery in which surgery is performed by
the surgeon at a separate location to the patient. Nano surgery is another medical
application, where the doctors located at a distinct place guide the robots. They guide the
robots with the help of multi-link arms that we have already seen in the case of booms.

Fig 12

a) Diagnostics

Initially, algorithms for graphical rendering of anatomy have been used to provide
support for three dimensional organ reconstructions from radiological cross
sections. For the clinician this method of visualizations provided a more natural
view of a patient's anatomy without losing the see through capability of the
radiologist.

Virtual endoscopy techniques (such as virtual colonoscopy or bronchoscopy)


based on the virtual reconstruction and visualizations of individual patient
anatomy are rapidly developing. Owing to the potential benefits of patient comfort
and cost effectiveness virtual endoscopic procedures could replace real endoscopic
investigations in the foreseeable future in some areas of diagnosis. The most
impressive development has been demonstrated in virtual colonoscopy as a

35
screening tool for colon polyps and cancer and which is currently in the clinical
validation phase.

b) Preoperative planning

In many areas today the use of computer models to plan and optimize surgical
interventions preoperatively is part of daily clinical practice. In some areas, such
as conformal radiotherapy and stereotactic neurosurgery, treatment is not possible
without preoperative planning with the aid of a computer. In other areas, such as
craniofacial neurosurgery and open neurosurgery, the possibility of planning
surgery on a computer screen, trying out different surgical approaches with
realistic prediction of the outcome (for example, postoperative appearance of the
patient), and planning individualized custom made implants have substantial
impact on the success and safety of the intervention.

c) Education and training systems

Education and training is one of the most promising application areas for virtual
reality technologies. Computerized three dimensional atlases presenting different
aspects of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology as a unified teaching atlas are
about to revolutionize the teaching of anatomy to medical students and the general
public.

Systems based on virtual reality offer a unique opportunity for the training of
professional surgical skills on a wide scale and in a repeatable manner, in a way
similar to the routine training of pilots. Contrary to the preoperative planning
systems, which require an extreme level of accurate registration and alignment of
tissue (data fusion), medical and surgical education and training rely more on high
fidelity visualization and realistic immersion into the virtual scene than on the
precise data fusion of the applied models with the specific anatomy of a patient.

The rapid adoption of minimally invasive surgical techniques is one of the major
driving forces in the development of surgical trainers. The extreme limitations
36
placed on visual and manipulative freedom, including the loss of tactile feedback
and the unusual hand-eye coordination makes extensive specialized training for
such interventions necessary. Virtual reality is the technology of choice with the
greatest potential for future development, and a rapidly growing number of
commercial units is becoming available.

d) Image guided surgery

Even the best preoperative planning is of limited use if its implementation in the
operating room is not guaranteed. Whereas traditionally these plans are
transformed mentally by the surgeon during the intervention, computer assistance
and virtual reality technology can substantially contribute to the precise execution
of preoperative plans.

Image guided surgery is the typical application area where virtual objects (data
from the preoperative image and the anatomical objects extracted from them) and
real objects (the patient and the surgical tools) must be merged into a single
unified scene, calling for augmented reality techniques. The major technical issue
to be solved is the registration of the real and virtual objects that is, to make the
preoperative data coincide with the actual patient anatomy and the tracking of
the movement of real objects such as the surgical instruments.

Although still needing substantial research image guided surgery is one of the
major development areas today, with several systems in routine clinical practice,
especially in orthopaedics and neurosurgery.

37
Fig 13

e) Other application areas

Virtual reality offers promising solutions in many other areas of medical care,
where the immersion into a virtual world can help the patient, the physician, and
the developer of the technology. Several systems have been developed and tested
for physical or mental rehabilitation and for supporting mental health therapy by
exposing the patient to appropriate experience or illusion. Finally, virtual reality
based technology plays a major role in telemedicine, ranging from remote
diagnosis to complex teleinterventions.

Virtual reality based technology is a new but rapidly growing area in medicine,
which will revolutionise health care in the foreseeable future. The impact of this
technology is just beginning to be recognised owing to methodological, technical,
and manufacturing breakthroughs in the past few years. It must, however, be
emphasised that the technology is simply a tool and that the other critical areas of
content development and physician-patient relationship must be incorporated into
the new systems.

38
4) Virtual Reality in Engineering:

Virtual reality engineering includes the use of 3D modelling tools and visualization
techniques as part of the design process. This technology enables engineers to view their
project in 3D and gain a greater understanding of how it works. Plus they can spot any
flaws or potential risks before implementation.

This also allows the design team to observe their project within a safe environment and
make changes as and where necessary. This saves both time and money.

What is important is the ability of virtual reality to depict fine grained details of an
engineering product to maintain the illusion. This means high end graphics, video with a
fast refresh rate and realistic sound and movement.

5) Virtual Reality in designing aspects


Virtual Reality helps in designing the virtual models of the certain objects. By
building the virtual models we can see how the model works, what the defects
may be and how we can overcome the previous defects. These all cannot be seen
by actually developing the model as it includes a lot of cost and laborious time.

Fig 14

39
This concept of Virtual Reality is being is mostly used in the designing of
conceptual cars. Concept cars are being designed to study new ideas. Most of
these designs are never built. Virtual reality provides a tool for evaluating such
designs in full scale without building time consuming and costly physical
prototypes.

6) Virtual Reality in Entertainment:

Virtual reality games are becoming very popular with many teenagers who love the
graphics, animations and best of all, being able to talk to others. After all, what could
be better than the chance to interact with top end technology and without any adults
to get in the way?

These games are available for Xbox 360, PS 2 and 3 as well as the Mac and PC so
whatever console you use there is a VR game for that. This is pretty cool when you
think about it.

Virtual Reality is also playing a vital role in the amusement parks. The conceptual
cars that we have discussed above and the racing games are being developed to
attract people. With the help of electronic gloves, head-mounted displays and
stereoscopic vision racing games attract the people.

40
ADVANTAGES

Although the disadvantages of VR are numerous, so are the advantages. Many


different fields can use VR as a way to train students without actually putting
anyone in harm's way. This includes the fields of medicine, law enforcement,
architecture and aviation. VR also helps those that can't get out of the house
experience a much fuller life. These patients can explore the world through virtual
environments like Second Life, a VR community on the Internet, exploring virtual
cities as well as more fanciful environments like J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth.
VR also helps patients recover from stroke and other injuries. Doctors are using
VR to help reteach muscle movement such as walking and grabbing as well as
smaller physical movements such as pointing. The doctors use the malleable
computerized environments to increase or decrease the motion needed to grab or
move an object. This also helps record exactly how quickly a patient is learning
and recovering.

DISADVANTAGES

The disadvantages of VR are numerous. The hardware needed to create a fully


immersed VR experience is still cost prohibitive. The total cost of the machinery
to create a VR system is still the same price as a new car, around $20,000. The
technology for such an experience is still new and experimental. VR is becoming
much more commonplace but programmers are still grappling with how to interact
with virtual environments. The idea of escapism is common place among those
that use VR environments and people often live in the virtual world instead of
dealing with the real one. This happens even in the low quality and fairly hard to
use VR environments that are online right now. One worry is that as VR
environments become much higher quality and immersive, they will become
attractive to those wishing to escape real life. Another concern is VR training.
Training with a VR environment does not have the same consequences as training
and working in the real world. This means that even if someone does well with

41
simulated tasks in a VR environment, that person might not do well in the real
world.

CURRENT PROBLEM:

Virtual reality has been heavily criticized for being an inefficient method for
navigating non-geographical information. At present, the idea of ubiquitous
computing is very popular in user interface design, and this may be seen as a
reaction against VR and its problems. In reality, these two kinds of interfaces have
totally different goals and are complementary. The goal of ubiquitous computing
is to bring the computer into the user's world, rather than force the user to go
inside the computer. The current trend in VR is actually to merge the two user
interfaces to create a fully immersive and integrated experience. See simulated
reality for a discussion of what might have to be considered if a flawless virtual
reality technology was possible.

Some of the problems are:

1) Simulator Sickness Symptoms:

Simulator sickness is by no means a new phenomenon. It is similar to motion sickness,


which has existed for as long as humans have used additional modes of transportation,
but can occur without any actual motion of the subject. The first documented case of
simulator sickness occurred in 1957 and was reported by Havron and Butler in a US
Navy helicopter trainer. The most common identifiable symptoms are general
discomfort, nausea, drowsiness, headache and in some cases vomiting.

2) Expensive:

Virtual reality technology is expensive. Common people can hardly manage to have
such technologies. It requires additional hardware which are also very expensive.

42
A big problem with virtual reality is cost: a fully immersive set up such as a CAVE
where someone is able to interact with objects in an enclosed space is expensive. In fact
it’s that expensive that only university research departments and companies with a
research and development (R & D) section are able to afford this type of set up.

3) Lack of integration between application packages:


Integrating the virtual reality hardware with the application package is a major issue. It
requires very precise and expertise hands to integrate the application package with the
hardware.

Virtual Reality as a social evolution or society threat?

It's frustrating knowing that we currently possess the technology to make some
really far out Virtual Reality applications but not seeing VR widely distributed. I
can't wait for this stuff to evolve; really, it's a fascinating technology.
Like all great technologies, there's a monumental duality about it.
Virtual Reality technology can represent the next step in the sociological
evolution of humanity. A world where you can do anything, you can enjoy
everything in virtual world which you cannot even dream in this real world, like
you can enjoy the latest model of Mercedes without spending any money and a
world where every virtual desire of mankind can be satisfied for the cost of
pennies.

On the other hand, Virtual Reality could be greatest single threat to society.
Imagine an entire modernized civilization leaving the "real" world for the "virtual"
one. A nation of empty streets, empty schools as family spend their entire days
plugged into a Virtual Reality Machine everybody will be living in their own
world and living their life happily without any tensions & sorrows and above all
that world will be according to your taste.

43
Above all it is concluded that the virtual reality is acting a social evolution or
society depends on the ways it can be used. If you enjoy a drive of Mercedes in
virtual reality it will cause a loss to Mercedes Company and leads to a loss of
country’s economy. If you use it in a way like Virtual Training System and in the
field of medical.

FUTURE OF VIRTUAL REALITY:

Yesterday Virtual Reality was a science fiction fantasy. Today it is a research


topic in laboratories and amusement parks. Tomorrow it will certainly replace our
televisions and computers. There are already a lot of organizations deemed
towards the development of the Virtual Reality. Many researches are being done
to find more and more applications of Virtual Reality. In the forthcoming days the
web sites developed using Virtual Reality will replace the entire present web
industry. Even a virtual Jurassic Park may be developed in USA in a short span of
days. Let’s hope for a bright future of this emerging technology.

1) High Fidelity systems:

Researches are being done to enhance the fidelity of virtual reality systems. To take a
better experience and making VR systems more and more reliable scientists are trying
hard and are developing new tools.

44
Fig 15

2) Cost-Saving:

Virtual reality technology is not within the reach of common people because of its
high cost and additional hardware requirement. Developments are going on to make
low cost VR technology. Scientists are trying to develop such tools that require less
hardware and can generate output with great reliability and accuracy.

3) Collaborative:
Integrating application packages with the hardware of the VR system was quite
difficult in the early stage of VR technology but now with the efforts and development
of new applications integration problem has been minimized to a great extent and the
developers are trying hard to develop the applications which can be easily collaborated
with the VR hardware.

45
CONCLUSION:

Everything we experience in life can be reduced to electrical activity stimulating our


brains as our sensory organs deliver information about the external world. This
interpretation is what we consider to be "reality." In this sense, the brain is reality.
Everything you see, hear, feel, taste and smell is an interpretation of what's outside, and
created entirely inside your head. We tend to believe that this interpretation matches
very closely to the external world. Nothing could be further from the truth. It is the brain
that "sees", and in some important ways what it sees does not reflect the information it
derives from sensory input. For this reason, we are all living in our own reality
simulations - abstractions - that we construct as a result of both what we perceive with
our senses and how our brains modify this perception. Such things as colour, smell and
taste, for example are not properties of the outside world itself, but rather a category
created by the process of perception. In order to experience the world in a meaningful
way, the brain must act as a filter/interference between us and the "real" world.

46
Imagine that there is a reality in virtual, you can do every thing in it, you can live
in it spend your whole life in it from actual and factual point of view there is
nothing real. The concept of virtual reality comes from dream basically. When
someone saw a dream, everything appears real to your brain, sometimes you are
trying to save yourself and your are moving your hands and legs your body got
sweat and you are even talking but that world of dream only exists in your brain.
Nothing real is there. But the fact is that your brain misunderstood it and dream
deceives your brain by giving it illusion that everything is real. As we all know
that brain controls the whole body so it gives orders to the different organs which
are concerned

For example,

Let us suppose that someone is seeing a dream that a lion is in front of him and he
will kill him. Now the brain thinks that everything is real so the brain orders the
leg to move and run as fast as possible. Similarly the brain orders the hands to
move. Brain also orders the skin to sweat and it also orders the skin to sweat and it
also orders heart to beat fast because of fear. Now if we consider the actual and
factual position that there is no lion in real and everything is illusion but brain is
interpreting that everything is real. So from here the concept of virtual reality
comes. The above example shows us that we can deceive the brain by moving it to
the reality which is virtual.

Words have always been a crude method of relaying intent. VR holds out the promise
of allowing us to literally show one another what we mean rather than merely
describing it with crude verbal approximations. The limitation of words is that the
meaning they convey is only as detailed as the definitions the reader or listener attaches
to them. For this reason VR offers the possibility of evolving our communication into a
kind of telepathy, ultimately bridging the gap between our discrete imaginations. "This
is what virtual reality holds out to us - the possibility of walking into the constructs of
the imagination." - Terence McKenna.

VR is the ultimate medium of syntactical intent; the only way to figuratively "show"
someone exactly what you mean is to literally show them. Words are exceptionally
ineffective at conveying meaning, as they are a low-bandwidth, lossy medium of
47
knowledge transference. VR will let us remove the ambiguity that is the discrepancy
between our internal dictionaries and bypass communication through symbolism
altogether. The result will be perfect understanding, as all parties behold the same
information.

The term Virtual Reality (VR) is used by many different people with many meanings.
There are some people to whom VR is a specific collection of technologies that is a
Head Mounted Display, Glove Input Device and Audio. Some other people stretch the
term to include conventional books, movies or pure fantasy and imagination. The NSF
taxonomy mentioned in the introduction can cover these as well. However, my
personal preference, and for purposes of this paper, we restrict VR to computer
mediated systems.

"Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with
computers and extremely complex data"

The visualization part refers to the computer generating visual, auditory or other
sensual outputs to the user of a world within the computer. This world may be a CAD
model, a scientific simulation, or a view into a database. The user can interact with the
world and directly manipulate objects within the world. Some worlds are animated by
other processes, perhaps physical simulations, or simple animation scripts. Interaction
with the virtual world, at least with near real time control of the viewpoint, in my
opinion, is a critical test for a 'virtual reality'.

Some people object the term ‘Virtual Reality”, saying it is an oxymoron. Other terms that
have been used are Synthetic Environments, Cyberspace, Artificial Reality, Simulator
Technology, etc. VR is the most common and sexiest. It has caught the attention of the
media.

48
REFERENCES:

1.http://vr.isdale.come/whatisvr/frames/whatisvr4.1html

2.http://vresources.jump-gate.com/applivations/applications.html

3.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_reality

4.https://artplusmarketing.com/a-look-at-the-history-of-virtual-reality-
2672779088dc

5.https://medium.com/@Modelo/what-is-the-virtual-reality-of-architecture-
8604c724f864

49