00 mi piace00 non mi piace

7 visualizzazioni17 pagineMining earthmoving

Aug 27, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Mining earthmoving

© All Rights Reserved

7 visualizzazioni

00 mi piace00 non mi piace

Mining earthmoving

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

EARTHMOVING

Caterpillar ®

Performance

Handbook

Edition 44

800.437.4228

www.hawthornecat.com

© 2014 Caterpillar. All Rights Reserved. CAT, CATERPILLAR, BUILT FOR IT, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow,” the “Power Edge” trade dress as well as

corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.

MINING AND EARTHMOVING

Elements of Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-1 Production is the hourly rate at which material is

Volume Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 moved. Production can be expressed in various units:

Swell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2

Load Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 Metric

Material Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-2 Bank Cubic Meters — BCM — bank m3

Fill Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3 Loose Cubic Meters — LCM — loose m3

Soil Density Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-3 Compacted Cubic Meters — CCM — compacted m3

Figuring Production On-the-Job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4 Tonnes

Load Weighing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4

Time Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4 English

English Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-4

Bank Cubic Yards — BCY — bank yd3

Metric Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5

Loose Cubic Yards — LCY — loose yd3

Estimating Production Off-the-Job. . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5

Compacted Cubic Yards — CCY — compacted yd3

Rolling Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-5

Tons

Grade Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6

Total Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6 For most earthmoving and material handling appli-

Traction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-6 cations, production is calculated by multiplying the quan-

Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-7 tity of material (load) moved per cycle by the number

Job Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8 of cycles per hour. 28

English Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-8 Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hour

Metric Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28-10 The load can be determined by

Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-13 1) load weighing with scales

Economic Haul Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-13 2) load estimating based on machine rating

Production Estimating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14 3) surveyed volume divided by load count

Loading Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-14 4) machine payload measurement system

Fuel Consumption and Productivity. . . . . . . . . . 28-14

Formulas and Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28-15 Generally, earthmoving and overburden removal for

coal mines are calculated by volume (bank cubic meters

or bank cubic yards). Metal mines and aggregate pro-

INTRODUCTION ducers usually work in weight (tons or tonnes).

This section explains the earthmoving principles used

to determine machine productivity. It shows how to

calculate production on-the-job or estimate production

off-the-job.

Machine performance is usually measured on an hourly

basis in terms of machine productivity and machine own-

ing and operating cost. Optimum machine performance

can be expressed as follows:

Lowest Possible

Hourly Costs

Lowest cost per ton =

Highest Possible

Hourly Productivity

Edition 44 28-1

Mining and Elements of Production

Earthmoving ● Volume Measure ● Swell

● Load Factor ● Material Density

according to its state in the earthmoving process. The 1000 LCM ÷ (1 + 0.25) = 800 BCM

three measures of volume are: 1308 LCY ÷ (1 + 0.25) = 1046 BCY

BCM (BCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material Load Factor — Assume one bank cubic yard of

as it lies in the natural bank state. material weighs 3000 lb. Because of material char-

LCM (LCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material acteristics, this bank cubic yard swells 30% to 1.3 loose

which has been disturbed and has cubic yards when loaded, with no change in weight. If

swelled as a result of movement. this 1.0 bank cubic yard or 1.3 loose cubic yards is com-

CCM (CCY) — one cubic meter (yard) of material pacted, its volume may be reduced to 0.8 compacted

which has been compacted and cubic yard, and the weight is still 3000 lb.

has become more dense as a Instead of dividing by 1 + Swell to determine bank

result of compaction. volume, the loose volume can be multiplied by the load

In order to estimate production, the relationships factor.

between bank measure, loose measure, and compacted If the percent of material swell is known, the load

measure must be known. factor (L.F.) may be obtained by using the following

Swell — Swell is the percentage of original volume relationship:

(cubic meters or cubic yards) that a material increases 100%

when it is removed from the natural state. When exca- L.F. =

100% + % swell

vated, the material breaks up into different size particles

Load factors for various materials are listed in the

that do not fit together, causing air pockets or voids to

Tables Section of this handbook.

reduce the weight per volume. For example to hold the

To estimate the machine payload in bank cubic

same weight of one cubic unit of bank material it takes

yards, the volume in loose cubic yards is multiplied by

30% more volume (1.3 times) after excavation. (Swell

the load factor:

is 30%.)

Loose cubic volume Load (BCY) = Load (LCY) × L.F.

for a given weight The ratio between compacted measure and bank

1 + Swell = measure is called shrinkage factor (S.F.):

Bank cubic volume for

the same given weight Compacted cubic yards (CCY)

S.F. =

Loose Bank cubic yards (BCY)

Bank = Shrinkage factor is either estimated or obtained from

(1 + Swell)

job plans or specifications which show the conversion

Loose = Bank × (1 + Swell)

from compacted measure to bank measure. Shrinkage

Example Problem: factor should not be confused with percentage com-

paction (used for specifying embankment density, such

If a material swells 20%, how many loose cubic meters as Modified Proctor or California Bearing Ratio [CBR]).

(loose cubic yards) will it take to move 1000 bank cubic Material Density — Density is the weight per unit

meters (1308 bank cubic yards)? volume of a material. Materials have various densities

Loose = Bank × (1 + Swell) = depending on particle size, moisture content and varia-

1000 BCM × (1 + 0.2) = 1200 LCM tions in the material. The denser the material the more

1308 BCY × (1 + 0.2) = 1570 LCY weight there is per unit of equal volume. Density estimates

How many bank cubic meters (yards) were moved if are provided in the Tables Section of this handbook.

a total of 1000 loose cubic meters (1308 yards) have Weight kg (lb)

Density = =

been moved? Swell is 25%. Volume m3 (yd3)

Weight = Volume × Density

28-2 Edition 44

Elements of Production Mining and

● Fill Factor Earthmoving

● Soil Density Tests

loose. One cubic unit of loose material has less weight a) BCY = = = 12,500 BCY

S.F. 0.80

than one cubic unit of bank material due to air pockets

and voids. To correct between bank and loose use the b) Load (BCY) = Capacity (LCY)

following equations. × Load factor (L.F.) = 20 × 0.81

= 16.2 BCY/Load

kg/BCM lb/BCY

1 + Swell = or (L.F. of 0.81 from Tables)

kg/LCM lb/LCY

Number of 12,500 BCY

lb/BCY loads required = = 772 Loads

lb/LCY = 16.2 BCY/Load

(1 + Swell)

● ● ●

lb/BCY = lb/LCY × (1 + Swell)

Fill Factor — The percentage of an available volume Soil Density Tests — There are a number of accept-

in a body, bucket, or bowl that is actually used is able methods that can be used to determine soil density.

expressed as the fill factor. A fill factor of 87% for a Some that are currently in use are:

hauler body means that 13% of the rated volume is not

Nuclear density moisture gauge

being used to carry material. Buckets often have fill

Sand cone method

factors over 100%.

Oil method

Example Problem: Balloon method

Cylinder method

A 14 cubic yard (heaped 2:1) bucket has a 105% fill

factor when operating in a shot sandstone (4125 lb/BCY All these except the nuclear method use the follow-

and a 35% swell). ing procedure:

a) What is the loose density of the material? 1. Remove a soil sample from bank state.

b) What is the usable volume of the bucket? 2. Determine the volume of the hole.

c) What is the bucket payload per pass in BCY? 3. Weigh the soil sample. 28

d) What is the bucket payload per pass in tons? 4. Calculate the bank density kg/BCM (lb/BCY).

a) lb/LCY = lb/BCY ÷ (1 + Swell) = 4125 ÷ (1.35) = The nuclear density moisture gauge is one of the most

3056 lb/LCY modern instruments for measuring soil density and

b) LCY = rated LCY × fill factor = 14 × 1.05 = moisture. A common radiation channel emits either

14.7 LCY neutrons or gamma rays into the soil. In deter mining

c) lb/pass = volume × density lb/LCY = 14.7 × 3056 soil density, the number of gamma rays absorbed and

= 44,923 lb back scattered by soil particles is indirectly propor-

BCY/pass = weight ÷ density lb/BCY = 44,923 ÷ tional to the soil density. When measuring moisture

4125 = 10.9 BCY content, the number of moderated neutrons reflected

or bucket LCY from part b ÷ (1 + Swell) = 14.7 ÷ back to the detector after col liding with hydrogen

1.35 = 10.9 BCY particles in the soil is directly proportional to the soil’s

d) tons/pass = lb ÷ 2000 lb/ton = 44,923 ÷ 2000 = moisture content.

22.5 tons All these methods are satisfactory and will provide

accurate densities when performed correctly. Several

Example Problem: repetitions are necessary to obtain an average.

Construct a 10,000 compacted cubic yard (CCY) NOTE: Several newer methods have been successfully

bridge approach of dry clay with a shrinkage factor applied, along with weigh scales to deter mine

(S.F.) of 0.80. Haul unit is rated 14 loose cubic yards volume and loose density of material moved in

struck and 20 loose cubic yards heaped. hauler bodies. These measurements include photo-

a) How many bank yards are needed? grammatic and laser scanning technologies.

b) How many loads are required?

Edition 44 28-3

Mining and Figuring Production On-the-Job

Earthmoving ● Load Weighing

● Time Studies

● Example (English)

divide 60 minutes by the average cycle time less all wait

Load Weighing — The most accurate method of

and delay time. Cycle time may or may not include wait

determining the actual load carried is by weighing.

and/or delay time. Therefore, it is possible to figure

This is normally done by weighing the haul unit one

different kinds of production: measured production,

wheel or axle at a time with portable scales. Any scales

production without wait or delay, maximum production,

of adequate capacity and accuracy can be used. While

etc. For example:

weighing, the machine must be level to reduce error caused

Actual Production: includes all wait and delay time.

by weight transfer. Enough loads must be weighed to

Normal Production (without delays): includes wait

provide a good average. Machine weight is the sum of

time that is considered normal, but no delay time.

the individual wheel or axle weights.

Maximum Production: to figure maximum (or optimum)

The weight of the load can be determined using the

production, both wait time and delay time are elim-

empty and loaded weight of the unit.

inated. The cycle time may be further altered by using

Weight of

an optimum load time.

load = gross machine weight – empty weight

To determine the bank cubic measure carried by a Example (English)

machine, the load weight is divided by the bankstate

density of the material being hauled. A job study of a Wheel Tractor-Scraper might yield the

following information:

Weight of load Average wait time = 0.28 minute

BCY =

Bank density Average load time = 0.65

Times Studies — To estimate production, the number Average delay time = 0.25

of complete trips a unit makes per hour must be deter- Average haul time = 4.26

mined. First obtain the unit’s cycle time with the help Average dump time = 0.50

of a stop watch. Time several complete cycles to arrive Average return time = 2.09

at an average cycle time. By allowing the watch to run Average total cycle = 8.03 minutes

continuously, different segments such as load time, wait Less wait & delay time = 0.53

time, etc. can be recorded for each cycle. Knowing the Average cycle 100% eff. = 7.50 minutes

individual time segments affords a good opportunity to

evaluate the balance of the spread and job efficiency. Weight of haul unit empty — 48,650 lb

The following is an example of a scraper load time study Weights of haul unit loaded —

form. Numbers in the white columns are stop watch Weighing unit #1 — 93,420 lb

readings; numbers in the shaded columns are calculated: Weighing unit #2 — 89,770 lb

Weighing unit #3 — 88,760 lb

Total

Cycle 271,950 lb;

Times average = 90,650 lb

(less Arrive Wait Begin Load End Begin Delay End

delays) Cut Time Load Time Load Delay Time Delay

1. Average load weight = 90,650 lb – 48,650 lb = 42,000 lb

0.00 0.30 0.30 0.60 0.90 2. Bank density = 3125 lb/BCY

3.50 3.50 0.30 3.80 0.65 4.45 Weight of load

4.00 7.50 0.35 7.85 0.70 8.55 9.95 1.00 10.95

3. Load =

Bank density

4.00 12.50 0.42 12.92 0.68 13.60

NOTE: All numbers are in minutes

42,000 lb

3. Load = = 13.4 BCY

3125 lb/BCY

This may be easily extended to include other seg-

4. Cycles/hr =

ments of the cycle such as haul time, dump time, etc.

Haul roads may be further segmented to more accu- 60 min/hr 60 min/hr

= = 80 cycles/hr

rately define performance, including measured speed Cycle time 7.50 min/cycle

traps. Similar forms can be made for pushers, loaders, 5. Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hr

dozers, etc. Wait Time is the time a unit must wait for (less delays) = 13.4 BCY/cycle × 8.0 cycles/hr

another unit so that the two can function together (haul = 107.2 BCY/hr

unit waiting for pusher). Delay Time is any time, other

than wait time, when a machine is not performing in

the work cycle (scraper waiting to cross railroad track).

28-4 Edition 44

Figuring Production On-the-Job Mining and

● Example (Metric) Earthmoving

Estimating Production Off-the-Job

● Rolling Resistance

A job study of a Wheel Tractor-Scraper might yield the It is often necessary to estimate production of earth-

following information: moving machines which will be selected for a job. As a

Average wait time = 0.28 minute guide, the remainder of the section is devoted to discus-

Average load time = 0.65 sions of various factors that may affect production. Some

Average delay time = 0.25 of the figures have been rounded for easier calculation.

Average haul time = 4.26 Rolling Resistance (RR) is a measure of the force

Average dump time = 0.50 that must be overcome to roll or pull a wheel over the

Average return time = 2.09 ground. It is affected by ground conditions and load —

Average total cycle = 8.03 minutes the deeper a wheel sinks into the ground, the higher the

rolling resistance. Internal friction and tire flexing also

Less wait & delay time = 0.53 contribute to rolling resistance. Experience has shown

Average cycle 100% eff. = 7.50 minutes that minimum resistance is 1%-1.5% (see Typical Rolling

Weight of haul unit empty — 22 070 kg Resistance Factors in Tables section) of the gross machine

Weights of haul unit loaded — weight (on tires). A 2% base resistance is quite often

Weighing unit #1 — 42 375 kg used for estimating. Resistance due to tire penetration

Weighing unit #2 — 40 720 kg is approximately 1.5% of the gross machine weight for

Weighing unit #3 — 40 260 kg each inch of tire penetration (0.6% for each cm of tire

penetration). Thus rolling resistance can be calculated

123 355 kg;

average = 41 120 kg using these relationships in the following manner:

RR = 2% of GMW + 0.6% of GMW per cm tire

1. Average load weight = 41 120 kg – 22 070 kg = penetration

19 050 kg RR = 2% of GMW + 1.5% of GMW per inch tire

2. Bank density = 1854 kg/BCM penetration

Weight of load It’s not necessary for the tires to actually penetrate the 28

3. Load = road surface for rolling resistance to increase above the

Bank density

minimum. If the road surface flexes under load, the

19 050 kg effect is nearly the same — the tire is always running

3. Load = = 10.3 BCM

1854 kg/BCM “uphill.” Only on very hard, smooth surfaces with a well

4. Cycles/hr = compacted base will the rolling resistance approach the

60 min/hr 60 min/hr minimum.

= = 80 cycles/hr When actual penetration takes place, some variation

Cycle time 7.50 min/cycle in rolling resistance can be noted with various inflation

5. Production = Load/cycle × cycles/hr pressures and tread patterns.

(less delays) = 10.3 BCM/cycle × 8.0 cycles/hr NOTE: When figuring “pull” requirements for track-

= 82 BCM/hrr type tractors, rolling resistance applies only to

● ● ● the trailed unit’s weight on wheels. Since track-

®

type tractors utilize steel wheels moving on

NOTE: The Cat Cycle Timer Program software uses steel “roads,” a tractor’s rolling resistance is

laptop computers in place of stop watches, relatively constant and is accounted for in the

organizes the data, and allows study results to Drawbar Pull rating.

be printed.

Edition 44 28-5

Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job

Earthmoving ● Grade Resistance

● Total Resistance

● Traction

Grade Resistance is a measure of the force that must Total resistance can also be represented as consisting

be overcome to move a machine over unfavorable grades completely of grade resistance expressed in percent

(uphill). Grade assistance is a measure of the force that grade. In other words, the rolling resistance component

assists machine movement on favorable grades (downhill). is viewed as a corresponding quantity of additional

Grades are generally measured in percent slope, which adverse grade resistance. Using this approach, total

is the ratio between vertical rise or fall and the horizontal resistance can then be considered in terms of percent

distance in which the rise or fall occurs. For example, a grade.

1% grade is equivalent to a 1 m (ft) rise or fall for every This can be done by converting the contribution of

100 m (ft) of horizontal distance; a rise of 4.6 m (15 ft) rolling resistance into a corresponding percentage of

in 53.3 m (175 ft) equals an 8.6% grade. grade resistance. Since 1% of adverse grade offers a

4.6 m (rise) resistance of 10 kg (20 lb) for each metric or (U.S.) ton

= 8.6% grade of machine weight, then each 10 kg (20 lb) of resistance

53.3 m (horizontal distance) per ton of machine weight can be represented as an

15 ft (rise) additional 1% of adverse grade. Rolling resistance in

= 8.6% grade percent grade and grade resistance in percent grade can

175 ft (horizontal distance)

then be summed to give Total Resistance in percent or

Uphill grades are normally referred to as adverse Effective Grade. The following formulas are useful in

grades and downhill grades as favorable grades. Grade arriving at Effective Grade.

resistance is usually expressed as a positive (+) percent-

Rolling Resistance (%) = 2% + 0.6% per cm tire

age and grade assistance is expressed as a negative (–)

penetration

percentage. = 2% + 1.5% per inch tire

It has been found that for each 1% increment of penetration

adverse grade an additional 10 kg (20 lb) of resistance Grade Resistance (%) = % grade

must be overcome for each metric (U.S.) ton of machine Effective Grade (%) = RR (%) + GR (%)

weight. This relationship is the basis for determining

the Grade Resistance Factor which is expressed in kg/ Effective grade is a useful concept when working with

metric ton (lb/U.S. ton): Rimpull-Speed-Gradeability curves, Retarder curves,

Brake Performance curves, and Travel Time curves.

Grade Resistance Factor = 10 kg/m ton × % grade Traction — is the driving force developed by a wheel

= 20 lb/U.S. ton × % grade or track as it acts upon a surface. It is expressed as usable

Grade resistance (assistance) is then obtained by mul- Drawbar Pull or Rimpull. The following factors affect

tiplying the Grade Resistance Factor by the machine traction: weight on the driving wheel or tracks, gripping

weight (GMW) in metric (U.S.) tons. action of the wheel or track, and ground conditions.

Grade Resistance = GR Factor × GMW in metric The coefficient of traction (for any roadway) is the ratio

(U.S.) tons of the maximum pull developed by the machine to the

total weight on the drivers.

Grade resistance may also be calculated using per-

centage of gross weight. This method is based on the Pull

relationship that grade resistance is approximately equal Coeff. of traction =

weight on drivers

to 1% of the gross machine weight for 1% of grade.

Therefore, to find the usable pull for a given machine:

Grade Resistance = 1% of GMW × % grade

Usable pull = Coeff. of traction × weight on drivers

Grade resistance (assistance) affects both wheel and

track-type machines. Example: Track-Type Tractor

Total Resistance is the combined effect of rolling What usable drawbar pull (DBP) can a 26 800 kg

resistance (wheel vehicles) and grade resistance. It can (59,100 lb) Track-type Tractor exert while working on

be computed by summing the values of rolling resistance firm earth? on loose earth? (See table section for

and grade resistance to give a resistance in kilogram coefficient of traction.)

(pounds) force.

Total Resistance = Rolling Resistance +

Grade Resistance

28-6 Edition 44

Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and

● Altitude Earthmoving

Firm earth — Usable DBP = considered in any job estimating. The amount of power

0.90 × 26 800 kg = 24 120 kg deration will be reflected in the machine’s gradeability

(0.90 × 59,100 lb = 53,190 lb) and in the load, travel, and dump and load times (unless

Loose earth — Usable DBP = loading is independent of the machine itself). Altitude

0.60 × 26 800 kg = 16 080 kg may also reduce retarding performance. Consult a Cat

(0.60 × 59,100 lb = 35,460 lb) representative to determine if deration is applicable.

If a load required 21 800 kg (48,000 lb) pull to move Fuel grade (heat content) can have a similar effect of

it, this tractor could move the load on firm earth. derating engine performance.

However, if the earth were loose, the tracks would spin. The example job problem that follows indicates one

method of accounting for altitude deration: by increas-

NOTE: D8R through D11R Tractors may attain higher ing the appropriate components of the total cycle time

coefficients of traction due to their suspended by a percentage equal to the percent of horsepower

undercarriage. deration due to altitude. (i.e., if the travel time of a

Example: Wheel Tractor-Scraper hauling unit is determined to be 1.00 minute at full HP,

the time for the same machine derated to 90% of full HP

What usable rimpull can a 621F size machine exert will be 1.10 min.) This is an approximate method that

while working on firm earth? on loose earth? The total yields reasonably accurate estimates up to 3000 m

loaded weight distribution of this unit is: (10,000 feet) elevation.

Drive unit Scraper unit Travel time for hauling units derated more than 10%

wheels: 23 600 kg wheels: 21 800 kg should be calculated as follows using Rimpull-Speed-

(52,000 lb) (48,000 lb) Gradeability charts.

1) Determine total resistance (grade plus rolling) in

Remember, use weight on drivers only.

percent.

Answer:

GROSS MACHINE WEIGHT (GMW)

Firm earth — 0.55 × 23 600 kg = 12 980 kg EMPTY LOADED 28

(0.55 × 52,000 lb = 28,600 lb)

Loose earth — 0.45 × 23 600 kg = 10 620 kg

(0.45 × 52,000 lb = 23,400 lb)

TOTAL RESISTANCE

On firm earth this unit can exert up to 12 980 kg

(28,600 lb) rimpull without excessive slipping. How-

RIMPULL

10 620 kg (23,400 lb) rimpull were developed.

● ● ●

a machine can produce for a given gear and speed

when the engine is operating at rated horsepower.

SPEED

When a standard machine is operated in high altitudes,

the engine may require derating to maintain normal

2) Beginning at point A on the chart follow the total

engine life. This engine deration will produce less

resistance line diagonally to its intersection, B, with the

drawbar pull or rimpull.

vertical line corresponding to the appropriate gross

The Tables Section gives the altitude deration in

machine weight. (Rated loaded and empty GMW lines

percent of flywheel horsepower for current machines. It

are shown dotted.)

should be noted that some turbocharged engines can

3) Using a straight-edge, establish a horizontal line

operate up to 4570 m (15,000 ft) before they require

to the left from point B to point C on the rim-pull scale.

derating. Most machines are engineered to operate up

4) Divide the value of point C as read on the rim-

to 1500-2290 m (5000-7500 ft) before they require

pull scale by the percent of total horsepower available

deration.

after altitude deration from the Tables Section. This

yields rimpull value D higher than point C.

Edition 44 28-7

Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job

Earthmoving ● Job Efficiency

● Example Problem (English)

5) Establish a horizontal line right from point D. Job Efficiency is one of the most complex elements

The farthest right intersection of this line with a curved of estimating production since it is influenced by fac-

speed range line is point E. tors such as operator skill, minor repairs and adjustments,

6) A vertical line down from point E determines personnel delays, and delays caused by job layout. An

point F on the speed scale. approximation of efficiency, if no job data is available,

7) Multiply speed in kmh by 16.7 (mph by 88) to is given below.

obtain speed in m/min (ft/min). Travel time in minutes Efficiency

for a given distance in feet is determined by the formula: Operation Working Hour Factor

Distance in m (ft) Day 50 min/hr 0.83

Time (min) = Night 45 min/hr 0.75

Speed in m/min (ft/min)

The Travel Time Graphs in sections on Wheel These factors do not account for delays due to weather

Tractor-Scrapers and Construction & Mining Trucks or machine downtime for maintenance and repairs.

can be used as an alternative method of calculating You must account for such factors based on experience

haul and/or return times. and local conditions.

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

estimate production and cost. Today, computer pro- Est. load (LCY) × L.F. × Bank Density = payload

grams, such as Caterpillar’s Fleet Production and Cost 31 LCY × 0.80 × 3000 lb/BCY = 74,400 lb payload

Analysis (FPC), provide a much faster and more accurate 2. Establish Machine Weight:

means to obtain those application results. Empty Wt. — 102,460 lb or 51.27 tons

Wt. of Load — 74,400 lb or 37.2 tons

Example problem (English)

Total (GMW) — 176,860 lb or 88.4 tons

A contractor is planning to put the following spread on 3. Calculate Usable Pull (traction limitation):

a dam job. What is the estimated production and cost/ Loaded: (weight on driving wheels = 54%) (GMW)

BCY? Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels =

Equipment: 0.50 × 176,860 lb × 54% = 47,628 lb

11 — 631G Wheel Tractor-Scrapers Empty: (weight on driving wheels = 69%) (GMW)

2 — D9T Tractors with C-dozers Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels =

2 — 12H Motor Graders 0.50 × 102,460 lb × 69% = 35,394 lb

1 — 825G Tamping Foot Compactor 4. Derate for Altitude:

Check power available at 7500 ft from altitude dera-

Material: tion table in the Tables Section.

Description — Sandy clay; damp, natural bed 631G — 100% 12H — 83%

Bank Density — 3000 lb/BCY D9T — 100% 825G —100%

Load Factor — 0.80

Shrinkage Factor — 0.85

Traction Factor — 0.50

Altitude — 7500 ft

0% Grade

Job Layout — Haul and Return:

rade

4% G

0% Grade 0% Grade ' Sec. D — Fill 400'

10 0 0

Haul RR = 200 lb/ton

e c . C — on Eff. Grade = 10%

S /t

Sec. A — Cut 400' Sec. B — Haul 1500' 80 lb

RR = 200 lb/ton RR = 80 lb/ton RR = rade = 8%

Eff. Grade = 10% Eff. Grade = 4% Eff. G

Sec. A: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10%

Sec. B: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 0% = 4%

Sec. C: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 4% = 8%

Sec. D: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10%

28-8 Edition 44

Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and

● Example Problem (English) Earthmoving

Load Time — controlled by D9T, at 100% power, no RR = RR Factor × Empty Wt (tons)

change. Sec. D: = 200 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 10,240 lb

Travel, Maneuver and Spread time — 631G, no change. Sec. C: = 80 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 1,4091 lb

5. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on haul: Sec. B: = 80 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 1,4091 lb

Grade Resistance — Sec. A: = 200 lb/ton × 51.2 tons = 10,240 lb

GR = lb/ton × tons × adverse grade in percent Total Resistance —

Sec. C: = 20 lb/ton × 88.4 tons × 4% grade = TR = RR – GA

7072 lb

Sec. D: = 10,240 lb – 0 = 10,240 lb

Rolling Resistance — Sec. C: = 4096 lb – 4096 lb = 0

RR = RR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons) Sec. B: = 4096 lb – 0 = 1,4096 lb

Sec. A: = 200 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 17,686 lb Sec. A: = 10,240 lb – 0 = 10,240 lb

Sec. B: = 80 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 1,7072 lb Check usable pounds pull against maximum pounds

Sec. C: = 80 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 1,7072 lb pull required to move the 631G.

Sec. D: = 200 lb/ton × 88.4 tons = 17,686 lb Pounds pull usable … 35,349 lb empty

Total Resistance — Pounds pull required … 10,240 lb

TR = RR + GR Estimate travel time for return from 631G empty

Sec. A: = 17,686 lb + 0 = 17,686 lb travel time curve.

Sec. B: = ,7072 lb + 0 = 1,7072 lb Travel time (from curves):

Sec. C: = ,7072 lb + 6496 lb = 14,144 lb Sec. A: 0.40 min

Sec. D: = 17,686 lb + 0 = 17,686 lb Sec. B: 0.55

Sec. C: 0.80

Check usable pounds pull against maximum pounds

Sec. D: 0.40

pull required to move the 631G.

Pull usable … 47,628 lb loaded 2.15 min 28

Pull required … 17,686 lb maximum total resistance 7. Estimate Cycle Time:

Estimate travel time for haul from 631G (loaded) Total Travel Time (Haul plus Return) = 5.55 min

travel time curve; read travel time from distance and Adjusted for altitude: 100% × 5.55 min = 5.55 min

effective grade. Load Time 0.7 min

Travel time (from curves): Maneuver and Spread Time 0.7 min

Sec. A: 0.60 min

Total Cycle Time 6.95 min

Sec. B: 1.00

Sec. C: 1.20 8. Check pusher-scraper combinations:

Sec. D: 0.60 Pusher cycle time consists of load, boost, return and

3.40 min maneuver time. Where actual job data is not available,

the following may be used.

NOTE: This is an estimate only; it does not account for

Boost time = 0.10 minute

all the acceleration and deceleration time, therefore

Return time = 40% of load time

it is not as accurate as the information obtained

Maneuver time = 0.15 minute

from a computer program.

Pusher cycle time = 140% of load time + 0.25 minute

6. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on return: Pusher cycle time = 140% of 0.7 min + 0.25 minute

Grade Assistance — = 0.98 + 0.25 = 1.23 minute

GA = 20 lb/ton × tons × negative grade in percent

Scraper cycle time divided by pusher cycle time indi-

Sec. C: = 20 lb/ton × 51.2 tons × 4% grade =

cates the number of scrapers which can be handled by

4096 lb

each pusher.

6.95 min

= 5.65

1.23 min

Edition 44 28-9

Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job

Earthmoving ● Example Problem (English)

● Example Problem (Metric)

Each push tractor is capable of handling five plus 11. Estimate Total Hourly Cost:

scrapers. Therefore the two pushers can adequately 631G @ $65.00/hr × 11 units $715.00

serve the eleven scrapers. D9T @ $75.00/hr × 2 units 150.00

9. Estimate Production: 12H @ $15.00/hr × 2 units 30.00

Cycles/hour = 60 min ÷ Total cycle time 825G @ $40.00/hr × 1 unit 40.00

= 60 min/hr ÷ 6.95 min/cycle Operators @ $20.00/hr × 16 men 320.00

= 8.6 cycles/hr Total Hourly Owning and

Estimated load = Heaped capacity × L.F. Operating Cost $1,255.00

= 31 LCY × 0.80 12. Calculate Performance:

= 24.8 BCY

Hourly unit = Est. load × cycles/hr Total cost/hr

Cost per BCY =

production = 24.8 BCY × 8.6 cycles/hr Production/hr

= 213 BCY/hr

$1,255.00

Adjusted = Efficiency factor × hourly Cost per BCY =

production production 1947 BCY/hr

= 0.83 (50 min hour) × 213 BCY Cost per BCY = 64¢ BCY

= 177 BCY/hr

Hourly fleet = Unit production × No. of units NOTE: Ton-MPH calculations should be made to judge

production = 177 BCY/hr × 11 the ability of the tractor-scraper tires to operate

= 1947 BCY/hr safely under these conditions.

10. Estimate Compaction: 13. Other Considerations:

Compaction = S.F. × hourly fleet production If other equipment such as rippers, water wagons,

requirement = 0.85 × 1947 BCY/hr discs or other miscellaneous machines are needed for

= 1655 CCY/hr the particular operation, then these machines must also

be included in the cost per BCY.

Compaction capability (given the following):

Compacting width, 7.4 ft (W) ● ● ●

Average compacting speed, 6 mph (S)

Compacted lift thickness, 7 in (L)

No. of passes required, 3 (P) Example problem (Metric)

825G production = A contractor is planning to put the following spread on

W × S × L × 16.3 a dam job. What is the estimated production and cost/

CCY/hr = (conversion constant) BCM?

P

Equipment:

7.4 × 6 × 7 × 16.3 11 — 631G Wheel Tractor-Scrapers

CCY/hr = 2 — D9T Tractors with C-dozers

3

2 — 12H Motor Graders

CCY/hr = 1688 CCY/hr 1 — 825G Tamping Foot Compactor

Given the compaction requirement of 1655 CCY/hr, Material:

the 825G is an adequate compactor match-up for the Description — Sandy clay; damp, natural bed

rest of the fleet. However, any change to job layout Bank Density — 1770 kg/BCM

that would increase fleet production would upset this Load Factor — 0.80

balance. Shrinkage Factor — 0.85

Traction Factor — 0.50

Altitude — 2300 meters

28-10 Edition 44

Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and

● Example Problem (Metric) Earthmoving

0% Grade

rade

4% G

0% Grade 0% Grade Sec. D — Fill 150 m

30 0 m

Haul RR = 100 kg/t

C—

Sec. A — Cut 150 m Sec. B — Haul 450 m Sec. 0 kg/t Eff. Grade = 10%

4

RR = 100 kg/t RR = 40 kg/t RR = rade = 8%

Eff. Grade = 10% Eff. Grade = 4% Eff. G

Sec. A: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10% RR = RR Factor (kg/mton) × GMW (metric tons)

Sec. B: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 0% = 4% Sec. A: = 100 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons

Sec. C: Total Effective Grade = 4% + 4% = 8% = 8048 kg

Sec. D: Total Effective Grade = 10% + 0% = 10% Sec. B: = 40 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons

= 3219 kg

1. Estimate Payload: Sec. C: = 40 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons

Est. load (LCM) × L.F. × Bank Density = payload = 3219 kg

24 LCM × 0.80 × 1770 kg/BCM = 34 000 kg payload Sec. D: = 100 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons

2. Machine Weight: = 8048 kg

Empty Wt. — 46 475 kg or 46.48 metric tons Total Resistance —

Wt. of Load — 34 000 kg or 34 metric tons TR = RR + GR

Total (GMW) — 80 475 kg or 80.48 metric tons Sec. A: = 8048 kg + 0 = 8048 kg

3. Calculate Usable Pull (traction limitation): Sec. B: = 3219 kg + 0 = 3219 kg

Sec. C: = 3219 kg + 3219 kg = 6438 kg 28

Loaded: (weight on driving wheels = 54%) (GMW)

Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels = Sec. D: = 8048 kg + 0 = 8048 kg

0.50 × 80 475 kg × 54% = 21 728 kg Check usable kilogram force against maximum

Empty: (weight on driving wheels = 69%) (GMW) kilogram force required to move the 631G.

Traction Factor × Wt. on driving wheels = Force usable … 21 728 kg loaded

0.50 × 46 475 kg × 69% = 16 034 kg Force required … 8048 kg maximum total resistance

4. Derate for Altitude: Estimate travel time for haul from 631G (loaded)

Check power available at 2300 m from altitude dera- travel time curve; read travel time from distance and

tion table in the Tables Section. effective grade.

631G — 100% 12H — 83% Travel time (from curves):

D9T — 100% 825G — 100% Sec. A: 0.60 min

Sec. B: 1.00

Then adjust if necessary:

Sec. C: 1.20

Load Time — controlled by D9T, at 100% power, no

Sec. D: 0.60

change.

Travel, Maneuver and Spread time — 631G, no change. 3.40 min

5. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on haul: NOTE: This is an estimate only; it does not account for all

Grade Resistance — the acceleration and deceleration time, therefore

GR = 10 kg/metric ton × tons × adverse grade it is not as accurate as the information obtained

in percent from a computer program.

Sec. C: = 10 kg/metric ton × 80.48 metric tons × 4% 6. Compare Total Resistance to Tractive Effort on return:

grade = 3219 kg Grade Assistance —

GA = 10 kg/mton × metric tons × negative grade

in percent

Sec. C: = 10 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons

× 4% grade = 1859 kg

Edition 44 28-11

Mining and Estimating Production Off-the-Job

Earthmoving ● Example Problem (Metric)

RR = RR Factor × Empty Wt. scrapers. Therefore the two pushers can adequately

Sec. D: = 100 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons serve the eleven scrapers.

= 4648 kg 9. Estimate Production:

Sec. C: = 40 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons Cycles/hour = 60 min ÷ Total cycle time

= 1859 kg = 60 min/hr ÷ 6.95 min/cycle

Sec. B: = 40 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons

= 8.6 cycles/hr

= 1859 kg

Sec. A: = 100 kg/metric ton × 46.48 metric tons Estimated load = Heaped capacity × L.F.

= 4648 kg = 24 LCM × 0.80

= 19.2 BCM

Total Resistance — Hourly unit = Est. load × cycles/hr

TR = RR – GA production = 19.2 BCM × 8.6 cycles/hr

Sec. D: = 4648 kg – 0 = 4648 kg = 165 BCM

Sec. C: = 1859 kg – 1859 kg = 0 Adjusted = Efficiency factor × hourly

Sec. B: = 1859 kg – 0 = 1859 kg production production

Sec. A: = 4648 kg – 0 = 4648 kg = 0.83 (50 min hour) × 165 BCM

Check usable kilogram force against maximum force = 137 BCM/hour

required to move the 631G. Hourly fleet = Unit production × No. of units

Kilogram force usable … 16 034 kg empty production = 137 BCM/hr × 11 units

Kilogram force required … 4645 kg = 1507 BCM/hr

Estimate travel time for return from 631G empty 10. Estimate Compaction:

travel time curve. Compaction = S.F. × hourly fleet production

Travel time (from curves): requirement = 0.85 × 1507 BCM/hr

Sec. A: 0.40 min = 1280 CCM/hr

Sec. B: 0.55 Compaction capability (given the following):

Sec. C: 0.80 Compacting width, 2.26 m (W)

Sec. D: 0.40 Average compacting speed, 9.6 km/h (S)

2.15 min Compacted lift thickness, 18 cm (L)

7. Estimate Cycle Time: No. of passes required, 3 (P)

Total Travel Time (Haul plus Return) = 5.55 min 825G production =

Adjusted for altitude: 100% × 5.55 min = 5.55 min W × S × L × 10

Load Time 0.7 min CCY/hr = (conversion factor)

P

Maneuver and Spread Time 0.7 min

2.26 × 9.6 × 18 × 10

Total Cycle Time 6.95 min CCY/hr =

3

8. Check pusher-scraper combinations:

Pusher cycle time consists of load, boost, return and CCY/hr = 1302

maneuver time. Where actual job data is not available, Given the compaction requirement of 1280 CCM/h,

the following may be used. the 825G is an adequate compactor match-up for the

Boost time = 0.10 minute rest of the fleet. However, any change to job layout

Return time = 40% of load time that would increase fleet production would upset this

Maneuver time = 0.15 minute balance.

Pusher cycle time= 140% of load time + 0.25 minute

Pusher cycle time= 140% of 0.7 min + 0.25 minute

= 0.98 + 0.25 = 1.23 minute

Scraper cycle time divided by pusher cycle time

indicates the number of scrapers which can be handled

by each pusher.

6.95 min

= 5.65

1.23 min

28-12 Edition 44

Estimating Production Off-the-Job Mining and

● Example Problem (Metric) Earthmoving

Systems

● Economic Haul Distances

631G @ $65.00/hr × 11 units $715.00 Caterpillar offers a variety of machines for different

D9T @ $75.00/hr × 2 units 150.00 applications and jobs. Many of these separate machines

12H @ $15.00/hr × 2 units 30.00 function together in mining and earthmoving systems.

825G @ $40.00/hr × 1 unit 40.00

● Bulldozing with track-type tractors

Operators @ $20.00/hr × 16 men 320.00

● Load-and-Carry with wheel loaders

Total Hourly Owning and ● Scrapers self-loading, elevator, auger, or push-pull

Operating Cost $1,255.00

configurations, or push-loaded by track-type tractors

12. Calculate Performance: ● Articulated trucks loaded by excavators, track load-

Cost per BCM = ● Off-highway trucks loaded by shovels, excavators or

Production/hr wheel loaders

$1,255.00 Haul System Selection: In selecting a hauling system

Cost per BCM =

1507 BCM/hr for a project, there may seem to be more than one

“right” choice. Many systems may meet the distance,

Cost per BCM = 83¢/BCM ground conditions, grade, material type, and produc-

NOTE: Ton-km/h calculations should be made to judge tion rate requirements. After considering all of the

the ability of the tractor-scraper tires to operate different factors, one hauling system usually provides

safely under these conditions. better performance and better potential for lowest cost

13. Other Considerations: per ton or BCY/BCM. This makes it critical for the

If other equipment such as rippers, water wagons, dealer and customer to work together to get accurate

discs or other miscellaneous machines are needed for information for their operation or project. Caterpillar

the particular operation, then these machines must also is committed to providing the correct earthmoving

be included in the cost per BCM. system to match the customer’s specific needs.

● ● ● 28

SOFTWARE NOTE: The Cat DOZSIM program can

provide a valuable tool for production dozing applica-

tions. Motor Grader Calculator can be used to deter-

mine the number of graders required to maintain haul

roads, given a set of site parameters and FPC and or

VET will help to estimate production levels.

Track-Type Tractor

Wheel Loader

Wheel Tractor-Scraper

Articulated Truck

10 m 100 m 1000 m 10 000 m

33 ft 328 ft 3280 ft 32,800 ft

Edition 44 28-13

Mining and Production Estimating

Earthmoving ● Loading Match

Fuel Consumption and Productivity

Loading Match — Loading tools have a production Fuel efficiency is the term used to relate fuel con-

range that varies with material, bucket configuration, sumption and machine productivity. It is expressed in

target size, operator skill and load area conditions. The units of material moved per volume of fuel consumed.

loader/truck matches given in the following table are Common units are cubic meters or tonnes per liter of

with the typical number of passes and production range. fuel (cubic yards or tons/gal). Determining fuel effi-

Your Cat dealer can provide advice and estimates ciency requires measuring both fuel consumption and

based on your specific conditions. production.

Measuring fuel consumption involves tapping into

the vehicle’s fuel supply system — without contami-

nating the fuel. The amount of fuel consumed during

operation is then measured on a weight or volumetric basis

and correlated with the amount of work the machine

has done. Cat machines equipped with VIMS™ system

can record fuel consumed with relative accuracy, given

the engine is performing close to specifications.

Production/50 Min. Hr. Production/50 Min. Hr.

Please refer to the individual machine section for pro- Please refer to the individual machine section for pro-

duction targets. duction targets.

28-14 Edition 44

Formulas and Rules of Thumb Mining and

Earthmoving

Production, hourly = Rolling Resistance (kg or lb) + Grade Resistance

= Load (BCM)/cycle × (kg or lb)

cycles/hr

Total Effective Grade (%) = RR (%) + GR (%)

= Load (BCY)/cycle ×

cycles/hr Usable pull (traction limitation)

= Coeff. of traction × weight on drivers

100%

Load Factor (L.F.) = = Coeff. of traction × (Total weight × % on drivers)

100% + % swell Pull required = Rolling Resistance + Grade Resistance

Load (bank measure) = Loose cubic meters

Pull required = Total Resistance

(LCM) × L.F.

Total Cycle Time = Fixed time + Variable time

= Loose cubic yards (LCY)

Fixed time: See respective machine production section.

× L.F.

Variable time = Total haul time + Total return time

Compacted cubic meters

(or yards) Distance (m)

Shrinkage Factor (S.F.) = Travel Time =

Bank cubic meters Speed (m/min)

(or yards) Distance (ft)

Density =

= Weight/Unit Volume Speed (fpm)

Weight of load 60 min/hr

Load (bank measure) = Cycles per hour =

Bank density Total cycle time (min/cycle)

Rolling Resistance Factor

Adjusted production = Hourly production ×

= 20 kg/t + (6 kg/t/cm × cm)

Efficiency factor

= 40 lb/ton + (30 lb/ton/inch × inches) 28

Rolling Resistance Hourly production required

= RR Factor (kg/t) × GMW (tons) No. of units required =

Unit hourly production

= RR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons)

No. of scrapers a Scraper cycle time

Rolling Resistance (general estimation) pusher will load =

= 2% of GMW + 0.6% of GMW per cm tire Pusher cycle time

penetration Pusher cycle time (min) = 1.40 Load time (min) + 0.25 min

= 2% of GMW + 1.5% of GMW per inch tire

penetration GMW (kg) × Total Effective

Grade × Speed (km/h)

vertical change in elevation (rise) Grade Horsepower =

% Grade = 273.75

corresponding horizontal

distance (run) GMW (lb) × Total Effective

Grade × Speed (mph)

Grade Resistance Factor = 10 kg/m ton × % grade =

= 20 lb/ton × % grade 375

Grade Resistance = GR Factor (kg/t) × GMW (tons)

= GR Factor (lb/ton) × GMW (tons)

Grade Resistance = 1% of GMW × % grade

Edition 44 28-15

Notes —

28-16 Edition 44

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.