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BY

INTRODUCTION TO HYDRAULICS ENGR. RICHARD A. BADIOLA,


RMP, D.ENG’G(CAR)
INSTRUCTOR
DEFINITION OF HYDRAULICS
Derived from the Greek words “Hudour” which means “Water”
Science that deals with the mechanical behavior of fluids at rest or in
motion
An applied science of fluid mechanics and studies the flow of
incompressible fluids which do not exhibit any changes in density as
pressure is exerted.
Subject matter(Focus)
Focus on the water in open channels, closed conduits, watersheds, oceans,
lakes and reservoir, estuaries, wetlands, soils and groundwater
Study the constituents carried by water including sediments, chemicals
and microorganisms
DISTINCTION BETWEEN HYDRAULICS AND FLUID
MECHANICS
FLUID MECHANICS HYDRAULICS

Deal with all kinds of liquid Deal with water

Based on mathematical and Based on empirical approaches


scientific approaches which focus which focus on practical solution
on understanding the behavior of
hydraulic systems.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN HYDRAULICS AND
HYDROLOGY
HYDROLOGY HYDRAULICS

Deals with all forms of water: liquid, solid, ice Deals with water
and snow, water vapor
Study space, time, and frequency Does not cover the water cycle
characteristics of the quantity and quality of
waters encompassing their occurrence,
movement, distribution, circulation, storage,
exploration and development.

Large spatial and temporal scope for The scope of spatial and temporal study is
investigation so highly empirical and employs bigger than fluid mechanics but lesser than
averaging hydrology
HYDRAULIC APPLICATIONS
TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND WATER RESOURCES PROBLEMS
1.) FLOOD CONTROL AND DROUGHT MITIGATION
7.) MILITARY OPERATIONS, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, NAVIGATION, RECREATION
2.) WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
3.) URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT
4.) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND LAND
CONSERVATION
5.ENERGY RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT, AND FOREST
AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
6.LAND USE CHANGE, DESIGN OF HYDRAULICS
STRUCTURES
7.) MILITARY OPERATIONS, RURAL DEVELOPMENT,
NAVIGATION, RECREATION
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
1.) Source of Water
Surface water hydraulics River Hydraulics
Lake or reservoir hydraulics
Canal hydraulics
Vadose zone hydraulics
Ground Water hydraulics
2.) Type of conduits
Open channel hydraulics
Pipe flow hydraulics
Watershed hydraulics
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
3.) Properties of Water

Water quantity hydraulics Physical hydraulics

Water quality hydraulics Chemical hydraulics

Biological hydraulics

Physical quality hydraulics

Environmental hydraulics Fluvial hydraulics

Chemical hydraulics

Biological hydraulics
CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
4.) Scientific Content
Physical Hydraulics For application in civil and water resources engineering

Chemical hydraulics For Environmental Engineering

Biological Hydraulics

5.) Type of Environment

Agricultural Hydraulics, desert hydraulics, marsh and wetland hydraulics, forest hydraulics

Coastal Hydraulics, mountainous hydraulics, ecosystem hydraulics, lake hydraulics

Estuary hydraulics, subsurface hydraulics


CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
6. Land Use

Agricultural hydraulics, forest hydraulics, mountainous hydraulics

Urban hydraulics, transportation hydraulics, rural hydraulics

Wet land hydraulics, desert hydraulics

7.) Solution Technique

Mathematical hydraulics Analytical/Parametric hydraulics

Numerical hydraulics/ computational hydraulics

Digital or system hydraulics


CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
Continuation no. 7

Statistical hydraulics Empirical hydraulics

Probabilistic hydraulics

Stochastic hydraulics

8.) Focus of Study River hydraulics, coastal hydraulics, lake hydraulics

Wetland hydraulics, ecological hydraulics

Hydraulic structures and machinery


CLASSIFICATION OF HYDRAULICS
Scale of Study

Small Scale Studies in flumes, flow over spillway, weirs, orifices and culverts

Flow in pipes

Medium scale Parking lots, drainage ditches, pipe networks, flow routing in canals

Large scale Hydraulics of rivers, dams, estuary, flood control works

Large irrigation canals, levees, diversions, barrages


GEOMETRICAL REPERESENTATION OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Affects the flow characteristics
Modelling of the different parts of the system and boundaries showing the
interrelationships among system elements, inputs and outputs
GOVERNING EQUATIONS (PHYSICAL LAWS) by Singh, 1996
1. Internal mechanics
Law of entropy
Law of space time mass dimensionality
2. External Constraints
Conservation of mass
Conservation of momentum
Conservation of energy
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
“Matter (mass) can be neither created nor destroyed”

 “The mass or weight of fluid passing into or out of a system/section per unit
time is constant” which is mathematically expressed as continuity equation

pA1V1 = pA2V2 or
ýA1V1 = ýA2V2
For a control volume continuity equation is :
Rate of mass inflow – rate of mass outflow = rate of mass accumulation
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY (1st Law of Thermodynamics)
“Energy can be neither created nor destroyed”
Mathematically expressed as energy equation usually in terms of heads such as
The Bernoulli equation:

Kinetic Energy + Pressure Energy + Elevation Energy = Total Energy, ET

½ V2 /g + P/y + z = ET
BERNOULLI’S EQUATION (IDEAL)
F = d/dt (mV)
F=ma
F dt = m dV then integrating over time t1 and t2
Ft = m ( V2 – V1) = Impulse –Momentum Equation
Scientific Approach to hydraulic problems
Initial and Boundary Conditions
The governing hydraulic equations has infinite number of solutions for flow pattern
obtained thus initial and boundary conditions are necessary.

Ex. Computing the flow stage in a river or a channel


Inflow and Outflow
The discharge flowing and leaving into a system must be equal to change of the volume
stored inside the system
Vol (in) – Vol (out) = change instorage
PROBLEM (BERNOULLI’S EQUATION)