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MINING &

EARTHMOVING

Caterpillar ®

Performance
Handbook
Edition 44

800.437.4228
www.hawthornecat.com
© 2014 Caterpillar. All Rights Reserved. CAT, CATERPILLAR, BUILT FOR IT, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow,” the “Power Edge” trade dress as well as
corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.
MINING AND EARTHMOVING

CONTENTS ELEMENTS OF PRODUCTION


Elements of Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1 Production is the hourly rate at which material is
Volume Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 moved. Production can be expressed in various units:
Swell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2
Load Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 Metric
Material Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 Bank Cubic Meters — BCM — bank m3
Fill Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3 Loose Cubic Meters — LCM — loose m3
Soil Density Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3 Compacted Cubic Meters — CCM — compacted m3
Figuring Production On-the-Job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4 Tonnes
Load Weighing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4
Time Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4 English
English Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4
Bank Cubic Yards — BCY — bank yd3
Metric Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5
Loose Cubic Yards — LCY — loose yd3
Estimating Production Off-the-Job. . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5
Compacted Cubic Yards — CCY — compacted yd3
Rolling Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5
Tons
Grade Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6
Total Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6 For most earthmoving and material handling appli-
Traction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6 cations, production is calculated by multiplying the quan-
Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-7 tity of material (load) moved per cycle by the number
Job Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8 of cycles per hour. 28
English Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8 Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hour
Metric Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-10 The load can be determined by
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-13 1) load weighing with scales
Economic Haul Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-13 2) load estimating based on machine rating
Production Estimating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14 3) surveyed volume divided by load count
Loading Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14 4) machine payload measurement system
Fuel Consumption and Productivity. . . . . . . . . . 28-14
Formulas and Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-15 Generally, earthmoving and overburden removal for
coal mines are calculated by volume (bank cubic meters
or bank cubic yards). Metal mines and aggregate pro-
INTRODUCTION ducers usually work in weight (tons or tonnes).
This section explains the earthmoving principles used
to determine machine productivity. It shows how to
calculate production on-the-job or estimate production
off-the-job.
Machine performance is usually measured on an hourly
basis in terms of machine productivity and machine own-
ing and operating cost. Optimum machine performance
can be expressed as follows:
Lowest Possible
Hourly Costs
Lowest cost per ton =
Highest Possible
Hourly Productivity

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PHB-Sec28-14.indd 1 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Mining and Elements of Production
Earthmoving ● Volume Measure ● Swell
● Load Factor ● Material Density

Volume Measure — Material volume is defined Bank = Loose ÷ (1 + Swell) =


according to its state in the earthmoving process. The 1000 LCM ÷ (1 + 0.25) = 800 BCM
three measures of volume are: 1308 LCY ÷ (1 + 0.25) = 1046 BCY
BCM (BCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material Load Factor — Assume one bank cubic yard of
as it lies in the natural bank state. material weighs 3000 lb. Because of material char-
LCM (LCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material acteristics, this bank cubic yard swells 30% to 1.3 loose
which has been disturbed and has cubic yards when loaded, with no change in weight. If
swelled as a result of movement. this 1.0 bank cubic yard or 1.3 loose cubic yards is com-
CCM (CCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material pacted, its volume may be reduced to 0.8 compacted
which has been compacted and cubic yard, and the weight is still 3000 lb.
has become more dense as a Instead of dividing by 1 + Swell to determine bank
result of compaction. volume, the loose volume can be multiplied by the load
In order to estimate production, the relationships factor.
between bank measure, loose measure, and compacted If the percent of material swell is known, the load
measure must be known. factor (L.F.) may be obtained by using the following
Swell — Swell is the percentage of original volume relationship:
(cubic meters or cubic yards) that a material increases 100%
when it is removed from the natural state. When exca- L.F. =
100% + % swell
vated, the material breaks up into different size particles
Load factors for various materials are listed in the
that do not fit together, causing air pockets or voids to
Tables Section of this handbook.
reduce the weight per volume. For example to hold the
To estimate the machine payload in bank cubic
same weight of one cubic unit of bank material it takes
yards, the volume in loose cubic yards is multiplied by
30% more volume (1.3 times) after excavation. (Swell
the load factor:
is 30%.)
Loose cubic volume Load (BCY) = Load (LCY) × L.F.
for a given weight The ratio between compacted measure and bank
1 + Swell = measure is called shrinkage factor (S.F.):
Bank cubic volume for
the same given weight Compacted cubic yards (CCY)
S.F. =
Loose Bank cubic yards (BCY)
Bank = Shrinkage factor is either estimated or obtained from
(1 + Swell)
job plans or specifications which show the conversion
Loose = Bank × (1 + Swell)
from compacted measure to bank measure. Shrinkage
Example Problem: factor should not be confused with percentage com-
paction (used for specifying embankment density, such
If a material swells 20%, how many loose cubic meters as Modified Proctor or California Bearing Ratio [CBR]).
(loose cubic yards) will it take to move 1000 bank cubic Material Density — Density is the weight per unit
meters (1308 bank cubic yards)? volume of a material. Materials have various densities
Loose = Bank × (1 + Swell) = depending on particle size, moisture content and varia-
1000 BCM × (1 + 0.2) = 1200 LCM tions in the material. The denser the material the more
1308 BCY × (1 + 0.2) = 1570 LCY weight there is per unit of equal volume. Density estimates
How many bank cubic meters (yards) were moved if are provided in the Tables Section of this handbook.
a total of 1000 loose cubic meters (1308 yards) have Weight kg (lb)
Density = =
been moved? Swell is 25%. Volume m3 (yd3)
Weight = Volume × Density

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Elements of Production Mining and
● Fill Factor Earthmoving
● Soil Density Tests

A given material’s density changes between bank and CCY 10,000


loose. One cubic unit of loose material has less weight a) BCY = = = 12,500 BCY
S.F. 0.80
than one cubic unit of bank material due to air pockets
and voids. To correct between bank and loose use the b) Load (BCY) = Capacity (LCY)
following equations. × Load factor (L.F.) = 20 × 0.81
= 16.2 BCY/Load
kg/BCM lb/BCY
1 + Swell = or (L.F. of 0.81 from Tables)
kg/LCM lb/LCY
Number of 12,500 BCY
lb/BCY loads required = = 772 Loads
lb/LCY = 16.2 BCY/Load
(1 + Swell)
● ● ●
lb/BCY = lb/LCY × (1 + Swell)
Fill Factor — The percentage of an available volume Soil Density Tests — There are a number of accept-
in a body, bucket, or bowl that is actually used is able methods that can be used to determine soil density.
expressed as the fill factor. A fill factor of 87% for a Some that are currently in use are:
hauler body means that 13% of the rated volume is not
Nuclear density moisture gauge
being used to carry material. Buckets often have fill
Sand cone method
factors over 100%.
Oil method
Example Problem: Balloon method
Cylinder method
A 14 cubic yard (heaped 2:1) bucket has a 105% fill
factor when operating in a shot sandstone (4125 lb/BCY All these except the nuclear method use the follow-
and a 35% swell). ing procedure:
a) What is the loose density of the material? 1. Remove a soil sample from bank state.
b) What is the usable volume of the bucket? 2. Determine the volume of the hole.
c) What is the bucket payload per pass in BCY? 3. Weigh the soil sample. 28
d) What is the bucket payload per pass in tons? 4. Calculate the bank density kg/BCM (lb/BCY).
a) lb/LCY = lb/BCY ÷ (1 + Swell) = 4125 ÷ (1.35) = The nuclear density moisture gauge is one of the most
3056 lb/LCY modern instruments for measuring soil density and
b) LCY = rated LCY × fill factor = 14 × 1.05 = moisture. A common radiation channel emits either
14.7 LCY neutrons or gamma rays into the soil. In deter mining
c) lb/pass = volume × density lb/LCY = 14.7 × 3056 soil density, the number of gamma rays absorbed and
= 44,923 lb back scattered by soil particles is indirectly propor-
BCY/pass = weight ÷ density lb/BCY = 44,923 ÷ tional to the soil density. When measuring moisture
4125 = 10.9 BCY content, the number of moderated neutrons reflected
or bucket LCY from part b ÷ (1 + Swell) = 14.7 ÷ back to the detector after col liding with hydrogen
1.35 = 10.9 BCY particles in the soil is directly proportional to the soil’s
d) tons/pass = lb ÷ 2000 lb/ton = 44,923 ÷ 2000 = moisture content.
22.5 tons All these methods are satisfactory and will provide
accurate densities when performed correctly. Several
Example Problem: repetitions are necessary to obtain an average.
Construct a 10,000 compacted cubic yard (CCY) NOTE: Several newer methods have been successfully
bridge approach of dry clay with a shrinkage factor applied, along with weigh scales to deter mine
(S.F.) of 0.80. Haul unit is rated 14 loose cubic yards volume and loose density of material moved in
struck and 20 loose cubic yards heaped. hauler bodies. These measurements include photo-
a) How many bank yards are needed? grammatic and laser scanning technologies.
b) How many loads are required?

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Mining and Figuring Production On-the-Job
Earthmoving ● Load Weighing
● Time Studies
● Example (English)

FIGURING PRODUCTION ON-THE-JOB To determine trips-per-hour at 100% efficiency,


divide 60 minutes by the average cycle time less all wait
Load Weighing — The most accurate method of
and delay time. Cycle time may or may not include wait
determining the actual load carried is by weighing.
and/or delay time. Therefore, it is possible to figure
This is normally done by weighing the haul unit one
different kinds of production: measured production,
wheel or axle at a time with portable scales. Any scales
production without wait or delay, maximum production,
of adequate capacity and accuracy can be used. While
etc. For example:
weighing, the machine must be level to reduce error caused
Actual Production: includes all wait and delay time.
by weight transfer. Enough loads must be weighed to
Normal Production (without delays): includes wait
provide a good average. Machine weight is the sum of
time that is considered normal, but no delay time.
the individual wheel or axle weights.
Maximum Production: to figure maximum (or optimum)
The weight of the load can be determined using the
production, both wait time and delay time are elim-
empty and loaded weight of the unit.
inated. The cycle time may be further altered by using
Weight of
an optimum load time.
load = gross machine weight – empty weight
To determine the bank cubic measure carried by a Example (English)
machine, the load weight is divided by the bankstate
density of the material being hauled. A job study of a Wheel Tractor-Scraper might yield the
following information:
Weight of load Average wait time = 0.28 minute
BCY =
Bank density Average load time = 0.65
Times Studies — To estimate production, the number Average delay time = 0.25
of complete trips a unit makes per hour must be deter- Average haul time = 4.26
mined. First obtain the unit’s cycle time with the help Average dump time = 0.50
of a stop watch. Time several complete cycles to arrive Average return time = 2.09
at an average cycle time. By allowing the watch to run Average total cycle = 8.03 minutes
continuously, different segments such as load time, wait Less wait & delay time = 0.53
time, etc. can be recorded for each cycle. Knowing the Average cycle 100% eff. = 7.50 minutes
individual time segments affords a good opportunity to
evaluate the balance of the spread and job efficiency. Weight of haul unit empty — 48,650 lb
The following is an example of a scraper load time study Weights of haul unit loaded —
form. Numbers in the white columns are stop watch Weighing unit #1 — 93,420 lb
readings; numbers in the shaded columns are calculated: Weighing unit #2 — 89,770 lb
Weighing unit #3 — 88,760 lb
Total
Cycle 271,950 lb;
Times average = 90,650 lb
(less Arrive Wait Begin Load End Begin Delay End
delays) Cut Time Load Time Load Delay Time Delay
1. Average load weight = 90,650 lb – 48,650 lb = 42,000 lb
0.00 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.90 2. Bank density = 3125 lb/BCY
3.50 3.50 0.30 3.80 0.65 4.45 Weight of load
4.00 7.50 0.35 7.85 0.70 8.55 9.95 1.00 10.95
3. Load =
Bank density
4.00 12.50 0.42 12.92 0.68 13.60
NOTE: All numbers are in minutes
42,000 lb
3. Load = = 13.4 BCY
3125 lb/BCY
This may be easily extended to include other seg-
4. Cycles/hr =
ments of the cycle such as haul time, dump time, etc.
Haul roads may be further segmented to more accu- 60 min/hr 60 min/hr
= = 80 cycles/hr
rately define performance, including measured speed Cycle time 7.50 min/cycle
traps. Similar forms can be made for pushers, loaders, 5. Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hr
dozers, etc. Wait Time is the time a unit must wait for (less delays) = 13.4 BCY/cycle × 8.0 cycles/hr
another unit so that the two can function together (haul = 107.2 BCY/hr
unit waiting for pusher). Delay Time is any time, other
than wait time, when a machine is not performing in
the work cycle (scraper waiting to cross railroad track).

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Figuring Production On-the-Job Mining and
● Example (Metric) Earthmoving
Estimating Production Off-the-Job
● Rolling Resistance

Example (Metric) ESTIMATING PRODUCTION OFF-THE-JOB


A job study of a Wheel Tractor-Scraper might yield the It is often necessary to estimate production of earth-
following information: moving machines which will be selected for a job. As a
Average wait time = 0.28 minute guide, the remainder of the section is devoted to discus-
Average load time = 0.65 sions of various factors that may affect production. Some
Average delay time = 0.25 of the figures have been rounded for easier calculation.
Average haul time = 4.26 Rolling Resistance (RR) is a measure of the force
Average dump time = 0.50 that must be overcome to roll or pull a wheel over the
Average return time = 2.09 ground. It is affected by ground conditions and load —
Average total cycle = 8.03 minutes the deeper a wheel sinks into the ground, the higher the
rolling resistance. Internal friction and tire flexing also
Less wait & delay time = 0.53 contribute to rolling resistance. Experience has shown
Average cycle 100% eff. = 7.50 minutes that minimum resistance is 1%-1.5% (see Typical Rolling
Weight of haul unit empty — 22 070 kg Resistance Factors in Tables section) of the gross machine
Weights of haul unit loaded — weight (on tires). A 2% base resistance is quite often
Weighing unit #1 — 42 375 kg used for estimating. Resistance due to tire penetration
Weighing unit #2 — 40 720 kg is approximately 1.5% of the gross machine weight for
Weighing unit #3 — 40 260 kg each inch of tire penetration (0.6% for each cm of tire
penetration). Thus rolling resistance can be calculated
123 355 kg;
average = 41 120 kg using these relationships in the following manner:
RR = 2% of GMW + 0.6% of GMW per cm tire
1. Average load weight = 41 120 kg – 22 070 kg = penetration
19 050 kg RR = 2% of GMW + 1.5% of GMW per inch tire
2. Bank density = 1854 kg/BCM penetration
Weight of load It’s not necessary for the tires to actually penetrate the 28
3. Load = road surface for rolling resistance to increase above the
Bank density
minimum. If the road surface flexes under load, the
19 050 kg effect is nearly the same — the tire is always running
3. Load = = 10.3 BCM
1854 kg/BCM “uphill.” Only on very hard, smooth surfaces with a well
4. Cycles/hr = compacted base will the rolling resistance approach the
60 min/hr 60 min/hr minimum.
= = 80 cycles/hr When actual penetration takes place, some variation
Cycle time 7.50 min/cycle in rolling resistance can be noted with various inflation
5. Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hr pressures and tread patterns.
(less delays) = 10.3 BCM/cycle × 8.0 cycles/hr NOTE: When figuring “pull” requirements for track-
= 82 BCM/hrr type tractors, rolling resistance applies only to
● ● ● the trailed unit’s weight on wheels. Since track-
®
type tractors utilize steel wheels moving on
NOTE: The Cat Cycle Timer Program software uses steel “roads,” a tractor’s rolling resistance is
laptop computers in place of stop watches, relatively constant and is accounted for in the
organizes the data, and allows study results to Drawbar Pull rating.
be printed.

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Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job
Earthmoving ● Grade Resistance
● Total Resistance
● Traction

Grade Resistance is a measure of the force that must Total resistance can also be represented as consisting
be overcome to move a machine over unfavorable grades completely of grade resistance expressed in percent
(uphill). Grade assistance is a measure of the force that grade. In other words, the rolling resistance component
assists machine movement on favorable grades (downhill). is viewed as a corresponding quantity of additional
Grades are generally measured in percent slope, which adverse grade resistance. Using this approach, total
is the ratio between vertical rise or fall and the horizontal resistance can then be considered in terms of percent
distance in which the rise or fall occurs. For example, a grade.
1% grade is equivalent to a 1 m (ft) rise or fall for every This can be done by converting the contribution of
100 m (ft) of horizontal distance; a rise of 4.6 m (15 ft) rolling resistance into a corresponding percentage of
in 53.3 m (175 ft) equals an 8.6% grade. grade resistance. Since 1% of adverse grade offers a
4.6 m (rise) resistance of 10 kg (20 lb) for each metric or (U.S.) ton
= 8.6% grade of machine weight, then each 10 kg (20 lb) of resistance
53.3 m (horizontal distance) per ton of machine weight can be represented as an
15 ft (rise) additional 1% of adverse grade. Rolling resistance in
= 8.6% grade percent grade and grade resistance in percent grade can
175 ft (horizontal distance)
then be summed to give Total Resistance in percent or
Uphill grades are normally referred to as adverse Effective Grade. The following formulas are useful in
grades and downhill grades as favorable grades. Grade arriving at Effective Grade.
resistance is usually expressed as a positive (+) percent-
Rolling Resistance (%) = 2% + 0.6% per cm tire
age and grade assistance is expressed as a negative (–)
penetration
percentage. = 2% + 1.5% per inch tire
It has been found that for each 1% increment of penetration
adverse grade an additional 10 kg (20 lb) of resistance Grade Resistance (%) = % grade
must be overcome for each metric (U.S.) ton of machine Effective Grade (%) = RR (%) + GR (%)
weight. This relationship is the basis for determining
the Grade Resistance Factor which is expressed in kg/ Effective grade is a useful concept when working with
metric ton (lb/U.S. ton): Rimpull-Speed-Gradeability curves, Retarder curves,
Brake Performance curves, and Travel Time curves.
Grade Resistance Factor = 10 kg/m ton × % grade Traction — is the driving force developed by a wheel
= 20 lb/U.S. ton × % grade or track as it acts upon a surface. It is expressed as usable
Grade resistance (assistance) is then obtained by mul- Drawbar Pull or Rimpull. The following factors affect
tiplying the Grade Resistance Factor by the machine traction: weight on the driving wheel or tracks, gripping
weight (GMW) in metric (U.S.) tons. action of the wheel or track, and ground conditions.
Grade Resistance = GR Factor × GMW in metric The coefficient of traction (for any roadway) is the ratio
(U.S.) tons of the maximum pull developed by the machine to the
total weight on the drivers.
Grade resistance may also be calculated using per-
centage of gross weight. This method is based on the Pull
relationship that grade resistance is approximately equal Coeff. of traction =
weight on drivers
to 1% of the gross machine weight for 1% of grade.
Therefore, to find the usable pull for a given machine:
Grade Resistance = 1% of GMW × % grade
Usable pull = Coeff. of traction × weight on drivers
Grade resistance (assistance) affects both wheel and
track-type machines. Example: Track-Type Tractor
Total Resistance is the combined effect of rolling What usable drawbar pull (DBP) can a 26 800 kg
resistance (wheel vehicles) and grade resistance. It can (59,100 lb) Track-type Tractor exert while working on
be computed by summing the values of rolling resistance firm earth? on loose earth? (See table section for
and grade resistance to give a resistance in kilogram coefficient of traction.)
(pounds) force.
Total Resistance = Rolling Resistance +
Grade Resistance

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Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and
● Altitude Earthmoving

Answer: The horsepower deration due to altitude must be


Firm earth — Usable DBP = considered in any job estimating. The amount of power
0.90 × 26 800 kg = 24 120 kg deration will be reflected in the machine’s gradeability
(0.90 × 59,100 lb = 53,190 lb) and in the load, travel, and dump and load times (unless
Loose earth — Usable DBP = loading is independent of the machine itself). Altitude
0.60 × 26 800 kg = 16 080 kg may also reduce retarding performance. Consult a Cat
(0.60 × 59,100 lb = 35,460 lb) representative to determine if deration is applicable.
If a load required 21 800 kg (48,000 lb) pull to move Fuel grade (heat content) can have a similar effect of
it, this tractor could move the load on firm earth. derating engine performance.
However, if the earth were loose, the tracks would spin. The example job problem that follows indicates one
method of accounting for altitude deration: by increas-
NOTE: D8R through D11R Tractors may attain higher ing the appropriate components of the total cycle time
coefficients of traction due to their suspended by a percentage equal to the percent of horsepower
undercarriage. deration due to altitude. (i.e., if the travel time of a
Example: Wheel Tractor-Scraper hauling unit is determined to be 1.00 minute at full HP,
the time for the same machine derated to 90% of full HP
What usable rimpull can a 621F size machine exert will be 1.10 min.) This is an approximate method that
while working on firm earth? on loose earth? The total yields reasonably accurate estimates up to 3000 m
loaded weight distribution of this unit is: (10,000 feet) elevation.
Drive unit Scraper unit Travel time for hauling units derated more than 10%
wheels: 23 600 kg wheels: 21 800 kg should be calculated as follows using Rimpull-Speed-
(52,000 lb) (48,000 lb) Gradeability charts.
1) Determine total resistance (grade plus rolling) in
Remember, use weight on drivers only.
percent.
Answer:
GROSS MACHINE WEIGHT (GMW)
Firm earth — 0.55 × 23 600 kg = 12 980 kg EMPTY LOADED 28
(0.55 × 52,000 lb = 28,600 lb)
Loose earth — 0.45 × 23 600 kg = 10 620 kg
(0.45 × 52,000 lb = 23,400 lb)

TOTAL RESISTANCE
On firm earth this unit can exert up to 12 980 kg
(28,600 lb) rimpull without excessive slipping. How-
RIMPULL

ever, on loose earth the drivers would slip if more than


10 620 kg (23,400 lb) rimpull were developed.
● ● ●

Altitude — Specification sheets show how much pull


a machine can produce for a given gear and speed
when the engine is operating at rated horsepower.
SPEED
When a standard machine is operated in high altitudes,
the engine may require derating to maintain normal
2) Beginning at point A on the chart follow the total
engine life. This engine deration will produce less
resistance line diagonally to its intersection, B, with the
drawbar pull or rimpull.
vertical line corresponding to the appropriate gross
The Tables Section gives the altitude deration in
machine weight. (Rated loaded and empty GMW lines
percent of flywheel horsepower for current machines. It
are shown dotted.)
should be noted that some turbocharged engines can
3) Using a straight-edge, establish a horizontal line
operate up to 4570 m (15,000 ft) before they require
to the left from point B to point C on the rim-pull scale.
derating. Most machines are engineered to operate up
4) Divide the value of point C as read on the rim-
to 1500-2290 m (5000-7500 ft) before they require
pull scale by the percent of total horsepower available
deration.
after altitude deration from the Tables Section. This
yields rimpull value D higher than point C.

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Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job
Earthmoving ● Job Efficiency
● Example Problem (English)

5) Establish a horizontal line right from point D. Job Efficiency is one of the most complex elements
The farthest right intersection of this line with a curved of estimating production since it is influenced by fac-
speed range line is point E. tors such as operator skill, minor repairs and adjustments,
6) A vertical line down from point E determines personnel delays, and delays caused by job layout. An
point F on the speed scale. approximation of efficiency, if no job data is available,
7) Multiply speed in kmh by 16.7 (mph by 88) to is given below.
obtain speed in m/min (ft/min). Travel time in minutes Efficiency
for a given distance in feet is determined by the formula: Operation Working Hour Factor
Distance in m (ft) Day 50 min/hr 0.83
Time (min) = Night 45 min/hr 0.75
Speed in m/min (ft/min)
The Travel Time Graphs in sections on Wheel These factors do not account for delays due to weather
Tractor-Scrapers and Construction & Mining Trucks or machine downtime for maintenance and repairs.
can be used as an alternative method of calculating You must account for such factors based on experience
haul and/or return times. and local conditions.
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

The following example provides a method to manually 1. Estimate Payload:


estimate production and cost. Today, computer pro- Est. load (LCY) × L.F. × Bank Density = payload
grams, such as Caterpillar’s Fleet Production and Cost 31 LCY × 0.80 × 3000 lb/BCY = 74,400 lb payload
Analysis (FPC), provide a much faster and more accurate 2. Establish Machine Weight:
means to obtain those application results. Empty Wt. — 102,460 lb or 51.27 tons
Wt. of Load — 74,400 lb or 37.2 tons
Example problem (English)
Total (GMW) — 176,860 lb or 88.4 tons
A contractor is planning to put the following spread on 3. Calculate Usable Pull (traction limitation):
a dam job. What is the estimated production and cost/ Loaded: (weight on driving wheels = 54%) (GMW)
BCY? Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels =
Equipment: 0.50 × 176,860 lb × 54% = 47,628 lb
11 — 631G Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Empty: (weight on driving wheels = 69%) (GMW)
2 — D9T Tractors with C-dozers Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels =
2 — 12H Motor Graders 0.50 × 102,460 lb × 69% = 35,394 lb
1 — 825G Tamping Foot Compactor 4. Derate for Altitude:
Check power available at 7500 ft from altitude dera-
Material: tion table in the Tables Section.
Description — Sandy clay; damp, natural bed 631G — 100% 12H — 83%
Bank Density — 3000 lb/BCY D9T — 100% 825G —100%
Load Factor — 0.80
Shrinkage Factor — 0.85
Traction Factor — 0.50
Altitude — 7500 ft
0% Grade
Job Layout — Haul and Return:
rade
4% G
0% Grade 0% Grade ' Sec. D — Fill 400'
10 0 0
Haul RR = 200 lb/ton
e c . C — on Eff. Grade = 10%
S /t
Sec. A — Cut 400' Sec. B — Haul 1500' 80 lb
RR = 200 lb/ton RR = 80 lb/ton RR = rade = 8%
Eff. Grade = 10% Eff. Grade = 4% Eff. G

Total Effective Grade = RR (%) ± GR (%)


Sec. A: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10%
Sec. B: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 0% = 4%
Sec. C: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 4% = 8%
Sec. D: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10%

28-8 Edition 44

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 8 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and
● Example Problem (English) Earthmoving

Then adjust if necessary: Rolling Resistance —


Load Time — controlled by D9T, at 100% power, no RR = RR Factor × Empty Wt (tons)
change. Sec. D: = 200 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 10,240 lb
Travel, Maneuver and Spread time — 631G, no change. Sec. C: = 80 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 1,4091 lb
5. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on haul: Sec. B: = 80 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 1,4091 lb
Grade Resistance — Sec. A: = 200 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 10,240 lb
GR = lb/ton × tons × adverse grade in percent Total Resistance —
Sec. C: = 20 lb/ton × 88.4 tons × 4% grade = TR = RR – GA
7072 lb
Sec. D: = 10,240 lb – 0 = 10,240 lb
Rolling Resistance — Sec. C: = 4096 lb – 4096 lb = 0
RR = RR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons) Sec. B: = 4096 lb – 0 = 1,4096 lb
Sec. A: = 200 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 17,686 lb Sec. A: = 10,240 lb – 0 = 10,240 lb
Sec. B: = 80 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 1,7072 lb Check usable pounds pull against maximum pounds
Sec. C: = 80 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 1,7072 lb pull required to move the 631G.
Sec. D: = 200 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 17,686 lb Pounds pull usable … 35,349 lb empty
Total Resistance — Pounds pull required … 10,240 lb
TR = RR + GR Estimate travel time for return from 631G empty
Sec. A: = 17,686 lb + 0 = 17,686 lb travel time curve.
Sec. B: = ,7072 lb + 0 = 1,7072 lb Travel time (from curves):
Sec. C: = ,7072 lb + 6496 lb = 14,144 lb Sec. A: 0.40 min
Sec. D: = 17,686 lb + 0 = 17,686 lb Sec. B: 0.55
Sec. C: 0.80
Check usable pounds pull against maximum pounds
Sec. D: 0.40
pull required to move the 631G.
Pull usable … 47,628 lb loaded 2.15 min 28
Pull required … 17,686 lb maximum total resistance 7. Estimate Cycle Time:
Estimate travel time for haul from 631G (loaded) Total Travel Time (Haul plus Return) = 5.55 min
travel time curve; read travel time from distance and Adjusted for altitude: 100% × 5.55 min = 5.55 min
effective grade. Load Time 0.7 min
Travel time (from curves): Maneuver and Spread Time 0.7 min
Sec. A: 0.60 min
Total Cycle Time 6.95 min
Sec. B: 1.00
Sec. C: 1.20 8. Check pusher-scraper combinations:
Sec. D: 0.60 Pusher cycle time consists of load, boost, return and
3.40 min maneuver time. Where actual job data is not available,
the following may be used.
NOTE: This is an estimate only; it does not account for
Boost time = 0.10 minute
all the acceleration and deceleration time, therefore
Return time = 40% of load time
it is not as accurate as the information obtained
Maneuver time = 0.15 minute
from a computer program.
Pusher cycle time = 140% of load time + 0.25 minute
6. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on return: Pusher cycle time = 140% of 0.7 min + 0.25 minute
Grade Assistance — = 0.98 + 0.25 = 1.23 minute
GA = 20 lb/ton × tons × negative grade in percent
Scraper cycle time divided by pusher cycle time indi-
Sec. C: = 20 lb/ton × 51.2 tons × 4% grade =
cates the number of scrapers which can be handled by
4096 lb
each pusher.
6.95 min
= 5.65
1.23 min

Edition 44 28-9

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 9 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job
Earthmoving ● Example Problem (English)
● Example Problem (Metric)

Each push tractor is capable of handling five plus 11. Estimate Total Hourly Cost:
scrapers. Therefore the two pushers can adequately 631G @ $65.00/hr × 11 units $715.00
serve the eleven scrapers. D9T @ $75.00/hr × 2 units 150.00
9. Estimate Production: 12H @ $15.00/hr × 2 units 30.00
Cycles/hour = 60 min ÷ Total cycle time 825G @ $40.00/hr × 1 unit 40.00
= 60 min/hr ÷ 6.95 min/cycle Operators @ $20.00/hr × 16 men 320.00
= 8.6 cycles/hr Total Hourly Owning and
Estimated load = Heaped capacity × L.F. Operating Cost $1,255.00
= 31 LCY × 0.80 12. Calculate Performance:
= 24.8 BCY
Hourly unit = Est. load × cycles/hr Total cost/hr
Cost per BCY =
production = 24.8 BCY × 8.6 cycles/hr Production/hr
= 213 BCY/hr
$1,255.00
Adjusted = Efficiency factor × hourly Cost per BCY =
production production 1947 BCY/hr
= 0.83 (50 min hour) × 213 BCY Cost per BCY = 64¢ BCY
= 177 BCY/hr
Hourly fleet = Unit production × No. of units NOTE: Ton-MPH calculations should be made to judge
production = 177 BCY/hr × 11 the ability of the tractor-scraper tires to operate
= 1947 BCY/hr safely under these conditions.
10. Estimate Compaction: 13. Other Considerations:
Compaction = S.F. × hourly fleet production If other equipment such as rippers, water wagons,
requirement = 0.85 × 1947 BCY/hr discs or other miscellaneous machines are needed for
= 1655 CCY/hr the particular operation, then these machines must also
be included in the cost per BCY.
Compaction capability (given the following):
Compacting width, 7.4 ft (W) ● ● ●
Average compacting speed, 6 mph (S)
Compacted lift thickness, 7 in (L)
No. of passes required, 3 (P) Example problem (Metric)
825G production = A contractor is planning to put the following spread on
W × S × L × 16.3 a dam job. What is the estimated production and cost/
CCY/hr = (conversion constant) BCM?
P
Equipment:
7.4 × 6 × 7 × 16.3 11 — 631G Wheel Tractor-Scrapers
CCY/hr = 2 — D9T Tractors with C-dozers
3
2 — 12H Motor Graders
CCY/hr = 1688 CCY/hr 1 — 825G Tamping Foot Compactor
Given the compaction requirement of 1655 CCY/hr, Material:
the 825G is an adequate compactor match-up for the Description — Sandy clay; damp, natural bed
rest of the fleet. However, any change to job layout Bank Density — 1770 kg/BCM
that would increase fleet production would upset this Load Factor — 0.80
balance. Shrinkage Factor — 0.85
Traction Factor — 0.50
Altitude — 2300 meters

28-10 Edition 44

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 10 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and
● Example Problem (Metric) Earthmoving

Job Layout — Haul and Return:

0% Grade
rade
4% G
0% Grade 0% Grade Sec. D — Fill 150 m
30 0 m
Haul RR = 100 kg/t
C—
Sec. A — Cut 150 m Sec. B — Haul 450 m Sec. 0 kg/t Eff. Grade = 10%
4
RR = 100 kg/t RR = 40 kg/t RR = rade = 8%
Eff. Grade = 10% Eff. Grade = 4% Eff. G

Total Effective Grade = RR (%) ± GR (%) Rolling Resistance —


Sec. A: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10% RR = RR Factor (kg/mton) × GMW (metric tons)
Sec. B: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 0% = 4% Sec. A: = 100 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons
Sec. C: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 4% = 8% = 8048 kg
Sec. D: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10% Sec. B: = 40 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons
= 3219 kg
1. Estimate Payload: Sec. C: = 40 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons
Est. load (LCM) × L.F. × Bank Density = payload = 3219 kg
24 LCM × 0.80 × 1770 kg/BCM = 34 000 kg payload Sec. D: = 100 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons
2. Machine Weight: = 8048 kg
Empty Wt. — 46 475 kg or 46.48 metric tons Total Resistance —
Wt. of Load — 34 000 kg or 34 metric tons TR = RR + GR
Total (GMW) — 80 475 kg or 80.48 metric tons Sec. A: = 8048 kg + 0 = 8048 kg
3. Calculate Usable Pull (traction limitation): Sec. B: = 3219 kg + 0 = 3219 kg
Sec. C: = 3219 kg + 3219 kg = 6438 kg 28
Loaded: (weight on driving wheels = 54%) (GMW)
Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels = Sec. D: = 8048 kg + 0 = 8048 kg
0.50 × 80 475 kg × 54% = 21 728 kg Check usable kilogram force against maximum
Empty: (weight on driving wheels = 69%) (GMW) kilogram force required to move the 631G.
Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels = Force usable … 21 728 kg loaded
0.50 × 46 475 kg × 69% = 16 034 kg Force required … 8048 kg maximum total resistance
4. Derate for Altitude: Estimate travel time for haul from 631G (loaded)
Check power available at 2300 m from altitude dera- travel time curve; read travel time from distance and
tion table in the Tables Section. effective grade.
631G — 100% 12H — 83% Travel time (from curves):
D9T — 100% 825G — 100% Sec. A: 0.60 min
Sec. B: 1.00
Then adjust if necessary:
Sec. C: 1.20
Load Time — controlled by D9T, at 100% power, no
Sec. D: 0.60
change.
Travel, Maneuver and Spread time — 631G, no change. 3.40 min
5. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on haul: NOTE: This is an estimate only; it does not account for all
Grade Resistance — the acceleration and deceleration time, therefore
GR = 10 kg/metric ton × tons × adverse grade it is not as accurate as the information obtained
in percent from a computer program.
Sec. C: = 10 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons × 4% 6. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on return:
grade = 3219 kg Grade Assistance —
GA = 10 kg/mton × metric tons × negative grade
in percent
Sec. C: = 10 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons
× 4% grade = 1859 kg

Edition 44 28-11

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 11 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job
Earthmoving ● Example Problem (Metric)

Rolling Resistance — Each push tractor is capable of handling five plus


RR = RR Factor × Empty Wt. scrapers. Therefore the two pushers can adequately
Sec. D: = 100 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons serve the eleven scrapers.
= 4648 kg 9. Estimate Production:
Sec. C: = 40 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons Cycles/hour = 60 min ÷ Total cycle time
= 1859 kg = 60 min/hr ÷ 6.95 min/cycle
Sec. B: = 40 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons
= 8.6 cycles/hr
= 1859 kg
Sec. A: = 100 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons Estimated load = Heaped capacity × L.F.
= 4648 kg = 24 LCM × 0.80
= 19.2 BCM
Total Resistance — Hourly unit = Est. load × cycles/hr
TR = RR – GA production = 19.2 BCM × 8.6 cycles/hr
Sec. D: = 4648 kg – 0 = 4648 kg = 165 BCM
Sec. C: = 1859 kg – 1859 kg = 0 Adjusted = Efficiency factor × hourly
Sec. B: = 1859 kg – 0 = 1859 kg production production
Sec. A: = 4648 kg – 0 = 4648 kg = 0.83 (50 min hour) × 165 BCM
Check usable kilogram force against maximum force = 137 BCM/hour
required to move the 631G. Hourly fleet = Unit production × No. of units
Kilogram force usable … 16 034 kg empty production = 137 BCM/hr × 11 units
Kilogram force required … 4645 kg = 1507 BCM/hr
Estimate travel time for return from 631G empty 10. Estimate Compaction:
travel time curve. Compaction = S.F. × hourly fleet production
Travel time (from curves): requirement = 0.85 × 1507 BCM/hr
Sec. A: 0.40 min = 1280 CCM/hr
Sec. B: 0.55 Compaction capability (given the following):
Sec. C: 0.80 Compacting width, 2.26 m (W)
Sec. D: 0.40 Average compacting speed, 9.6 km/h (S)
2.15 min Compacted lift thickness, 18 cm (L)
7. Estimate Cycle Time: No. of passes required, 3 (P)
Total Travel Time (Haul plus Return) = 5.55 min 825G production =
Adjusted for altitude: 100% × 5.55 min = 5.55 min W × S × L × 10
Load Time 0.7 min CCY/hr = (conversion factor)
P
Maneuver and Spread Time 0.7 min
2.26 × 9.6 × 18 × 10
Total Cycle Time 6.95 min CCY/hr =
3
8. Check pusher-scraper combinations:
Pusher cycle time consists of load, boost, return and CCY/hr = 1302
maneuver time. Where actual job data is not available, Given the compaction requirement of 1280 CCM/h,
the following may be used. the 825G is an adequate compactor match-up for the
Boost time = 0.10 minute rest of the fleet. However, any change to job layout
Return time = 40% of load time that would increase fleet production would upset this
Maneuver time = 0.15 minute balance.
Pusher cycle time= 140% of load time + 0.25 minute
Pusher cycle time= 140% of 0.7 min + 0.25 minute
= 0.98 + 0.25 = 1.23 minute
Scraper cycle time divided by pusher cycle time
indicates the number of scrapers which can be handled
by each pusher.
6.95 min
= 5.65
1.23 min

28-12 Edition 44

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 12 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and
● Example Problem (Metric) Earthmoving
Systems
● Economic Haul Distances

11. Estimate Total Hourly Cost: SYSTEMS


631G @ $65.00/hr × 11 units $715.00 Caterpillar offers a variety of machines for different
D9T @ $75.00/hr × 2 units 150.00 applications and jobs. Many of these separate machines
12H @ $15.00/hr × 2 units 30.00 function together in mining and earthmoving systems.
825G @ $40.00/hr × 1 unit 40.00
● Bulldozing with track-type tractors
Operators @ $20.00/hr × 16 men 320.00
● Load-and-Carry with wheel loaders
Total Hourly Owning and ● Scrapers self-loading, elevator, auger, or push-pull
Operating Cost $1,255.00
configurations, or push-loaded by track-type tractors
12. Calculate Performance: ● Articulated trucks loaded by excavators, track load-

Total cost/hr ers or wheel loaders


Cost per BCM = ● Off-highway trucks loaded by shovels, excavators or
Production/hr wheel loaders
$1,255.00 Haul System Selection: In selecting a hauling system
Cost per BCM =
1507 BCM/hr for a project, there may seem to be more than one
“right” choice. Many systems may meet the distance,
Cost per BCM = 83¢/BCM ground conditions, grade, material type, and produc-
NOTE: Ton-km/h calculations should be made to judge tion rate requirements. After considering all of the
the ability of the tractor-scraper tires to operate different factors, one hauling system usually provides
safely under these conditions. better performance and better potential for lowest cost
13. Other Considerations: per ton or BCY/BCM. This makes it critical for the
If other equipment such as rippers, water wagons, dealer and customer to work together to get accurate
discs or other miscellaneous machines are needed for information for their operation or project. Caterpillar
the particular operation, then these machines must also is committed to providing the correct earthmoving
be included in the cost per BCM. system to match the customer’s specific needs.
● ● ● 28
SOFTWARE NOTE: The Cat DOZSIM program can
provide a valuable tool for production dozing applica-
tions. Motor Grader Calculator can be used to deter-
mine the number of graders required to maintain haul
roads, given a set of site parameters and FPC and or
VET will help to estimate production levels.

GENERAL LOADED HAUL DISTANCES FOR MOBILE SYSTEMS

Track-Type Tractor

Wheel Loader

Wheel Tractor-Scraper

Articulated Truck

Rear Dump Truck


10 m 100 m 1000 m 10 000 m
33 ft 328 ft 3280 ft 32,800 ft

LOADED HAUL DISTANCE

Edition 44 28-13

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 13 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Mining and Production Estimating
Earthmoving ● Loading Match
Fuel Consumption and Productivity

PRODUCTION ESTIMATING FUEL CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTIVITY


Loading Match — Loading tools have a production Fuel efficiency is the term used to relate fuel con-
range that varies with material, bucket configuration, sumption and machine productivity. It is expressed in
target size, operator skill and load area conditions. The units of material moved per volume of fuel consumed.
loader/truck matches given in the following table are Common units are cubic meters or tonnes per liter of
with the typical number of passes and production range. fuel (cubic yards or tons/gal). Determining fuel effi-
Your Cat dealer can provide advice and estimates ciency requires measuring both fuel consumption and
based on your specific conditions. production.
Measuring fuel consumption involves tapping into
the vehicle’s fuel supply system — without contami-
nating the fuel. The amount of fuel consumed during
operation is then measured on a weight or volumetric basis
and correlated with the amount of work the machine
has done. Cat machines equipped with VIMS™ system
can record fuel consumed with relative accuracy, given
the engine is performing close to specifications.

Cat Earthmoving and Mining Systems Cat Aggregate Systems


Production/50 Min. Hr. Production/50 Min. Hr.
Please refer to the individual machine section for pro- Please refer to the individual machine section for pro-
duction targets. duction targets.

28-14 Edition 44

PHB-Sec28-14.indd 14 12/20/13 9:12 AM


Formulas and Rules of Thumb Mining and
Earthmoving

FORMULAS AND RULES OF THUMB Total Resistance


Production, hourly = Rolling Resistance (kg or lb) + Grade Resistance
= Load (BCM)/cycle × (kg or lb)
cycles/hr
Total Effective Grade (%) = RR (%) + GR (%)
= Load (BCY)/cycle ×
cycles/hr Usable pull (traction limitation)
= Coeff. of traction × weight on drivers
100%
Load Factor (L.F.) = = Coeff. of traction × (Total weight × % on drivers)
100% + % swell Pull required = Rolling Resistance + Grade Resistance
Load (bank measure) = Loose cubic meters
Pull required = Total Resistance
(LCM) × L.F.
Total Cycle Time = Fixed time + Variable time
= Loose cubic yards (LCY)
Fixed time: See respective machine production section.
× L.F.
Variable time = Total haul time + Total return time
Compacted cubic meters
(or yards) Distance (m)
Shrinkage Factor (S.F.) = Travel Time =
Bank cubic meters Speed (m/min)
(or yards) Distance (ft)
Density =
= Weight/Unit Volume Speed (fpm)
Weight of load 60 min/hr
Load (bank measure) = Cycles per hour =
Bank density Total cycle time (min/cycle)
Rolling Resistance Factor
Adjusted production = Hourly production ×
= 20 kg/t + (6 kg/t/cm × cm)
  Efficiency factor
= 40 lb/ton + (30 lb/ton/inch × inches) 28
Rolling Resistance Hourly production required
= RR Factor (kg/t) × GMW (tons) No. of units required =
Unit hourly production
= RR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons)
No. of scrapers a Scraper cycle time
Rolling Resistance (general estimation) pusher will load =
= 2% of GMW + 0.6% of GMW per cm tire Pusher cycle time
penetration Pusher cycle time (min) = 1.40 Load time (min) + 0.25 min
= 2% of GMW + 1.5% of GMW per inch tire
penetration GMW (kg) × Total Effective
Grade × Speed (km/h)
vertical change in elevation (rise) Grade Horsepower =
% Grade = 273.75
corresponding horizontal
distance (run) GMW (lb) × Total Effective
Grade × Speed (mph)
Grade Resistance Factor = 10 kg/m ton × % grade =
= 20 lb/ton × % grade 375
Grade Resistance = GR Factor (kg/t) × GMW (tons)
= GR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons)
Grade Resistance = 1% of GMW × % grade

Edition 44 28-15

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Notes —

28-16 Edition 44

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