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940 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, JULY 2000

All-Dielectric-Self-Supporting Fiber Optic

Cable

Monty W. Tuominen, Senior Member, IEEE, and Robert G. Olsen, Fellow, IEEE

currents on all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber optic cable

near high voltage transmission lines has been developed. The model

has been used to show that contamination levels, tower attachment

points, relative ADSS and conductor sag and electrical phasing of

the conductors are important parameters and must be considered

in calculations, especially when determining the possibility of dry

band arcs which could lead to cable damage.

Index Terms—Dry band arcing, fiber optic cables, high electric

field.

I. INTRODUCTION

cable on high voltage structures is exposed to electric

fields of sufficient strength to cause corona, microsparking, and

Fig. 1. One span of ADSS on 500 kV towers with typical sags noted.

dry band arcing [1], [2]. An example installation is depicted

in Fig. 1. Corona, usually on the supporting hardware, is

eliminated with grading rings and microsparking is reduced

with grading bars attached to the tower [3]. However, the

conditions which cause dry band arcing and arc mitigation

strategies continue to be investigated [4]–[7].

Events leading to dry band arcing can be described as fol-

lows. When first installed, the outer jacket of an ADSS cable

is hydrophobic and nonconductive. As a result, its resistance

Fig. 2. Dry band arc on ADSS.

is very high even when wet. Over time, however, it becomes

hydrophilic and, in some environments, significant contamina-

tion may accumulate. As shown in Fig. 2, during wet conditions accounts for transmission line cross-section geometry and

the contamination layer can become conductive and capacitively phasing, ADSS cable tower attachment point, contamination

coupled currents from adjacent energized conductors flow in the resistance, span length phase conductor sag, and ADSS cable

layer. As the contamination dries, narrow dry bands form. These sag. The model is also useful for studying the safety of workers

bands can have voltages across them approaching and even ex- touching ADSS cables near energized conductors and for

ceeding the space potential near the ADSS cable (as high as 10’s developing laboratory tests for ADSS cable that properly

of kV) - high enough to cause arcs to occur across the dry-band. simulate field conditions [8], [9].

If the current available to the arcs is also high enough (i.e. if

the resistance of the contamination is small enough to allow pre II. ELECTRICAL DESIGN PARAMETERS

dry-band currents in the milliampere range) arc heating can de- A. Contamination Level and Cable Hydrophobicity

grade the ADSS jacket and cause cable failure [2], [4]. The most important design parameter is the ADSS cable con-

In this paper a model is described which can be used to pre- tamination level. This parameter is usually quantified by the re-

dict dry band voltages and induced currents in the conductive sistance per unit length of the cable under wet conditions. Three

contamination layer along an ADSS cable span. The model levels generally assumed are heavy, medium, and light corre-

sponding to 10 , 10 , and 10 /meter respectively [10].

Manuscript received June 25, 1999. Contamination can be natural and/or man-made. Natural con-

M. W. Tuominen is with the US Department of Energy, Bonneville Power tamination includes salt fog (reported to be the main source of

Administration, Portland, OR 97208. ADSS cable damage in Britain) and dust from alkali lake beds

R. G. Olsen is with the School of EECS, Washington State University,

Pullman, WA 99164-2752. [2], [4], [11]. Man-made sources include agricultural fertilizers

Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8977(00)08131-0. and pesticides, vehicle exhaust, and factory emissions.

0885–8977/00$10.00 © 2000 IEEE

TUOMINEN AND OLSEN: ELECTRICAL DESIGN PARAMETERS OF ADSS FIBER OPTIC CABLE 941

Despite its importance as a design parameter, very little re- calculated using the tower or midspan cross-section. A conser-

search on measurement of field contamination levels has been vative estimate of this voltage is obtained by assuming the dry

reported. In fact, measurements at only one location have been band to be an open circuit [8] (dry cable resistance assumed

reported and these are induced current measurements which re- greater than 10 /m—large compared to contamination). This

quire long term placement of equipment [4]. Further, it is not voltage is called the “available dry band voltage.”

known if geographic information is useful for predicting con- It should be noted that dry band voltage is not the same as “in-

tamination levels on ADSS cable [4], [7]. To remedy this sit- duced voltage” on the ADSS cable. Induced voltage is the abso-

uation, work is presently under way at Washington State Uni- lute voltage on the cable with respect to ground assuming con-

versity to develop a portable instrument for rapid field measure- tinuous wetting (e.g. no dry bands) along the span. It is an impor-

ment of ADSS cable contamination levels at many locations. tant parameter for studies of worker safety but not for studying

dry band arcing [9].

B. Space Potential

A second important design parameter is “space potential”. D. Available Arc Current

The electrical potential of the ADSS cable (with respect to

A fourth design parameter which addresses the lack of

ground) due to energized conductors at midspan is approx-

information about “current available to sustain the arc” is

imately that of the space potential with the cable absent. At

the current induced in the ADSS contamination layer prior to

the tower, however, the cable is held at ground potential. This

dry-band formation. This “available arc current” is equivalent

difference in potential causes currents to flow on the cable

to the “short circuit current” in [8]. The larger this current, the

sheath which, as mentioned earlier, can become significant if

larger the current available to a dry-band arc and hence the

the sheath is contaminated and wet. Because this difference in

greater the potential for damaging arcs.

potential (i.e. very roughly equal to the space potential near

Early studies in Great Britain suggest that induced currents of

the dry band) drives dry band arcs and because its calculation

1 mA or greater are required to sustain arcs which cause cable

using a two-dimensional approximation is relatively simple, it

jacket damage [2], [4]. More recent work has refined this crite-

is the most commonly used design criteria.

rion. ADSS jacket types are commonly divided into two cate-

One problem with the space potential parameter is that its

gories: “standard” and “track resistant”. Preliminary studies at

value is different along the ADSS cable path due to different

the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) have indicated that

sags of the phase conductors and ADSS cable. Since a two-di-

arcs created with an available arc current of 1.5 mA and avail-

mensional model is usually used to calculate space potential, the

able dry band voltage of 26 kV will damage standard jackets but

result depends upon whether the tower or midspan cross-sec-

are resisted almost indefinitely by track resistant jackets [14].

tional geometry is used and the choice of which is proper tends

The same tests showed that arcs with available arc currents near

to be controversial. A second problem is that while the space

5 mA cause significant damage in track resistant jackets. BPA

potential is related to the dry-band voltage it is not equivalent

intends to further refine the tests over a range of currents and

to it [8]. Hence the actual voltage initiating the arc is not known.

voltages.

Dry-band voltage calculation requires a knowledge of contam-

ination level and dry ADSS cable resistance [8]. A third diffi-

culty with using only space potential for design is that dry-band E. Arc Models

arcs require sufficient voltage for ignition and sufficient current It should be further noted that research on the physics of dry

available to sustain the arc. A space potential calculation only band arcs has lead to a circuit model for these arcs [10]. In com-

addresses the first issue. bination with a Thevenin equivalent of the system at a dry band,

Despite these ambiguities, several rules of thumb have been this model may result in an even more refined criteria for pre-

developed. For example, ADSS cable placements in less than dicting dry-band arcing damage and failure. Such a model may

12 kV space potential have been successful. Above 12 kV incorporate the effect of altitude which may have been a factor

space potential, manufacturers recommendations differ. Several in the failure of one cable [12].

manufacturers are willing to install cables with track resistant

sheaths in space potentials of up to 25 kV. In this range,

III. EXISTING ADSS COUPLING MODELS

ADSS cable have been successfully installed and operated

on transmission lines with voltages of up to 500 kV. Above A number of attempts have been made to develop accurate

25 kV, the use of ADSS cable is not generally recommended models for calculating voltages and currents on ADSS cables

although there is at least one case of successful long term in high voltage environments. One solves the problem with a

operation near 40 kV. It is interesting to note that the simple finite element method but is unwieldy [15]. A second is based

space potential criteria for locating ADSS cable has not always on a two-dimensional transmission line model of the system but

been successful. In fact, there are at last two reports of ADSS (except that the ADSS cable potential at the tower is forced to

cable failure in a space potential of less than 12 kV [12], [13]. zero) does not explicitly consider the effect of the tower [10].

A more physically based model developed recently using field

C. Available Dry Band Voltage theory and reciprocity uses a simple model for a tower to calcu-

As mentioned above, a better parameter than space potential late the electric field [8]. This field was then used to calculate

is the voltage across a dry band. The use of this parameter re- the induced currents on the cable and on workers who touch the

solves the controversy of whether the space potential should be cable. However, the influence of sag was not considered nor was

942 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, JULY 2000

=

(tower–tower span length S ).

include sag and phasing.

Fig. 5. Induced current model using the Thevenin Equivalent.

IV. THE LUMPED CIRCUIT MODEL

Transmission line electrical characteristics are often de- Thevenin equivalent, the circuit of Fig. 3 can be simplified to

scribed by distributed inductance, capacitance, and resistance that shown in Fig. 5.

per length. Inductance can be ignored for ADSS cable be- The reason why space potential is an important parameter can

cause the resistance per unit length is much greater than the be illustrated using Fig. 5. Suppose that is infinite (i.e. it

inductive reactance per unit length. Fig. 3 depicts a lumped represents a dry-band). If is small (i.e. contaminated and

parameter ADSS cable circuit model. In this model, the span wet condition) then . Now if the space potential and

, has been divided into sections of length Thevenin capacitance are roughly the same for each section and

where . Each section consists of the total is small, then is approximately the space

contamination resistance within the section ( , potential. Hence the voltage across (the dry band) is ap-

etc.), the capacitance between each phase and the ADSS cable proximately the space potential.

( , , , , etc.), and the capacitance between the Using superposition, a simple formula for the current in sec-

cable and ground ( , , etc.). tion n (i.e. through resistor ) can be written as:

In each section , where

and are respectively the resis-

tance per unit length of the ADSS cable and the capacitance (1)

per unit length between the ADSS cable and the phase con-

ductors and ground. Note that there are also capacitances be-

where is the current through resistor due to

tween phase conductors and between each phase conductor and

a voltage source of amplitude in series with capacitor .

ground. However, these do not affect the induced currents and

Once is determined using the methods in [16] (out-

are not included in the model. , and are the conductor

lined in Appendix A), Equation (1) can be used to calculate the

voltages. , etc. and , etc. are the induced volt-

current through or voltage across any resistor. The same equa-

ages and currents on the ADSS cable.

tion is the starting point of Appendix B and used to show that

It is possible to solve for the currents and voltages by di-

the circuit model presented here and the electromagnetic reci-

rectly solving the circuit shown in Fig. 3. In fact, this is the

procity model of [8] yield identical results.

method used to generate the results in this paper. Solution details

In most situations and (i.e. currents entering the

may found are in [16] (outlined in Appendix A). Additional in-

grounded hardware at the towers) are the largest currents and

sight into the coupling mechanism can be found by simplifying

the location of most reported failures. But subsequent analysis

the circuit of Fig. 3 using Thevenin’s theorem. More specifi-

will reveal that this is not always true if the effects of sag are

cally, the circuit shown in Fig. 4(a) at terminals AB (i.e. ADSS

incorporated into the model.

cable—ground) can be replaced by that shown in Fig. 4b. Here

is the open circuit voltage between terminals A and B

V. CAPACITANCE/SPACE POTENTIAL CALCULATION

which is the unperturbed space potential (i.e. in the absence

of the cable) at the section “m” along the ADSS cable. The As is evident from Fig. 5, a knowledge of unperturbed space

Thevenin capacitance is found by setting the voltage sources potential is useful for calculating the induced currents and volt-

equal to zero and (since the capacitances are now in parallel) ages on the ADSS cable. Here “unperturbed” means the space

calculating . Using the potential due to the energized conductors in the absence of the

TUOMINEN AND OLSEN: ELECTRICAL DESIGN PARAMETERS OF ADSS FIBER OPTIC CABLE 943

Fig. 6. Dimensions of 500 kV BPA 238 Series tower with ADSS cable.

Fig. 7. Conductor and ADSS cable sag profiles - Conductors at 2%, ADSS at

ADSS cable (but including the effect of the tower). The unper- 0.5%, 1.25% and 2%.

turbed space potential along the path of the ADSS (prior to cable

installation) must start at zero at the tower and has maxima at

one or more locations along the path. Given the effects of towers

and conductor sag, calculation of unperturbed space potential

generally requires the use of a three dimensional electrostatics

program such as ANSOFT™ or a Monte Carlo program such as

EF3D [1].

In this paper, a simplified two-dimensional calculation [16]

is used as an approximation. For this calculation the towers are

ignored and the energized conductors treated as infinitely long

straight conductors. Note, however, that sag causes the cross

sectional locations of the phase conductors and the ADSS cable

to change with distance from the tower. This problem is resolved

by repeating the two- dimensional space potential calculation

(or alternatively the capacitance calculation) times, once for

the cross section at each segment of the path between the towers.

The resulting space potential is called quasitwo-dimensional

(Q2D). As a final note, phase conductor sag will change with

load. This issue should be considered in any design.

Even though the Q2D space potential does not approach zero

at the grounded tower as required by the physics of the problem,

it has been shown in [8] that, for contamination resistances less

than /m, the use of the Q2D space potential is sufficient.

Basically, the tower has negligible effect and can be ignored for

low contamination resistance. Studies at BPA have confirmed

this conclusion.

Fig. 6 is the tower design selected for the study. A 304.8 meter

(1000 ft.) span was selected as typical, conductor sags were 2% Fig. 8. ADSS space potential (Q2D): Voltage and phase angles. Conductors at

and the ADSS was sagged at 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2%. Fig. 7 shows 2%, ADSS at 0.5%, 1.25% and 2%.

the sag profiles along the ADSS cable for various sags.

Selection of the delta design tower configuration for an ex- cancellation in the center of the delta. However, tightening the

ample was intentional; Very different Q2D space potential pro- ADSS cable further to 0.5 % raises midspan Q2D space poten-

files result from the three ADSS sags and two conductor phasing tial amplitude to about 70 kV with decreases near the towers to

conditions as indicated in Fig. 8. Consider first CAB conductor 25 kV.

phasing as shown in Fig. 6. At 2% ADSS sag the Q2D space po- The effect of changing conductor phasing to BAC is also

tential amplitude remains fairly constant along the span—about shown in Fig. 8. The amplitude of the Q2D space potential is in-

45 kV. When the ADSS is tightened to 1.25 % sag, midspan Q2D dependent of conductor phasing and is identical to that for CAB

space potential amplitude drops to about 25 kV and remains so phasing. However, the phase of the space potential changes con-

over a large portion of the span. This reduction is due to field siderably. When the conductor phasing is changed from CAB

944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, JULY 2000

Fig. 9. Magnitude of available arc current on ADSS cable for various sags and

conductor phasing. Fig. 10. Magnitude of available dry band voltage on an ADSS cable.

to BAC, the sign of the phase reverses. This change is impor- parameter. It is assumed that /m (heavy contamina-

tant because the phase angle along the ADSS cable now is de- tion) and that the electrical phasing of the conductors is CAB. In

creasing rather increasing. The importance of this change can be this case, the effect of ADSS cable sag on the induced current at

illustrated by referring to Fig. 5. If end effects are ignored then the tower is modest—the maximum induced current varies from

currents propagate from segment to segment according to just above 6 mA to just above 8 mA.

the formula [8] However, as shown in the bottom chart of Fig. 9, the rephasing

of the conductors to BAC (or alternatively moving the ADSS

(2) cable to the opposite side of the tower) has a dramatic effect

on the induced current distribution—but only when the ADSS

where is a propagation constant determined by the frequency

cable sag of different from the conductor sag. As long as the

and the resistance and capacitance per unit length of the ADSS

sag of the ADSS cable is the same as that of the phase conduc-

cable. The space potential at segment m can be written as

tors (both 2% in this example), there is little effect. But at 0.5%

(3) ADSS sag, the induced current at the tower is reduced from over

8 mA to 2.5 mA. Moreover, the maximum induced current now

It follows that the contribution of source m to the current at seg- occurs at a distance of 65 meters from the tower. This dramatic

ment is the product of (2) and (3). If change occurs because of the phase matching conditions dis-

constant then the propagation and source phases are “phase cussed earlier.

matched” and currents at segment n will add in phase resulting The result suggests that, given the proper circumstances,

in a large induced current there. It is clear that changing the dry-band arcing may occur at significant distances from the

sign of will remove the matching condition and result tower—a result that is different from the conventional wisdom.

in a significantly smaller induced current. It will be shown A similar effect can be observed for the available dry band

shortly that this “phase match” can have a dramatic effect on voltage which is plotted in Fig. 10. This is not surprising since

the possibility of dry band arcing. the available arc current equals the available dry band voltage

The effect of sag and conductor phasing on available dry band divided by an input impedance which is essentially independent

voltage and arc current is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10. In the top of conductor phasing or sag [8].

chart of Fig. 9 the available arc current magnitude is plotted as For a conductor phasing CAB, it can be observed that the

a function of location along the span with ADSS cable sag as a maximum available dry band voltage is near the tower and not

TUOMINEN AND OLSEN: ELECTRICAL DESIGN PARAMETERS OF ADSS FIBER OPTIC CABLE 945

drophobicity, space potential, dry band voltage, current avail-

able to an arc and arc models. Of these, current available to

the arc and available dry band voltage appear to be the most

useful predictors of performance. Preliminary tests at BPA in-

dicate that for a 26 kV dry band voltage, available arc currents of

1.5 mA and 5 mA are sufficient to cause damage to nontracking

resistant and tracking resistant ADSS cable respectively.

A lumped circuit model for calculating induced voltages and

currents on ADSS cable near a high voltage transmission line

has been developed. The source that drives the currents and volt-

ages in the model is the unperturbed space potential. Features of

the model include the effect of sagging conductors and electrical

phasing.

A study of ADSS cable on a typical 500 kV transmission

line using the new model shows that the effects of contami-

nation level, tower attachment point, differential ADSS/phase

conductor sag and conductor electrical phasing can be signifi-

cant. More specifically, it has been found that contamination

resistance values of approximately /m or less are needed

to support dry band arcing. In addition, the combined effects of

different conductor and ADSS cable sag and conductor phasing

can cause differences in available arc current and dry band

voltage of up to a factor of 3. Since phase transpositions and

variations in sag with line loading are normal for transmission

lines, their effects should be considered when designing ADSS

cable installations.

The lumped circuit model developed in this paper has been

Fig. 11. Magnitude of available arc voltages and currents on an ADSS cable shown to be equivalent to the distributed parameter model of

for r = 10

/m. [8] which uses axial electric field as the driving source.

APPENDIX A

between just below 40 kV to approximately 50 kV. If, however,

SOLUTION FOR ADSS CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES

the phasing is changed to BAC, the available dry band voltage

at approximately 65 meters from the tower increases to nearly Using node analysis, the following set of equations can be

70 kV. As explained earlier, this occurs because of the phase written for the voltages in the circuit of Fig. 3

matching of the voltage distribution and current propagation on

the ADSS cable.

Fig. 11 illustrates the effect of changing the contamination (A1)

level. It is a replication of the top charts of Figs. 8 and 9 but

for /m. It is clear the available arc currents are con- where

siderably smaller that those for /m case. In fact, the

available arc current is sufficient (1 to 2 mA) to support dam-

aging arcing only very close to the tower. The available dry

band voltage, however, is on the same order of magnitude as

those for the case /m. The only notable difference is

that the largest voltages are somewhat smaller than those in the

/m. Clearly, increasing r further to /m will result

in dry band arcing that either does not exist at all or is not dan-

gerous. It can be concluded that a knowledge of contamination While a solution to this equation could be obtained using gen-

levels is very important for estimating the possibility of ADSS eral Gaussian elimination, the fact that the matrix is symmetric

cable damage. and tri-diagonal leads to a much more economic solution. Row

is multiplied by and row n by . The two re-

sulting equations are subtracted and row replaced by the

VII. CONCLUSIONS difference. The new row has a 0 in the spot occupied by

. This process is repeated with row and row

Electrical design parameters that can be used to predict the and so on until the matrix becomes lower diagonal. This equa-

performance of ADSS cable in a high voltage environment have tion can be easily solved by back substitution.

946 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO. 3, JULY 2000

, ) the current can be written

(B5)

where

and

COMPARISON TO OTHER MODELS of the cable respectively. In this case, the calculation of current

becomes a simple numerical integration of (B4) with (B5).

Using reciprocity, the current of the circuit shown in

Fig. 12 can be shown to be identical to the current of the

circuit shown in Fig. 13. REFERENCES

By Kirchoff’s current law, [1] G. G. Karady, M. Torgerson, D. Torgerson, J. Wild, and M. W.

Tuominen, “Evaluation of corona-caused aging of ADSS fiber-optic

(B1) cables,” in IEEE Transmission and Distribution Meeting, 1999, Paper#

TR08-080.

[2] G. Carlton, A. Bartlett, C. Carter, and T. Parkin, “UK power utilities’

Using these results, an expression can be written for the cur- experience with optical telecommunications cabling systems,” Power

rent ( ) through the th resistor due to the set Engineering Journal, vol. 9, pp. 7–14, Feb. 1995.

[3] M. W. Tuominen, “ADSS fiber optic cable in HV electric

of sources shown in Fig. 4. If is the current fields—Corona considerations,” in IEEE Corona Effects Working

through the th resistor due to a voltage source of am- Group, Feb. 1996.

plitude in series with the th resistor . [4] C. N. Carter, J. Deas, N. R. Haigh, and S. M. Rowland, “Applicability of

all-dielectric self supporting cable systems to very high voltage overhead

power lines,” in 46th Proc. Intl. Wire and Cable Symposium, 1997, pp.

622–631.

[5] C. N. Carter, “Arc control devices for use on all-dielectric self-sup-

porting optical cables,” IEE Proc.-A, vol. 140, pp. 357–361, Sept. 1993.

(B2) [6] , “National grid,” in Optical Fiber Task Force, 1998 IEEE PES

where and and is the length of a section Winter Meeting, Tampa, FL.

[7] P. Costigan, “FOCAS,” in Optical Fiber Task Force, 1999 IEEE PES

of transmission line. Winter Meeting, New York, NY.

In the limit at the number of segments becomes infinite [8] R. G. Olsen, “An improved model for the electromagnetic compatibility

of all-dielectric self-supporting fiber optic cable and high voltage power

lines,” IEEE Trans. Electromag. Compat., to be published.

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supporting fiber optic cable near high voltage power lines,” in 1999

IEEE EMC Society Symposium, Seattle, WA.

Finally, using integration by parts and the fact that [10] C. N. Carter and M. A. Waldron, “Mathematical model of dry band

arcing on self-supporting all dielectric optical cables strung on over-

head power lines,” IEE Proceedings-C, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 185–196,

May 1992.

(B4) [11] G. Carleton, C. N. Carter, and A. J. Peacock, “Progress in the long term

testing of an all-dielectric self-supporting cable for power system use,”

in 12th CIRED, Birmingham, UK, May 1993, IEE Conf. Pub. no. 373,

where paper 3.16.

[12] D. Smith, “Private communication,” ESKOM, Republic of South Africa.

[13] D. A. Keller, D. J. Benzel, J. P. Bonicel, C. Bastide, and F. Davidson,

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This result is identical to the result given in [8]where [14] M. D. Johnson and J. O. Lo, “ADSS jacket arc resistant material tests,”

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port #TNF(M)-98-24a, January 21, 1999.

TUOMINEN AND OLSEN: ELECTRICAL DESIGN PARAMETERS OF ADSS FIBER OPTIC CABLE 947

[15] J. C. G. Wheeler, M. L. Lissenburg, J. D. S. Hinchcliffe, and M. E. Robert G. Olsen received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Rut-

Slevin, “The development of a track resistant sheathing material for gers University in 1968 and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering

aerial optical fiber cables,” in 5th Intl. Conf. On Dielectric Materials from the University of Colorado, Boulder in 1970 and 1974 respectively. He has

and Applications, Canterbury, UK, 1988, pp. 73–76. been a member of the electrical engineering faculty at Washington State Univer-

[16] M. W. Tuominen, “3 phase circuit model for ADSS optical fiber con- sity since 1973. His research interests include the electromagnetic environment

tamination currents,” Bonneville Power Admin., US Dept. of Energy, of power lines, electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic scattering.

Engineering Report TNL3-99-1, May 1999. He presently serves as chair of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Corona

Effects Working Group, and is an Associate Editor of Radio Science and the

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY. He is a Fellow

of the IEEE.

Monty W. Tuominen received a B.S.E.E. (with distinction) from Washington

State University in 1968 and an M.S.E.E. in 1974. Military service (1969–1971)

included one year as an Instructor at Ft. Monmouth, New Jersey, and one year

as an Electronics Technician in Nha Trang, Viet Nam. After seven years of de-

signing controls for the forest products industry he came to BPA in 1971. He

is presently an Electrical Engineer in Engineering and Technical Services of

BPA’s Transmission Business Line and responsible for properly locating fiber

optic cables in high voltage electric fields. He is registered as a Professional

Electrical Engineer in the state of Oregon and a Senior Member of IEEE.

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