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Design Examples

for High Strength


Steel Reinforced
Concrete Columns
A Eurocode 4 Approach
Design Examples
for High Strength
Steel Reinforced
Concrete Columns
A Eurocode 4 Approach

Sing-Ping Chiew
Yan-Qing Cai
CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Chiew, Sing-Ping, author. | Cai, Y. Q. (Yan Qing), author.


Title: Design of high strength steel reinforced concrete columns : a Eurocode
4 approach / S.P. Chiew and Y.Q. Cai.
Description: Boca Raton : CRC Press, [2018] | Includes bibliographical
references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017057555 (print) | LCCN 2018000768 (ebook) |
ISBN 9781351203944 (Adobe PDF) | ISBN 9781351203937 (ePub) |
ISBN 9781351203920 (Mobipocket) | ISBN 9780815384601
(hardback : acid-free paper) | ISBN 9781351203951 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Composite construction--Specifications--Europe. | Building,
Iron and steel--Specifications--Europe. | Reinforced concrete
construction--Specifications--Europe.
Classification: LCC TA664 (ebook) | LCC TA664 .C48 2018 (print) | DDC
624.1/83425--dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017057555

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Contents

List of symbols xi
Preface xiii
Authors xv

Design examples 1
Steel-reinforced concrete column subjected to axial compression  1
Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-­strength material  2
Design data  2
Design strengths and modulus  2
Cross-sectional areas  3
Second moments of area  3
Check the reinforcement ratio  4
Check the local buckling  4
Check the steel contribution factor  4
Long-term effects  5
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  6
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  6
Elastic critical normal force  7
Relative slenderness ratio  7
Buckling reduction factor  7
Buckling resistance  8
Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete  8
Design strengths and modulus  8
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  9
Check the steel contribution factor  9
Long-term effects  10

v
vi Contents

 lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  11


E
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  11
Elastic critical normal force  11
Relative slenderness ratio  12
Buckling reduction factor  12
Buckling resistance  13
Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength steel  13
Design strengths and modulus  13
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  16
Check the steel contribution factor  16
Long-term effects  16
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  16
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  17
Elastic critical normal force  17
Relative slenderness ratio  17
Buckling reduction factor  17
Buckling resistance  18
Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength
concrete and steel  18
Design strengths and modulus  19
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  19
Check the steel contribution factor  19
Long-term effects  19
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  20
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  20
Elastic critical normal force  20
Relative slenderness ratio  20
Buckling reduction factor  20
Buckling resistance  21
Alternative design  22
Design data  22
Design strengths and modulus  22
Cross-sectional area and second moments of area  23
Check the reinforcement ratio  23
Check the local buckling  23
Check the steel contribution factor  23
Long-term effects  24
Contents vii

 lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term


E
effects  25
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  25
Elastic critical normal force  25
Relative slenderness ratio  26
Buckling reduction factor  26
Buckling resistance  26
Steel-reinforced concrete column subjected to combined
compression and bending  27
Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material  27
Design data  27
Design strengths and modulus  28
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  29
Check the reinforcement ratio  29
Check the local buckling  29
Check the steel contribution factor  29
Long-term effects  30
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  31
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  31
Elastic critical normal force  32
Relative slenderness ratio  32
Buckling reduction factor  32
Buckling resistance  33
Interaction curve  33
Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete
column in combined compression and uniaxial bending  35
Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete  38
Design strengths and modulus  38
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  38
Check the steel contribution factor  38
Long-term effects  39
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  40
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  40
Elastic critical normal force  41
Relative slenderness ratio  41
Buckling reduction factor  41
viii Contents

Buckling resistance  42
Interaction curve  42
Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete
column in combined compression and uniaxial bending  44
Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength steel  46
Design strengths and modulus  47
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  49
Check the steel contribution factor  49
Long-term effects  49
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  50
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  50
Elastic critical normal force  50
Relative slenderness ratio  50
Buckling reduction factor  51
Buckling resistance  51
Interaction curve  52
Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete
column in combined compression and uniaxial bending  54
Steel-reinforced concrete column with
high-strength materials  56
Design strengths and modulus  56
Cross-sectional areas and second moments of area  56
Check the steel contribution factor  56
Long-term effects  57
Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects  57
Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section  57
Elastic critical normal force  57
Relative slenderness ratio  58
Buckling reduction factor  58
Buckling resistance  58
Interaction curve  59
Check the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete
column in combined compression and uniaxial bending  61
Steel-reinforced concrete column with
different degree of confinement  63
Original design  63
Contents ix

High-strength concrete  63
High-strength steel and high-strength concrete  64
Appendix A: Design resistance of shear connectors 69
Appendix B: Design chart 73
Index 77
List of symbols

Aa Area of the structural steel


Ac Area of concrete
Ach Area of highly confined concrete
Acp Area of partially confined concrete
Acu Area of unconfined concrete
As Area of reinforcement
Ea Modulus of elasticity of structural steel
Ec,eff Effective modulus of elasticity of concrete
Ecm Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete
Ec(t) Tangent modulus of elasticity of concrete at time t
Es Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement
(EI)eff Effective flexural stiffness
Ga Shear modulus of structural steel
I Second moment of area of the composite section
Ia Second moment of area of the structural steel
Ic Second moment of area of the concrete
Is Second moment of area of the reinforcement
Ke Correction factor
L Length
MEd Design bending moment
Mpl,a,Rd The plastic resistance moment of the structural steel
Mpl,Rd The plastic resistance moment of the composite section
Ncr Elastic critical force in composite columns
NEd The compressive normal force
Npl,Rd The plastic resistance of the composite section
Npl,Rk Characteristic value of the plastic resistance of the
composite section
Npm,Rd The resistance of the concrete to compressive normal force
PRd The resistance of per shear stud

xi
xii  List of symbols

VEd The shear force


Vpl,a,Rd The shear resistance of the steel section
Wpa The plastic section modulus of the structural steel
Wpc The plastic section modulus of the concrete
Wps The plastic section modulus of the reinforcing steel
bc Width of the composite section
bf Width of the steel flange
cy, cz Thickness of concrete cover
d Diameter of shank of the headed stud
e Eccentricity of loading
fck The cylinder compressive strength of concrete
fcd The design strength of concrete
fc,p The compressive strength of partially confined concrete
fc,h The compressive strength of highly confined concrete
fs The yield strength of reinforcement
fu Tensile strength
fy The yield strength of structural steel
fyd The design strength of structural steel
fyh The yield strength of transverse reinforcement
ha Depth of steel section
hc Depth of composite section
hn Distance from centroidal axis to neutral axis
hsc Overall nominal height of the headed stud
s Spacing center-to-center of links
tf Thickness of steel flange
tw Thickness of the steel web
Δσ Stress range
Ψ Coefficient
α Coefficient; factor
β Factor; coefficient
γ Partial factor
δ Steel contribution ratio
η Coefficient
εc,u Strain of unconfined concrete
εc,p Strain of partially confined concrete
εc,h Strain of highly confined concrete
µ Factors related to bending moments
λ Relative slenderness
ρs Reinforcement ratio
χ Reduction factor of buckling
ϕ Creep coefficient
Preface

This book is the companion volume to Design of High Strength Steel


Reinforced Concrete Columns—A Eurocode 4 Approach.
Guidance is much needed on the design of high strength steel reinforced
concrete (SRC) columns beyond the remit of Eurocode 4 for composite
steel concrete structures. Given the much narrower range of permitted
concrete and steel material strengths in comparison to Eurocode 2 for
concrete structures and Eurocode 3 for steel structures, and the better
ductility and buckling resistance of SRC columns compared to steel or
reinforced concrete, there is a clear need for design beyond the current
guidelines. The design principles to do so are set out in the companion
volume to this book, Design of High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete
Columns—A Eurocode 4 Approach. This book provides a number of
design examples for high strength SRC columns using these principles
which are based on the Eurocode 4 approach. Special considerations are
given to resistance calculations that maximize the full strength of the
materials, with concrete cylinder strength up to 90 N/mm2, yield strength
of structural steel up to 690 N/mm2 and yield strength of reinforcing steel
up to 600 N/mm2 respectively. These design examples will allow the
readers to practice and understand the Eurocode 4 methodology easily.
Structural engineers and designers who are familiar with basic
Eurocode 4 design should find these design examples particularly
helpful, whilst civil engineering students who are studying composite
steel concrete design and construction should gain further understanding
from working through the design examples which are set out clearly in
a step-by-step fashion.

xiii
Authors

Sing-Ping Chiew is a professor and the Civil Engineering Programme


director at the Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore, and coauthor
of Structural Steelwork Design to Limit State Theory, 4th Edition.

Yan-Qing Cai is a project officer in the School of Civil and Environmental


Engineering at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

xv
Design examples

 TEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN


S
SUBJECTED TO AXIAL COMPRESSION

Determine the axial buckling resistance of SRC columns (concrete-


encased I-section) subject to pure compression with an effective length
of 4 m, as shown in Figure 1.

bc

cy cy
b
tw
cz

y
hc
h
lf

cz

Figure 1 Cross-section of SRC column.

1
2  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
normal-strength material
Design data
Design axial force NEd = 8000 kN
Permanent load NG,Ed = 4000 kN
Column length L = 4.0 m
Effective length Leff = 4.0 m
Structural steel Grade S355, fy = 355 N/mm2
Concrete C30/37, fck = 30 N/mm2
Reinforcement fsk = 500 N/mm2
Properties of cross-section
Concrete depth hc = 500 mm
Concrete width bc = 500 mm
Concrete cover c = 30 mm
Cover cy = 95.4 mm
Cover cz = 89.8 mm
Section properties of steel section
305 × 305 UC 137
Depth h = 320.5 mm
Width b = 309.2 mm
Flange thickness tf = 21.7 mm
Web thickness tw = 13.8 mm
Fillet r = 15.2 mm
Section area Aa = 174.4 cm2
Second moment of area/y Iay = 32810 cm4
Second moment of area/z Iaz = 10700 cm4
Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 2297 cm3
Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 1053 cm3

Reinforcement
Longitudinal reinforcement number n = 8, diameter dl,s = 20 mm
Transverse reinforcement diameter dt,s = 10  mm, spacing
s = 200 mm

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete
Design examples  3

class C30/37 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible. Therefore,
the steel section can reach its full strength when the composite concrete
section reaches its ultimate strength, without considering the confinement
effect from the lateral hoops and steel section.
The design strengths of the steel, concrete, and reinforcement are:

fy 355
fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2
γM 1.0

fck 30
fcd = = = 20 N/mm 2
γ C 1.5

fsk 500
fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2
γS 1.15

Ecm = 33 Gpa

Ea = 210 Gpa

Cross-sectional areas
The cross-sectional areas of the steel, reinforcement, and concrete are:

Aa = 17, 440 mm 2

8× π × 202
As = = 2512 mm 2
4

Ac = bchc − Aa − As = 500 × 500 −17, 440 − 2512 = 230, 048 mm 2

Second moments of area

I ay = 328.1×106 mm 4

I az = 107×106 mm 4

n
π × 20 4

I sy = ∑A e
i=1
2
s,i i = 6×
4
× 2002 = 73.56 ×106 mm 4
4  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

n
π × 20 4

I sz = ∑A e
i=1
2
s,i i = 6×
4
× 2002 = 73.56 ×106 mm 4

bchc3
I cy = − I ay − I sy
12
500 × 5003
= − 328.1×106 − 73.56 ×106 = 4805×106 mm 4
12

hcbc3
I cz = − I az − I sz
12
500 × 5003
= −107×106 − 73.56 ×106 = 5026 ×106 mm 4
12

Check the reinforcement ratio


As 2512
ρs = = = 1.1%
Ac 230, 048

The reinforcement ratio is within the range 0.3%–6%.

Check the local buckling


The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 89.8 mm >
maximum (40 mm; bf/6).
Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048× 20 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 11,195 kN
Design examples  5

Aa fyd 17, 440 ×355×10−3


δ= = = 0.55
N pl,Rd 11,195

which is within the permitted range, 0.2 ≤ δ ≤ 0.9.

Long-term effects
The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 14 days. The age of
concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative
humidity RH is taken as 50%.
The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 230, 048
h0 = = = 230 mm
u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

 35 0.7  35 0.7
α1 
=  =   = 0.94
 fcm   30 + 8 

 35 0.2  35 0.2
α2 =   =   = 0.98
 fcm   38 

 35 0.5  35 0.5
α3 
=  =   = 0.96
 fcm   38 

Factor:

 1 − RH /100   1 − 50 /100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α2 = 1 + × 0.94 ×0.98 = 1.73
 0.13 h0  3
0.1 230 
  

16.8 16.8
β( fcm ) = = = 2.73
fcm 38

1 1
β(t0 ) = = = 0.56
(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )
6  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

ϕ0 = ϕRH β ( fcm )β (t0 ) = 1.73× 2.73× 0.56 = 2.64


Factor:

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012RH)18 ] h0 + 250α3

= 1.5 [1 + (0.012 × 50)18 ]× 230 + 250 × 0.96 = 585

 t − t0  0.3  ∞−14  0.3


β (t , t 0 ) =   =  = 1.0
 (βH + t − t0 )   (585 + ∞−14) 

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = ϕ0βc (t , t0 ) = 2.64 ×1.0 = 2.64


E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered
in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 33
Ec,eff = = = 14.22 kN/mm 2
  1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)× 2.64

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term
effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy


= 210×328.1×106 + 0.6×14.22×4805×106 + 210×73.56×106
= 1.25×1011 kN mm 2

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz


= 210 ×107×106 + 0.6 ×14.22 × 5026 ×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106
= 8.04 ×1010 kN mm 2
Design examples  7

Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.25×1011
N cry = = = 77, 000 kN
L2y 42 ×106

π 2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×8.04 ×1010


N crz = = = 49, 600 kN
L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048×30 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 13, 313 kN

Relative slenderness ratio

N pl,Rk 13, 313


λy = = = 0.42
N cry 77, 000

N pl,Rk 13, 313


λz = = = 0.52
N crz 49, 600

The nondimensional slenderness does not exceed 2.0, so the simplified


design method is applicable.

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN
1993-1-1, the factor is:

( ( )
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.42 − 0.2) + 0.422 ] = 0.62

8  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.52 − 0.2) + 0.522 ] = 0.71

The reduction factor for column buckling is:


1 1
χy = = = 0.92
Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.62 + 0.622 − 0.422
y y

1 1
χz = = = 0.83
Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.71 + 0.712 − 0.522
z z

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so
N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd
= 0.83×11,195 = 9292 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
high-strength concrete
Concrete class C90/105 is used in this design example. Other design data are
same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material,” such as loading; column length; steel strength; and the dimensions
of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete
class C90/105 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel
can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches
its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the
lateral hoops and steel section.
For high-strength concrete with fck > 50 N/mm 2 , the effective
compressive strength of concrete should be used in accordance with EC2.
The effective strength is:
Design examples  9

fck = 90η = 90 ×(1.0 − (90 − 50) / 200) = 72 N/mm 2


Accordingly, the secant modulus for high-strength concrete C90/105 is

Ecm = 22[(η fck + 8) /10]0.3 = 22[(72 + 8) /10]0.3 = 41.1 GPa

Then, the design strengths of the steel, concrete, and reinforcement


are:

fy 355
fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2
γ M 1.0

fck 72
fcd = = = 48 N/mm 2
γ C 1.5

fsk 500
fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2
γS 1.15

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,
reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in
Section  “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material.”

Aa = 17,440 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 230,048 mm2


Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4
Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (17, 440 ×355 + 0.85× 230, 048× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 16, 669 kN
10  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Aa fyd 17, 440 ×355×10−3


δ= = = 0.37
N pl,Rd 16, 669

which is within the permitted range, 0.2 ≤ δ ≤ 0.9.

Long-term effects
The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 14 days. The age of
concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative
humidity RH is taken as 50%.
The notional size of the cross-section is:

h0 = 2Ac/u = 230 mm

Coefficient:

 35 0.7  35 0.7
α1 =   =   = 0.56
 fcm   72 + 8 

 35 0.2  35 0.2
α2 =   =   = 0.85
 fcm   80 

 35 0.5  35 0.5
α3 =   =   = 0.66
 fcm   80 

Factor:

 1 − RH /100   1 − 50 /100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α2 = 1 + × 0 .56  × 0.85 = 1.24
 0.13 h0   0.13 230 

16.8 16.8
β( fcm ) = = = 1.88
fcm 80

1 1
β(t0 ) = = = 0.56
(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )

ϕ0 = ϕRH β ( fcm )β (t0 ) = 1.24 ×1.88× 0.56 = 1.3



Design examples  11

Factor:

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012RH)18 ] h0 + 250α3

= 1.5 [1 + (0.012 × 50)18 ]× 230 + 250 × 0.66 = 510

 t − t0  0.3  ∞−14  0.3


β (t , t 0 ) =   =   = 1.0
 (βH + t − t0 )   (510 + ∞−14) 

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = ϕ0βc (t , t0 ) = 1.30 ×1.0 = 1.30


Elastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered
in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 41.1
Ec,eff = = = 24.9 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)×1.3

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy
= 210 ×328.1×106 + 0.6 × 24.9× 4805×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106
= 1.56 ×1011 kNmm 2

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz


= 210 ×107×106 + 0.6 × 24.9× 5026 ×106 + 210 × 73.56 ×106
= 1.13×1011 kN mm 2

Elastic critical normal force


π2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.56 ×1011
N cry = = = 96,100 kN
L2y 42 ×106
12  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

π2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.13×1011
N crz = = = 69, 500 kN
L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (17, 440×355 + 0.85×230, 048×72 + 2512×500)×103
= 21, 526 kN

Relative slenderness ratio

N pl,Rk 21, 526


λy = = = 0.47
N cry 96,100

N pl,Rk 21, 526


λz = = = 0.56
N crz 69, 500

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c.

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.47 − 0.2) + 0.472 ] = 0.66

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.56 − 0.2) + 0.562 ] = 0.74

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.90
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.472

Design examples  13

1 1
χz = = = 0.81
Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.74 + 0.742 − 0.562
z z

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.81×16, 669 = 13, 502 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.


Compared to the SRC column with concrete class C30/37, the buckling
resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,C90 /105 13, 502


= = 1.45
N b,Rd,C30 /37 9292

The buckling resistance of an SRC column with high-strength concrete


C90/105 is increased by 45% compared to the resistance of a column with
C30/37 concrete.

Steel-reinforced concrete column with
high-strength steel
Steel grade S550 is used in this design example. Other design data are
same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material,” such as loading; column length; concrete strength; and dimensions
of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete
class C30/37 and steel grade S550) are not strain compatible, so the
high-strength concrete reaches its peak strain much earlier than the yield
strain of steel. This implies that the concrete will fail earlier than the
steel, resulting in a partial utilization of the steel strength. Using the
strain-compatibility method, the strength of steel is limited to the stress
corresponding to the crushing strain of concrete. The confinement effect
from the lateral hoops and steel section is considered as follows.
14  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Longitudinal reinforcement ratio:

As
ρs = = 1.1%
Ac

Factor:

ke =
(1− ∑in=1((bi )2 /6bchc ))(1− (s / 2bc ))(1− (s / 2hc )) = 0.514
1 − ρs

The effective volume ratio of the hoops is:

ρse = keρs,h = 0.514 × 0.2% = 0.1%


The real stress of the hoops is calculated by the modified confinement


model:

fc,u 30
κ= = = 65
ρse Esεc 0.001× 210 × 0.0022

 0.25 fc,u 
fr,h = max  ; 0.43εc Es 
 ρse (κ −10) 
 0.25×30 
= max  ; 0.43× 0.0022 × 210, 000 = 199 N/mm 2
 0.001(65 −10) 

The effective lateral confining pressure for PCC from the hoops is:

fl,p = ρse fr,h = 0.001×199 = 0.199 N/mm 2

The strain of PCC is:

  fl,p 1.2    0.199 1.2 


 
εc,p = 1 + 35    εc = 1 + 35  × 0.0022 = 0.0024
  fc,u     30  
  
Design examples  15

Factor:

Ac,f − Ac,r 40, 927 −12, 797


ke′ = = = 0.69
Ac,f 40, 927

Factor:

tf2
ka = = 0.0072
3l 2

The effective lateral confining pressure from the steel section is:

fl,s = ke′ka fr,y = 2.5 N/mm 2

The effective lateral confining stress for HCC is:

fl,h = fl,p + fl,s = 0.199 + 2.5 = 2.699 N/mm 2

The strain of HCC is:

  f 1.2    2.699 1.2 


 
εc,p = 1 + 35  l,h   εc = 1 + 35  × 0.0022 = 0.006
  fc,u     30  
  

To ensure the yield strain of steel is less than the compressive strain
of concrete, the maximum steel strength can be determined accordingly.
The real stress of the steel flange in partially confined concrete is:

fr,f = εc,p Ea = 0.0024 × 210, 000 = 504 N/mm 2


The real stress of the steel web in highly confined concrete is:

fr,w = min(εc,h Ea ; fy ) = min(0.006 × 210, 000; 550) = 550 N/mm 2

The steel strength in partially confined concrete is lower than the yield
strength of steel, 550 N/mm2. The confinement pressure is insufficient to
ensure the utilization of steel’s full strength. A higher confinement level
16  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

is needed. Thus, the conservative value of the steel flange is taken as the
steel strength in the following design.
Then, the design strength of steel is:

fy 504
fyd = = = 504 N/mm 2
γM 1.0

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,
reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in Section
“Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

Aa = 17,440 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 230,048 mm2


Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4
Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:
N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd
= (17, 440 × 504 + 0.85× 230, 048× 20 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 13, 792 kN

Aa fyd 17, 440 × 504 ×10−3


δ= = = 0.64
N pl,Rd 13, 792

which is within the permitted range, 0.2 ≤ δ ≤ 0.9.

Long-term effects
The creep coefficient is 2.64 (refer to design example 1, Section “Steel-
reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material”).

 lastic modulus of concrete considering


E
long-term effects
The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec,eff due to long-term effects is
14.22 GPa (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with
normal-strength material”).
Design examples  17

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced
concrete column with normal-strength material”) is:

(EI)eff,y = 1.25 × 1011 kN mm2
(EI)eff,z = 8.04 × 1010 kN mm2

Elastic critical normal force


Refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material”:

Ncry = 77,000 kN
Ncrz = 49,600 kN

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (17, 440 × 504 + 0.85× 230, 048×30 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 15, 912 kN

Relative slenderness ratio

N pl,Rk 15, 912


λy = = = 0.45
N cry 77, 000

N pl,Rk 15, 912


λz = = = 0.57
N crz 49, 600

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. So:

( ( )
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.45 − 0.2) + 0.452 ] = 0.65
18  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.57 − 0.2) + 0.572 ] = 0.75

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.90
Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.65 + 0.652 − 0.452
y y

1 1
χz = = = 0.81
Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.75 + 0.752 − 0.572
z z

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.81×13, 793 = 11,172 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.


Compared to the SRC column with steel grade S355, the buckling
resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,S550 11,172
= = 1.20
N b,Rd,S355 9292

The buckling resistance of the SRC column with high-strength steel


S550 is increased by 20% compared to the resistance of the column with
S355 steel.

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
high-strength concrete and steel
Steel grade S550 and concrete class C90/105 are used in this design
example. Other design data are the same as in Section “Steel-reinforced
concrete column with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column
length; dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and
reinforcement; and so on.
Design examples  19

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class
C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach
its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate
strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops
and steel section.
The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete
C90/105 are:
fck = 72 N/mm2; fcd = 48 N/mm2; Ecm = 41.1 GPa;
The design strength of steel is:
fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2;

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,
reinforcement, and concrete are the same as the design example in Section
“Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

Aa = 17,440 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 230,048 mm2


Iay = 328.1 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 107 × 106 mm4
Isy = 73.56 × 106 mm4, Isz = 73.56 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4805 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5026 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:
N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd
= (17, 440 × 550 + 0.85× 230, 048× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 20, 070 kN

Aa fyd 17, 440 × 550 ×10−3


δ= = = 0.85
N pl,Rd 11,195

which is within the permitted range, 0.2 ≤ δ ≤ 0.9.

Long-term effects
The creep coefficient is 1.30 (refer to design example 2, Section “Steel-
reinforced concrete column with high-strength concrete”).
20  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

 lastic modulus of concrete considering


E
long-term effects
The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ec,eff due to long-term effects is
24.9 GPa (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-
strength concrete”).

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness (refer to Section “Steel-reinforced
concrete column with high-strength concrete”) is:

(EI)eff,y = 1.56 × 1011 kNmm2
(EI)eff,z = 1.13 × 1011 kNmm2

Elastic critical normal force


Refer to Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with high-strength
concrete”:

Ncry = 96,100 kN
Ncrz = 69,500 kN

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (17, 440 × 550 + 0.85× 230, 048× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 24, 927 kN

Relative slenderness ratio

N pl,Rk 24, 927


λy = = = 0.51
N cry 96,100

N pl,Rk 24, 927


λz = = = 0.60
N crz 69, 500

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve
c is applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The
Design examples  21

imperfection factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for


curve c. So:

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.51 − 0.2) + 0.512 ] = 0.68

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.60 − 0.2) + 0.602 ] = 0.78

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.88
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.68 + 0.682 − 0.512

1 1
χz = = = 0.79
Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.78 + 0.782 − 0.602

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.79× 20, 070 = 15, 855 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.


Compared to the SRC column with normal-strength material S355 and
C30/37, the buckling resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,H 15, 855


= = 1.71
N b,Rd,N 9292

The buckling resistance of the SRC column with high-strength steel


S550 and high-strength concrete C90/105 is increased by 71% compared
to the resistance of the column with normal-strength steel S355 and
normal-strength concrete C30/37.
22  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Alternative design
Alternatively, the column size can be reduced when high-strength steel
and concrete materials are used, but the buckling resistance is almost
the same as in design example 1 in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete
column with normal-strength material.”

Design data

Structural steel Grade S550


Concrete C90/105

Properties of cross-section
Concrete depth hc = 400 mm
Concrete width bc = 400 mm
Concrete cover c = 30 mm
Cover cy = 71.9 mm
Cover cz = 69.9 mm

Section properties of steel section


254 × 254 UC 89
Depth h = 260.3 mm
Width b = 256.3 mm
Flange thickness tf = 27.3 mm
Web thickness tw = 10.3 mm
Fillet r = 12.7 mm
Section area Aa = 113.3 cm2
Second moment of area/y Iay = 14,270 cm4
Second moment of area/z Iaz = 4857 cm4
Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 1224 cm3
Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 575 cm3

Other data are the same as in design example 1 in Section “Steel-


reinforced concrete column with normal-strength material.”

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class
Design examples  23

C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach
its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate
strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops
and steel section.
The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete
C90/105 are:

fck = 72 N/mm2; fcd = 48 N/mm2; Ecm = 41.1 GPa

The design strength of steel is:

fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2

C ross-sectional area and second moments of area


The cross-sectional area and second moment area of the steel,
reinforcement, and concrete are:

Aa = 11,330 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 146,158 mm2


Iay = 142.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 48.57 × 106 mm4
Isy = 42.39 × 106 mm4, Isz = 42.39 × 106 mm4
Icy = 1948 × 106 mm4, Icz = 2042 × 106 mm4

Check the reinforcement ratio


As 2512
ρs = = = 1.7%
Ac 146,158

The reinforcement ratio is within the range 0.3%–6%.

Check the local buckling


The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 69.9 mm >
maximum (40 mm; bf/6).
Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:
24  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (11, 330 × 550 + 0.85×146,158× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 13, 287 kN

Aa fyd 11, 330 × 550 ×10−3


δ= = = 0.47 < 0.9
N pl,Rd 13, 287

Long-term effects
The notional size of the cross-section is:
h0 = 2Ac/u = 183 mm
Coefficient:

 35 0.7  35 0.7
α1 =   =   = 0.56
 fcm   72 + 8 

 35 0.2  35 0.2
α2 
=  =   = 0.85
 fcm   80 

 35 0.5  35 0.5
α3 =   =   = 0.66
 fcm   80 

Factor:
 1 − RH /100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α2
 0.13 h0 
 1 − 50/100 
= 1 + × 0.56 × 0.85 = 1.27
 3
0.1 183 

16.8 16.8
β( fcm ) = = = 1.88
fcm 80

1 1
β(t0 ) = = = 0.56

0.20
(0.1 + t0 ) (0.1 + 140.20 )
Design examples  25

ϕ0 = ϕRH β ( fcm )β (t0 ) = 1.27×1.88× 0.56 = 1.34


Factor:

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012 RH )18 ] h0 + 250α3

= 1.5 [1 + (0.012 × 50)18 ]×183 + 250 × 0.66 = 440

 t − t0  0.3  ∞−14  0.3


β (t , t 0 ) =   =   = 1.0
 (βH + t − t0 )   (440 + ∞−14) 

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = ϕ0βc (t , t0 ) = 1.34 ×1.0 = 1.34


E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


Ecm 41.1
Ec,eff = = = 24.6 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 /8000)×1.34

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy = 6.73×1010 kN mm 2

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz = 4.89×1010 kN mm 2

Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×6.73×1010
N cry = = = 41, 500 kN
L2y 42 ×106

π2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 × 4.89×1010
N crz = = = 30, 200 kN
L2z 42 ×106

26  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk = 16, 432 kN

Relative slenderness ratio


N pl,Rk 16, 432
λy = = = 0.63
N cry 41, 500

N pl,Rk 16, 432


λz = = = 0.74
N crz 30, 200

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. So:

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.63 − 0.2) + 0.632 ] = 0.77

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.74 − 0.2) + 0.742 ] = 0.90

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.82
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.77 + 0.772 − 0.632

1 1
χz = = = 0.70
Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.90 + 0.902 − 0.742
z z

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so
Design examples  27

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.70 ×13, 287 = 9300 kN > N Ed = 8000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.


Compared to the SRC column with normal-strength materials S355
and C30/37, the buckling resistance ratio is:

N b,Rd,H 9300
= ≈ 1.0
N b,Rd,N 9292

The buckling resistance is almost the same as that of the SRC column
with normal-strength materials S355 and C30/37.
The cross-section area ratio of the SRC column is:

AH 400 × 400
= = 0.64
AN 500 × 500

The cross-section area of the SRC column with high-strength materials


S550 and C90/105 is reduced by 36% compared to the SRC column with
S355 steel and C30/37 concrete. Similarly, the amount of the steel section
is also reduced by 36% compared to the SRC column with normal-
strength material.

 TEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN


S
SUBJECTED TO COMBINED COMPRESSION
AND BENDING

Determine the resistance of SRC columns subjected to compression and


bending about the major axis.

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
normal-strength material
Design data

Design axial force NEd = 9000 kN


Permanent load NG,Ed = 4000 kN
Design moment Mb,y = 300 kNm
  Mt,y = 200 kNm
Continued
28  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Column length L = 4.0 m


Effective length Leff = 4.0 m
Structural steel Grade S355, fy = 355 N/mm2
Concrete C50/60, fck = 50 N/mm2
Reinforcement fsk = 500 N/mm2
Properties of cross-section:
Concrete depth hc = 500 mm
Concrete width bc = 500 mm
Concrete cover c = 30 mm
Cover cy = 96.3 mm
Cover cz = 92.8 mm
Section properties of steel section
305 × 305 UC 118

Depth h = 314.5 mm
Width b = 307.4 mm
Flange thickness tf = 18.7 mm
Web thickness tw = 12 mm
Fillet r = 15.2 mm
Section area Aa = 150.2 cm2
Second moment of area/y Iay = 272,670 cm4
Second moment of area/z Iaz = 9059 cm4
Plastic section modulus/y Wpl,a,y = 1958 cm3
Plastic section modulus/z Wpl,a,z = 895 cm3
Reinforcement

Longitudinal number n = 8, diameter


reinforcement dl,s = 20 mm
Transverse reinforcement diameter dt,s = 10 mm,
spacing s = 200 mm

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete
class C50/60 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel
can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches
its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the
lateral hoops and steel section.
Design examples  29

Then, the design strengths of the steel, concrete, and reinforcement are:

fy 355
fyd = = = 355 N/mm 2
γM 1.0

fck 50
fcd = = = 33.3 N/mm 2
γ C 1.5

fsk 500
fsd = = = 435 N/mm 2
γS 1.15

Ecm = 37 Gpa

Ea = 210 Gpa

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2
Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4
Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

Check the reinforcement ratio


As 2512
ρs = = = 1.1%
Ac 232, 468

The reinforcement ratio is within the range 0.3%–6%.

Check the local buckling


The concrete cover to the flange of the steel section: c = 92.8 mm > maximum
(40 mm; bf/6).
Thus, the effect of local buckling is neglected for the SRC column.

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:
30  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468×33.3 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 13, 011 kN

Aa fyd 15, 020 ×355×10−3


δ= = = 0.41 < 0.9
N pl,Rd 13, 011

Long-term effects
The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 28 days. The age of
concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative
humidity RH is taken as 50%.
The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 232, 468
h0 = = = 232 mm
u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

 35 0.7  35 0.7
α1 =   =   = 0.70
 fcm   58 

 35 0.2  35 0.2
α2 =   =   = 0.90
 fcm   58 

 35 0.5  35 0.5
α3 =   =   = 0.78
 fcm   58 

Factor:

 1 − RH /100   1 − 50/100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α2 = 1 + × 0.70 × 0.90 = 1.41
 0.1 h0
3
 

3
0.1 232 

16.8 16.8
β( fcm ) = = = 2.21
fcm 58
Design examples  31

1 1
β(t0 ) = = = 0.49
(0.1 + t00.20 ) (0.1 + 280.20 )

ϕ0 = ϕRH β ( fcm )β (t0 ) = 1.41× 2.21× 0.49 = 1.53


Factor:

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012RH)18 ] h0 + 250α3

= 1.5 [1 + (0.012 × 50)18 ]× 232 + 250 × 0.78 = 543

 t − t0  0.3  ∞− 28  0.3
β (t , t 0 ) =   =   = 1.0
 (βH + t − t0 )   (543 + ∞− 28) 

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = ϕ0βc (t , t0 ) = 1.53×1.0 = 1.53


E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered
in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm 37
Ec,eff = = = 22.2 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 / 9000)×1.53

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term
effects is:


( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy
= 210 × 276.7×106 + 0.6 × 22.2 × 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106
= 1.38×1011 kN mm 2
32  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz


= 210 × 90.6 ×106 + 0.6 × 22.2 × 5042 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106
= 1.01×1011 kN mm 2

Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.38×1011
N cry = = = 85,100 kN
L2y 42 ×106

π 2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.01×1011
N crz = = = 62, 500 kN
L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 50 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 16, 468 kN

Relative slenderness ratio


N pl,Rk 16, 468
λy = = = 0.44
N cry 85,100

N pl,Rk 16, 468


λz = = = 0.51
N crz 62, 500

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN
1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.44 − 0.2) + 0.442 ] = 0.64

Design examples  33

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.51 − 0.2) + 0.512 ] = 0.71

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.91
Φy + Φ − λ 2 2 0.64 + 0.642 − 0.442
y y

1 1
χz = = = 0.84
Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.71 + 0.712 − 0.512

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.84 ×13, 011 = 10, 929 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.

Interaction curve
The polygonal interaction diagram for major-axis bending is calculated,
using the notation shown in Figure 2.

Point A (0, Npl,Rd)


The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0
NA = Npl,Rd = 13,011 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)
Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 −
tf ), the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,
34  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

bc

ez B B
hc
D D
h hc
hc
C C

Figure 2 Plastic neutral axes for encased I-section.

Ac 0.85 fcd − Asn (2 fsd − 0.85 fcd )


hn =
2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )
232, 468× 0.85×33.3 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85×33.3)
= = 136 mm
  2 × 500 × 0.85×33.3 + 2 ×12 ×(2 ×355 − 0.85×33.3)

Hence,

h
hn = 136 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm
2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis
lies in the web of the steel section.
The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and
concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3


Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm
1
si i
6 3

bchc2 500 × 5002


Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106
4 4
= 28.915×106 mm 3

Design examples  35

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

Wpan = t whn2 = 12 ×1362 = 0.222 ×106 mm 3

Wpcn = bchn2 − Wpan − Wpsn = 500 ×1362 − 0.222 ×106 − 0

= 9.026 ×106 mm 3

The bending resistance at point B is determined from:

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd
= (1.958 − 0.222)×355 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435
+ 0.5×(28.915 − 9.026)× 0.85×33.3 = 1062 kNm

Point C (Mpl,Rd, Npm,Rd)


The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance
of concrete. The value is determined from:

N pm,Rd = 0.85 Ac fcd = 0.85× 232, 468×33.3×10−3 = 6850 kN

Point D (Mmax,Rd, 0.5Npm,Rd)


The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

M max,Rd = fydWpa + 0.5× 0.85 fcdWpc + fsdWps


= 355×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85×33.3× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768
= 1268 kNm

The relative information for plotting the interaction curve is shown in


Table 1. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 3.

 heck the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete column


C
in combined compression and uniaxial bending
The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is
determined from:
36  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Table 1  The resistance for interaction curve


Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)
A 0 13,011
B 1062 0
C 1062 6850
D 1268 3425

15,000
A

12,000
Axial load (kN)

9000
C
6000

D
3000
B
0
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Moment (kNm)

Figure 3 Interaction curve for major axis.

( EI )eff,II,y = K o ( Ea I ay + K e,II Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy )


×106 + 0.5× 22.2
= 0.9×(210 × 276.7×

×4856 ×106 +210 × 75.36 ×106 ) = 1.15×1011 kNmm 2

Hence, the elastic critical force is:

π 2 ( EI )eff,II,y π 2 ×1.15×1011
N cr,y,eff = = = 70, 600 kN
L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for major axis, so the second-order effects
must be considered for the moment from first-order analysis and the
moment from imperfection.
The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN
1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm
Design examples  37

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and
imperfection are calculated by:

N Ed e0,y = 9000 × 0.02 = 180 kNm

According to EN 1994-1-1, the factor β is equal to 1.0 for the bending


moment from member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:
β 1.0
kimp,y = = = 1.15
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

For the first-order bending moment, My,top = 200 kNm, My,bot =


300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:
r = 200/300 = 0.667
Then, the factor β is:
β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95
thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95
ky = = = 1.09
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70600

Hence, the design moment considering second-order effects is:

M y,Ed = ky M y,Ed,top + kimp,y N Ed e0,z = 1.09×300 + 1.15× 200

= 557 kNm

For NEd > Npm,Rd, the factor is determined from:

N pl,Rd − N Ed 13, 011 − 9000


µd = = = 0.65
N pl,Rd − N pm,Rd 13, 011 − 6850

Thus,

M y,Ed M y,Ed 557


= = = 0.81 < 0.9
M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 0.65×1062

So, the resistance of the SRC column to compression and uniaxial


bending is satisfied.
38  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
high-strength concrete
The concrete class C90/105 is used in this design example. Other
design data are same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column
with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column length; steel
strength; and dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section,
and reinforcement.

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class
C90/105 and steel grade S355) are strain compatible, so the steel can reach
its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches its ultimate
strength without considering the confinement effect from the lateral hoops
and steel section.
For high-strength concrete with fck > 50 N/mm 2 , the effective
compressive strength of concrete should be used in accordance with EC2.
The effective strength is:

fck = 90η = 90 ×(1.0 − (90 − 50) / 200) = 72 N/mm 2


Accordingly, the secant modulus for high-strength concrete C90/105 is:

Ecm = 22[(η fck + 8) /10]0.3 = 22[(72 + 8) /10]0.3 = 41.1 GPa


The design strength of concrete is:


fck 72
fcd = = = 48 N/mm 2
γ C 1.5

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2
Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4
Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:
Design examples  39

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 15, 909 kN

Aa fyd 15, 020 ×355×10−3


δ= = = 0.34 < 0.9
N pl,Rd 15, 909

Long-term effects
The age of concrete at loading t0 is assumed to be 28 days. The age of
concrete at the moment considered t is taken as infinity. The relative
humidity RH is taken as 50%.
The notional size of the cross-section is:

2 Ac 2 × 232, 468
h0 = = = 232 mm
u 4 × 500

Coefficient:

 35 0.7  35 0.7
α1 
=  =   = 0.56
 fcm   80 

 35 0.2  35 0.2
α2 =   =   = 0.85
 fcm   80 

 35 0.5  35 0.5
α3 
=  =   = 0.66
 fcm   80 

Factor:

 1 − RH /100   1 − 50 /100 
ϕRH = 1 + α1  α2 = 1 + × 0.56 × 0.85 = 1.24
 0.13 h0   3
0.1 232 

16.8 16.8
β( fcm ) = = = 1.88
fcm 80
40  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

1 1
β(t0 ) = = = 0.49
(0.1 + t0 )
0.20
( 0 .1 + 280.20 )

ϕ0 = ϕRH β ( fcm )β (t0 ) = 1.24 ×1.88× 0.49 = 1.14

Factor:

βH = 1.5 [1 + (0.012RH)18 ] h0 + 250α3

= 1.5 [1 + (0.012 × 50)18 ]× 232 + 250 × 0.66 = 513

 t − t0  0.3  ∞− 28  0.3
β (t , t 0 ) =   =   = 1.0
 (βH + t − t0 )   (513 + ∞− 28) 

The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = ϕ0βc (t , t0 ) = 1.14 ×1.0 = 1.14


E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


Long-term effects due to creep and shrinkage should be considered
in determining the effective elastic flexural stiffness. The modulus of
elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:
Ecm 41.1
Ec,eff = = = 27.2 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt 1 + (4000 / 9000)×1.14

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term
effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy
= 210 × 276.7×106 + 0.6 × 27.2 × 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106
= 1.53×1011 kN mm 2

( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz
= 210 × 90.6 ×106 + 0.6 × 27.2 × 5042 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106
= 1.17×1011 kN mm 2
Design examples  41

Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y π 2 ×1.53×1011
N cry = = = 94, 200 kN
L2y 42 ×106

π 2 ( EI )eff,z π 2 ×1.17×1011
N crz = = = 71, 900 kN
L2z 42 ×106

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (15, 020 ×355 + 0.85× 232, 468× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 20, 815 kN

Relative slenderness ratio


N pl,Rk 20, 815
λy = = = 0.47
N cry 94, 200

N pl,Rk 20, 815


λz = = = 0.54
N crz 71, 900

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN
1993-1-1, the factor is:

( ( )
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.47 − 0.2) + 0.472 ] = 0.66

( ( )
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.54 − 0.2) + 0.542 ] = 0.73

42  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.90
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.472

1 1
χz = = = 0.82
Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.73 + 0.732 − 0.542

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.82 ×15, 909 = 13, 045 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.

Interaction curve
Point A (0, Npl,Rd)
The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0
NA = Npl,Rd = 15,909 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)
Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange of the steel section
(h/2 − tf < hn ≤ h/2), the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn,
Asn = 628 mm2, so,
Neutral axis in the flange, h/2 − tf < hn < h/2

Acαc fcd − Asn (2 fsd − αc fcd ) + (b − t w )(h − 2tf )(2fyd − αc fcd )


hn =
2bcαc fcd + 2b(2 fyd − αc fcd )
232, 468× 0.85× 48 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85× 48)
+(307.4 −12)(314.5 − 2 ×18.7)(2 ×355 − 0.85× 48)
=
2 × 500 × 0.85× 48 + 2 ×307.4 ×(2 ×355 − 0.85× 48)
= 141mm
Design examples  43

Hence,
h
hn = 141 mm < = 157 mm
2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis
lies in the flange of the steel section.
The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and
concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3

Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm


si i
6 3

bchc2 500 × 5002


Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106
4 4
= 28.915×106 mm 3

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

(b − t w ) (h − 2tf2 )
Wpa,n = bhn2 −
4
(307.4 −12)(314.5 − 2 ×18.7)2
= 307.4 ×1412 − = 0.441×106
4

Wpcn = bchn2 − Wpan − Wpsn = 500 ×1412 − 0.441×106 − 0

= 9.5×106 mm 3

The bending resistance at point B is determined from:

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5 (Wpc − Wpc,n ) αc fcd
= (1.958 − 0.441)×355 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435
+ 0.5×(28.915 − 9.5)× 0.85× 48 = 1099 kNm
44  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Point C (Mpl,Rd, Npm,Rd)


The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance
of concrete. The value is determined from:

N pm,Rd = 0.85 Ac fcd = 0.85× 232, 468× 48×10−3 = 9485 kN

Point D (Mmax,Rd, 0.5Npm,Rd)


The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

M max,Rd = fydWpa + 0.5× 0.85 fcdWpc + fsdWps


= 355×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85× 48× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768
= 1499 kNm

The relative information for plotting the interaction curve is shown


in Table 2. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 4.

 heck the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete column


C
in combined compression and uniaxial bending
The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is
determined from:

( EI )eff,II,y = K o ( Ea I ay + K e,II Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy )


×106 + 0.5× 27.2
= 0.9×(210 × 276.7×
× 4856 ×106 + 210 × 75.36 ×106 )
= 1.26 ×1011 kN mm 2

Table 2  The resistance for interaction curve


Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)
A 0 15,909
B 1099 0
C 1099 9485
D 1499 4742
Design examples  45

20,000

A
15,000
Axial load (kN)

10,000 C

5000 D

B
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Moment (kNm)

Figure 4 Interaction curve for major axis.

Hence, the elastic critical force is:

π 2 ( EI )eff,II,y π 2 ×1.26 ×1011


N cr,y,eff = = = 77, 400 kN
L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order
effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis
and the moment from imperfection.
The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and
imperfection are calculated by:

N Ed e0,y = 9000 × 0.02 = 180 kNm

According to EN 1994-1-1, the factor β is equal to 1.0 for the bending


moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0
kimp,y = = = 1.13
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400
46  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

For the first-order bending moment, My,top = 200 kNm, My,bot =


300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:
r = 200/300 = 0.667
The factor β is:
β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95
Thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95
ky = = = 1.08
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

Hence, the design moment considering second-order effects is:

M y,Ed = ky M y,Ed,top + kimp,y N Ed e0,z = 1.08×300 + 1.13× 200

= 550 kNm

For 0.5Npm,Rd < NEd ≤ Npm,Rd, the factor is determined from:

2( N pm,Rd − N Ed )  M max,Rd 
µd = 1 +  −1
N pm,Rd  M pl,Rd 
2 ×(9485 − 9000)  1499 
= 1+  −1 = 1.04
9485  1099 

Thus,

M y,Ed M y,Ed 550


= = = 0.48 < 0.9
M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 1.04 ×1099

The resistance of the SRC column to compression and uniaxial bending


is satisfied.

Steel-reinforced concrete column with
high-strength steel
The steel grade S550 is used in this design example. Other design data are
same as in Section “Steel-reinforced concrete column with normal-strength
material,” such as loading; column length; concrete strength; and dimensions
of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and reinforcement.
Design examples  47

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete class
C50/60 and steel grade S550) are not strain compatible. Therefore, high-
strength concrete reaches its peak strain much earlier than the yield strain
of steel. This implies that concrete will fail earlier than steel, resulting in a
partial utilization of steel strength. Using the strain-compatibility method,
the strength of steel is limited to the stress corresponding to the crushing
strain of concrete. The confinement effect from the lateral hoops and steel
section is considered as follows.
Longitudinal reinforcement ratio:

As
ρs = = 1.1%
Ac

The confinement effective coefficient:

 

n
1 −
 ((bi )2 / 6bchc )(1 − (s / 2bc ))(1 − (s / 2hc ))
i=1 
ke = = 0.5135
1 − ρs

The effective volume ratio of the hoops is:

ρse = keρs,h = 0.5135× 0.2% = 0.1%


The real stress of the hoops is:

fc,u 50
κ= = = 100
ρse Esεc 0.001× 210 × 0.0025

 0.25 fc,u 
fr,h = max  ; 0.43εc Es 
 ρse (κ −10) 
 0.25× 50 
= max  ; 0.43× 0.0025× 210, 000 = 223 N/mm 2
 0.001(100 −10) 

48  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The effective lateral confining pressure for PCC from the hoops is:

fl,p = ρse fr,h = 0.001× 223 = 0.223 N/mm 2

The strain of PCC is:


  f 1.2    0.223 1.2 
 
εc,p = 1 + 35  l,p   εc = 1 + 35  × 0.0025 = 0.0026
  fc,u     50  
  

Factor:
Ac,f − Ac,r 40, 927 −12, 797
ke′ = = = 0.69
Ac,f 40, 927

Factor:

tf2
ka = = 0.0053
3l 2

The effective lateral confining pressure from the steel section is:

fl,s = ke′ka fr,y = 1.9 N/mm 2

The effective lateral confining stress for HCC is:

fl,h = fl,p + fl,s = 0.223 + 1.9 = 2.123 N/mm2

The strain of HCC is:

  f 1.2    2.123 1.2 


 
εc,p = 1 + 35  l,h   εc = 1 + 35  × 0.0025 = 0.004
  fc,u     50  
  

To ensure the yield strain of steel is less than the compressive


strain of concrete, the maximum steel strength can be determined
accordingly.
The real stress of the steel flange in partially confined concrete is:

fr,f = εc,p Ea = 0.0026 × 210, 000 = 546 N/mm2



Design examples  49

The real stress of the steel web in highly confined concrete is:

fr,w = min(εc,h Ea ; fy ) = min(0.004 × 210, 000; 550) = 550 N/mm2


The steel strength in partially confined concrete is lower than the yield
strength of steel, 550 N/mm2. The confinement pressure is insufficient to
ensure the utilization of steel’s full strength. A higher confinement level
is needed. Thus, the conservative value of the steel flange is taken as the
steel strength in the following design.
Then, the design strengths of steel is:

fy 546
fyd = = = 546 N/mm 2
γM 1.0

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2
Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4
Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (15, 020 × 546 + 0.85× 232, 468×33.3 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 15, 880 kN

Aa fyd 15, 020 × 546 ×10−3


δ= = = 0.52 < 0.9
N pl,Rd 15, 880

Long-term effects
The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = 1.53
50  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:

Ecm
Ec,eff = = 22.2 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term
effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy = 1.38×1011 kN mm 2


( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz = 1.01×1011 kN mm 2


Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y
N cry = = 85,100 kN
L2y

π 2 ( EI )eff,z
N crz = = 62, 500 kN
L2z

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (15, 020 × 546 + 0.85× 232, 468× 50 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 19, 337 kN

Relative slenderness ratio

N pl,Rk 19, 337


λy = = = 0.48
N cry 85,100
Design examples  51

N pl,Rk 19, 337


λz = = = 0.56
N crz 62, 500

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN
1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.48 − 0.2) + 0.482 ] = 0.66

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.56 − 0.2) + 0.562 ] = 0.74

The reduction factor for column buckling is:

1 1
χy = = = 0.89
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.66 + 0.662 − 0.482

1 1
χz = = = 0.81
Φz + Φz2 − λz2 0.74 + 0.742 − 0.562

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd


= 0.81×15, 880 = 12, 863 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.


52  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Interaction curve
Point A (0, Npl,Rd)
The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0
NA = Npl,Rd = 15,880 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)
Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 − tf),
the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,

Ac 0.85 fcd − Asn (2 fsd − 0.85 fcd )


hn =
2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )
232, 468× 0.85×33.3 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85×33.3)
= = 113 mm
  2 × 500 × 0.85×33.3 + 2 ×12 ×(2 × 546 − 0.85×33.3)

Hence,

h
hn = 113 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm
2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis
lies in the web of the steel section.
The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and
concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3


Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm
1
si i
6 3

bchc2 500 × 5002


Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106
4 4
= 28.915×106 mm 3

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:
Design examples  53

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

Wpan = t whn2 = 12 ×1132 = 0.153×106 mm 3

Wpcn = bchn2 − Wpan − Wpsn = 500 ×1132 − 0.153×106 − 0

= 6.23×106 mm 3

The bending resistance at point B is determined from:

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd
= (1.958 − 0.153)× 546 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435
+ 0.5×(28.915 − 6.23)× 0.85×33.3 = 1470 kNm

Point C (Mpl,Rd, Npm,Rd)


The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance
of concrete. The value is determined from:

N pm,Rd = 0.85 Ac fcd = 0.85× 232, 468×33.3×10−3 = 6850 kN

Point D (Mmax,Rd, 0.5Npm,Rd)


The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

M max,Rd = fydWpa + 0.5× 0.85 fcdWpc + fsdWps


= 546 ×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85×33.3× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768
= 1642 kNm

The relative information for plotting the interaction curve is shown


in Table 3. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 5.

Table 3  The resistance for interaction curve


Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)
A 0 15,880
B 1470 0
C 1470 6850
D 1642 3425
54  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

20,000

A
15,000
Axial load (kN)

10,000
C

5000
D
B
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Moment (kNm)

Figure 5 Interaction curve for major axis.

 heck the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete column


C
in combined compression and uniaxial bending
The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is
determined from:

( EI )eff,II,y = K o ( Ea I ay + K e,II Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy ) = 1.15×1011 kN mm 2

Hence, the elastic critical force is:

π 2 ( EI ) eff,II,y π 2 ×1.15×1011
N cr,y,eff = = = 70, 600 kN
L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order
effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis
and the moment from imperfection.
The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1 is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and the
imperfection are calculated by:
Design examples  55

N Ed e0,y = 9000 × 0.02 = 180 kNm

According to EN 1994-1-1, the factor β is equal to 1.0 for the bending


moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:

β 1.0
kimp,y = = = 1.15
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

For the first-order bending moment, My,top = 200 kNm, My,bot = 300 kNm,


so the ratio of the end moment is:
r = 200/300 = 0.667
Then, the factor β is:
β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95
thus, the amplification factor is:

β 0.95
ky = = = 1.09
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 70, 600

Hence, the design moment considering the second-order effect is:

M y,Ed = ky M y,Ed,top + kimp,y N Ed e0,z = 1.09×300 + 1.15× 200

= 557 kNm

For NEd > Npm,Rd, the factor is determined from:

N pl,Rd − N Ed 15, 880 − 9000


µd = = = 0.76
N pl,Rd − N pm,Rd 15, 880 − 6850

Thus,

M y,Ed M y,Ed 557


= = = 0.5 < 0.9
M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 0.76 ×1470

So, the resistance of the SRC column to compression and uniaxial


bending is satisfied.
56  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

 teel-reinforced concrete column with


S
high-strength materials
Steel grade S550 and concrete class C90/105 are used in this design
example. Other design data are same as in Section “Steel-reinforced
concrete column with normal-strength material,” such as loading; column
length; dimensions of the SRC column cross-section, steel section, and
reinforcement; and so on.

Design strengths and modulus


According to Tables 2.12 and 2.13 in the companion book, for the strain
compatibility between steel and concrete, the two materials (concrete
class C90/105 and steel grade S550) are strain compatible, so the steel
can reach its full strength when the composite concrete section reaches
its ultimate strength without considering the confinement effect from the
lateral hoops and steel section.
The effective compressive strength and elastic modulus of concrete
C90/105 are:

fck = 72 N/mm2; fcd = 48 N/mm2; Ecm = 41.1 GPa;


The design strength of steel is:

fy = 550 N/mm2; fyd = 550 N/mm2;

C ross-sectional areas and second moments of area


Aa = 15,020 mm2, As = 2512 mm2, Ac = 232,468 mm2
Iay = 276.7 × 106 mm4, Iaz = 90.6 × 106 mm4
Isy = 75.36 × 106 mm4, Isz = 75.36 × 106 mm4
Icy = 4856 × 106 mm4, Icz = 5042 × 106 mm4

Check the steel contribution factor


The design plastic resistance of the composite cross-section in
compression is:

N pl,Rd = Aa fyd + 0.85 Ac fcd + As fsd


= (15, 020 × 550 + 0.85× 232, 468× 48 + 2512 × 435)×10−3
= 18, 838 kN

Design examples  57

Aa fyd 15, 020 × 550 ×10−3


δ= = = 0.44 < 0.9
N pl,Rd 18, 838

Long-term effects
The creep coefficient is:

ϕt = 1.14

E lastic modulus of concrete considering long-term effects


The modulus of elasticity of concrete Ecm is reduced to the value Ec,eff:
Ecm
Ec,eff = = 27.2 kN/mm 2
1 + ( N G,Ed /N Ed )ϕt

Effective flexural stiffness of cross-section


The effective elastic flexural stiffness taking account of the long-term
effects is:

( EI )eff,y = Ea I ay + 0.6 Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy = 1.53×1011 kN mm 2


( EI )eff,z = Ea I az + 0.6 Ec,eff I cz + Es I sz = 1.17×1011 kN mm 2


Elastic critical normal force


π 2 ( EI )eff,y
N cry = = 94, 200 kN
L2y

π 2 ( EI )eff,z
N crz = = 71, 900 kN
L2z

The characteristic value of the plastic resistance to the axial load is:

N pl,Rk = Aa fy + 0.85 Ac fck + As fsk


= (15, 020 × 550 + 0.85× 232, 468× 72 + 2512 × 500)×103
= 23, 744 kN

58  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

Relative slenderness ratio


N pl,Rk 23, 744
λy = = = 0.50
N cry 94, 200

N pl,Rk 23, 744


λz = = = 0.57
N crz 71, 900

Buckling reduction factor


Buckling curve b is applicable to axis y-y, and buckling curve c is
applicable to axis z-z in accordance with EN 1994-1-1. The imperfection
factor is taken as 0.34 for curve b and 0.49 for curve c. According to EN
1993-1-1, the factor is:

( (
Φ y = 0.5 1 + α λy − 0.2 + λy2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.34 ×(0.50 − 0.2) + 0.502 ] = 0.68

( (
Φz = 0.5 1 + α λz − 0.2 + λz2 ) )
= 0.5×[1 + 0.49×(0.57 − 0.2) + 0.572 ] = 0.76

The reduction factor for column buckling is:


1 1
χy = = = 0.88
Φ y + Φ2y − λy2 0.68 + 0.682 − 0.502

1 1
χz = = = 0.80
Φz + Φ − λ 2 2 0.76 + 0.762 − 0.572
z z

Buckling resistance
The minor axis is the more critical, so,

N b,Rd = min(χy ; χz ) N pl,Rd

= 0.80 ×18, 838 = 15, 070 kN > N Ed = 9000 kN


Design examples  59

The buckling resistance of the SRC column is adequate.

Interaction curve
Point A (0, Npl,Rd)
The full cross-section is under compression without the bending moment.

MA = 0
NA = Npl,Rd = 18,838 kN

Point B (Mpl,Rd, 0)
Assuming the neutral axis lies in the web of the steel section (hn ≤ h/2 − tf),
the 2 reinforcement bar lies within the region 2hn, Asn = 628 mm2, so,

Ac 0.85 fcd − Asn (2 fsd − 0.85 fcd )


hn =
2bc 0.85 fcd + 2t w (2 fyd − 0.85 fcd )
23, 2468× 0.85× 48 − 628×(2 × 435 − 0.85× 48)
= = 136 mm
2 × 500 × 0.85× 48 + 2 ×12 ×(2 × 550 − 0.85× 48)

Hence,

h
hn = 136 mm < − tf = 138.6 mm
2

The assumption for the plastic neutral axis is verified. The neutral axis
lies in the web of the steel section.
The plastic section moduli for the steel section, reinforcement, and
concrete are:

Wpa = 1.958×106 mm 3


Wps = ∑ A [e ] = 1884×200 = 0.3768×10 mm
1
si i
6 3

bchc2 500 × 5002


Wpc = − Wpa − Wps = −1.958×106 − 0.3768×106
4 4
= 28.915×106 mm 3
60  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

The plastic section moduli for the region of depth 2hn are:

Wpsn = 0 mm 3

Wpan = t whn2 = 12 ×1362 = 0.222 ×106 mm 3

Wpcn = bchn2 − Wpan − Wpsn = 500 ×1362 − 0.222 ×106 − 0

= 9.026 ×106 mm 3

The bending resistance at point B is determined from:

M pl,Rd = (Wpa − Wpa,n ) fyd + (Wps − Wps,n ) fsd + 0.5(Wpc − Wpc,n )αc fcd
= (1.958 − 0.222)× 550 + (0.3768 − 0)× 435
+0.5×(28.915 − 9.026)× 0.85× 48 = 1524 kNm

Point C (Mpl,Rd, Npm,Rd)


The axial force is equal to the full cross-section compression resistance
of concrete. The value is determined from:

N pm,Rd = 0.85 Ac fcd = 0.85× 232, 468× 48×10−3 = 9485 kN

Point D (Mmax,Rd, 0.5Npm,Rd)


The maximum moment resistance is determined from:

M max,Rd = fydWpa + 0.5× 0.85 fcdWpc + fsdWps


= 550 ×1.958 + 0.5× 0.85× 48× 28.915 + 435× 0.3768
= 1723 kNm

The relative information for plotting the interaction curve is shown


in Table 4. Then, the interaction curve is plotted as shown in Figure 6.

Table 4  The resistance for interaction curve


Point Resistance to bending (kNm) Resistance to compression (kN)
A 0 18,838
B 1524 0
C 1524 9485
D 1723 4742
Design examples  61

25,000

20,000 A
Axial load (kN)

15,000

10,000 C

5000 D

B
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Moment (kNm)

Figure 6 Interaction curve for major axis.

 heck the resistance of steel-reinforced concrete column


C
in combined compression and uniaxial bending
The effective flexural stiffness considering second-order effects is
determined from:

( EI )eff,II,y = K o ( Ea I ay + K e,II Ec,eff I cy + Es I sy ) = 1.26 ×1011 kN mm 2

Hence, the elastic critical force is:

π 2 ( EI )eff,II,y π 2 ×1.26 ×1011


N cr,y,eff = = = 77, 400 kN
L2y 42 ×106

The result is less than 10NEd for the major axis, so the second-order
effects must be considered for the moment from the first-order analysis
and the moment from the imperfection.
The member imperfection for the major axis according to EN1994-1-1
is:

e0,y = L / 200 = 20 mm
62  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

For the major axis, the midlength bending moments due to NEd and the
imperfection are calculated by:

N Ed e0,y = 9000 × 0.02 = 180 kN m

According to EN 1994-1-1, the factor β is equal to 1.0 for the bending


moment from the member imperfection. Then, the amplification factor is:
β 1.0
kimp,y = = = 1.13
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

For the first-order bending moment, My,top = 200 kNm, My,bot =


300 kNm, so the ratio of the end moment is:
r = 200/300 = 0.667
Then, the factor β is:
β = max (0.66 + 0.44 r; 0.44) = 0.95
Thus, the amplification factor is:
β 0.95
ky = = = 1.08
1 − N Ed /N cr,y,eff 1 − 9000 / 77, 400

Hence, the design moment considering second-order effects is:

M y,Ed = ky M y,Ed,top + kimp,y N Ed e0,z = 1.08×300 + 1.13× 200

= 550 kNm

For 0.5Npm,Rd < NEd ≤ Npm,Rd, the factor is determined from:

2 ( N pm,Rd − N Ed )  M max,Rd 
µd = 1 +  −1
N pm,Rd  M pl,Rd 
2 ×(99485 − 9000)  1723 
= 1+  −1 = 1.01
9485 1524 

Thus,

M y,Ed M y,Ed 550


= = = 0.36 < 0.9
M pl,N,y,Rd µd M pl,y,Rd 1.01×1524
Design examples  63

So, the resistance of the SRC column to compression and uniaxial


bending is satisfied.

 TEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN


S
WITH DIFFERENT DEGREE OF CONFINEMENT

A comparison between the original and alternative designs of the SRC


column was conducted to study the effect of confinement on the strength
of the column.

Original design
Figure 7 shows the original design of SRC columns from a practical
project. In the original design, the concrete cylinder strength was 50 MPa
and the yield strengths of the steel and rebar were 355 and 500 MPa,
respectively. The diameter and spacing of the transverse reinforcement
(hoops) were 10 and 200 mm, respectively. The diameter of the
longitudinal reinforcement was 25 mm.

High-strength concrete
High-strength concrete (90 MPa) was proposed as an alternative design.
Thus, the concrete and reinforcement bar amounts are reduced and the
arrangement is revised. As a result, the dimension of the column is
reduced, as shown in Figure 8.
(a)

(b)
1200 mm

(c)
900 mm

600 mm

1200 mm 900 mm 600 mm

UC 356 × 406 × 634 UC 356 × 406 × 467 UC 254 × 254 × 107


Φ10@200 Φ10@200 Φ10@200

Figure 7 Original design (S355 steel and C50/60 concrete). (a) N1, (b) N2,
(c) N3.
64  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

(a)

(b)

(c)
900 mm

700 mm

480 mm
900 mm 700 mm 480 mm

UC 356 × 406 × 634 UC 356 × 406 × 467 UC 254 × 254 × 107


Φ10@200 Φ10@200 Φ10@200

Figure 8 Alternative design with S355 steel and C90/105 concrete. (a) normal
strength steel and High strength concrete (NH)1, (b) NH2, (c) NH3.

High-strength steel and high-strength concrete


High-strength concrete (90 MPa) with high-strength steel (690 MPa)
was proposed as an alternative design. Thus, the concrete and steel
amounts were reduced and their arrangement was revised, as shown
in Figure 9. To develop the full strength of steel, the spacing of the
transverse reinforcement was made smaller than the original design

(a)

(b)

(c)
900 mm

700 mm

480 mm

900 mm 700 mm 480 mm

UC 356 × 406 × 340 UC 356 × 406 × 235 UC 203 × 203 × 52


Φ10@75 Φ10@100 Φ10@65

Figure 9 Alternative design with S690 steel and C90/105 concrete. (a) HH1,
(b) HH2, (c) HH3.
Design examples  65

(a) 5.0 (b) 3.0


Concrete Concrete
Steel Steel
4.0 2.4 Rebar
Rebar
3.0 1.8

2.0 1.2

1.0 0.6

0.0 0.0
N1 NH1 HH1 N2 NH2 HH2

(c) 1.5
Concrete
1.2 Steel
Rebar
0.9

0.6

0.3

0.0
N3 NH3 HH3

Figure 10 Comparison of material amounts. (a) N1,NH1,HH1, (b) N2,NH2,HH2,


(c) N3,NH3,HH3.

according to the equations from the modified confinement model. The


smaller spacing of the hoops can lead to congestion, which is a practical
concern that needs to be addressed.
Figure 10 shows the comparison of the concrete, steel, and rebar
amounts of different cross-sections. There is a reduction of 47% (1.5 tons
per meter) in the amount of concrete by adopting high-strength concrete
C90/105. There is a reduction of 46% (0.3 ton per meter) in the amount
of structural steel by adopting high-strength steel S690. However, the
transverse reinforcement amount increases, as the spacing of the hoops is
smaller than the original design. The transverse reinforcement increases
by 200% (0.03 ton per meter) by adopting an S690 steel section, as shown
in Figure 10a. Similarly, for original cross-sections N2 and N3, similar
results can also be obtained. The concrete and steel amounts are reduced
significantly by adopting high-strength material, but the amount of
transverse reinforcement is increased by adopting an S690 steel section.
Nevertheless, the total amount of concrete and steel (structural and
reinforcing steel) is reduced significantly.
Figure 11 shows the effect of the spacing and diameter of links on
the steel stress of the three types of SRC columns (high strength steel
66  Design Examples for High Strength Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns

(a) 700 (b) 700 Φ = 12 mm


Φ = 12 mm
Φ = 10 mm
Φ = 10 mm
Φ = 8 mm
Φ = 8 mm
Stress (MPa)

Stress (MPa)
650 650

600 600

550 550
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
Spacing (mm) Spacing (mm)

(c) 700
Φ = 12 mm
Φ = 10 mm
Φ = 8 mm
Stress (MPa)

650

600

550
0 100 200 300 400 500
Spacing (mm)

Figure 11 Effect of spacing and diameter of links. (a) HH1, (b) HH2, (c) HH3.

(a) 700 C90 (b) 700 C90


C70 C70
Steel stress (MPa)

Steel stress (MPa)

650 C50 650 C50

600 600

550 550

500 500
0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 200 300 400 500
Spacing (mm) Spacing (mm)

(c) 700 C90


C70
Steel stress (MPa)

650 C50

600

550

500
0 100 200 300 400 500
Spacing (mm)

Figure 12 Effect of spacing of links and concrete strength. (a) HH1, (b) HH2,
(c) HH3.
Design examples  67

and high strength concrete [HH]1, HH2, and HH3). It indicates that the
real stress of steel increases with the increase in the diameter of the
transverse reinforcement when the spacing of links takes a certain value.
The steel stress increases with the decreasing of the spacing of links due
to insufficient lateral confinement, which has been verified in parametric
study. For the three types of SRC columns, if the spacing of the hoops
is same as the original design (200 mm); the real stress of steel grade
S690 is about 600–650 MPa depending on the diameter of the hoops.
For a large spacing of 400 mm, the real stress of steel grade S690 is
590–610 MPa depending on the diameter of the links and the dimensions
of the column.
Concrete strength also has an effect on the stress in steel according to
the strain-compatibility method because the strains of different concrete
classes are different. Figure 12 shows the effect of the spacing of links
and concrete cylinder strength on the real stress in steel. It is indicated
that the real stress of steel increases with the increasing of the concrete
cylinder strength for these three types of SRC columns. The stress in the
steel section increases according to the stress–strain relationship of steel
even though the lateral confinement pressure is the same. Therefore, for the
same arrangement of the reinforcement bar, the stress in steel can reach a
higher value when a higher-strength concrete is used in the SRC columns.
Appendix A: Design resistance of
shear connectors

69
Table A.1  Design resistance of shear connectors
Dimension of
connectors Design resistance of shear studs PRd (kN)
d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105
70  Appendix A

16 50 37.3 43.1 48.8 53.5 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
75 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
100 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
125 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
150 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
175 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
200 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
225 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
250 45.2 52.3 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9 57.9
19 50 46.3 53.6 60.5 66.4 72.0 77.4 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
75 63.1 73.0 81.2 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
100 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
125 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
150 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
175 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
200 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
225 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
250 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
(Continued)
Table A.1 (Continued)  Design resistance of shear connectors
Dimension of
connectors Design resistance of shear studs PRd (kN)
d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105
275 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
300 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
325 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
350 63.8 73.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7 81.7
22 50 56.0 64.7 73.1 80.2 87.0 93.5 100.0 106.3 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
75 75.4 87.2 98.5 108.0 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
100 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
125 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
150 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
175 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
200 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
225 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
250 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
275 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
300 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
325 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
350 85.5 98.9 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5 109.5
(Continued)
Appendix A  71
Table A.1 (Continued)  Design resistance of shear connectors
Dimension of
72  Appendix A

connectors Design resistance of shear studs PRd (kN)


d (mm) hsc (mm) C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105
25 50 66.3 76.6 86.6 94.9 102.9 110.7 118.3 125.8 133.1 141.4 141.4
75 88.3 102.1 115.4 126.5 137.3 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
100 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
125 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
150 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
175 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
200 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
225 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
250 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
275 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
300 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
325 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
350 110.4 127.6 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4 141.4
Note: fu = 450 N/mm2.
Appendix B: Design chart

The design process for SRC column subjected to axial compression


is summarized in the chart given in Figure B.1 whereas the design
process for SRC column subjected to axial compression and bending is
summarized in the chart given in Figure B.2.

73
74  Appendix B

Find NEd and MEd at both ends of the column

Determine the material properties of steel and concrete, Is high strength steel or
high strength concrete adopted?

Yes

Are the steel and concrete compatible? No

No

Determine the real


Yes strength of high
strength steel

Calculate Npl,Rd and Ncr

Calculate λ, and then X

No Column not strong enough


Is NEd ≤ χNpl,Rd?

Yes

Is the column in axial compression only? Yes Column verified

No
See B2

Figure B.1  Design for SRC column subjected to axial compression.


Appendix B  75

Find Vpl,a,Rd. Is VEd > 0.5Vpl,a,Rd?

Yes No

Determine Mpl,a,Rd and Mpl,Rd, and No Determine the interaction curve for
hence Va,Ed and Vc,Ed. Is Va,Ed > the cross-section.
0.5Vpl,a,Rd?

Yes

Calculate ρ and hence reduced fyd. Find member imperfection, e0.

Can first-order member analysis be used?

Yes No

Determine MEd, the


maximum first-order Calculate Find MEd,max by
bending moment within second-order analysis
Ncr,eff = π2(EI)eff,II/L2
the column length. of the pin-ended
find β for end moments
If MEd,1 = MEd,2 it is column length with
MEd,top and MEd,bot and force NEd and end
MEd,max = MEd,1 + NEde0
hence k (=k1); find k2 for moments MEd,1 and
β = 1; MEd,2.
find the design moment for
the column,
MEd,max = k1MEd + k2NEde0

From NEd and the interaction diagrams, find µdy and µdz. Check that the cross-
section can resist My,Ed,max and Mz,Ed,max.

Figure B.2 Design for SRC column subjected to combined compression and


bending.
Index

Amplification factor, 37, 45, 46, 55, 62 Concrete class C50/60, 28


Axial compression Concrete class C90/105, 8, 18, 38, 56
design for SRC column subjected Concrete strength, 67
to, 74 Confinement effective coefficient, 47
steel-reinforced concrete column Creep coefficient, 49, 57
subjected to, 13
Degree of confinement, steel-
Bending resistance, 53, 60 reinforced concrete column
Buckling reduction factor with, 63
high-strength concrete, 12–13, high-strength concrete, 63–64
20–21, 26, 41–42 high-strength steel and concrete,
high-strength materials, 58 64–67
high-strength steel, 17–18, 20–21, original design, 63
26, 51 Design chart, 73
normal-strength material, 7–8, design for SRC column subjected
32–33 to axial compression, 74
Buckling resistance design for SRC column subjected
high-strength concrete, 13, 21, to combined compression
26–27, 42 and bending, 75
high-strength materials, 58–59 Design resistance of shear
high-strength steel, 18, 21, 26–27, connectors, 69–72
51
normal-strength material, 8, 33 Effective compressive strength and
elastic modulus of concrete
C50/60 concrete, 63, 64 C90/105, 56
C90/105 concrete, 64 Effective flexural stiffness
Combined compression and bending considering second-order effects,
design for SRC column subjected 54, 61
to, 75 high-strength concrete, 11, 20, 25,
steel-reinforced concrete column 40, 57
subjected to, 27 high-strength steel, 17, 20, 25, 50
Combined compression and uniaxial normal-strength material, 6, 31–32
bending, 35–37, 44–46, Effective volume ratio of hoops, 47
54–55, 61–63 Elastic critical force, 45, 61

77
78 Index

Elastic critical normal force buckling resistance, 13, 42


high-strength concrete, 11–12, 20, cross-sectional areas, 9, 38
25–26, 41 design strengths and modulus,
high-strength materials, 57 8–9, 38
high-strength steel, 17, 20, with different degree of
25–26, 50 confinement, 63–67
normal-strength material, 7, 32 effective flexural stiffness of
Elastic modulus of concrete cross-section, 11, 40
considering long-term elastic critical normal force,
effects 11–12, 41
high-strength concrete, 11, 20, elastic modulus of concrete
25, 40 considering long-term
high-strength materials, 57 effects, 11, 40
high-strength steel, 16, 20, 25, 50 interaction curve, 42–44
normal-strength material, 6, 31 long-term effects, 10–11, 39–40
EN 1993–1-1, 41, 51 relative slenderness ratio, 12, 41
EN 1994–1-1, 36, 37, 45, 54, 55, 58, resistance checking, 44–46
61, 62 second moments of area, 9, 38
steel contribution factor checking,
High-strength concrete and steel, 9–10, 38–39
steel-reinforced concrete High-strength materials, steel-
column with reinforced concrete column
alternative design, 22 with, 56
buckling reduction factor, 20–21, 26 buckling reduction factor, 58
buckling resistance, 21, 26–27 buckling resistance, 58–59
cross-sectional areas and second cross-sectional areas and second
moments of area, 19, 23 moments of area, 56
design data, 22 design strengths and modulus, 56
design strengths and modulus, 19, effective flexural stiffness of
22–23 cross-section, 57
effective flexural stiffness of elastic critical normal force, 57
cross-section, 20, 25 elastic modulus of concrete
elastic critical normal force, 20, considering long-term
25–26 effects, 57
elastic modulus of concrete interaction curve, 59–61
considering long-term long-term effects, 57
effects, 20, 25 relative slenderness ratio, 58
local buckling checking, 23 resistance checking of steel-
long-term effects, 19, 24–25 reinforced concrete
reinforcement ratio checking, 23 column, 61–63
relative slenderness ratio, 20, 26 steel contribution factor checking,
steel contribution factor checking, 56–57
19, 23–24 High-strength steel, steel-reinforced
High-strength concrete, steel- concrete column with, 13,
reinforced concrete column 46, 64–67
with, 8, 38 buckling reduction factor, 17–18, 51
buckling reduction factor, 12–13, buckling resistance, 18, 51
41–42 cross-sectional areas, 16, 49
Index 79

design strengths and modulus, reinforcement ratio checking, 4, 29


13–16, 47–49 relative slenderness ratio, 7, 32
effective flexural stiffness of resistance of steel-reinforced
cross-section, 17, 50 concrete column checking,
elastic critical normal force, 17, 50 35–37
elastic modulus of concrete second moments of area, 3–4, 29
considering long-term steel contribution factor checking,
effects, 16, 50 4–5, 29–30
interaction curve, 52–54
long-term effects, 16, 49 Plastic section moduli, 34, 35, 52–53,
relative slenderness ratio, 17, 59, 60
50–51
resistance checking, 54–55 Real stress of hoops, 47
second moments of area, 16, 49 Reinforcement ratio checking
steel contribution factor checking, high-strength concrete and
16, 49 steel, 23
normal-strength material, 4, 29
Interaction curve Relative slenderness ratio
high-strength concrete, 42–44 high-strength concrete, 12, 20,
high-strength materials, 59–61 26, 41
high-strength steel, 52–54 high-strength materials, 58
normal-strength material, 33–35 high-strength steel, 17, 20, 26,
50–51
Local buckling checking normal-strength material, 7, 32
high-strength concrete and steel, 23 Resistance checking of steel-
normal-strength material, 4, 29 reinforced concrete column
Longitudinal reinforcement ratio, high-strength concrete, 44–46
14, 47 high-strength materials, 61–63
high-strength steel, 54–55
Normal-strength material, steel- normal-strength material, 35–37
reinforced concrete column
with, 2, 27 S355 steel grade, 8, 13, 28, 63, 64
buckling reduction factor, 7–8, S550 steel grade, 18, 46, 56
32–33 S690 steel, 64
buckling resistance, 8, 33 Shear connectors, design resistance
cross-sectional areas, 3, 29 of, 69–72
design data, 27–28 SRC columns, 1
design strengths and modulus, design for, 63, 73, 74
2–3, 28–29 Steel contribution factor checking
effective flexural stiffness of high-strength concrete, 9–10, 19,
cross-section, 6, 31–32 23–24, 38–39
elastic critical normal force, 7, 32 high-strength materials, 56–57
elastic modulus of concrete high-strength steel, 16, 19,
considering long-term 23–24, 49
effects, 6, 31 normal-strength material, 4–5,
interaction curve, 33–35 29–30
local buckling checking, 4, 29 Strain of HCC, 48
long-term effects, 5–6, 30–31 Strain of PCC, 48