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GUAVA (Psidium guajava) AS A SOAP

FLORIENNE FAITH S. TAMBIO

ALLIETA KATE A. LEGASPI

DARLENE SHAYNE T. LIBONGCOGON

A Science Investigatory Project submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements in Research III: Technical Writing at the University Laboratory

School- USM Kabacan, Cotabato

March 2019
CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1. THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND 1

Research Objectives 3

Hypotheses 3

Significance of the Study 4

Scope and Limitations 4

Definition of Terms 4

2. RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research design 8

Materials 8

Equipment and Utensils 9

Procedure 10

Evaluation of Products 11

Statistical Treatment 11
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Nowadays, people are focusing on products especially those products that

people commonly use. One of the examples is the soap. Soap is one of the major

products we commonly use in our daily life to take care of our skin. Soap removes oil

and dirt that can cause skin problems and even infections. However, some types of

soap also remove natural skin oil which protects and lubricates our skin.

One of the examples is the commercial soap. Commercial soap is not good for

your skin. It contains chemical detergents, hardeners, and synthetic lathering agents.

Some of these ingredients can be drying or irritating on the skin. Most commercial

soaps are produced by large multinational companies, with factories all over the globe.

This mass production results in copious amount of environmental waste and degration

as well as poor living conditions for thousands of people worldwide. Considering such,

the researchers chose to make a study, which is Guava (Psidium guajava) as a soap to

make guava leaves more useful to people than letting it fall on the ground and seeing

useless.
It is known that Guava plant (Psidium guajava) is abundant here in the

Philippines. Guava grows anywhere and everywhere in our community. It is a flowering

plant growing 33 ft. tall. Guava is ideal for flavored drinks, juices, deserts, sauces, pies,

cakes, puddings, jellies, salads, and chutneys. Guavas are rich in dietary fiber, Vitamin

A, Vitamin C, folic acid, and the dietary minerals, potassium, copper, and manganese.

Guava leaves are used in folk medicine as a remedy for diarrhea and as well as the

bark, for their supposed antimicrobial properties as an astringent.

Guava (Psidium guajava) as a soap helps people to save money. With this, we

can use guava leaves that only get rotten and making our surrounding messy. Making

this product doesn’t consume much time for we can just find guava anywhere.
Research Objectives:

This study “Guava (Psidium guajava) as a soap” aims to have a soap that is safe,

effective and environmental friendly. Specifically aims to:

 Describe the characteristics of Guava Soap based on its fragrance, appearance,

and total effectiveness.

 Describe the qualities of the commercial brand of soap based on its fragrance,

appearance, and total effectiveness.

 Determine if there is a significant difference between the commercial soap and

the Guava soap in terms of its fragrance, appearance, and total effectiveness.

Research Hypotheses:

Ho: There is no significant difference between the commercial soap and the Guava

soap in terms of its fragrance, appearance, and total effectiveness.

Ha: There is a significant difference between the commercial soap and the Guava

soap in terms of its fragrance, appearance, and total effectiveness.


Significance of the Study:

. It is also safe to use, it won’t cause any damage in our skin because it is made

out of pure guava leaves, and chemicals that cost dollars are not needed so we don’t

have to worry for the expenses. This organic soap is an environment-friendly product.

Scope and Limitation:

This study will focus on Guava (Psidium guajava) as an organic soap. This will

be conducted at Kabacan, North Cotabato on March to April 2019. Fifteen respondents

will be involved during such study. It will be limited on guava leaves that will be used in

making organic soap.

Definition of Terms

Guava-any of numerous tropical and subtropical American trees or shrubs belonging to

the genus Psidium, of the myrtle family, especially P. guajava, bearing large, yellow,

round to pear-shaped fruit, and P. littorale, bearing smaller, yellowish to deep-red, oval

fruit.

Psidium guajava- Pertains to the scientific name of Guava.

Diarrhea- a condition in which feces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a

liquid form.
Chemicals- A substance (such as element or compound) that is made by a chemical

process. It makes product more acceptable but it sometimes bring negative effect to an

individual.

Fragrance- Refers to the aroma that is produced by something. It can be pleasant

scent or malodorous. In defining one’s fragrance, we will be using our sense of smell.

Appearance- Refers to the way that someone or something looks. It is something that

is perceived by our own eyes.

Effectiveness- Pertains to the overall ability of a product. It is a result that is wanted.


CHAPTER II

RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW

Among many chemical industries, it is known from the available records that

soap has not been long since it was discovered developed naturally and gradually from

crude mixture of alkaline fatty materials. Pompii Excavation (2006) revealed that soap,

dates back to over 0 years ago. As early as 2500BC, soap was being used in ancient

Mesopotamia.

Vomass (2009) reviewed that in first century the Roman chancellor described the

manufacture of both hand and soft soaps which they prepared by boiling fallow from

goats with beech wood shes. He called it soap and it was used as hair cream not for

washing.

In (2011), Nicholas Leblanc in 50th America discovered by process of making

sodium carbonate (Na2, CO3) from sodium chloride (NaCl) and this laid the corner stone

of the gigantic soap concerns. Thus, oil mainly fallow and other animal fats which were

hitherto, solely used in soap production. Almost 1,800 people believed that soap, was a

mechanical mixture of salt and alkaline not until a French chemist showed that soap

formation was actually a chemical reaction.

Domir (2012) in France completed his research on the recovery of glycerin from

saponification mixture.

During late Vectoria era (1837-1901) W.H lever had unquestionable become the

dominating figure in the soap trade because of her good productions.


Most soaps contain basic raw materials including:

- Caustic soda: Caustic soda is known to be one of the strongest bases; examples

are sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Since the realm of chemistry, it is

one most corrosive and hazardous chemicals which find application in soap

production and laboratory chemical experiments. Soda, it tends to soften and

dissolve fatty materials. This neutralization reaction and it is commonly known in

chemistry as saponification reaction. This process is the principle exploited in

production of all soap and other cleaning material in the market today.

- Fat and oil: Soap makers use different types of oil in soap production depending

on the quality of soap required. For example, palm kernel oil (p.k.o) is one of the

commonest vegetable oil that gives soap a creamy latter and contains natural

vitamins and antioxidant properties with omega-3, omega 6 and other

conditioners that serves as skin nourishing oil in skin cream product.

- Color: It improves the visual attractiveness of the soap for self advertisement and

this is by individual choice.

- Perfume: Fragrance for soap productions are base synthetic or natural occurring

materials like lemon and strawberry. Ingredients are added to washing and

cleansing products to produce a pleasant or distinctive aroma. Fragrance is used

in all types of soap. The basic objective is to produce fragrance in keeping with

the character of the product and to remove unpleasant water odor.


CHAPTER III

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research Method

The researchers will use two-group design for the study. The research design is

the most suitable for the study because there will be one experimental group which is

the Guava soap and one control group which is one of the commercial soaps.

Materials

The materials to be used in the study will be 50 pieces guava leaves, 16 oz of

water, 250ml vinegar, 4 oz caustic soda, 20 oz olive oil, 8 oz coconut oil, 4 teaspoon

scented oil, and 1 teaspoon food coloring. Table 1.1 presents the materials to be used

in the preparation of Guava (Psidium guajava) as a soap.

Table 1.1 Materials used in the preparation of Guava (Psidium guajava) as an organic

soap.

Materials Quantity

Guava leaves 50 pcs.

Water 16 oz

Vinegar 250 ml

Caustic soda 4 oz
Olive oil 20 oz

Coconut oil 8 oz

Scented oil 4 tsp

Food coloring 1 tsp

Equipment and Utensils

The equipment to be used in making the Guava(Psidium guajava) as a soap are;

Stove, Cooking pot, kitchen scale, funnel, measuring cup, measuring spoon, whisk,

strainer, bottle, and small containers. Table 1.2 shows the equipment and utensils to be

used in the preparation of Guava (Psidium guajava) as a soap.

Table 1.2 Equipment and Utensils to be used in the preparation of Guava (Psidium

guajava) as a soap.

Equipment and Utensils Unit

Stove 1

Cooking Pot 1

Kitchen Scale 1
Funnel 1

Measuring cup 1 set

Measuring spoon 1 set

Whisk 1

Strainer 1

Empty Bottle 1

Small containers 3

Procedures:

1. Wash the guava leaves

2. Extract guava essence

3. Strain out guava leaves

4. Prepare your flavors

5. Saponification

6. Stir
Evaluation of Products

The products will be evaluated by 20 panelists based on its fragrance,

appearance, and total effectiveness. Sensory evaluation base on a 5-point Hedonic

Scale will be used by the panelists where in 5 stands for extremely acceptable, 4 for

moderately acceptable, 3 is acceptable, 2 is slightly acceptable and 1 stands for

unacceptable.

The respondents of the study were identified through quota sampling and were

selected from the neighboring residences of the researchers. The 20 chosen panelists

were all coming from Kabacan, North Cotabato.

Statistical Treatment

The researchers will be using both descriptive and inferential statistics to be their

statistical treatment. Based on the research objectives, characteristics of guava which

will be the basis in producing a soap will be determined, therefore descriptive statistics

is required. On the second objective, significant difference between the commercial

soap and the guava soap in terms of its fragrance, appearance and its total

effectiveness will be determined. They will compare the effectiveness of commercial

soap and the guava soap based on the response of the respondents, so they will use

the inferential statistics.

Under the inferential statistics, they will compute the means and determine if the

product is effective, they will use the t-test which is bivariate.