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Machine Design and CAD-II

PBL Assignment

A Review of International Design


Standards: History and Impact

MUHAMMAD ASJAD AAMIR


2016-ME-010
MUHAMMAD ASJAD AAMIR PBL Assignment 2016-ME-010

Contents
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 2
2. International Organization of Standardization ...................................................................................... 3
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 History........................................................................................................................................... 4
2.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................... 4
3. American National Standards Institute ................................................................................................. 5
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 5
3.2 History........................................................................................................................................... 5
3.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................... 6
4. British Standards ................................................................................................................................... 6
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 History........................................................................................................................................... 6
4.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................... 7
5. German Institute for Standardization Standards ................................................................................... 7
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 7
5.2 History........................................................................................................................................... 8
5.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................... 8
6. Japanese Industrial Standards ............................................................................................................... 8
6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 8
6.2 History........................................................................................................................................... 9
6.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................... 9
7. Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority ............................................................................... 9
7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 9
7.2 History......................................................................................................................................... 10
7.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................. 10
8. International Design Standards for Bearing ........................................................................................ 11
9. International Design Standards for Gears ........................................................................................... 11
10. Impact of Design Standards on Quality of Product ........................................................................ 11
11. Impact of Design Standards on Quality of Life .............................................................................. 12
12. Discussion ....................................................................................................................................... 13
References ................................................................................................................................................... 14

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A Review of International Design Standards: History and Impact

Abstract
This report deals with the importance of standards, different standard systems, and their role in improving
quality of products as well on society by mentioning certain examples. Standards of some mechanical
engineering components were also mentioned in this report. Standards are set of specifications to which
different characteristics of a product, process or service should conform. Standards connect research to
industry by new ideas, and validation of advanced methods and tools for testing. The reason for setting the
system of standards is to ensure that standard parts manufactured by different industries around the world
should be interchangeable. Standards also help in eliminating waste and variations in properties of parts
manufactured by industries. Standards are set by standard developing organizations which work under
national and international systems. In national standard system, there are various standard developing
organizations in each country. There is a main national standardizing body consisting of experts which,
after reviewing, accredits standards developed by those organizations according to respective country
requirements. The main standardizing bodies include ANSI (for USA), BSI (for U.K), DIN (for Germany),
(JSI for JAPAN), and PSQCA (for Pakistan). Each of these national standard bodies has set standards in
different areas including engineering, health, management, energy, safety, etc. In international standard
system, there is single organization called International System of Standards (ISO). National standardizing
bodies from different countries (as mentioned above) are part of ISO. These national member organizations
collaborate in development and advancement of International Standards for technology, material testing
methods, societal and environmental issues. There are several international and national standards for
different mechanical components including bearing, gears, shafts, keyways, welds, fits, belt drives, chain
drives, etc. At the end of report, some practical examples were given in order to show that how the design
standards have impacted quality of the products as well as how they have brought ease to lives of people.

1. Introduction
A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes having purpose to attain uniformity,
efficiency, and a certain quality (Budynas and Nisbett 2008). Standards are required norms to which
different characteristics of a product should conform. The characteristics include material specifications,
dimensions and shape of the component, method of testing and method of marking, packing and storing of
the product. Standardization helps to prevent variation in characteristics of a product, process and properties
of material (Bhandari 2010). Standards are documents which are open accessed with no license fee. They
have only purchasing cost. The standards are developed by performing repeated tests and activities which
ensure quality and safety of product or a process. Therefore, standards are implemented as tools to promote
trade, enhance health and safety, and improve productivity. Standards act as a bridge which connects
research to industry by promoting innovation through circulation of new ideas, validation of advanced
methods and tools for testing, and implementation of new activities.
As the world is heading towards modernity, individuals are expecting more from the organizations and their
demands are also expanding. In this way, it was the need of great importance to specify standards in all
fields of life since when an item is made by following certain arrangement of measures then its durability
as well as life-cycle of product is getting increased, and it adjusts to client desires. Likewise, processes have
standards, and when a specific process is executed by following the characterized models then the
effectiveness of the process increases and service also improves. Today, standards are being created in all

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fields of life like agriculture, food, health, safety, technology and so forth. Foods are processed by certain
standards just like the materials in engineering field are chosen by selected standards. There are a lot of
reasons to develop standards. First reason is to ensure fitness for the purpose. This means that optimum
parameters for performance of product, process and service are defined to fulfill a defined purpose under
certain conditions, and then to evaluate product conformity. Second one is to ensure interchangeability.
This means that product, process and service should be suitable in place of another. Next reason for the
need of developing standards is variety reduction. Large number of varieties of products, services and
processes might be helpful for customers to provide several options, and to enable them to select most
appropriate. Standardization helps in production of maximum variety of products from minimum variety
of materials, parts, tools and processes. The reason for introducing standards is also to promote better
communication and understanding (Secretariat 2016). This means that standards contain information in
precise and documented form which helps in better understanding of users which are going to launch a
product or service in a market. Standards are the base of mass production. They make thousands of articles
to be published within the reach of everybody.
Because of the significance of standards, standards development organizations, which have been set up by
developing and developed countries, are working under national standard system of each country. The work
of international standardization is carried out under the aegis of ISO, termed as International Standards of
Organization. Most industrialized countries are member of this organization. To promote uniformity around
the world, this organization has been developed to deal with issues of standardization worldwide. The
standards are developed by performing of several experiments and testing before their acceptance. For this,
different committees are formed consisting of professionals from all fields. After analysing of different
parameters by experts, if they find that parameters are optimum and conform to requirements then the
standard is approved and sent to standard development organization so that people may get to know about
a new standard, and give feedback to organization (International Organization of Standardization 2019).

2. International Organization of Standardization

2.1 Introduction
ISO stands for International Organization of Standardization. It is a nongovernmental organization and a
worldwide institute that comprises standard bodies from more than 160 countries. ISO is derived from the
Greek isos, meaning equal. It means that utilization of equal standards to lead the worldwide exchange of
standards, products and services. Till now, ISO has published over 18600 standards. These standards play
an important role in economic, environmental and social development of government and society. There is
a technical committee of ISO which reviews the drafts of, and after analyzing publishes them. It consists of
members from ISO and elected Principal Officers (Rouse 2019). Standard development organizations from
member countries are part of ISO. These national member organizations collaborate in development and
advancement of International Standards for technology, material testing methods, societal and
environmental issues. In order to set standards, ISO had devised a methodology which aim at making
suitable and reliable results of effects of standards on organizations. ISO does not develop independent
international standards of its own; but it globally recognizes the national standards of collaborating
countries. Technical committees circulate drafts for International Standards to the member bodies for
voting. International Standard is approved as a publication if at least 75 % of the member bodies cast a vote.
An ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in
an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50 % of the members
of the parent committee casting a vote. An ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement
between the members of a technical committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of

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the members of the committee casting a vote (Howste 2004). ISO standards give arrangements and
accomplish advantages to practically all fields including horticulture, construction, mechanical engineering,
fabricating and manufacturing, distribution, transport, medical devices, quality improvement, environment
and energy. ISO has headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
2.2 History
In 1926, ISO was established as International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA);
however it lost its validity amid the World War II and suspended. In 1946, after World War II, the plan for
establishment of ISO was again performed under the supervision of United Nations Standards Coordinating
Committee (UNSCC) and delegates from 25 countries, held at Institute of Civil Engineers in London. In
meeting, it was decided to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards.
ISO started operations 23 February 1947. ISO was established with 67 technical committees. In 1949, ISO
moved to small offices in Geneva. The first ISO standard was published in 1951. ISO had 35 members and
68 standards in 1955. ISO published its standard “ISO 31” on units and quantities in 1960. During 1960’s,
more developing countries contributed towards standardization work in ISO. In 1971, ISO published
standards on air and water quality. During 1970’s, ISO turned into a true international organization for
standards, when Secretary general Olle Sturen visited members which resulted active participation from
countries like Japan, China and Australia. Till now, ISO has expanded its work and has introduced over
22520 International Standards which include all the areas of manufacturing, nanotechnology and biofuels
(International Organization for Standardization 2019).
2.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering
International Standards of Organizations has also developed some standards for machine components like
bearings, shaft, gears etc. Each standard first includes specifications and performance criteria of machine
component in general, and then each sub-standard under the umbrella of main standard for machine
component. Some standards for important machine components are listed below:
 ISO 21.100:
This standard establishes the structure and performance criteria for bearings subjected to different
types of loadings. It makes specifications for different bearing types like plain and roller bearings
(International Organization for Standardization 2019).
 ISO 21.040:
This standard classifies threads with respect to pitch, and also generates design of standard thread
profiles. It also specifies classes of threads based upon tolerance ranges to control their fit. This
standard also includes different factors for calculating stresses in threads which are subjected to
axial loads. It develops criteria for metric as well as inch threads. This standard also includes
technical drawings and specifications of special threads like those which are used in pipe joints
(International Organization for Standardization 2019).
 ISO 21.120:
It includes specifications, technical drawings, standard sizes, tolerance ranges and performance
criteria for shafts, couplings, keyways and balancing machines. It specifies different factors for
calculating stresses in shafts which are subjected to complex loadings (International Organization
for Standardization 2019).
 ISO 21.160:
It includes technical specifications and performance criteria for different types of springs like
helical compression springs, leaf springs, disc springs etc (International Organization for
Standardization 2019).

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 ISO 21.200:
This standard specifies nomenclature of different types of gears, their technical drawings, standard
dimensions like modules, pitch, number of teeth. It also introduces different factors for calculating
load capacity and surface durability of gear tooth (International Organization for Standardization
2019).
 ISO 21.220:
It includes technical drawings, performance criteria, standard designs for flexible machine elements
which are used for power transmission like belt drive, chain drive and rope drive (International
Organization for Standardization 2019).

3. American National Standards Institute

3.1 Introduction
ANSI stands for American National Standards Institute. It is a non-profit organization in USA that aims to
broaden standards in the USA as well as round the world. It manages and coordinates the U.S. standards
and conformity assessment system. ANSI is not a standard developing organization. ANSI supervises the
development and makes use standards and recommendations with the help of accrediting the strategies of
standards making bodies and approving their documents as American National Standards. American
National Standards are generally called “open” standards. “Open” refers to a strategy used by a recognized
body for developing and approving a preferred standard (ANSI 2019). ANSI strengthens the position of
United States in the global market and assures product safety and integrity. When ANSI accredits a new
standard, it means that the standard has fulfil requirements of company for openness, stability, and
consensus (Christensson 2012). ANSI has collaboration with International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), Pan
American Standards Commission (COPANT), International Accreditation Forum (IAF) and the Pacific
Accreditation Cooperation (PAC). ANSI serves as a liaison to nearby standardization organizations in Asia,
Africa and the Middle East; and encourages bilateral agreements with national requirements our bodies.
3.2 History
In 1916, different U.S. based standard developing organizations, including American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the American Institute of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineers (AIME) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (now ASTM
International) were invited by American Institute of Electrical Engineers to take part in organizing an
impartial national body in order to approve national consensus standards and coordinate standards
improvement. These 5 corporations, which were ore contributors of the United Engineering Society (UES),
invited the U.S. Departments of War, Navy and Commerce to join them as founders (ANSI 2018). ANSI
was initially known as the "American Engineering Standards Committee" (AESC), which became shaped
in 1918. An year later, AESC authorized its first standard on pipe threads. In 1920, AESC commenced the
coordination of country wide protection codes to replace the several laws that have been hampering accident
prevention. The first American Standard Safety Code authorized in 1921 which covered the protection of
the heads and eyes of commercial workers. In its first ten years, AESC also accepted country wide standards
in the fields of mining, electric and mechanical engineering, construction and highway site visitors. With
the coordination of American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now the IEEE) and numerous different
businesses, AESC started to develop engineering standards. In 1928, AESC was reorganized and renamed
as "American Standards Association" (ASA). The ASA set partnerships with international companies,

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which included the ISO and helped promote U.S. standards across the world. In 1969, the ASA became
renamed to ANSI.
3.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering
 ANSI/ASME B106.1M-1985: Design of Transmission Shafts (ASME 2019)
 ANSI/ASME B6.1-1968: Standard gear tooth forms (ANSI 1968)
 ANSI/AGMA 6123: Design manual for enclosed epicyclic gear drives (AGMA 1975)
 ANSI/AGMA 6001-E10: Design and selection of components for enclosed gear drives (AGMA
2019)
 ANSI S2.75: Explains shaft alignment methods (ASA 2019)
 ANSI B17: Design of parallel and taper keys (ASME 1967)
 ANSI/ABMA 19.2-2013: Includes design of radial tampered roller bearings of various types, part
numbering systems, boundary dimensions, tolerances, and fitting practices (ABMA 2013)

4. British Standards

4.1 Introduction
BSI stands for British Standards Institution. It is a non-profit organization and a major standardizing body
in United Kingdom that produces standards across all business sectors. BSI sets standards and provides
training services, self-assessment tools and a range of books. The standards cover management and
technical subjects. BSI offers services in the fields of standardization, product certification, systems
assessment, training and advisory services. BSI also accounts for UK social and economic interests in
European and International Standards (Rouse 2019). Standard by BSI is defined as, 'Something that is
typically ordinary'. British Standard (BS) publications are technical specs or practices that may be used as
guide for the manufacturing of a product, carrying out a process or offering a service. BSI does not produce
British Standards. BSI coordinates organizations which want to accomplish the European CE mark
certification. The BSI also awards the BSI Kitemark to products that meet its quality standards. Standards
Board is established by governing body of BSI. Each Sector Board consists of numerous Technical
Committees. After approval of British Standard by Technical Committee , it is sent to the Secretary of the
supervisory Sector Board for assuring that the Technical Committee has finished a mission for which it
become constituted (Schepel 2005).
4.2 History
BSI was established as the Engineering Standards Committee in London in 1901 by Sir John Wolfe-Barry
(Murphy and Yates 2009). The BSI Kitemark was first registered by BSI on 12 June 1903. Kitemark is a
registered trademark owned and presented by the British Standards Institution for products which have
achieved standards for quality and safety. In 1918, it became British Engineering Standards Association by
expanding its standardization. Standardization became part of Canada, Australia, South Africa and New
Zealand in 1920’s. In 1931, it adopted the name British Standards Institution after receiving a Royal Charter
in 1929. In 1942, BSI was recognized by the British Government officially as the only organization for
issuing national standards. In 1946, first ever Commonwealth Standards Conference was organized by
British Standard Institute organized the in London. In 1951, in order to advise on standards affecting the
domestic consumer, BSI formed its Women’s Advisory Committee. In 1998 a revision of the Charter
enabled the agency to diversify and accomplish several other businesses, and the trading name changed to
BSI Group (BSI 2019). This organization now operates in 182 countries.

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4.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering


 BS EN ISO 898:
It specifies mechanical properties of fasteners including bolts, studs and set screws which are made
of carbon steel and alloy steel.
 BS6613:1991 ISO4863:
It includes specifications of resilient shaft couplings.
 BS3170:
It includes specifications of flexible shaft couplings for power transmission.
 BS7620:1993:
It includes specification for industrial belt drives - dimensions of pulleys and v-ribbed belts of
standard profiles.
BS4235:Pt 1:1986:
It includes specifications, technical drawings, standard dimensions and performance criteria of
parallel and taper keys.
 BS 6322:
It specifies tolerances of bolts, screws, nuts and plain washers.
 BS 436:
It includes technical drawings and designs of spur and helical gears, their basic rack form in both
metric and inches. It also includes method for calculation of contact and root bending stress
limitations for metallic involute gears and allowable values of deviations relevant to corresponding
flanks of gear teeth.
 BS ISO 6366:
It includes calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears like tooth bending strength, surface
durability, and strength and quality of materials.
 BS 6186-1:1981:
It includes specification for straight cylindrical involute splines: metric module, side fit, and
dimensions and tolerances.
 BS 3673:
It includes specifications of spring retaining rings.
 BS ISO 3547, BS ISO 21250:
This standard establishes the structure and performance criteria for bearings subjected to different
types of loadings. It makes specifications for different bearing types like plain and roller bearings.
(ROYMECH 2019)

5. German Institute for Standardization Standards

5.1 Introduction
It is also called DIN. DIN stands for "Deutsches Institut für Normung" which means "German Institute for
Standardization", is a non-governmental and non-profit organization for standardization in Germany as well
as across the world. DIN plays a vital role for improvements to reach the market and advancing progress.
DIN is a national standard that has primarily national importance, and is developed at national level. DIN
ISO is a German publication of International standard that is published by ISO. It is adopted with no
changes, and included into collection of German Standards. DIN has 70 standards committees which are
responsible for a different subject area. At DIN, staff members are responsible for coordinating work at
national, European and international level. Standardization projects are managed through more than 32000
experts which belong to industry, research, consumer protection and public sector. This results in promotion
of international exchange, quality assurance and environmental safety as well as enhancing protection and
communication. External specialists, with the aid of with DIN's project managers, use their skills and

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techniques to expand the content of standards, ensuring that the complete process runs smoothly. DIN
personnel members coordinate countrywide, ensuring all regulations of process are accompanied. This
increases the worldwide acceptance of DIN Standards (German Institute for Standardization 2019). DIN
has almost 1,800 members, which consist of individual corporations, public authorities, and different
businesses from industry, and research institutes (DIN 2019).
5.2 History
German Institute of Standardization was founded in 1917 as the Normenausschuß der deutschen
Industrie (NADI, "Standardization Committee of German Industry"). The name “NADI” depicted that the
organization dealt with only industrial products. NADI published its first standard on taper pins in 1918.
During 1920’s, DIN registered as non profit organization. DIN mark registered as trademark with patent
office. In 1926, the NADI was called as Deutscher Normenausschuß (DNA, "German Standardization
Committee") which reflected that the organization dealt with standardization issues in many fields. In 1951,
DIN became member of ISO and emerged as sole national standardization organization for Germany. It
was renamed again to Deutsches Institut für Normung, or 'DIN' in 1975. German government recognized
DIN as the official national-standards body, representing German values at the international as well
at European levels. DIN 476 was one of the earliest and probable the best recognized. That standard added
the A-series paper sizes in 1922 — followed in 1975 as International Standard ISO 216. Till now, DIN has
expanded its network by opening offices in different regions of the world. In 2011, in order to represent
interests of German industry, DIN opened its office in Brussels (DIN 2019).
5.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering
 DIN 13: Includes technical drawings, design and tolerance classes of metric general purpose screw
threads (DIN 2019)
 DIN 38: Plain Bearings (Beuth 1983)
 DIN 74: Design and specifications of countersunk head screws (DIN 2003)
 DIN 103: Includes technical drawings, design and tolerance classes of metric trapezoidal screw
threads (Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V 1977)
 DIN 267: Design of nuts and threaded fasteners (Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V 2017)
 DIN 625: Design of different types of rolling bearings (DIN 2011)
 DIN 764: Design of round steel link chains (DIN 2010)
 DIN 743: Design of Shafts (DIN 2012)

6. Japanese Industrial Standards

6.1 Introduction
Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) are the standards used for commercial activities in Japan, coordinated
by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) and published with the coordination of the Japanese
Standards Association (JSA). The JISC consists of many national committees and performs an important
role in standardizing activities throughout Japan. Because of JISC, Japan is making contribution to setting
international standards by collaborating with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and
the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). JISC advanced its standardization approach, which
is a good way to respond to current trends in the world of standardization both at international and at
domestic level. It makes advancement in regulatory reform by utilization of voluntary standards as criteria
for performance-based technical regulations. Each Japanese Industrial Standard has specific JIS number
which consists of one letter of alphabet that indicates a sector, a four digit number. For example, JIS G 3101
is a standard for rolled steel for general structure. The alphabet G indicates the Iron and Steel sector. When

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a task for standardization arises from social desires in the authorities or in enterprise, JIS draft is formulated
by using JIS drafting committee. JIS draft is then acted upon by way of JISC and is formally established or
revised with the aid of the Minister in charge. The Ministry forms a technical committee consisting of about
500 members from 30 different fields. The committee reviews the JIS draft, makes a report, and sends to
Ministry in Charge for approval (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee Secretariat 2013).
6.2 History
Before World War II, there was a government standard called Japanese Standard. In the Meijin era, Japan
promoted modernization of industry at a step taken by government; but procedure of standard making was
basically left to private sector. Government procurement gadgets, such as military weapons, had official
purchase standards, check standards, and preferred specs, but in accordance with Royal Decree No. 164 of
1921, "Japan Standard Specification" (Former JES) became made. With the prolongation of Japan-China
war in 1930, purchasing of military equipment got increased. As a result, scope covered by official
standards also expanded which resulted in establishment of “Extraordinary Japan Standard Specification”.
In 1941, the "Japan Airlines Standard" (navigation) based on the Aircraft Manufacturing Business Law was
established, and sixty-six standards were developed. The Standards Division of the Japan Efficiency
Association, which was accountable for guiding and monitoring the industry below the Ministry of
Commerce and Industry, affiliated with the Standards Division of the Japan Airlines Institute of Technology
and started again as the Japanese Standards Association in December, 1955. The following year, the
Japanese Industrial Standards Committee system became expanded by Royal Decree No. Ninety eight, and
a new reputable trendy called "Japan Standard" (New JES) was established (Kato 2000).
6.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering
 JIS B 1189:1999: Hexagon flange bolt (Association 2015)
 JIS B 1190:1999: Hexagon nuts with flange (Association 1999)
 JIS B 1451:1991: Rigid flanged shaft couplings (Japan Standards Association 1991)
 JIS B 1452:1991: Flexible flanged shaft couplings (Japan Standards Association 1991)
 JIS B 1510:2010: Rolling Bearings (Japan Standards Association 2010)
 JIS B 1702:1998: Cylindrical Gears (japan Standards Association 1998)
 DIN 7190: Calculation and design criteria of Interference Fits (Japan Standards Association 2017)
 DIN 6885: Parallel Key Geometries (Japan Standards Association 2019)
 DIN 743:2000: Shafts and axles, calculations of load capacity (Japan Standards Association 2000)

7. Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority

7.1 Introduction
PSQCA is a national standardizing body which performs functions under the supervision of Ministry of
Science and Technology. PSQCA is authorized by board of 9 members. There are four Deputy Director
Generals who assist Director General in controlling PSQCA. These Deputy Director Generals deal with
finance, Quality Control, Standards Development and Technical Services respectively. The Regional
Offices of PQSCA are at Karachi, Quetta, Lahore and Peshawar. The Liaison Offices of PQSCA have been
established at Sukkur, Hyderabad, Hab, Rawalpindi, Multan and Faisalabad (Saeed 2011). Consisting of
81 scientists and engineers and 254 supporting staff, PSQCA is responsible for not only developing
standards but also for their worldwide acceptance. PSQCA is also a member of International Organization
for Standardization (ISO), International Electro-technical Commission (IEC), and International
Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML). The reason for which PSQCA has been established is to help

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the government in developing standardization policies to promote industrial development as well as for
customer protection (Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority 2019). PSQCA issues licenses to
products and services when they are conformed to Pakistan Standards, and marked with Authority’ Mark.
PSQCA also reviews matters which are essential for quality improvement of products and services. It
arranges training programs on standardization and quality control testing. It also examines manufacturing
plants for designated products and services in order to approve marks of the authority. PSQCA also plays
a vital role in imports and exports. It stops manufacturing and storage of those products which do not
conform to Pakistan’s or any other country’s standards recognized by authority. PSQCA has signed
bilateral agreement with following organization in other economy:
 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) US
 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), India
 Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institute (BSTI), Bangladesh
 Iran Standards and Industrial Research Institute (ISIRI), Iran
 Yemen Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control Organization, Yemen.
 Saudi Standards, Metrology and Quality Organization (SASO), Saudi Arabia
 Turkish Standards Institute (TSE), Turkey
 ASTM International USA
 Mauritius Standards Bureau (MSB), Mauritius

7.2 History
In Pakistan, system of standardization and quality control lack significance as that of other national standard
institutes of other developed and developing countries; but has been existed since early 1950s. First in 1951,
Pakistan Standards Institution (PSI) was established under Ministry of Industries. It aimed at developing
national standards keeping in view the concept of quality, health and safety. It was also responsible for
certification of items which conform to national standards. Later on, keeping in view quality and grade of
industrial materials and finished products, Central Testing Laboratory was established in 1951 at Karachi.
In 1975, under the supervision of Ministry of industries, Metal Industry Research and Development Centre
(MIRDC) was established which focused at research and development of metallurgical and metal industrial
products. In 1996, after the PQSCA act had been passed, functions of quality control and standardization
were brought under one umbrella which is now called as PQSCA. In 2000, the organization first initialized
its operations, and since then it has adopted 22070 ISO standards and developed 8857 Pakistan Standards
(Saeed 2011).
7.3 Standards related to Mechanical Engineering
 PS: 132-1973: Screw threads-basic profiles for general purpose.
 PS: 470-1984: Fasteners-bolts, studs and nuts-symbols and designations of dimension.
 PS: 471-1984: Specifies clearance hole diameters for fasteners for general purpose applications.
 PS: 472-1973: Hexagon nuts and bolts width across flats, thickness of nuts, heights of heads.
 PS: 494-1973: Includes metric screw threads having basic profile for triangular screw threads.
 PS: 831-1973: Slotted counter sunk (Flat) head wood screws.
 PS:1589-1983: Rolling bearing & radial bearing
 PS: 993-1983: Specifies radial internal clearance for unloaded bearing with cylindrical bore.
 PS: 997-1983: Short pitch transmission precision roller chains.
 PS: 1387-1976: Modules and diametric pitches of cylindrical gears.
 PS: 2553-1989: Conveyor belts
 PS: 2554-1989: Specifies a fatigue test for the quality control of narrow V-belts.

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 PS: 3824-1996: Specifies the dimension and tolerances of resistance spot welding electrode
adaptors.
 PS: 3833-1996: Defines working positions and makes it possible to locate welds in space by means
of angles of slope and rotation with reference to the horizontal reference plane.
 PS: 3918-1997: Specifies the dimensional characteristics of or square paralleled rectangular keys
and their corresponding key ways in shaft and hub.
 PS: 3931-1997: Specifies the dimensional characteristics of taper keys with or without gib head
and of their corresponding key ways in shaft and hub.
 PS: 4622-1-2000: Rules for the simplified representation of compression, torsion, extensive, spiral,
disc and leaf springs in technical drawings.
 PS: 4622-2-2000: Representation of cylindrical helical compression springs in technical drawings.
 PS: 4805-2002: Classical and narrow V-belts grooved pulleys. (PQSCA Standards 2019)

8. International Design Standards for Bearing


 ISO 15243:2004: It includes Rolling Bearings features and different terms
 ISO 281:2007: It includes dynamic load ratings of Rolling Bearings
 ISO 76: It includes static load ratings of Rolling Bearings
 ABMA STD: Includes load rating and fatigue life of ball bearings
 ABMA STD 19.2: Includes design, tolerances and numbering systems for tapered Roller bearings
 BS ISO 3547, BS ISO 21250: These standards establish the structure and performance criteria for
bearings subjected to different types of loadings. It makes specifications for different bearing types
like plain and roller bearings.

9. International Design Standards for Gears


 ISO 6336: Calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears including general influence
factors, surface durability, tooth bending strength, and strength and quality of materials.
 ISO/TR 13593: Includes specifications for enclosed gear drives for industrial applications.
 ISO/TR 13989: Calculation of scuffing load capacity of cylindrical, bevel and hypoid gears
 ANSI/AGMA 6123: Design manual for enclosed epicyclic gear drives
 AGMA 9005: Industrial Gear Lubrication
 AGMA 1012-G05: Includes nomenclature of gear, and definitions of different terms related to gear
 AGMA 917-B97: Includes design manual for fine pitch gearing

10. Impact of Design Standards on Quality of Product


In the context, quality means the conception of an excellent product or a service that fulfills the demands
and expectations of a customer. In order to achieve quality design of a product, multidisciplinary team,
consisting of experts from design engineering, customer care, marketing, procurement and manufacturing
department, conduct product conceptions, design, and production planning at a time. In order to design a
product to meet quality standards, following steps are involved:
 Identification of need: It usually defines problem of statement.
 Background Research: It is carried out to understand the problem.
 Goal: After literature review, purpose of designing a product is restated in more reasonable way.
 Task Specifications: They define scope of a product.

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 Synthesis: in this process, alternative design approaches are taken into consideration.
 Analysis: Possible solutions of various alternatives are analyzed, and decision is made for their
acceptability or rejection. This process accounts for quality and value of design approach.
 Detailed Design: In this step, complete engineering drawings are made, and manufacturing
specifications are defined according to acceptable design standards.
 Prototyping: A prototype of a product is made for its testing and validity.
 Production: After testing, if a product conforms to standard and verifies its quality, its production
is carried out for customer. (Norton 2006)
In engineering sector, there are various companies which design and manufacture machines keeping in view
specific design standards which are used for production of different parts. These machines include milling,
lathe etc. Respective companies are making a lot of advancements in these machines to bring greater
accuracy and improve quality of components produced by these machines. These standards are used to
maintain consistency within company and across vast supply chain. In this case study, only milling machine
is discussed in detail.
Milling Machines are used for production of different mechanical components like gears, engine blocks,
piston etc. It performs several machining operations like drilling, slotting, generating curved surfaces. For
efficient machine operations, and to produce quality parts that should meet design standards, several
improvements are being done in milling machine. With the advancement in designs of different standard
mechanical parts like keys, gears; several changes in the design of milling machine were made so that it
could produce those mechanical parts efficiently. In other words, the nature of design of a component
determines the features of milling machine. For instance, for accurate hole diameter and its location on a
part, base of milling machine should be rigid so that it can absorb vibrations during drilling so that hole of
specified tolerance according to design standard can be made. Milling machine is also equipped with jigs
and fixtures for accurate hole location. Initially, 2.5 axes milling machines were available that could only
perform limited machining operations like hole drilling or cutting slots and keyways. Now, 5 axes milling
machines have also been developed, which can cut complex 3D curved surfaces as in cylinder head. In
order to machine a part on milling, ISO 2768 and ISO 1302 standards for part to be machined are taken into
consideration to achieve a specified tolerance and required surface finish respectively on a part. There is
also tolerance standard for milling machine. ISO 1701 specifies machining tests on vertical milling
machines. These tests specify applicable tolerances for that machine. This standard only refers to accuracy
of milling machine (ISO 2013). There are also standards for feed rate and spindle speeds for specific milling
cutter and material of part on which these cutters are to be used. To achieve standard cutter, milling machine
is equipped with standard gear drives or belt and pulley mechanisms which provide variety of standard
spindle speeds for specified materials. To achieve desired feed for a specific material, table of milling
machine has automatic feed mechanism. It has a dial which has standard values for feed which milling
machine can provide (Krar, Oswald et al. 1984).

11. Impact of Design Standards on Quality of Life


In the context, quality of life refers to various domains in life. It is a standard level that accounts for
expectations of an individual or a society for a good life. The domains are social indicators such as economic
indicators, subjective-wellbeing and health. Quality of life is a part of a person’s mental state, and he is a
reflection of his development, his social and physical environment and his own position in this environment.
It's a feeling of well-being of individuals, which emerges from the satisfaction and dissatisfaction with areas
of life whom he give importance (Milivojevic, Stojanovic et al. 2016). Mechanical Engineering has always
been involved in development of products that bring ease to almost all areas of human life and work.

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One of the mechanical products or system, that has improved the quality of life with respect to safety
purposes, is antilocking braking system in automobiles. In the past, most of the accidents used to occur due
to brake failure in automobiles. These brakes were not supposed to perform at higher speeds that caused
the tires to skid and eventually tilt the vehicle. In normal braking system, when brake-pads are activated,
wheels stop spinning. This loses the control of steering. There can also be another big issue if normal brakes
are applied when vehicle is running on surfaces which have different levels of traction. This generates
different friction forces on the wheels. This produces torque and the vehicle will go into uncontrollable
spin. Antilock braking system (ABS) has solved this issue. There are different international standards which
specify different tests including adhesion test, wheel-lock check test; for the assessment and development
of antilocking braking system. ISO 2364:2001 applies the tests and measurement methods of ABS for
motorcycles, and ISO 11835 specifies test methods for M and N category vehicles which have at least four
wheels and are designed for the carriage of passengers and goods respectively. In ABS, wheels of vehicle
do not completely lock up. It includes speed sensors attached to all wheels. When the sensors detect that a
wheel is about to lock up, brake pads are partially released. This will allow the wheels to spin intermittently
during braking. This allows steering to function even during braking. The action of intermittently releasing
the brakes also helps to decrease the braking distance. The type is made of complex rubber material. For
that material, coefficient of friction between road and tyre is maximum at slip ratio of about 12%. In normal
braking system, tyres of vehicle undergo pure sliding which causes sliding friction to decrease which will
increase the braking distance; so there are chances of collision between vehicles. In ABS, brake pressure is
adjusted to keep slip ratio near to 12% which significantly reduces braking distance. ABS also solves
instability issues of vehicles when they are running at surfaces having different traction levels. There is
intelligent electronic braking distribution system (EBD) which is a subsystem of ABS. EBD yaw rate of
vehicle and relative slip of each wheel is measured by reducing brake pressure on wheels with higher grip.
This enables reducing frictional force produced by these wheels. It will keep the torque about vertical axis
of vehicle and whole car under control (Michael 2018).

12. Discussion
The implementation of standards in products, processes and services have a greater impact on quality and
value of products as well as on the lives of people. Standards are responsible for creating uniformity in a
particular sector as well as for benchmarking of products, processes and services. Standards also take care
of environmental effects that will be aroused after the development of product or process. Standards bring
ease to life by ensuring that product, process or service should conform to demands of customer. The
reduction in time for the design of a component or a product can also be accomplished with the help of
design standards as they provide a trusted solution to a problem. Standards also ensure safety as the product
developed by following the standards is made by selecting the defined parameters that ensure that the
product will not fail. Standards also serve to create an agreement between the producer and consumer which
reduces the time for negotiations between them. Standards help in smooth running of industrial processes,
and maintaining a competitive environment between the industries by giving the different types of
certification if an industry meets the standards. Standards also improve the efficiency of a sector and this
increased efficiency helps in saving the amount of money associated with that sector. In a nutshell, these
standards and standard organizations have helped in raising the standard of living in the recent century and
are responsible for the technical boom that has taken place in the recent century.

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