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Steel Reinforced

Concrete Columns

A Eurocode 4 Approach

Design Examples

for High Strength

Steel Reinforced

Concrete Columns

A Eurocode 4 Approach

Sing-Ping Chiew

Yan-Qing Cai

CRC Press

Taylor & Francis Group

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Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

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Title: Design of high strength steel reinforced concrete columns : a Eurocode

4 approach / S.P. Chiew and Y.Q. Cai.

Description: Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2018] | Includes bibliographical

references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017057555 (print) | LCCN 2018000768 (ebook) |

ISBN 9781351203944 (Adobe PDF) | ISBN 9781351203937 (ePub) |

ISBN 9781351203920 (Mobipocket) | ISBN 9780815384601

(hardback : acid-free paper) | ISBN 9781351203951 (ebook)

Subjects: LCSH: Composite construction--Specifications--Europe. | Building,

Iron and steel--Specifications--Europe. | Reinforced concrete

construction--Specifications--Europe.

Classification: LCC TA664 (ebook) | LCC TA664 .C48 2018 (print) | DDC

624.1/83425--dc23

LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017057555

http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

http://www.crcpress.com

Contents

List of symbols xi

Preface xiii

Authors xv

Design examples 1

Steel-reinforced concrete column subjected to axial compression 1

Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material 2

Design data 2

Design strengths and modulus 2

Cross-sectional areas 3

Second moments of area 3

Check the reinforcement ratio 4

Check the local buckling 4

Check the steel contribution factor 4

Long-term effects 5

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 6

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 6

Elastic critical normal force 7

Relative slenderness ratio 7

Buckling reduction factor 7

Buckling resistance 8

Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete 8

Design strengths and modulus 8

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 9

Check the steel contribution factor 9

Long-term effects 10

v

vi Contents

E

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 11

Elastic critical normal force 11

Relative slenderness ratio 12

Buckling reduction factor 12

Buckling resistance 13

Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength steel 13

Design strengths and modulus 13

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 16

Check the steel contribution factor 16

Long-term effects 16

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 16

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 17

Elastic critical normal force 17

Relative slenderness ratio 17

Buckling reduction factor 17

Buckling resistance 18

Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength

concrete and steel 18

Design strengths and modulus 19

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 19

Check the steel contribution factor 19

Long-term effects 19

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 20

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 20

Elastic critical normal force 20

Relative slenderness ratio 20

Buckling reduction factor 20

Buckling resistance 21

Alternative design 22

Design data 22

Design strengths and modulus 22

Cross-sectional area and second moments of area 23

Check the reinforcement ratio 23

Check the local buckling 23

Check the steel contribution factor 23

Long-term effects 24

Contents vii

E

effects 25

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 25

Elastic critical normal force 25

Relative slenderness ratio 26

Buckling reduction factor 26

Buckling resistance 26

Steel-reinforced concrete column subjected to combined

compression and bending 27

Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material 27

Design data 27

Design strengths and modulus 28

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 29

Check the reinforcement ratio 29

Check the local buckling 29

Check the steel contribution factor 29

Long-term effects 30

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 31

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 31

Elastic critical normal force 32

Relative slenderness ratio 32

Buckling reduction factor 32

Buckling resistance 33

Interaction curve 33

Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete

column in combined compression and uniaxial bending 35

Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete 38

Design strengths and modulus 38

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 38

Check the steel contribution factor 38

Long-term effects 39

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 40

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 40

Elastic critical normal force 41

Relative slenderness ratio 41

Buckling reduction factor 41

viii Contents

Buckling resistance 42

Interaction curve 42

Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete

column in combined compression and uniaxial bending 44

Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength steel 46

Design strengths and modulus 47

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 49

Check the steel contribution factor 49

Long-term effects 49

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 50

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 50

Elastic critical normal force 50

Relative slenderness ratio 50

Buckling reduction factor 51

Buckling resistance 51

Interaction curve 52

Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete

column in combined compression and uniaxial bending 54

Steel-reinforced concrete column with

high-strength materials 56

Design strengths and modulus 56

Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area 56

Check the steel contribution factor 56

Long-term effects 57

Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects 57

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section 57

Elastic critical normal force 57

Relative slenderness ratio 58

Buckling reduction factor 58

Buckling resistance 58

Interaction curve 59

Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete

column in combined compression and uniaxial bending 61

Steel-reinforced concrete column with

different degree of confinement 63

Original design 63

Contents ix

High-strength concrete 63

High-strength steel and high-strength concrete 64

Appendix A: Design resistance of shear connectors 69

Appendix B: Design chart 73

Index 77

List of symbols

Ac Area of concrete

Ach Area of highly confined concrete

Acp Area of partially confined concrete

Acu Area of unconfined concrete

As Area of reinforcement

Ea Modulus of elasticity of structural steel

Ec,eff Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete

Ecm Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete

Ec(t) Tangent modulus of elasticity of concrete at time t

Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement

(EI)eff Effective flexural stiffness

Ga Shear modulus of structural steel

I Second moment of area of the composite section

Ia Second moment of area of the structural steel

Ic Second moment of area of the concrete

Is Second moment of area of the reinforcement

Ke Correction factor

L Length

MEd Design bending moment

Mpl,a,Rd The plastic resistance moment of the structural steel

Mpl,Rd The plastic resistance moment of the composite section

Ncr Elastic critical force in composite columns

NEd The compressive normal force

Npl,Rd The plastic resistance of the composite section

Npl,Rk Characteristic value of the plastic resistance of the

composite section

Npm,Rd The resistance of the concrete to compressive normal force

PRd The resistance of per shear stud

xi

xii List of symbols

Vpl,a,Rd The shear resistance of the steel section

Wpa The plastic section modulus of the structural steel

Wpc The plastic section modulus of the concrete

Wps The plastic section modulus of the reinforcing steel

bc Width of the composite section

bf Width of the steel flange

cy, cz Thickness of concrete cover

d Diameter of shank of the headed stud

e Eccentricity of loading

fck The cylinder compressive strength of concrete

fcd The design strength of concrete

fc,p The compressive strength of partially confined concrete

fc,h The compressive strength of highly confined concrete

fs The yield strength of reinforcement

fu Tensile strength

fy The yield strength of structural steel

fyd The design strength of structural steel

fyh The yield strength of transverse reinforcement

ha Depth of steel section

hc Depth of composite section

hn Distance from centroidal axis to neutral axis

hsc Overall nominal height of the headed stud

s Spacing center-to-center of links

tf Thickness of steel flange

tw Thickness of the steel web

Δσ Stress range

Ψ Coefficient

α Coefficient; factor

β Factor; coefficient

γ Partial factor

δ Steel contribution ratio

η Coefficient

εc,u Strain of unconfined concrete

εc,p Strain of partially confined concrete

εc,h Strain of highly confined concrete

µ Factors related to bending moments

λ Relative slenderness

ρs Reinforcement ratio

χ Reduction factor of buckling

ϕ Creep coefficient

Preface

Reinforced Concrete Columns—A Eurocode 4 Approach.

Guidance is much needed on the design of high strength steel reinforced

concrete (SRC) columns beyond the remit of Eurocode 4 for composite

steel concrete structures. Given the much narrower range of permitted

concrete and steel material strengths in comparison to Eurocode 2 for

concrete structures and Eurocode 3 for steel structures, and the better

ductility and buckling resistance of SRC columns compared to steel or

reinforced concrete, there is a clear need for design beyond the current

guidelines. The design principles to do so are set out in the companion

volume to this book, Design of High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete

Columns—A Eurocode 4 Approach. This book provides a number of

design examples for high strength SRC columns using these principles

which are based on the Eurocode 4 approach. Special considerations are

given to resistance calculations that maximize the full strength of the

materials, with concrete cylinder strength up to 90 N/mm2, yield strength

of structural steel up to 690 N/mm2 and yield strength of reinforcing steel

up to 600 N/mm2 respectively. These design examples will allow the

readers to practice and understand the Eurocode 4 methodology easily.

Structural engineers and designers who are familiar with basic

Eurocode 4 design should find these design examples particularly

helpful, whilst civil engineering students who are studying composite

steel concrete design and construction should gain further understanding

from working through the design examples which are set out clearly in

a step-by-step fashion.

xiii

Authors

director at the Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore, and coauthor

of Structural Steelwork Design to Limit State Theory, 4th Edition.

Engineering at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

xv

Design examples

S

SUBJECTED TO AXIAL COMPRESSION

encased I-section) subject to pure compression with an effective length

of 4 m, as shown in Figure 1.

bc

cy cy

b

tw

cz

y

hc

h

lf

cz

1

2 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

S

normal-strength material

Design data

Design axial force NEd = 8000 kN

Permanent load NG,Ed = 4000 kN

Column length L = 4.0 m

Effective length Leff = 4.0 m

Structural steel Grade S355, fy = 355 N/mm2

Concrete C30/37, fck = 30 N/mm2

Reinforcement fsk = 500 N/mm2

Properties of cross-section

Concrete depth hc = 500 mm

Concrete width bc = 500 mm

Concrete cover c = 30 mm

Cover cy = 95.4 mm

Cover cz = 89.8 mm

Section properties of steel section

305 × 305 UC 137

Depth h = 320.5 mm

Width b = 309.2 mm

Flange thickness tf = 21.7 mm

Web thickness tw = 13.8 mm

Fillet r = 15.2 mm

Section area Aa = 174.4 cm2

Second moment of area/y Iay = 32810 cm4

Second moment of area/z Iaz = 10700 cm4

Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 2297 cm3

Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 1053 cm3

Reinforcement

Longitudinal reinforcement number n = 8, diameter dl,s = 20 mm

Transverse reinforcement diameter dt,s = 10 mm, spacing

s = 200 mm

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete

Design examples 3

class C30/37 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible. Therefore,

the steel section can reach its full strength when the composite concrete

section reaches its ultimate strength, without considering the confinement

effect from the lateral hoops and steel section.

The design strengths of the steel, concrete, and reinforcement are:

fy 355

fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2

γM 1.0

fck 30

fcd = = = 20 N/mm 2

γ C 1.5

fsk 500

fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2

γS 1.15

Ecm = 33 Gpa

Ea = 210 Gpa

Cross-sectional areas

The cross-sectional areas of the steel, reinforcement, and concrete are:

Aa = 17, 440 mm 2

8× π × 202

As = = 2512 mm 2

4

I ay = 328.1×106 mm 4

I az = 107×106 mm 4

n

π × 20 4

I sy = ∑A e

i=1

2

s,i i = 6×

4

× 2002 = 73.56 ×106 mm 4

4 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

n

π × 20 4

I sz = ∑A e

i=1

2

s,i i = 6×

4

× 2002 = 73.56 ×106 mm 4

bchc3

I cy = − I ay − I sy

12

500 × 5003

= − 328.1×106 − 73.56 ×106 = 4805×106 mm 4

12

hcbc3

I cz = − I az − I sz

12

500 × 5003

= −107×106 − 73.56 ×106 = 5026 ×106 mm 4

12

As 2512

ρs = = = 1.1%

Ac 230, 048

The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 89.8 mm >

maximum (40 mm; bf/6).

Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048× 20 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 11,195 kN

Design examples 5

δ= = = 0.55

N pl,Rd 11,195

Long-term effects

The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 14 days. The age of

concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative

humidity RH is taken as 50%.

The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 230, 048

h0 = = = 230 mm

u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

35 0.7 35 0.7

α1

= = = 0.94

fcm 30 + 8

35 0.2 35 0.2

α2 = = = 0.98

fcm 38

35 0.5 35 0.5

α3

= = = 0.96

fcm 38

Factor:

1 − RH /100 1 − 50 /100

ϕRH = 1 + α1 α2 = 1 + × 0.94 ×0.98 = 1.73

0.13 h0 3

0.1 230

16.8 16.8

β( fcm ) = = = 2.73

fcm 38

1 1

β(t0 ) = = = 0.56

(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )

6 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Factor:

β (t , t 0 ) = = = 1.0

(βH + t − t0 ) (585 + ∞−14)

Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered

in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of

elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 33

Ec,eff = = = 14.22 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)× 2.64

The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term

effects is:

= 210×328.1×106 + 0.6×14.22×4805×106 + 210×73.56×106

= 1.25×1011 kN mm 2

= 210 ×107×106 + 0.6 ×14.22 × 5026 ×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106

= 8.04 ×1010 kN mm 2

Design examples 7

π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.25×1011

N cry = = = 77, 000 kN

L2y 42 ×106

N crz = = = 49, 600 kN

L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048×30 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 13, 313 kN

λy = = = 0.42

N cry 77, 000

λz = = = 0.52

N crz 49, 600

design method is applicable.

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN

1993-1-1, the factor is:

( ( )

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.42 − 0.2) + 0.422 ] = 0.62

8 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.52 − 0.2) + 0.522 ] = 0.71

1 1

χy = = = 0.92

Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.62 + 0.622 − 0.422

y y

1 1

χz = = = 0.83

Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.71 + 0.712 − 0.522

z z

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd

= 0.83×11,195 = 9292 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

S

high-strength concrete

Concrete class C90/105 is used in this design example. Other design data are

same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material,” such as loading; column length; steel strength; and the dimensions

of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete

class C90/105 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel

can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches

its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the

lateral hoops and steel section.

For high-strength concrete with fck > 50 N/mm 2 , the effective

compressive strength of concrete should be used in accordance with EC2.

The effective strength is:

Design examples 9

are:

fy 355

fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2

γ M 1.0

fck 72

fcd = = = 48 N/mm 2

γ C 1.5

fsk 500

fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2

γS 1.15

The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,

reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in

Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material.”

Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4

Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 16, 669 kN

10 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

δ= = = 0.37

N pl,Rd 16, 669

Long-term effects

The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 14 days. The age of

concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative

humidity RH is taken as 50%.

The notional size of the cross-section is:

h0 = 2Ac/u = 230 mm

Coefficient:

35 0.7 35 0.7

α1 = = = 0.56

fcm 72 + 8

35 0.2 35 0.2

α2 = = = 0.85

fcm 80

35 0.5 35 0.5

α3 = = = 0.66

fcm 80

Factor:

1 − RH /100 1 − 50 /100

ϕRH = 1 + α1 α2 = 1 + × 0 .56 × 0.85 = 1.24

0.13 h0 0.13 230

16.8 16.8

β( fcm ) = = = 1.88

fcm 80

1 1

β(t0 ) = = = 0.56

(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )

Design examples 11

Factor:

β (t , t 0 ) = = = 1.0

(βH + t − t0 ) (510 + ∞−14)

Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered

in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of

elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 41.1

Ec,eff = = = 24.9 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)×1.3

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy

= 210 ×328.1×106 + 0.6 × 24.9× 4805×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106

= 1.56 ×1011 kNmm 2

= 210 ×107×106 + 0.6 × 24.9× 5026 ×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106

= 1.13×1011 kN mm 2

π2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.56 ×1011

N cry = = = 96,100 kN

L2y 42 ×106

12 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

π2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.13×1011

N crz = = = 69, 500 kN

L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (17, 440×355 + 0.85×230, 048×72 + 2512×500)×103

= 21, 526 kN

λy = = = 0.47

N cry 96,100

λz = = = 0.56

N crz 69, 500

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c.

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.47 − 0.2) + 0.472 ] = 0.66

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.56 − 0.2) + 0.562 ] = 0.74

1 1

χy = = = 0.90

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.472

Design examples 13

1 1

χz = = = 0.81

Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.74 + 0.742 − 0.562

z z

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.81×16, 669 = 13, 502 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

Compared to the SRC column with concrete class C30/37, the buckling

resistance ratio is:

= = 1.45

N b,Rd,C30 /37 9292

C90/105 is increased by 45% compared to the resistance of a column with

C30/37 concrete.

Steel-reinforced concrete column with

high-strength steel

Steel grade S550 is used in this design example. Other design data are

same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material,” such as loading; column length; concrete strength; and dimensions

of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete

class C30/37 and steel grade S550) are not strain compatible, so the

high-strength concrete reaches its peak strain much earlier than the yield

strain of steel. This implies that the concrete will fail earlier than the

steel, resulting in a partial utilization of the steel strength. Using the

strain-compatibility method, the strength of steel is limited to the stress

corresponding to the crushing strain of concrete. The confinement effect

from the lateral hoops and steel section is considered as follows.

14 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

As

ρs = = 1.1%

Ac

Factor:

ke =

(1− ∑in=1((bi )2 /6bchc ))(1− (s / 2bc ))(1− (s / 2hc )) = 0.514

1 − ρs

model:

fc,u 30

κ= = = 65

ρse Esεc 0.001× 210 × 0.0022

0.25 fc,u

fr,h = max ; 0.43εc Es

ρse (κ −10)

0.25×30

= max ; 0.43× 0.0022 × 210, 000 = 199 N/mm 2

0.001(65 −10)

The effective lateral confining pressure for PCC from the hoops is:

εc,p = 1 + 35 εc = 1 + 35 × 0.0022 = 0.0024

fc,u 30

Design examples 15

Factor:

ke′ = = = 0.69

Ac,f 40, 927

Factor:

tf2

ka = = 0.0072

3l 2

The effective lateral confining pressure from the steel section is:

εc,p = 1 + 35 l,h εc = 1 + 35 × 0.0022 = 0.006

fc,u 30

To ensure the yield strain of steel is less than the compressive strain

of concrete, the maximum steel strength can be determined accordingly.

The real stress of the steel flange in partially confined concrete is:

The real stress of the steel web in highly confined concrete is:

The steel strength in partially confined concrete is lower than the yield

strength of steel, 550 N/mm2. The confinement pressure is insufficient to

ensure the utilization of steel’s full strength. A higher confinement level

16 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

is needed. Thus, the conservative value of the steel flange is taken as the

steel strength in the following design.

Then, the design strength of steel is:

fy 504

fyd = = = 504 N/mm 2

γM 1.0

The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,

reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in Section

“Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4

Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd

= (17, 440 × 504 + 0.85× 230, 048× 20 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 13, 792 kN

δ= = = 0.64

N pl,Rd 13, 792

Long-term effects

The creep coefficient is 2.64 (refer to design example 1, Section “Steel-

reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material”).

E

long-term effects

The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec,eff due to long-term effects is

14.22 GPa (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with

normal-strength material”).

Design examples 17

The effective elastic flexural stiffness (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced

concrete column with normal-strength material”) is:

(EI)eff,y = 1.25 × 1011 kN mm2

(EI)eff,z = 8.04 × 1010 kN mm2

Refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material”:

Ncry = 77,000 kN

Ncrz = 49,600 kN

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (17, 440 × 504 + 0.85× 230, 048×30 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 15, 912 kN

λy = = = 0.45

N cry 77, 000

λz = = = 0.57

N crz 49, 600

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. So:

( ( )

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.45 − 0.2) + 0.452 ] = 0.65

18 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.57 − 0.2) + 0.572 ] = 0.75

1 1

χy = = = 0.90

Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.65 + 0.652 − 0.452

y y

1 1

χz = = = 0.81

Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.75 + 0.752 − 0.572

z z

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.81×13, 793 = 11,172 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

Compared to the SRC column with steel grade S355, the buckling

resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,S550 11,172

= = 1.20

N b,Rd,S355 9292

S550 is increased by 20% compared to the resistance of the column with

S355 steel.

S

high-strength concrete and steel

Steel grade S550 and concrete class C90/105 are used in this design

example. Other design data are the same as in Section “Steel-reinforced

concrete column with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column

length; dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and

reinforcement; and so on.

Design examples 19

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class

C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach

its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate

strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops

and steel section.

The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete

C90/105 are:

fck = 72 N/mm2; fcd = 48 N/mm2; Ecm = 41.1 GPa;

The design strength of steel is:

fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2;

The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,

reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in Section

“Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4

Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd

= (17, 440 × 550 + 0.85× 230, 048× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 20, 070 kN

δ= = = 0.85

N pl,Rd 11,195

Long-term effects

The creep coefficient is 1.30 (refer to design example 2, Section “Steel-

reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete”).

20 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

E

long-term effects

The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec,eff due to long-term effects is

24.9 GPa (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-

strength concrete”).

The effective elastic flexural stiffness (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced

concrete column with high-strength concrete”) is:

(EI)eff,y = 1.56 × 1011 kNmm2

(EI)eff,z = 1.13 × 1011 kNmm2

Refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength

concrete”:

Ncry = 96,100 kN

Ncrz = 69,500 kN

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (17, 440 × 550 + 0.85× 230, 048× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 24, 927 kN

λy = = = 0.51

N cry 96,100

λz = = = 0.60

N crz 69, 500

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve

c is applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The

Design examples 21

curve c. So:

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.51 − 0.2) + 0.512 ] = 0.68

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.60 − 0.2) + 0.602 ] = 0.78

1 1

χy = = = 0.88

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.68 + 0.682 − 0.512

1 1

χz = = = 0.79

Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.78 + 0.782 − 0.602

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.79× 20, 070 = 15, 855 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

Compared to the SRC column with normal-strength material S355 and

C30/37, the buckling resistance ratio is:

= = 1.71

N b,Rd,N 9292

S550 and high-strength concrete C90/105 is increased by 71% compared

to the resistance of the column with normal-strength steel S355 and

normal-strength concrete C30/37.

22 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Alternative design

Alternatively, the column size can be reduced when high-strength steel

and concrete materials are used, but the buckling resistance is almost

the same as in design example 1 in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete

column with normal-strength material.”

Design data

Concrete C90/105

Properties of cross-section

Concrete depth hc = 400 mm

Concrete width bc = 400 mm

Concrete cover c = 30 mm

Cover cy = 71.9 mm

Cover cz = 69.9 mm

254 × 254 UC 89

Depth h = 260.3 mm

Width b = 256.3 mm

Flange thickness tf = 27.3 mm

Web thickness tw = 10.3 mm

Fillet r = 12.7 mm

Section area Aa = 113.3 cm2

Second moment of area/y Iay = 14,270 cm4

Second moment of area/z Iaz = 4857 cm4

Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 1224 cm3

Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 575 cm3

reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class

Design examples 23

C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach

its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate

strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops

and steel section.

The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete

C90/105 are:

fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2

The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,

reinforcement, and concrete are:

Iay = 142.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 48.57 × 106 mm4

Isy = 42.39 × 106 mm4, Isz = 42.39 × 106 mm4

Icy = 1948 × 106 mm4, Icz = 2042 × 106 mm4

As 2512

ρs = = = 1.7%

Ac 146,158

The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 69.9 mm >

maximum (40 mm; bf/6).

Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

24 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

= (11, 330 × 550 + 0.85×146,158× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 13, 287 kN

δ= = = 0.47 < 0.9

N pl,Rd 13, 287

Long-term effects

The notional size of the cross-section is:

h0 = 2Ac/u = 183 mm

Coefficient:

35 0.7 35 0.7

α1 = = = 0.56

fcm 72 + 8

35 0.2 35 0.2

α2

= = = 0.85

fcm 80

35 0.5 35 0.5

α3 = = = 0.66

fcm 80

Factor:

1 − RH /100

ϕRH = 1 + α1 α2

0.13 h0

1 − 50/100

= 1 + × 0.56 × 0.85 = 1.27

3

0.1 183

16.8 16.8

β( fcm ) = = = 1.88

fcm 80

1 1

β(t0 ) = = = 0.56

0.20

(0.1 + t0 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )

Design examples 25

Factor:

β (t , t 0 ) = = = 1.0

(βH + t − t0 ) (440 + ∞−14)

Ecm 41.1

Ec,eff = = = 24.6 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)×1.34

π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×6.73×1010

N cry = = = 41, 500 kN

L2y 42 ×106

π2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 × 4.89×1010

N crz = = = 30, 200 kN

L2z 42 ×106

26 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk 16, 432

λy = = = 0.63

N cry 41, 500

λz = = = 0.74

N crz 30, 200

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. So:

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.63 − 0.2) + 0.632 ] = 0.77

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.74 − 0.2) + 0.742 ] = 0.90

1 1

χy = = = 0.82

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.77 + 0.772 − 0.632

1 1

χz = = = 0.70

Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.90 + 0.902 − 0.742

z z

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

Design examples 27

= 0.70 ×13, 287 = 9300 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

Compared to the SRC column with normal-strength materials S355

and C30/37, the buckling resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,H 9300

= ≈ 1.0

N b,Rd,N 9292

The buckling resistance is almost the same as that of the SRC column

with normal-strength materials S355 and C30/37.

The cross-section area ratio of the SRC column is:

AH 400 × 400

= = 0.64

AN 500 × 500

S550 and C90/105 is reduced by 36% compared to the SRC column with

S355 steel and C30/37 concrete. Similarly, the amount of the steel section

is also reduced by 36% compared to the SRC column with normal-

strength material.

S

SUBJECTED TO COMBINED COMPRESSION

AND BENDING

bending about the major axis.

S

normal-strength material

Design data

Permanent load NG,Ed = 4000 kN

Design moment Mb,y = 300 kNm

Mt,y = 200 kNm

Continued

28 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Effective length Leff = 4.0 m

Structural steel Grade S355, fy = 355 N/mm2

Concrete C50/60, fck = 50 N/mm2

Reinforcement fsk = 500 N/mm2

Properties of cross-section:

Concrete depth hc = 500 mm

Concrete width bc = 500 mm

Concrete cover c = 30 mm

Cover cy = 96.3 mm

Cover cz = 92.8 mm

Section properties of steel section

305 × 305 UC 118

Depth h = 314.5 mm

Width b = 307.4 mm

Flange thickness tf = 18.7 mm

Web thickness tw = 12 mm

Fillet r = 15.2 mm

Section area Aa = 150.2 cm2

Second moment of area/y Iay = 272,670 cm4

Second moment of area/z Iaz = 9059 cm4

Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 1958 cm3

Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 895 cm3

Reinforcement

reinforcement dl,s = 20 mm

Transverse reinforcement diameter dt,s = 10 mm,

spacing s = 200 mm

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete

class C50/60 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel

can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches

its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the

lateral hoops and steel section.

Design examples 29

Then, the design strengths of the steel, concrete, and reinforcement are:

fy 355

fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2

γM 1.0

fck 50

fcd = = = 33.3 N/mm 2

γ C 1.5

fsk 500

fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2

γS 1.15

Ecm = 37 Gpa

Ea = 210 Gpa

Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2

Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4

Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

As 2512

ρs = = = 1.1%

Ac 232, 468

The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 92.8 mm > maximum

(40 mm; bf/6).

Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

30 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468×33.3 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 13, 011 kN

δ= = = 0.41 < 0.9

N pl,Rd 13, 011

Long-term effects

The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 28 days. The age of

concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative

humidity RH is taken as 50%.

The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 232, 468

h0 = = = 232 mm

u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

35 0.7 35 0.7

α1 = = = 0.70

fcm 58

35 0.2 35 0.2

α2 = = = 0.90

fcm 58

35 0.5 35 0.5

α3 = = = 0.78

fcm 58

Factor:

1 − RH /100 1 − 50/100

ϕRH = 1 + α1 α2 = 1 + × 0.70 × 0.90 = 1.41

0.1 h0

3

3

0.1 232

16.8 16.8

β( fcm ) = = = 2.21

fcm 58

Design examples 31

1 1

β(t0 ) = = = 0.49

(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 280.20 )

Factor:

t − t0 0.3 ∞− 28 0.3

β (t , t 0 ) = = = 1.0

(βH + t − t0 ) (543 + ∞− 28)

Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered

in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of

elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 37

Ec,eff = = = 22.2 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 / 9000)×1.53

The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term

effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy

= 210 × 276.7×106 + 0.6 × 22.2 × 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106

= 1.38×1011 kN mm 2

32 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

= 210 × 90.6 ×106 + 0.6 × 22.2 × 5042 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106

= 1.01×1011 kN mm 2

π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.38×1011

N cry = = = 85,100 kN

L2y 42 ×106

π 2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.01×1011

N crz = = = 62, 500 kN

L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 50 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 16, 468 kN

N pl,Rk 16, 468

λy = = = 0.44

N cry 85,100

λz = = = 0.51

N crz 62, 500

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN

1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.44 − 0.2) + 0.442 ] = 0.64

Design examples 33

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.51 − 0.2) + 0.512 ] = 0.71

1 1

χy = = = 0.91

Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.64 + 0.642 − 0.442

y y

1 1

χz = = = 0.84

Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.71 + 0.712 − 0.512

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.84 ×13, 011 = 10, 929 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

Interaction curve

The polygonal interaction diagram for major-axis bending is calculated,

using the notation shown in Figure 2.

The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0

NA = Npl,Rd = 13,011 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)

Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 −

tf ), the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,

34 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

bc

ez B B

hc

D D

h hc

hc

C C

hn =

2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )

232, 468× 0.85×33.3 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85×33.3)

= = 136 mm

2 × 500 × 0.85×33.3 + 2 ×12 ×(2 ×355 − 0.85×33.3)

Hence,

h

hn = 136 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm

2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis

lies in the web of the steel section.

The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and

concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3

Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm

1

si i

6 3

Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106

4 4

= 28.915×106 mm 3

Design examples 35

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

= 9.026 ×106 mm 3

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd

= (1.958 − 0.222)×355 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435

+ 0.5×(28.915 − 9.026)× 0.85×33.3 = 1062 kNm

The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance

of concrete. The value is determined from:

The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

= 355×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85×33.3× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768

= 1268 kNm

Table 1. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 3.

C

in combined compression and uniaxial bending

The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is

determined from:

36 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)

A 0 13,011

B 1062 0

C 1062 6850

D 1268 3425

15,000

A

12,000

Axial load (kN)

9000

C

6000

D

3000

B

0

0 300 600 900 1200 1500

Moment (kNm)

×106 + 0.5× 22.2

= 0.9×(210 × 276.7×

π 2 ( EI )eff,II,y π 2 ×1.15×1011

N cr,y,eff = = = 70, 600 kN

L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for major axis, so the second-order effects

must be considered for the moment from first-order analysis and the

moment from imperfection.

The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN

1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

Design examples 37

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and

imperfection are calculated by:

moment from member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0

kimp,y = = = 1.15

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:

r = 200/300 = 0.667

Then, the factor β is:

β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95

thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95

ky = = = 1.09

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70600

= 557 kNm

µd = = = 0.65

N pl,Rd − N pm,Rd 13, 011 − 6850

Thus,

= = = 0.81 < 0.9

M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 0.65×1062

bending is satisfied.

38 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

S

high-strength concrete

The concrete class C90/105 is used in this design example. Other

design data are same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column

with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column length; steel

strength; and dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section,

and reinforcement.

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class

C90/105 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach

its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate

strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops

and steel section.

For high-strength concrete with fck > 50 N/mm 2 , the effective

compressive strength of concrete should be used in accordance with EC2.

The effective strength is:

fck 72

fcd = = = 48 N/mm 2

γ C 1.5

Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2

Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4

Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

Design examples 39

= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 15, 909 kN

δ= = = 0.34 < 0.9

N pl,Rd 15, 909

Long-term effects

The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 28 days. The age of

concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative

humidity RH is taken as 50%.

The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 232, 468

h0 = = = 232 mm

u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

35 0.7 35 0.7

α1

= = = 0.56

fcm 80

35 0.2 35 0.2

α2 = = = 0.85

fcm 80

35 0.5 35 0.5

α3

= = = 0.66

fcm 80

Factor:

1 − RH /100 1 − 50 /100

ϕRH = 1 + α1 α2 = 1 + × 0.56 × 0.85 = 1.24

0.13 h0 3

0.1 232

16.8 16.8

β( fcm ) = = = 1.88

fcm 80

40 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

1 1

β(t0 ) = = = 0.49

(0.1 + t0 )

0.20

( 0 .1 + 280.20 )

Factor:

t − t0 0.3 ∞− 28 0.3

β (t , t 0 ) = = = 1.0

(βH + t − t0 ) (513 + ∞− 28)

Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered

in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of

elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 41.1

Ec,eff = = = 27.2 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 / 9000)×1.14

The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term

effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy

= 210 × 276.7×106 + 0.6 × 27.2 × 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106

= 1.53×1011 kN mm 2

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz

= 210 × 90.6 ×106 + 0.6 × 27.2 × 5042 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106

= 1.17×1011 kN mm 2

Design examples 41

π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.53×1011

N cry = = = 94, 200 kN

L2y 42 ×106

π 2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.17×1011

N crz = = = 71, 900 kN

L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 20, 815 kN

N pl,Rk 20, 815

λy = = = 0.47

N cry 94, 200

λz = = = 0.54

N crz 71, 900

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN

1993-1-1, the factor is:

( ( )

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.47 − 0.2) + 0.472 ] = 0.66

( ( )

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.54 − 0.2) + 0.542 ] = 0.73

42 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

1 1

χy = = = 0.90

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.472

1 1

χz = = = 0.82

Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.73 + 0.732 − 0.542

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.82 ×15, 909 = 13, 045 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

Interaction curve

Point A (0, Npl,Rd)

The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0

NA = Npl,Rd = 15,909 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)

Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange of the steel section

(h/2 − tf < hn ≤ h/2), the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn,

Asn = 628 mm2, so,

Neutral axis in the flange, h/2 − tf < hn < h/2

hn =

2bcαc fcd + 2b(2 fyd − αc fcd )

232, 468× 0.85× 48 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85× 48)

+(307.4 −12)(314.5 − 2 ×18.7)(2 ×355 − 0.85× 48)

=

2 × 500 × 0.85× 48 + 2 ×307.4 ×(2 ×355 − 0.85× 48)

= 141mm

Design examples 43

Hence,

h

hn = 141 mm < = 157 mm

2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis

lies in the flange of the steel section.

The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and

concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3

si i

6 3

Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106

4 4

= 28.915×106 mm 3

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

(b − t w ) (h − 2tf2 )

Wpa,n = bhn2 −

4

(307.4 −12)(314.5 − 2 ×18.7)2

= 307.4 ×1412 − = 0.441×106

4

= 9.5×106 mm 3

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5 (Wpc − Wpc,n ) αc fcd

= (1.958 − 0.441)×355 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435

+ 0.5×(28.915 − 9.5)× 0.85× 48 = 1099 kNm

44 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance

of concrete. The value is determined from:

The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

= 355×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85× 48× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768

= 1499 kNm

in Table 2. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 4.

C

in combined compression and uniaxial bending

The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is

determined from:

×106 + 0.5× 27.2

= 0.9×(210 × 276.7×

× 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106 )

= 1.26 ×1011 kN mm 2

Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)

A 0 15,909

B 1099 0

C 1099 9485

D 1499 4742

Design examples 45

20,000

A

15,000

Axial load (kN)

10,000 C

5000 D

B

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Moment (kNm)

N cr,y,eff = = = 77, 400 kN

L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order

effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis

and the moment from imperfection.

The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and

imperfection are calculated by:

moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0

kimp,y = = = 1.13

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

46 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:

r = 200/300 = 0.667

The factor β is:

β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95

Thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95

ky = = = 1.08

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

= 550 kNm

2( N pm,Rd − N Ed ) M max,Rd

µd = 1 + −1

N pm,Rd M pl,Rd

2 ×(9485 − 9000) 1499

= 1+ −1 = 1.04

9485 1099

Thus,

= = = 0.48 < 0.9

M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 1.04 ×1099

is satisfied.

Steel-reinforced concrete column with

high-strength steel

The steel grade S550 is used in this design example. Other design data are

same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength

material,” such as loading; column length; concrete strength; and dimensions

of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.

Design examples 47

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class

C50/60 and steel grade S550) are not strain compatible. Therefore, high-

strength concrete reaches its peak strain much earlier than the yield strain

of steel. This implies that concrete will fail earlier than steel, resulting in a

partial utilization of steel strength. Using the strain-compatibility method,

the strength of steel is limited to the stress corresponding to the crushing

strain of concrete. The confinement effect from the lateral hoops and steel

section is considered as follows.

Longitudinal reinforcement ratio:

As

ρs = = 1.1%

Ac

∑

n

1 −

((bi )2 / 6bchc )(1 − (s / 2bc ))(1 − (s / 2hc ))

i=1

ke = = 0.5135

1 − ρs

fc,u 50

κ= = = 100

ρse Esεc 0.001× 210 × 0.0025

0.25 fc,u

fr,h = max ; 0.43εc Es

ρse (κ −10)

0.25× 50

= max ; 0.43× 0.0025× 210, 000 = 223 N/mm 2

0.001(100 −10)

48 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The effective lateral confining pressure for PCC from the hoops is:

f 1.2 0.223 1.2

εc,p = 1 + 35 l,p εc = 1 + 35 × 0.0025 = 0.0026

fc,u 50

Factor:

Ac,f − Ac,r 40, 927 −12, 797

ke′ = = = 0.69

Ac,f 40, 927

Factor:

tf2

ka = = 0.0053

3l 2

The effective lateral confining pressure from the steel section is:

εc,p = 1 + 35 l,h εc = 1 + 35 × 0.0025 = 0.004

fc,u 50

strain of concrete, the maximum steel strength can be determined

accordingly.

The real stress of the steel flange in partially confined concrete is:

Design examples 49

The real stress of the steel web in highly confined concrete is:

The steel strength in partially confined concrete is lower than the yield

strength of steel, 550 N/mm2. The confinement pressure is insufficient to

ensure the utilization of steel’s full strength. A higher confinement level

is needed. Thus, the conservative value of the steel flange is taken as the

steel strength in the following design.

Then, the design strengths of steel is:

fy 546

fyd = = = 546 N/mm 2

γM 1.0

Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2

Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4

Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

= (15, 020 × 546 + 0.85× 232, 468×33.3 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 15, 880 kN

δ= = = 0.52 < 0.9

N pl,Rd 15, 880

Long-term effects

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = 1.53

50 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm

Ec,eff = = 22.2 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt

The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term

effects is:

π 2 ( EI )eff,y

N cry = = 85,100 kN

L2y

π 2 ( EI )eff,z

N crz = = 62, 500 kN

L2z

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (15, 020 × 546 + 0.85× 232, 468× 50 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 19, 337 kN

λy = = = 0.48

N cry 85,100

Design examples 51

λz = = = 0.56

N crz 62, 500

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN

1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.48 − 0.2) + 0.482 ] = 0.66

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.56 − 0.2) + 0.562 ] = 0.74

1 1

χy = = = 0.89

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.482

1 1

χz = = = 0.81

Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.74 + 0.742 − 0.562

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so

= 0.81×15, 880 = 12, 863 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

52 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Interaction curve

Point A (0, Npl,Rd)

The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0

NA = Npl,Rd = 15,880 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)

Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 − tf),

the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,

hn =

2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )

232, 468× 0.85×33.3 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85×33.3)

= = 113 mm

2 × 500 × 0.85×33.3 + 2 ×12 ×(2 × 546 − 0.85×33.3)

Hence,

h

hn = 113 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm

2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis

lies in the web of the steel section.

The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and

concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3

Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm

1

si i

6 3

Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106

4 4

= 28.915×106 mm 3

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Design examples 53

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

= 6.23×106 mm 3

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd

= (1.958 − 0.153)× 546 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435

+ 0.5×(28.915 − 6.23)× 0.85×33.3 = 1470 kNm

The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance

of concrete. The value is determined from:

The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

= 546 ×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85×33.3× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768

= 1642 kNm

in Table 3. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 5.

Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)

A 0 15,880

B 1470 0

C 1470 6850

D 1642 3425

54 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

20,000

A

15,000

Axial load (kN)

10,000

C

5000

D

B

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Moment (kNm)

C

in combined compression and uniaxial bending

The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is

determined from:

π 2 ( EI ) eff,II,y π 2 ×1.15×1011

N cr,y,eff = = = 70, 600 kN

L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order

effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis

and the moment from imperfection.

The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and the

imperfection are calculated by:

Design examples 55

moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0

kimp,y = = = 1.15

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

so the ratio of the end moment is:

r = 200/300 = 0.667

Then, the factor β is:

β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95

thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95

ky = = = 1.09

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

= 557 kNm

µd = = = 0.76

N pl,Rd − N pm,Rd 15, 880 − 6850

Thus,

= = = 0.5 < 0.9

M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 0.76 ×1470

bending is satisfied.

56 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

S

high-strength materials

Steel grade S550 and concrete class C90/105 are used in this design

example. Other design data are same as in Section “Steel-reinforced

concrete column with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column

length; dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and

reinforcement; and so on.

According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain

compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete

class C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel

can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches

its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the

lateral hoops and steel section.

The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete

C90/105 are:

The design strength of steel is:

fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2;

Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2

Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4

Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4

Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in

compression is:

= (15, 020 × 550 + 0.85× 232, 468× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3

= 18, 838 kN

Design examples 57

δ= = = 0.44 < 0.9

N pl,Rd 18, 838

Long-term effects

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = 1.14

The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm

Ec,eff = = 27.2 kN/mm 2

1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt

The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term

effects is:

π 2 ( EI )eff,y

N cry = = 94, 200 kN

L2y

π 2 ( EI )eff,z

N crz = = 71, 900 kN

L2z

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

= (15, 020 × 550 + 0.85× 232, 468× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103

= 23, 744 kN

58 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

N pl,Rk 23, 744

λy = = = 0.50

N cry 94, 200

λz = = = 0.57

N crz 71, 900

Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is

applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection

factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN

1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (

Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.50 − 0.2) + 0.502 ] = 0.68

( (

Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )

= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.57 − 0.2) + 0.572 ] = 0.76

1 1

χy = = = 0.88

Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.68 + 0.682 − 0.502

1 1

χz = = = 0.80

Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.76 + 0.762 − 0.572

z z

Buckling resistance

The minor axis is the more critical, so,

Design examples 59

Interaction curve

Point A (0, Npl,Rd)

The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0

NA = Npl,Rd = 18,838 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)

Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 − tf),

the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,

hn =

2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )

23, 2468× 0.85× 48 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85× 48)

= = 136 mm

2 × 500 × 0.85× 48 + 2 ×12 ×(2 × 550 − 0.85× 48)

Hence,

h

hn = 136 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm

2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis

lies in the web of the steel section.

The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and

concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3

Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm

1

si i

6 3

Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106

4 4

= 28.915×106 mm 3

60 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

= 9.026 ×106 mm 3

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd

= (1.958 − 0.222)× 550 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435

+0.5×(28.915 − 9.026)× 0.85× 48 = 1524 kNm

The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance

of concrete. The value is determined from:

The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

= 550 ×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85× 48× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768

= 1723 kNm

in Table 4. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 6.

Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)

A 0 18,838

B 1524 0

C 1524 9485

D 1723 4742

Design examples 61

25,000

20,000 A

Axial load (kN)

15,000

10,000 C

5000 D

B

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Moment (kNm)

C

in combined compression and uniaxial bending

The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is

determined from:

N cr,y,eff = = = 77, 400 kN

L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order

effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis

and the moment from the imperfection.

The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1

is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

62 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and the

imperfection are calculated by:

moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0

kimp,y = = = 1.13

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:

r = 200/300 = 0.667

Then, the factor β is:

β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95

Thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95

ky = = = 1.08

1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

= 550 kNm

2 ( N pm,Rd − N Ed ) M max,Rd

µd = 1 + −1

N pm,Rd M pl,Rd

2 ×(99485 − 9000) 1723

= 1+ −1 = 1.01

9485 1524

Thus,

= = = 0.36 < 0.9

M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 1.01×1524

Design examples 63

bending is satisfied.

S

WITH DIFFERENT DEGREE OF CONFINEMENT

column was conducted to study the effect of confinement on the strength

of the column.

Original design

Figure 7 shows the original design of SRC columns from a practical

project. In the original design, the concrete cylinder strength was 50 MPa

and the yield strengths of the steel and rebar were 355 and 500 MPa,

respectively. The diameter and spacing of the transverse reinforcement

(hoops) were 10 and 200 mm, respectively. The diameter of the

longitudinal reinforcement was 25 mm.

High-strength concrete

High-strength concrete (90 MPa) was proposed as an alternative design.

Thus, the concrete and reinforcement bar amounts are reduced and the

arrangement is revised. As a result, the dimension of the column is

reduced, as shown in Figure 8.

(a)

(b)

1200 mm

(c)

900 mm

600 mm

Φ10@200 Φ10@200 Φ10@200

Figure 7 Original design (S355 steel and C50/60 concrete). (a) N1, (b) N2,

(c) N3.

64 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

(a)

(b)

(c)

900 mm

700 mm

480 mm

900 mm 700 mm 480 mm

Φ10@200 Φ10@200 Φ10@200

Figure 8 Alternative design with S355 steel and C90/105 concrete. (a) normal

strength steel and High strength concrete (NH)1, (b) NH2, (c) NH3.

High-strength concrete (90 MPa) with high-strength steel (690 MPa)

was proposed as an alternative design. Thus, the concrete and steel

amounts were reduced and their arrangement was revised, as shown

in Figure 9. To develop the full strength of steel, the spacing of the

transverse reinforcement was made smaller than the original design

(a)

(b)

(c)

900 mm

700 mm

480 mm

Φ10@75 Φ10@100 Φ10@65

Figure 9 Alternative design with S690 steel and C90/105 concrete. (a) HH1,

(b) HH2, (c) HH3.

Design examples 65

Concrete Concrete

Steel Steel

4.0 2.4 Rebar

Rebar

3.0 1.8

2.0 1.2

1.0 0.6

0.0 0.0

N1 NH1 HH1 N2 NH2 HH2

(c) 1.5

Concrete

1.2 Steel

Rebar

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.0

N3 NH3 HH3

(c) N3,NH3,HH3.

smaller spacing of the hoops can lead to congestion, which is a practical

concern that needs to be addressed.

Figure 10 shows the comparison of the concrete, steel, and rebar

amounts of different cross-sections. There is a reduction of 47% (1.5 tons

per meter) in the amount of concrete by adopting high-strength concrete

C90/105. There is a reduction of 46% (0.3 ton per meter) in the amount

of structural steel by adopting high-strength steel S690. However, the

transverse reinforcement amount increases, as the spacing of the hoops is

smaller than the original design. The transverse reinforcement increases

by 200% (0.03 ton per meter) by adopting an S690 steel section, as shown

in Figure 10a. Similarly, for original cross-sections N2 and N3, similar

results can also be obtained. The concrete and steel amounts are reduced

significantly by adopting high-strength material, but the amount of

transverse reinforcement is increased by adopting an S690 steel section.

Nevertheless, the total amount of concrete and steel (structural and

reinforcing steel) is reduced significantly.

Figure 11 shows the effect of the spacing and diameter of links on

the steel stress of the three types of SRC columns (high strength steel

66 Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Φ = 12 mm

Φ = 10 mm

Φ = 10 mm

Φ = 8 mm

Φ = 8 mm

Stress (MPa)

Stress (MPa)

650 650

600 600

550 550

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Spacing (mm) Spacing (mm)

(c) 700

Φ = 12 mm

Φ = 10 mm

Φ = 8 mm

Stress (MPa)

650

600

550

0 100 200 300 400 500

Spacing (mm)

Figure 11 Effect of spacing and diameter of links. (a) HH1, (b) HH2, (c) HH3.

C70 C70

Steel stress (MPa)

600 600

550 550

500 500

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500

Spacing (mm) Spacing (mm)

C70

Steel stress (MPa)

650 C50

600

550

500

0 100 200 300 400 500

Spacing (mm)

Figure 12 Effect of spacing of links and concrete strength. (a) HH1, (b) HH2,

(c) HH3.

Design examples 67

and high strength concrete [HH]1, HH2, and HH3). It indicates that the

real stress of steel increases with the increase in the diameter of the

transverse reinforcement when the spacing of links takes a certain value.

The steel stress increases with the decreasing of the spacing of links due

to insufficient lateral confinement, which has been verified in parametric

study. For the three types of SRC columns, if the spacing of the hoops

is same as the original design (200 mm); the real stress of steel grade

S690 is about 600–650 MPa depending on the diameter of the hoops.

For a large spacing of 400 mm, the real stress of steel grade S690 is

590–610 MPa depending on the diameter of the links and the dimensions

of the column.

Concrete strength also has an effect on the stress in steel according to

the strain-compatibility method because the strains of different concrete

classes are different. Figure 12 shows the effect of the spacing of links

and concrete cylinder strength on the real stress in steel. It is indicated

that the real stress of steel increases with the increasing of the concrete

cylinder strength for these three types of SRC columns. The stress in the

steel section increases according to the stress–strain relationship of steel

even though the lateral confinement pressure is the same. Therefore, for the

same arrangement of the reinforcement bar, the stress in steel can reach a

higher value when a higher-strength concrete is used in the SRC columns.

Appendix A: Design resistance of

shear connectors

69

Table A.1 Design resistance of shear connectors

Dimension of

connectors Design resistance of shear studs PRd (kN)

d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105

70 Appendix A

16 50 37.3 43.1 48.8 53.5 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

75 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

100 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

125 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

150 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

175 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

200 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

225 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

250 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9

19 50 46.3 53.6 60.5 66.4 72.0 77.4 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

75 63.1 73.0 81.2 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

100 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

125 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

150 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

175 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

200 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

225 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

250 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

(Continued)

Table A.1 (Continued) Design resistance of shear connectors

Dimension of

connectors Design resistance of shear studs PRd (kN)

d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105

275 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

300 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

325 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

350 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7

22 50 56.0 64.7 73.1 80.2 87.0 93.5 100.0 106.3 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

75 75.4 87.2 98.5 108.0 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

100 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

125 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

150 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

175 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

200 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

225 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

250 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

275 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

300 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

325 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

350 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5

(Continued)

Appendix A 71

Table A.1 (Continued) Design resistance of shear connectors

Dimension of

72 Appendix A

d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105

25 50 66.3 76.6 86.6 94.9 102.9 110.7 118.3 125.8 133.1 141.4 141.4

75 88.3 102.1 115.4 126.5 137.3 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

100 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

125 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

150 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

175 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

200 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

225 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

250 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

275 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

300 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

325 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

350 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4

Note: fu = 450 N/mm2.

Appendix B: Design chart

is summarized in the chart given in Figure B.1 whereas the design

process for SRC column subjected to axial compression and bending is

summarized in the chart given in Figure B.2.

73

74 Appendix B

Determine the material properties of steel and concrete, Is high strength steel or

high strength concrete adopted?

Yes

No

Yes strength of high

strength steel

Is NEd ≤ χNpl,Rd?

Yes

No

See B2

Appendix B 75

Yes No

Determine Mpl,a,Rd and Mpl,Rd, and No Determine the interaction curve for

hence Va,Ed and Vc,Ed. Is Va,Ed > the cross-section.

0.5Vpl,a,Rd?

Yes

Yes No

maximum first-order Calculate Find MEd,max by

bending moment within second-order analysis

Ncr,eff = π2(EI)eff,II/L2

the column length. of the pin-ended

find β for end moments

If MEd,1 = MEd,2 it is column length with

MEd,top and MEd,bot and force NEd and end

MEd,max = MEd,1 + NEde0

hence k (=k1); find k2 for moments MEd,1 and

β = 1; MEd,2.

find the design moment for

the column,

MEd,max = k1MEd + k2NEde0

From NEd and the interaction diagrams, find µdy and µdz. Check that the cross-

section can resist My,Ed,max and Mz,Ed,max.

bending.

Index

Axial compression Concrete class C90/105, 8, 18, 38, 56

design for SRC column subjected Concrete strength, 67

to, 74 Confinement effective coefficient, 47

steel-reinforced concrete column Creep coefficient, 49, 57

subjected to, 13

Degree of confinement, steel-

Bending resistance, 53, 60 reinforced concrete column

Buckling reduction factor with, 63

high-strength concrete, 12–13, high-strength concrete, 63–64

20–21, 26, 41–42 high-strength steel and concrete,

high-strength materials, 58 64–67

high-strength steel, 17–18, 20–21, original design, 63

26, 51 Design chart, 73

normal-strength material, 7–8, design for SRC column subjected

32–33 to axial compression, 74

Buckling resistance design for SRC column subjected

high-strength concrete, 13, 21, to combined compression

26–27, 42 and bending, 75

high-strength materials, 58–59 Design resistance of shear

high-strength steel, 18, 21, 26–27, connectors, 69–72

51

normal-strength material, 8, 33 Effective compressive strength and

elastic modulus of concrete

C50/60 concrete, 63, 64 C90/105, 56

C90/105 concrete, 64 Effective flexural stiffness

Combined compression and bending considering second-order effects,

design for SRC column subjected 54, 61

to, 75 high-strength concrete, 11, 20, 25,

steel-reinforced concrete column 40, 57

subjected to, 27 high-strength steel, 17, 20, 25, 50

Combined compression and uniaxial normal-strength material, 6, 31–32

bending, 35–37, 44–46, Effective volume ratio of hoops, 47

54–55, 61–63 Elastic critical force, 45, 61

77

78 Index

high-strength concrete, 11–12, 20, cross-sectional areas, 9, 38

25–26, 41 design strengths and modulus,

high-strength materials, 57 8–9, 38

high-strength steel, 17, 20, with different degree of

25–26, 50 confinement, 63–67

normal-strength material, 7, 32 effective flexural stiffness of

Elastic modulus of concrete cross-section, 11, 40

considering long-term elastic critical normal force,

effects 11–12, 41

high-strength concrete, 11, 20, elastic modulus of concrete

25, 40 considering long-term

high-strength materials, 57 effects, 11, 40

high-strength steel, 16, 20, 25, 50 interaction curve, 42–44

normal-strength material, 6, 31 long-term effects, 10–11, 39–40

EN 1993–1-1, 41, 51 relative slenderness ratio, 12, 41

EN 1994–1-1, 36, 37, 45, 54, 55, 58, resistance checking, 44–46

61, 62 second moments of area, 9, 38

steel contribution factor checking,

High-strength concrete and steel, 9–10, 38–39

steel-reinforced concrete High-strength materials, steel-

column with reinforced concrete column

alternative design, 22 with, 56

buckling reduction factor, 20–21, 26 buckling reduction factor, 58

buckling resistance, 21, 26–27 buckling resistance, 58–59

cross-sectional areas and second cross-sectional areas and second

moments of area, 19, 23 moments of area, 56

design data, 22 design strengths and modulus, 56

design strengths and modulus, 19, effective flexural stiffness of

22–23 cross-section, 57

effective flexural stiffness of elastic critical normal force, 57

cross-section, 20, 25 elastic modulus of concrete

elastic critical normal force, 20, considering long-term

25–26 effects, 57

elastic modulus of concrete interaction curve, 59–61

considering long-term long-term effects, 57

effects, 20, 25 relative slenderness ratio, 58

local buckling checking, 23 resistance checking of steel-

long-term effects, 19, 24–25 reinforced concrete

reinforcement ratio checking, 23 column, 61–63

relative slenderness ratio, 20, 26 steel contribution factor checking,

steel contribution factor checking, 56–57

19, 23–24 High-strength steel, steel-reinforced

High-strength concrete, steel- concrete column with, 13,

reinforced concrete column 46, 64–67

with, 8, 38 buckling reduction factor, 17–18, 51

buckling reduction factor, 12–13, buckling resistance, 18, 51

41–42 cross-sectional areas, 16, 49

Index 79

13–16, 47–49 relative slenderness ratio, 7, 32

effective flexural stiffness of resistance of steel-reinforced

cross-section, 17, 50 concrete column checking,

elastic critical normal force, 17, 50 35–37

elastic modulus of concrete second moments of area, 3–4, 29

considering long-term steel contribution factor checking,

effects, 16, 50 4–5, 29–30

interaction curve, 52–54

long-term effects, 16, 49 Plastic section moduli, 34, 35, 52–53,

relative slenderness ratio, 17, 59, 60

50–51

resistance checking, 54–55 Real stress of hoops, 47

second moments of area, 16, 49 Reinforcement ratio checking

steel contribution factor checking, high-strength concrete and

16, 49 steel, 23

normal-strength material, 4, 29

Interaction curve Relative slenderness ratio

high-strength concrete, 42–44 high-strength concrete, 12, 20,

high-strength materials, 59–61 26, 41

high-strength steel, 52–54 high-strength materials, 58

normal-strength material, 33–35 high-strength steel, 17, 20, 26,

50–51

Local buckling checking normal-strength material, 7, 32

high-strength concrete and steel, 23 Resistance checking of steel-

normal-strength material, 4, 29 reinforced concrete column

Longitudinal reinforcement ratio, high-strength concrete, 44–46

14, 47 high-strength materials, 61–63

high-strength steel, 54–55

Normal-strength material, steel- normal-strength material, 35–37

reinforced concrete column

with, 2, 27 S355 steel grade, 8, 13, 28, 63, 64

buckling reduction factor, 7–8, S550 steel grade, 18, 46, 56

32–33 S690 steel, 64

buckling resistance, 8, 33 Shear connectors, design resistance

cross-sectional areas, 3, 29 of, 69–72

design data, 27–28 SRC columns, 1

design strengths and modulus, design for, 63, 73, 74

2–3, 28–29 Steel contribution factor checking

effective flexural stiffness of high-strength concrete, 9–10, 19,

cross-section, 6, 31–32 23–24, 38–39

elastic critical normal force, 7, 32 high-strength materials, 56–57

elastic modulus of concrete high-strength steel, 16, 19,

considering long-term 23–24, 49

effects, 6, 31 normal-strength material, 4–5,

interaction curve, 33–35 29–30

local buckling checking, 4, 29 Strain of HCC, 48

long-term effects, 5–6, 30–31 Strain of PCC, 48

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