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CHE INDUSTRIAL

CHEMISTRY
(LECTURE)
ENGR. PINKY JANABAN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

1ST SEM 2019-2020


INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

• INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Industrial chemistry as the


branch of chemistry which applies physical and chemical
procedures towards the transformation of natural raw
materials and their derivatives to products that are of
benefit to humanity.
INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY The scope of industrial chemistry


therefore includes:
The exploitation of materials and energy in appropriate
scale
Application of science and technology to enable humanity
experience the benefits of chemistry in areas such as food
production, health and hygiene, shelter, protection,
decoration, recreation and entertainment.
INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES Industry is a general term that refers to all economic


activities that deal with production of goods and services.

 Manufacturing  Trade
 Building and construction  Energy
 Agriculture  Finance
 Transport  Communication
 Education  Tourism
THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Manufacturing produces manufactured goods.


In manufacturing, materials are transformed into other more
valuable materials.
Manufacturing industry is a compartment of industry or
economy which is concerned with the production or making of
goods out of raw materials by means of a system of organized
labor.
MANUFACTURING SUB-SECTORS

Food, beverages and tobacco


Textiles, wearing apparel, leather goods
Paper products, printing and publishing
Chemical, petroleum, rubber and plastic products
Non-metallic mineral products other than petroleum products
Basic metal products, machines and equipment.
INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

• Baking of bread, cakes, pastries, pies and similar 'perishable' bakery


products led the industries with 6,704 establishments or 27.4 percent of
the total. Manufacture of bottled water followed with 2,350
establishments (9.6%). Printing ranked third with 1,439 establishments
(5.9%).
• Other industries in the top ten are the following:
• Rice/corn milling (1,154 establishments or 4.7%)
• Manufacture of wood furniture (710 establishments or 2.9%)
• Manufacture of structural concrete products (457 establishments or 1.9%)
• Women's and girls' and babies' garment manufacturing (395
establishments or 1.6%)
• Custom tailoring (393 establishments or 1.6%)
• Manufacture of plastic articles for packing goods (383 establishments or
1.6%)
• Men's and boys' garment manufacturing (330 establishments or 1.3%)
https://psa.gov.ph/content/2015-annual-survey-philippine-business-and-industry-aspbi-manufacturing-final-results;
2015 Annual Survey of Philippine Business and Industry (ASPBI) - Manufacturing : Final Results
RAW MATERIAL FOR THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

All chemicals are derived from raw materials available


in nature. The price of chemicals depends on the
availability of their raw materials. Major chemical
industries have therefore developed around the most
plentiful raw materials
The natural environment is the source of raw
materials for the chemical industry.
THE CHEMICAL PROCESSES

Every industrial process is designed to produce a


desired product from a variety of starting raw
materials using energy through a succession of
treatment steps integrated in a rational fashion.
The treatments steps are either physical or
chemical in nature.
THE CHEMICAL PROCESSES
A typical Industrial Processes

Output Product

Process
(Transformation)

Input Material
THE CHEMICAL PROCESSES

The layout of a chemical process indicates areas where:


raw materials are pre-treated
conversion takes place
separation of products from by-products is carried out
refining/purification of products takes place
entry and exit points of services such as cooling water and steam
UNITS THAT MAKE UP A CHEMICAL PROCESS

A chemical process consists of a combination of chemical reactions such as


synthesis, calcination, ion exchange, electrolysis, oxidation, hydration and
operations based on physical phenomena such as evaporation,
crystallization, distillation and extraction
 A chemical process is therefore any single processing unit or a combination
of processing units used for the conversion of raw materials through any
combination of chemical and physical treatment changes into finished
products.
UNIT PROCESSES

Unit processes are the chemical transformations or conversions that are


performed in a process.
Acylation Calcinations Dehydrogenation Hydrolysis
Alcoholysis Carboxylation Decomposition Ion Exchange
Alkylation Causitization Electrolysis Isomerization
Amination Combustion Esterification Neutralization
Ammonolysis Condensation Fermentation Oxidation
Aromatization Dehydration Hydrogenation Pyrolysis
UNIT OPERATIONS

These are the physical treatment steps, which are


required to:
put the raw materials in a form in which they can be
reacted chemically
put the product in a form which is suitable for the
market
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

To simplify process description, flow diagrams also known as


flow sheets are used.
pictorially identifies the chemical process steps in their
proper/logical sequence
includes sufficient details in order that a proper mechanical
interpretation may be made
MATERIAL BALANCES

Mass balance calculations serve the following purposes:


They help us know the amount and composition of each stream in the process.
The calculations obtained in one form the basis for energy balances through the application
of the law of conservation of energy.
We are able to make technical and economic evaluation of the process and process units
from the knowledge of material and energy consumption and product yield obtained.
We can quantitatively know the environmental emissions of the process.
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE

• Three raw materials are mixed in a tank to make a final


product in the ratio of 1:0.4:1.5 respectively. The first raw
material contain A and B with 50% A. The second raw material
contain C while the third raw material contain A and C with
75% A. Assuming a continuous process at steady state, find the
flow and composition of the product.
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE

Solution:
Make a block diagram (flow sheet) over the process
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE

• Put all the numbers


MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE

Find the components that are in each stream and list them adjacent to the
stream in the block diagram. Let W represent composition by weight.
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE

Put up different relations between stream components and independent


relations to calculate concentrations
Basis: Stream F 1 is 100kg
The ratio of the three raw materials :
W A1 is 50% Material balance for A
W C2 is 100% Material balance for B
W C3 is 25% Material balance for C
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE
MASS BALANCE EXAMPLE