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Ocean Dream Marine Training Institute

Office No. B-415, 4th Floor, Mahesh Building, Plot No - 37
Sector - 15, C.B.D. Belapur, Navi Mumbai – 400614
Phone: +91 22 49742198 | +91 8356064742
Email: | Website: www.
Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF) course is one of the four basic familiarization courses,
which a prospective seafarer must undergo before proceeding to the sea.

These courses under the STCW Convention (Standards of Training Certification and Watch
keeping) are IMO (International Maritime Organization) requirements and cover the basic
knowledge about the Safety & Fire Prevention.

The present course fully covers the syllabus as prescribed in IMO model course on Fire
Prevention and Fire Fighting and meets the STCW 2010 requirements.

All those prospective seafarers and those already seafaring whose business takes them across
the seas should posses knowledge of the means available to them to save themselves and assist
in saving lives in an event of fire out break on board ship.

This handbook in addition to providing a reading material for Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting
course is also recommended for use on board. It is hoped that knowledge and experience
gained on completion of the course will enable a prospective seafarer to respond in an efficient
manner to emergency situations and which will contribute towards enhancement of safety of
life at sea.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


The learning objectives of this course have been designed to provide a sound Knowledge
for the student

1. To prepare the seafarers to work on board in safe environment.

2. Safety of life, which minimizes the loss of men, material and environment.
3. To reduce the risk of fire on board.
4. To maintain the state of readiness, thereby building confidence in responding to
emergency situation with cool head.
5. Familiarize to the use of various shipboard organizations to deal in case of fire.
6. Familiarize to the use of various portable fire extinguishers and fixed installation
for firefighting.
7. Familiarize to the use of various life supporting / saving equipment on board.
8. Finally, to fight and extinguish fire with minimum damage to man and material

The methods of, evaluation have been chosen to assess a student for his knowledge
comprehension and application of the course content. The methods that are intended to
be used, include question & answer discussions, objective tests, matching items and supply
of short/long answers to prepared questions. Where the course content is aimed at the
acquisition of practical skills & practical demonstration test for the trainee would be
conversed with appropriate equipment/tools.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)









6. 18-23

7. 24-26

8. 27-34

9. 35-36

10 37-53

11 54-77

12 78-82

13 83-84

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



This Basic Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting Course has been developed to fulfil the requirement
of Annex 1 of Resolution A 437 (XI) of the IMO and the provision of Regulation of Section A-VI/I-
2 STCW Code.IMO model course 1.20

AIM: Know what to do if

1.Fire or Smoke is detected or the fire alarm is sounded
2.Basic knowledge of the use of the portable fire extinguishers
3.Closing of weather and watertight doors
4.Minimize the risk of fire and maintain state of readiness to respond to emergency situations
Involving fire
5. Fight and extinguish fires

Fire can be devastating on a ship - particularly on a passenger ship, where large numbers of
people may need to be evacuated, or on a ship carrying inflammable cargo, with serious risks to
crewmembers or to ports and harbours.

The regulations are designed to ensure that fires are first of all prevented from occurring - for
example by making sure that materials such as carpets and wall coverings are strictly controlled
to reduce the fire risk; secondly, that any fires are rapidly detected; and thirdly; that any fire is
contained and extinguished.

Designing ships to ensure easy evacuation routes for crew and passengers are a key element of
the chapter.

Fire is potential hazards in ships:

Fire fighting needs to be seen in broader sense in terms of fire, fire prevention, fire detection
and fire fighting. In order to successfully put out a fire, you need to use the most suitable type
of extinguishing agent—one that will do the job in the least amount of time, cause the least
amount of damage and result in the least danger to crew members. The job of picking the
proper agent has been made easier by the classification of fire types, or classes, lettered A to D.
Within each class are all fires involving materials with similar burning properties and requiring
similar extinguishing agents. However, most fuels are found in combinations, and electrical fires
always involve some solid fuel.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)




1.Safety first at all times

2.Wear clothing made of natural fibres during the practical training
3.Wollen or cotton socks and close toe shoes
4.Long legged pants and long-sleeved top


1.Learn as much as you can from the ship’s regular training and drills
2.Locate the ship’s fire fighting equipment and learn how to operate it
3.Know what to do when you are called to a fire station
4.Learn the location of the escape routes on board your vessel
5.Know the hazardous area on ship

Principles of Survival in Relation to Fire

1.Regular training and drills

2.Preparedness for any fire emergency
3.Knowledge of actions to be taken when called to fire stations
4.Knowledge of escape routes
5.Knowledge of dangers of smoke and toxic fumes

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation(burning) of fuel the following three
elements must be present at the same time in order for a fire to start

Three elements required for fire to occur are:

1. The presence of Fuel (Solid, liquid, and Gas)

2. A source of Heat (Hot surface, electrical equipment, smoking, naked light)
3. The presence of Oxygen as (air, oxidising substances)

These three conditions can be represented as a triangle (the fire triangle)

Therefore, to prevent or to fight fire one of the above three elements must be removed or
isolated. Fires can be controlled and extinguished by the removal of heat, fuel or O2 (air). The
main aim when fighting fires must therefore be to reduce the temperature or to remove the
fuel or to exclude the supply of air with the greatest possible Fire takes place due to a chemical
reaction in between fuel and oxygen in presence of heat, Combustible or flammable
substances give off vapour which if ignited when mixed with an appropriate quantity of
To move into a slightly more advanced theory of fires, there is a fourth ingredient necessary
for fire, and the "fire tetrahedron" more accurately demonstrates the combustion process.
A tetrahedron is a solid figure with four triangular faces. It contains the four things required for
combustion; fuel (to vaporize and burn), oxygen (to combine with the fuel vapour), heat (to

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

raise the vapour ignition point) and the chain reaction (the chemical reaction among fuel,
oxygen, and heat). Remove any of these four and you have no fire

Removal of oxygen:
Except in those substance that contain their own oxygen, the removal of sufficient oxygen will
extinguish a fire, removing of air is called smothering.
Small fire can be smothered with sand from a fire bucket or blanket can be used to smother
flames from a person’s clothes. it is imperative to ensure the door is properly closed when
leaving a fire to burn in compartment or room
Fire in cargo holds can be starved of oxygen by closing hatches and blanking off ventilators. In
all spaces affected by fire, ventilation fans should be shut down and doors and other openings
closed. In fire extinguishing operations, oxygen is extinguished by smothering the fire with a
layer of foam. Oxygen is also cut off during the operation of portable carbon dioxide
extinguishers and to some extent, during the operation of dry powder extinguishers, but for
CO2 and Dry powder, the smothering action is temporary and there is a possibility for
reignition. In total flooding by fixed extinguishing system on board ships, carbon dioxide
displaces the air inside the compartment and fire is extinguished due to insufficient oxygen.

Removal of Heat:
A reduction in temperature is achieved by the use of a suitable cooling medium, normally
water, at sufficient rate the rate at which heat is removed by the cooling medium must be
greater than the produced by the fire. cooling of boundary bulkheads will reduce the
possibility of igniting material outside the affected compartment. The source of power should
be cut off in electrical insulation and galley fire

Removal of Fuel:
The removal of fuel is not always possible and it’s called starving. However, in the case of
liquid fuel fires caused by fuel fires caused by leaking pipes or fittings. the fuel supply should
be closed. It may also be possible to drain the fuel from a burning tank.
It is particularly important to shut off the supply in a gas fire. However, gas could be left
burning in a controlled manner to exhaust itself.
In accommodation spaces, combustible materials should be removed from the vicinity of fire,
including any adjacent compartment affected by the heat. on some occasions, it may be
prudent to dump burning or potentially dangerous material overboard.

Breaking of chain reaction:

A fire may be extinguished by breaking the chain reaction between transient chemical species
produced on ignition (these species are described as “transient” since they are not present

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

prior to ignition or in the final product of combustion) unless the heat is removed, there is a
danger of re ignition of the concentration

Inhibiting: Certain materials when a fire does not extinguish despite smothering because the
02 is contained in the material itself; e. g. Nitro (TNT). Gunpowder, RDX etc. Such fires are due
to self-sustaining. Heat produced continuously by chemical reactions (exothermic). In such
fires. Where extinguishing is possible only by breaking the chemical reaction chain. It is called

Important Terminology:

Flammability – It is the ability of a substances to burn. Vapours given off by a flammable

material can burn when mixed with air in the right proportion in the presence of an ignition

Foam (also referred to Froth’) - An aerated solution, which is used for fire prevention and fire

Gas free – A tank, compartment or container is gas free when sufficient fresh air has been
introduced into it to lower the level of any flammable. Toxic or insert gas to the required for
a specific purpose e.g. hot work entry etc.

Threshold limit (TLV) – The Time weighted average concentration of a substances to which
nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, for a normal 8-hour workday or 48-hour
work week, day after day, without adverse effect.

Lower Flammable limit (LFL)- Hydrocarbon gas in air below which there is insufficient
hydrocarbon to support and propagate combustion. It is also referred to as Lower Explosive
Limit (LFL).

Upper Flammable limit (UFL) – The Concentration of a hydrocarbon gas in air above, which
there is insufficient air to support and propagate combustion. It is also referred to as upper
explosive limit (UFL).
Flammable Range (Also referred to as “Explosive Range”) – The range of hydrocarbon gas
concentration in air between the lower and upper flammable (Explosive) limits. Mixtures
within this range are capable of being ignited and of burning.

Flash Point – The lowest temperature at and above which a liquid gives off enough
flammable vapour to form a mixture with air that can be ignited by contact with a hot
surface, spark or flame

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Ignition Point – It is lowest temperature to which a flammable substance must be heated

for it to ignite.

Auto Ignition - It is the ignition of a combustible material without initiation by a spark or

flame, when the material has been raised to temperature at which self sustaining
combustion occurs. (Exothermic chemical reactions) |
e.g. oily waste or jute, wet coal, wet grain, timber products, scrap iron.

Burning Speed – Burning speed or flame speed is the speed of rapid propagation of the flame
front through a clamber vapour and air mixture. When flammable vapour and oxygen are
present in the
right quantity required to oxidize it completely, then the mixture is said to do stoichiometric
and any ignition will produce the most rapid propagation of flame.

Thermal Value – Thermal Value or Calorific Value is the quantity of heat produced per unit
weight of fuel. It is expressed in joules per gram or K Cal per gram (1J=0.000239 K Cal).

Hot work – The work involving sources of ignition. Or temperatures sufficiently high to cause
the ignition of a flammable gas mixture. This includes any work requiring the use of welding,
burning or soldering equipment, blow torches, some power-driven tools, portable electrical
equipment is not intrinsically safe or contained within an approved explosion proof housing,
sand blasting equipment and internal combustion engines.

Static Electricity – It is the electrical charges produced on dissimilar material through

physical contact and separation.

Toxic – Poisonous to human life.

Water Fog – A suspension in the atmosphere of very fine droplets of water usually delivered at
a high pressure through a fog nozzle for use in fire fighting.

Water Spray – A suspension in the atmosphere of water divided into coarse drops by
delivery through a special nozzle for used in fire fighting.

Inert Gas – A gas or a mixture of gases such as flue gases from a boiler which will extinguish
burning hydro carbons as it is has very little or insufficient oxygen to support combustion.

Dry Chemical powder – A flame inhibiting powder used in fire fighting.

Resuscitator – Equipment to assist or restore the breathing of a man overcome by gas or

lack of oxygen.

SOURCES OF HEAT AND IGNITION: For fire to occur, heat or ignition or spark is essential.
Therefore, for fire prevention and for fire fighting/ extinction control of heat
energy/spark/ignition is must. The various sources of heat/ignition spark are:

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

a) Chemical sources
b) Electrical sources
c) Physical / Mechanical source
d) Biological sources

Chemical heat energy: Chemical heat energy is the amount of heat released during
substances completed oxidation called heat of combustion or calorific value and is expressed
in Joule/gram or Kilo calorie/gram [ one Joule =0.000239 Kilo calories]
Spontaneous Combustion/Ignition: is type of combustion which occurs by self –heating
(increase in the process of increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions)
followed by thermal runaway (self-heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and
finally, auto ignition.
A substance with a relatively low ignition temperature (hay, straw, peat, etc) begins to release
heat. This may occur in several ways, either by oxidation in the presence of moisture and air, or
bacterial fermentation, which generates heat.
The heat is unable escape (hay, straw, peat etc. are good thermal insulators), and the
temperature of the material rises above its ignition point (even though much of the bacteria
are destroyed by ignition temperature)
Combustion begins if sufficient oxidizer, such as oxygen, and fuel are present to maintain the
reaction into thermal runaway.
Heat of solution: The heat evolved or absorbed when a substance dissolves specifically, the
amount involved when one mole or sometimes one-gram dissolves in a large excess of solvent.
Heat is released when some material like sulphuric acid is dissolved in water.
The heat evolved may be sufficient to ignite nearby combustible material.

Electrical Sources – The various sources of electrical heat energy are resistance heating
dielectric heating, induction heating, and heat from arcing and static electric heating/sparking.
Static electric heating - An electric charge accumulates on the surface of two materials that
have been brought together and they separated. One surface gets charged positively, the
other negatively. If they are not bounded or grounded, they will accumulate sufficient electric
charge, so that a park will appear on their discharge, which can ignite flammable vapours and
gases. Fuel flowing in pipe can generate enough static charge of electricity to ignite a
flammable mixture

Mechanical Sources-A large number of fires on board are due to mechanical heat energy,
which may in the form of frictional heat, frictional spark or heat of compression (in the diesel

Biological Sources – The main biological source of spark/ignition is the ship’s personnel
themselves. Carelessness on their part while smoking, handling electrical gadgets/instruments
by passing safety check lists and procedures, consumption of alcohol and drugs lack of

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

knowledge, training, experience, drills, interest and incentive are some of the major causes of
on-board fires.

Four phases of fire development are:

1.Ignition (incipient)
2.Developing (surface area)
3.Absolute fire (fire in depth in solid)
4.Burning out

Spread Of fire

Fire spread as in three different ways they are:

a) Conduction: Transfer of heat within substance from high temperature to low

temperature by direct contact between the particles of solid by means of elastic waves.
Heat energy is passed from one molecule to another due to vibrations but there is not
actual movement of molecules. This basically happens in solid material like iron,
copper, brass etc.
b) Radiation Is a transfer of heat by temperature excited electromagnetic waves.
Thermal energy is converted into radiant energy. Heat may also be transmitted in
straight line through empty space without the use of medium Radiation energy travels
at the speed of 3* 10 meters per second. i.e. 3,00 000,000 metre/second.
c) Convection Transfer of heat is by actual physical movement of fluid molecules. When
liquid or gas: is heated. It expands and becomes less dense and rises up and is displaced
by colder liquid or gas. So, a circulation is set up. Heat energy is carried throughout the
liquid by actual movement of molecules.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



1) Fire Hazards in Accommodation

Combustible Material – Panelling, Paper, Clothing and Furniture

Cigarette Smoking – Lighting of Agarbattis & Dhoop Bhattis, Cigarettes, Bidis, Cigars Etc.

Electrical Equipment – Electrical wiring, overheating of electrical gadgets like washing

machine, television, music system refrigerator, lighting bulbs I tubes, fans, geyser and hot plate
in accommodation, saloon, galley etc.

2) Fire Hazards in Cargo Holds

Spontaneous Combustion – Due to oxidation of – organic materials chemicals reaction and
carriage of dangerous cargo. Cargo, which react with water cigarette smoking, electrical, wiring
in the holds.

3) Fire Hazard’s in Engine Room

Combustible Liquids – Diesel oil, heavy oil, lubricating oils, dirty oil & sludge & water oil from
fuel and oil separators. Fuel/oil leaks from pipes, joints, and oily engines room platforms and

Oil soaked Insulation – Oily rags, leaks of fuel & oils into bilges, main engine and diesel
generator lagging and exhaust pipes.

Hot Surfaces – Due to overheating of any machinery or failure of lubrication to bearing and
other moving parts in main engine and other machinery.

Hot Work – Welding cutting poor electrical wiring or damaged electrical insulation.

4) Fire Hazards in The Galley

Combustible liquids – Cooking oils, combustible dry foods.

Hot Surfaces – Exhaust space fire due to accumulation of oil and carbon, keeping hot plates
“ON” when not required.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Electrical Equipment –Poor electrical wiring over heating of electrical equipment hot plates
unattended heating pans, oils.
Fires on board ships can be prevented by finding and rectifying leakages of fuel oil, lubricating
oil, and exhaust gases.

A fire onboard may happen in any vessel and has to be managed not only successfully, but
also quickly, in order to prevent larger damages or even loss of vessel and crew, which
could happen if the fire spreads. Fire on board is one of the most dangerous emergencies
for a vessel. But what are the most usual causes and the preventive actions to be taken?

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)




There are numerous ways in which a fire can start on aboard ship at the same time
A detailed analysis of various accidents and incidents of fire and explosion on board ships over
the past many years revealed some major common causes. These are outlined in this chapter.

Oil Leakage in Engine Room- There are many types of oils present in any engine room. Basic
engine fuel and various kinds of lubricants are also present. Oil leakage is an ever-present fire
hazard this may result from:

a) Corroded pipelines
b) Old and worn out oil seals
c) Malfunction of fuel separators.
d) Repairs.

Cigarettes: Smoking is a well known and the most common cause of fire any here. On board
ships smoking is to be restricted to marked areas only. It may be noted that on board certain
ships such as oil tankers no smoking is permitted anywhere on the weather decks.

Overheating of bearings: A ship contains Large number of running machinery. Poor lubrication
may result in over heating of bearings leading to fire. It is mandatory to, have a safety device or
cut out for the machinery to stop in case of failure of lubrication of bearings.

Galley Appliances: Almost all ships have hot plates for cooking – food in the galley. In addition,
fat fryers and hot cases are also provided in each of these galley appliances is potential fire
hazard if not carefully exploited. They must be switched off when not in use. Their electrical
wiring must have classified insulation to prevent overheating and burning.

Hot work: Any hot work such as welding, cutting or brazing is another potential

Fire hazard. No hot work to be carried out without completing the required checklists and
clearance from Chief Engineers and Chief Officer respectively. In port approval of the port
authority is mandatory prior to commencement of hot work. Whenever hot work is carried out,
portable fire extinguishers and water bucket must be readily available.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Electrical Apparatus: All electrical apparatus must be strictly used as per the operating
instructions only. Electrical equipment not in use must be kept off. In particular lights and fans
in cabins, pantries, stores and saloons must be switched off when not in use. Most
accommodation fires have begun due to short circuiting or overheating of lights and domestic
electrical appliance.

Reaction Self Heating & Auto Ignition: Certain cargo are incompatible for stowage together.
These must be stowed separately as laid down in the regulation. Some goods require to be
protected from water moisture and rise of temperature to prevent self- reaction and auto

Arson: Though not a very common caused a ship is susceptible to damage arson by
unscrupulous elements. There should be strict security in terms of access to ship. All visitors
must be screened. Personnel who have no work on board should not be permitted on board.

Static electricity: Is a very serious and neglected hazard on board ships, particularly on oil
tankers and gas carries. All laid down checks and precautions must be strictly adhered to during
various cargo operations and general ship work.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Fire is the cause of many accidents and loss of lives on a ship. Everyone on the ship should be
alert to avoid any fire from taking place when doing any job on the ship you must always think
whether work carried out by you can cause fire and if fire breakouts, how you would fight it.

You must make it habit on your ship to think of fire all the time.

Fire in Engine Room: - Heat, oil, gas all are present in the engine room and therefore there is a
greater risk of fire in engine room than anywhere else.

a) Engine room must always be kept clean, leaking pipes and oil in the trays can cause fire.
b) Oily cotton waste and rags should be stored in closed boxes and burnt in the incinerator at
the end of the day.
c) Paint, oil, diesel, wooden articles stock, not be kept near the boiler or hot places.
d) Cleaning cloth should not be kept on hot pipes, steam pipes.
e) All steam and exhaust pipe should be lagged.
f) If you see a leak in any pipe, you must immediately report it the officer on duty. If oil falls on
a hot pipe or in a hot place it will catch fire.
g) Oil should not be permitted to accumulate in the bilge.
h) Never keep sounding pipes open. Oil may spill out of it and may fall on a hot plate or pipe
and catch fire.


a) Special care should be taken when welding or gas cutting such work must not be carried out
on oily or greasy plates.
b) When welding or cutting check if there is Something that can catch fire on the other side of
the bulkhead or on deck below e.g. Insulation, garbage, etc.
c) Fire extinguishers and fire hoses must be kept in readiness where cutting/-welding work is
going on.
d) No welding cutting should be done until the tank or compartment is gas free and certified by
the inspector fit for hot work.

Galley Fire: Galley is another place where there is a risk of fire.

a) Oil must be not be allowed to fall on hot plates.

b) Pan in which oil is being heated should never be left unattended.
c) Never put water or burning oil.
d) When leaving galley in the afternoon or at night all hot plates should be put off.
e) Ventilator on top of hot plates should always be kept clean, and cleaned by a chemical
when very dirt (once a month) otherwise oil or a fat accumulated on the ventilation can
catch fire.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

f) Everyone on the ship (including cooks and G.S.) must know how & from where the exhausts
and ventilators are shut off as in case of galley fire, first thing to do is to shut off all the
g) Fire extinguisher, fire hoses, blankets etc. Are inside as well as outside the galley.
h) Everyone particularly cooks and saloon personnel should know how to use all fire fighting
equipment well.
i) When in galley if your clothes catch fire use the blanket and roll on the ground.

Paint room/store
a) Paint is highly flammable.
b) Always keep paint tins/drums closed.
c) Keep the paint room clean and free from rags and jute (cotton waste).
d) No smoking in or around paint store.
e) Paint store should be well ventilated.


a) Most cabin fires are due to negligence of their occupants.

b) Do not smoke while lying in bed.
c) Extinguish the cigarette or match before throwing it away.
d) Do not throw cigarette out of the porthole.
e) Do not keep any cloth or paper on top of the table lamp.
f) All electrical appliances must be properly plugged. Make sure there are no broken or old
wires or too many plugs in one socket.

Cargo Fire

a) Do not smoke on deck.

b) Do not leave oily or paint stained rags or cotton waste lying on deck.
c) You should ask the officer on watch all the information and characteristics or the cargo,
which is being loaded and discharged, and if it does catch fire how to extinguish it.
d) welding cutting on deck is being done make sure sparks do not find their way inside the
hatch through ventilators or air pipes.
e) Wires of all electrical appliances, cargo light etc. being used on deck should be in good
condition. They should not be sparking.
f) Some ships have fixed lights inside their hatches. Make sure that there cabling is in good

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Chapter 6


A fire can occur at any time on a ship. The ship must have a definitive plan of response to
tackle such fire. The organization on board for fire fighting is discussed in this chapter.

General emergency alarm:

The general emergency alarm system shall be capable of sounding the general emergency
alarm signal consisting of seven or more short blast followed by one long blast on the ship’s
whistle or siren and additionally on an electrically operated bell or other equivalent warning
system, which shall be powered from the ship’s main supply and emergency source of
electrical power. The system shall be audible throughout all the accommodation and normal
crew working spaces.

Fire Alarm.
The fire alarm is initiated by a continuous ringing of the ship’s bell. The operation of this alarm
is automatic which can be operated manually by either pressing or depressing normal call
points. Both above alarms can be activated from bridge for altering the crew about the
emergency and also to summon them to muster station

Fire control plan and Muster list:

The fire control plan should indicate:
- Fire control station
- Fire Zones enclosed by ‘A’ class, division and ‘B’ class division.
- Details of fire extinguishing appliance provided on board
- Details of ventilating system and dampers fan control position
- Particulars of fire detection and alarm system
- Details of fire pump. Fire main and position of fire hydrants and hoses

The fire control plans are located at main deck (accommodation) near port side and starboard
side Gangway. It is very much essential to check the fire control plan once in a while, to ensure
that control Plan is properly legible and not damaged so that it serves its purpose when

Muster List:

Muster list is displayed on notice board in crew’s and officers Smoke room. Alleyway’s, Bridge,
Engine control room. This muster list describes the duties of individual officer’s crew members
to perform in case of emergency

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Muster station:

The Primary muster station and secondary muster station of various teams should be made
after due consideration of the layout of particular ship.

Alarm and Initial Response

a) Irrespective of whether the vessel is at sea, anchor or in port on hearing emergency alarm all
ships personnel muster at their emergency station with their life jacket, Immersion suit and
dressed in long sleeved boiler suit, safety shoes and safety helmet.
b) The teams are mustered by the team leader and report made to the master regarding any
missing persons or absentees
c) Depending on the emergency master gives the order to tackle the emergency to Fight fire
with the appropriate fire fighting appliances.
d) Prior to reaching the emergency station the Chief engineer rushes to the engine control room
for maximum information on emergency, Chief officer secures cargo and ballast operations
before going to muster station the watch keepers on bridge and in engine room continue on
watch till relieved, bridge messenger distributes portable radio sets to teams.
e) When firefighting is in progress, constant communication is maintained by the team; leader
with the bridge for effective control and safety of personnel in the vessel.

f) The command team is responsible for the command and control of the emergency situation.
They institute search for any person not accounted for and establish internal and external
communication and maintain safe navigation and time event record.

g) Emergency team must first muster and report to the command team and prepare equipment
as ordered and report readiness. This team is the first one to tackle the emergency.

h) The support team master at a pre determined location and advise their readiness to command
team and emergency team on walkie talkie. They provide support to the emergency team in
preparing survival craft, breathing apparatus, additional firefighting equipment, maintain
security patrol, boundary cooling and shut of ventilation.

i) The technical team report readiness to the command team and give status of machinery and
other emergency systems and advise if any machinery has to be shut down for safety and
attend to fixed installation if necessary.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

The following information is always available on the bridge

Communication methods available:

• Telephones including sound power telephone

• Loud hailers.
• Direct speech between Bridge and MCR
• Radio telephones including walkie talkie
• Messengers.

Methods of damage control and containment of fires

• Messengers.
• Watertight doors operated directly from bridge
• Stopping of ventilation and exhaust fans and closing of dampers
• Closing of windows and portholes in accommodation and galley
• Steering ship to right direction relative to wind for fighting the fire
• Cooling fuel tank boundary bulkheads

Methods to ensure stability

• Frequent checking change in GM due to use of water.

• Pumping and draining of fire fighting water.
• Shifting of cargo to facilitate fire fighting.
• Moving to shallow water if necessary.

Fire Parties: - Organization of fire parties are as follows:

a) In any emergency on board an Emergency Response Plan (ERP)goes into action. Under
ERP a small well-trained team tackles an emergency that may arise. The main features
of ERP are as following.
b) It defines a response to an alarm, ensure safety of life facilities, effective
communication, comply with standards procedures, selects team as required for
further tackling the emergency starts training and drill sessions. The ERP is normally
posted following locations.
c) Navigating bridge, Engine room, Crew accommodation and muster stations.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Procedures for fire fighting


• Fire alarm initiated-continuous ringing on ship’s bell.

• Crew assembled at fire station as per muster list.
• Fire parties assembles and prepares for action-as ordered from bridge master.
• Ship’s course and speed altered-as necessary to assist in fighting fire containing the fire.
• Fire pump started and ships fire main activated. Fire hoses with nozzle rigged up.
• Fire fighting initiated.

Additional Procedures in Port.

• Call the port fire brigade.

• Inform port authority
• Confirm that port fire brigade will take charge
• Port authority to inform of hazards to the dock installations
• Evacuate non-essential personnel
• Make preparation to leave port if required on own power or with help of tugs.

On board ship the general fire fighting organization is as follows:

a) Bridge is always the controlling station and master is the overall in charge.
b) Each team leader reports to the bridge and receives instructions.
c) The information to be given to the central control station is as follows:
I. Time at which the fire alarm was given
II. A position and nature of fire
III. To confirm that fire parties are assembled and fire mans outfits are available.
IV. One or more fire pumps are started and the fire main is pressurized.
V. The report on initial use of Portable fire extinguishers.
VI. The effect of fire on ships services like lighting fresh water system air-
conditioning, refrigeration systems, galley supplies, and soon. Any
person trapped in the compartment or unaccounted.

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Training and Drills: On joining the ship every individual must know his fire station and
boat station. He must familiarize himself with the general layout of the ship and with the
fire fighting appliances and life saving appliances on board.

Fire Drills

a) A fire drill must be realistic to fight fire as may be expected in actual situations.
b) Every individual must be familiar with his fire and boat station and his duties in case
of emergency.
c) One fire pump must be started and two fire hoses nozzles must be rigged up to
ensure the system working.
d) Fire mans outfit and other personal rescue equipments be checked and maintained.
e) The relevant communication should be checked established between the bridge and
all teams.
f) The operation of watertight doors, fire doors and fire dampers are checked.
g) The necessary arrangements, which may be required in future for abandonment of
ship to be checked.

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Teams and Their Duties.

The teams are formed as per pattern given blew depending on the total number of personnel
borne on board of a particular ship.

Command team : Master-Overall in charge

3rdOfficer : Assistant
Radio Officer : Communication/Records
Helmsman : Steering
ER Rating : Messenger

Emergency Team

Chief Officer : Leader

4th Engineer : Assistant
Petty Officer : As directed
Seaman : As directed
ERR : As directed
Saloon Crew : As directed

Support Team:

2nd Engineer : Leader

2nd Officer : Assistant
Petty Officer : As directed
Seaman : Do-
ERR : Do-
Saloon Crew : Do-

Technical Team:

Chief Engineer : Leader

3rd Engineer : Assistant
Electrical Officer : As directed
ERR : As directed
: Do-
Saloon Crew : Do-

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First Aid Team:

Second Officer : Leader

Chief Cook : Assistant
Second Cook : As directed
G.S. : As directed

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Knowledge of firefighting arrangement


Basic Principles

Considering that fire prevention is far more effective and wiser alternative it is vital to
understand the basic principles involved at the ship construction stage itself. These includes:

a) A Ship is to be divided into prescribed main vertical zones by thermal and structural
b) Accommodation spaces are to separated from the reminder of the ship by thermal
structural boundaries.
c) Use of combustible materials is to be restricted.
d) Fire must be detected in the zone of origin.
e) Fire must be contained and extinguished in the zone of origin.
f) Means of escape and access for fire fighting are to be adequately protected.
g) Fire extinguishing appliances are to be readily available.
h) The possibility of ignition of flammable cargo vapour is to be minimized.

Classification of Division

“A” class division they are divisions formed by bulkheads and decks, which comply with the

a) Constructed of steel or other equivalent material

b) Suitably stiffened
c) Capable of preventing the passage of smoke and flame to the end of one-hour standard
fire test.
d) Insulated with approved non-combustible material such that the average temperature of
the unexposed side will not rise more than 140 C above the original temperature nor will
the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180 C above the
original temperature.

Class “A- 60” 60 min

Class “A-30” 30 min
Class “A-15” 15 min
Class “A-0” 0 min

e) In accordance with the fire test procedure, a test of prototype bulkhead or deck may be
required to ensure that it meet the above requirement for integrity and temperature rise
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“B” Class Division: Divisions formed by bulkheads, decks Ceiling or linings, which comply
with the following:

a) Capable of preventing the passage of flame to the end of the first half hour of the
standard fire test.
b) Constructed of approved non-combustible material

c) Insulated with material such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will
not rise more than 140 C above original temperature at any one point, including any
joint, rise more than 225 C above the original temperature.
Class “B-15 “15 min
Class “B-0” 0 min

“C” Class Divisions: Constructed of approved non-combustible materials for bulkheads,

ceiling and linings (not required to possess any resistance to either flame or smoke)
however, use of combustible veneers are permitted within regulations.

Means of escape
Stairways and ladders shall be so arranged as to provide from all accommodation’s
spaces and from spaces in which the crew is normally employed, other than machinery
spaces, ready means of escape to the open deck and hence to the lifeboats and life rafts.
In particular the following general provisions shall be compiled with:
a) At all levels of accommodations there shall be provided at least two widely
separated means of escape from each restricted space or group of spaces.
b) Below the lowest open deck, the main means of escape shall be a stairway and the
second escape may be a trunk or a stairway.
c) Above the lowest open deck the means of escape shall be stairways or doors to an
open deck or a combination thereof.
d) Exceptionally the Administration may dispense with one of the means of escape, due
regard being paid to the nature and location of spaces and to the numbers of persons
who normally might be quartered or employed there.
e) No dead-end corridor is a corridor or part of a corridor from which there is only one
escape route.
f) If a radiotelegraph station has no direct access to the open deck, two means of access
to such station shall be provided. One of these may be a porthole or window of
sufficient size or other means to the satisfaction of the Administration, to provide an
emergency escape.

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Emergency Escape door:

Except for ships of less than 1000 GRT two means of escape shall be provided. From
each machinery space of Category A. In particular, one of the following provisions shall
be complied with:

a) Two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible leading to deck, the upper
part of the space similarly separated and from which access provided to the open
deck. In general, one of these ladders shall be continues fire shelter from the lower
part of the space to a safe position on the space.
b) One steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from the access is
provided to the open deck. Additionally, in the lower part of the space and in a

position well separated from the ladder a steel door shall be provided capable of
being operated from the lower part of the space to the open & close.
From machinery spaces other than those of category A, escape routes; be provided
to the satisfaction of the Administration having regard to the new and location of the
space and whether persons are normally employed in space.

Emergency fire pump:

The emergency fire pump is to be capable of supplying two satisfactory jets of water
through the available hoses and nozzles and have a capacity not less than 40 % of the total
required capacity of the fire pumps and in any case not less than 25 m3 /hour , whether
electrically or diesel powered the emergency fire pump should be situated so that it will
not be readily affected by smoke or fire from the space containing the main fire pumps .if
diesel driven .the power sources should be capable of readily started by hand down to an
ambient temperature of 0 C .The fire pump should be arranged so that a fire in any one
compartment will not put all the required pumps out of action ,this is achieved by
positioning emergency fire pump outside the engine room.

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Automatic detection is by electrical Fire Alarm Control Panel consisting of:

• Smoke Detectors placed in different parts of ship
• Heat Detectors placed in different parts of ship

A fire detector is a device that gives a warning when fire occurs in the area protected by the
device/fire detector .whenever fire starts, it produces variety of environmental changes ,that can
be used to detect its presence .Human senses ,like smell, sight and touch ,are the best detectors
but they are very unreliable due to the need of frequent rest and relaxation .Also, due to the
development of unmanned ship ,it is necessary to have automatic fire detection system for
machinery spaces, accommodation and for cargo spaces so that same is detected at the earliest in
order to have its effect minimum. If the detection of fire is delayed, then a small fire may grow
into a large fire and its effect is catastrophic

There are three types of detectors. They are:

a) Smoke detector
b) Heat detector
c) Flame detector

Smoke Detector

a) Purpose to detect smoke present in the compartment

There are two types of smoke detectors:

1. Ionization smoke detectors.
2. Photo electric smoke detectors.

1) Ionization smoke detector:

Smoke detector using ionization principle provide somewhat faster response to high
energy (open flaming) fire, since these produce large number smaller Smoke particles.
An ionization smoke detector has small amount radioactive material which ionizes the air
in the sensing chamber, thus rendering it conductive and permitting a current flow
through the air between two charged electrodes.
This gives the sensing chamber an effective electrical conductance. When smoke particles
enter the ionization area, they decrease. the conductance of the air by attaching
themselves to the ions, causing reduction in mobility. when the conductance in less than a
pre-determined level, the detector responds

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2) Photo Electrical smoke detector

There are two types:

• Light Obscuration:
It consists of light source light beam collimating system and a photo sensitive
device. When smoke particles enter the Light beam this light reaching the photo
sensitive device is reduced, imitating the alarm

• Light Scatter Type:

The detector comprises of the following parts:

a) Base standard with the neon lamp
b) Alarm and control circuit
c) Detector heads with flash lamp and photo electric call
When the smoke is present in the container, light is scattered around the barrier on to
the photocell and on alarm is triggered.

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Heat detector:
Purpose: To detect heat created by fire in the compartment.
Heat actuated fire detector sense the heat of fire, in this,
there are two types of detectors

A. Fixed Temperature Detectors.

B. Rate of rise of temperature Detectors

Fixed temperature Detector:

A fixed temperature detectors Initiates fire alarm when the temperature of the device reaches a
present value. Fixed temperature detector differs in their design and how they function.
The common types heat detectors are bimetallic, fusible metal and liquid expansion type

Bimetallic type:
Metal have different co-efficient of thermal expansion .When two metals having different co-
efficient of thermal expansion are bonded together and then heated, differential expansion
causes bending or flexing towards the metal having lower expansion rate .This action is utilised to
close a normally a open alarm circuit to activate the alarm .These detectors are generally of two
types the bimetal strip and coil type

Fusible Metal: A fusible metal is one that melts at some present temperature. In afire detector, a
fusible metal part is used to hold back a movable switch contact, when the fusible part melts, the
contact moves to close the circuit and sound the alarm


It is not of resetting type to put the system into operation fused metal has to be replaced

Liquid expansions:

Liquid expansion device is similar in operation to fusible metal devices.

this type ,a breakable glass bulb is partly filled with liquid .An air space is left above the liquid ,As
the temperature rises, the liquid expands if the temperature continues to rise the liquid expands
further ,resulting ,in increase in pressure inside the bulb ,At a preset temperature the bulb burst
and initiates alarm by closing the contact in alarm circuit
Dis –Advantage
The bulb Must be replaced to put back detection system again into operation.

Rate of rise temperature detectors:

They are actuated when the temperature increases faster than preset value. Rate of rise detectors
sense temperature changes rather than the temperature itself

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1.Slow rise in temperature will not activate the alarm
2. It can be used in low temperature areas as well as high temperature areas
3.It Usually responds more quickly than fixed temperature devices
4. self resetting type

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The combination of fixed temperature and rate of rise detector:

Fixed temperature detector will not initiate an alarm until the detector temperature reaches pre-
set operating temperature .Thus fixed temperature detector will not activate alarm immediately
when a fire breaks out .Hence in most of the cases fixed temperature detector and rate of rise
detector are used together ,Here , alarm is activated when the temperature rises slowly but
continuously the rate of rise device may not be activated but fixed temperature device will initiate
an alarm

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Flame Detectors:

Flame consists of three parts, namely infra red rays, visible light and ultra violet rays,Infrared rays
and ultra violet rays are not visible to naked eye.Like light ,flame also travels in the form of electro
magnetic vanes ,which is called electro radition .The infrared rays radition and ultra violet rays can
also be used to detect fire or combustion .Visible light is not used for detection of fire or
combustion as the flame detector can not differentiate between visible light of fire and from
other source.Hence invisible infrared rays and ultra violet rays radition only used to detect fire or
combustion .These infra red radition and ultra violet radition have particular frequency
(25hz).Infrared flame detector lense/filter unit allow only infrared rays to pass through and focus
on photo electric cell .The signal from cell goes to amplifier unit and time delay unit and before
passing into alarm circuit .This time delay unit minimise the incidence of false alarms due to
heating elements and other naked flames like from match sticks flame or lighting to tourches for
firing boiler ,or flames from blowlamp

Advantage :

1. The combustion products need not reach the detector like heat and flame detector like
heat and flame detector like heat and flame detector like heat and flame detector in order
to activate the alarm.
2. Useful in open space
3. Very quick in detection


1.The Presence of smoke can reduce the effectiveness of the detector as smoke give mask over
the flame.

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Automatic sprinkler System:

They are automatic fire detection, alarming and extinguishing system. The system consists of
pressurised pipes filled with number of sprinkler heads, which are so arranged that every part of
each space requiring protection in adequately covered. Each head has glass or quartzite bulb
which retains a diaphragm seal at the outlet of the water pipe. This bulb is partially filled with a
special fluid so arranged that rise in temperature in the concerned compartment will cause the
liquid to expand .when the liquid has expanded and entirely filled the space, the bulb ,being
unable to withstand further pressure ,bursts, water pressure forces diaphragm out and water flow
from the sprinkler. The usual temperature at which bulb burst is at 68 C or 93 C and each sprinkler
cover area of 12m2.As the pressure drops, a sea water pump starts automatically
Action Activated by Detector:
1. It will activate visual and audible alarm in entire accommodation and engine room space
2. It will indicate Zone where fire Occurred in fire indicator panel at control station and in
3. It will automatically close all fire doors in accommodation to contain fire
4. It will automatically shut –off accommodation ventilation system
5. It will mobilize entire team for fire investigating /fighting

Choice of fire detector for and various Zones:

It depends on:
1.Fire risk of the compartment.
2.Area to be protected.
Volume and height of the compartment

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Following detectors are used for various places on board ship:

Cargo Space: Smoke detector photo electric type
Engine Room: Smoke detector ionization
Purifier room: Heat detector type
Engine control room: Heat detector type
Accommodation: Smoke detector ionization
Galley: Heat detectors type
Bridge and other: Heat detector type

Automatic Fire alarm:

1. It should be capable of immediate operation at all time

2. It should be provided with two source of power supply. Main and emergency with
automatic charge over switch.
3. Detector and normally operated call points should initiate alarm.
4. In passenger ship detectors grouped deck wise and by fire –zone, clearly marked on panel

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


Fires have been classified into four types namely A, B, C, D and E fire:

Fire are of four types namely class A, B, C. and D fires

Class of Fire Material Examples

Paper, Coal, Trees, Wood, Furniture Etc
A Carbonaceous Material
B Liquid fuel Petrol, Fuel, Oil, Lubricating Oils, Spirits, Paints,
C Gaseous Coat Gas, Methane, Chlorine Gas, Ammonia Etc.
D Metallic Copper, Zinc, Aluminium, Iron, Magnesium

E Electrical Old Wiring, Electric Motors, Transformers or

Electrically Operated Equipments



Examples of such fires are bedding clothing cleaning rags, wood canvas rope and paper fires.

• Cooling by large quantities of water or use of fire extinguisher containing water

is very important to fight fires of such ordinary material, Cooling the source of
fire and
• surrounding area should continue long enough to prevent any possibility of re-
• c)Combustion occurs with formation of glowing members. Water in the form of
jet or spray is the best way to fight such fires.


Class B fires or liquid fuel fire: - Foam Is an efficient agent for fighting most liquid fuel
‘firs. This method is also called smothering. Foam is directed in the form of a jet against any
vertical surface adjacent to the fire to build up an unbroken smothering blanket. The

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

principle is not to allow fresh air to the liquid/oil fire and if oxygen can be sufficiently
reduced, the fire will extinguish. The foam forms a coating over liquid

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burning fuel, which besides limiting the supply of air also slows down, or stops forming of
flammable fuel vapor. Liquid fuel fire or “class ‘B’ fires can also be fought by a method
called “STARVATION” i.e. cutting of the fuel supply to the scene of fire by draining of fuel
from burning tank, by closing the concerned fuel supply valve or by stopping the fuel
pump. If the fuel line is leaking from a flange join or Is holed.


Class C fire or gas fires/Liquified petroleum gas fires where possible such fires are
extinguished by stopping the gas flow. If the flow of gas cannot be stopped, then the
best way may be to cool and control the effect of radiant heat by water spray.
In order to reach and close the valve controlling the flow of gas. It may be necessary to
extinguish flames from small leaks In It ‘vicinity. In this case dry Chemical powder
extinguisher should be used.
Water jets should never be used directly into a liquefied petroleum gas fire. Also,
foam cannot and will not extinguish such fires.


CLASS D FIRES OR METAL FIRES. Such fires can be extinguished by Powdered Graphite,
Powdered Talc, Soda Ash Limestone and Dry Sand. The powder mixtures are directed on such
fires under pressure (mostly CO2 In Portable extinguishers.)

Electrical equipment fires. Such fires may be class A, C, D this may be caused by short circuit,
over heating or the spreading of a fire elsewhere. The Immediate action should be to de-
energies the equipment (i.e. switch off supply from the immediate switch or junction Box or
from main switchboard). Then non-conducting agents such as carbon dioxide, or dry
chemical powder should be used to extinguish the fire.

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Standard Fire-hoses should be of approved non-perishable material. The hoses should be
sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be
required to be used. Their length, in general, is not to exceed 18 m.

Each hose should be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings. Fire-hoses, together
with any necessary fittings and tools, should be kept ready for use in conspicuous positions
near the water service hydrants or connections.

For vessel less than 150 GT, one hose should be provided for each hydrant. In addition, one
spare hose should be provided onboard.

Vessel equal or greater than 150 GT should be provided with fire hoses the number of which
should be one for each 30 m length of the ship and one spare, but in no case less than three in
all. Unless one hose and nozzle are provided for each hydrant in the ship, there should be
complete interchangeability of hose couplings and nozzles.

At interior locations in vessels carrying more than 36 passengers, the fire hoses are to be
connected to the hydrants at all times.

The most common being constructed from synthetic woven textiles, bound with rubber and
coated with P.V.C. these hoses are strong, not affected by oils, most chemicals, mildew and
extreme of climate. The male coupling is attached to the hydrants and female coupling to the
nozzle. These coupling to the nozzle. These coupling are instantaneous type, means just push
and gets engaged.

The fire hoses should be washed with fresh water and dried. If not properly dried, the trapped
moisture cause mildew and possibly resulting in failure under pressure. In addition, heat and
sea water tend to weaken the hose.

The fire hoses should be inspected visually each week every hose on board should be pressure
tested monthly, through actual use under the pressure required to produce a substantial water

Fire hoses shall have a length of at least 10 m, but not more than:

• 15 m in machinery spaces;
• 20 m in other spaces and open decks; and
• 25 m for open decks on ships with a maximum breadth in excess of 30 m.

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Racking and storage of hose:

1, Check the hose to make sure it’s completely drained. Wet hoses should not be racked.

2. check female coupling for its rubber gasket

3. Hose should always be coupled with hydrant and nozzle connected to hose. In passenger ship
at least one fire hose for each of the hydrants and these hoses to be used only for fire fighting
or testing the fire extinguishing apparatus at fire drill and surveys.


Standard nozzle sizes are 12 mm, 16 mm or 19 mm, or as near thereto as possible, so as to

make full use of the maximum discharge capacity of the fire pump(s)

• For accommodation and service spaces, the nozzle size need not exceed 12 mm.
• The size of nozzles used in conjunction with a portable fire pump need not exceed
• All nozzles should be of an approved dual-purpose type (i.e. spray/jet type incorporating
a shut-off.
• Note:

The approximate discharges in m3 /hour, (which for practical purposes may be considered
equivalent to tonnes/hour), through well designed plain nozzles of 12 mm, 16 mm and 19 mm
for pressure drops of 2.1, 2.5, 2.7, 3.1 and 4 bars are given in the following table:

Pressure discharge for various nozzle diameters m3/hour

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Where dual purpose nozzles are provided, they should be capable of a performance in the plain
jet setting as indicated above, without undue spread, and have a throw of at least 12 m. The
spray setting should produce a reasonably

fine spray, which can be arranged to form a curtain, behind which, it would be possible to
approach a fire. An acceptable diameter of the cone of spray would be 5 m at a distance of 2 m
from the end of the nozzle.

Mobile Apparatus:

Mobile fire extinguisher is mounted on trolley and can be moved from one place to near seat of
fire. Most commonly used mobile fire extinguisher are:

1) Carbon–di-oxide
2) Dry chemical powder with propelling gas
3) Foam making equipment
4) Foam extinguisher

Machinery space of category A containing internal combustion machinery space shall be

provided with:
In each such approved foam type fire extinguisher each of at least 45 ltr. Capacity or equivalent
sufficient in number to enable foam or its equivalent to be directed on to any part of the fuel
and lubricating oil pressure system, gearing and other fire hazards. In addition, sufficient
portable extinguisher and located in such a way that no point in the space is more than 10 m
walking distance from extinguisher

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Approved foam fire extinguisher each at least 45 ltr. capacity or equivalent sufficient in number
to enable foam or its equivalent to be directed on any part of the pressure lubricant system,
engine, or associated gearing and any other fire hazards. above protection is not required if
space is protected by a fixed fire fighting extinguishing system.

Carbon di oxide:

These contain only pressurised carbon dioxide gas and therefore leave no residue. They are
suitable for use on fires involving burning liquids (Class B), and electrical fires, such as of large
computer equipment, so are practical in offices. CO2 works by suffocating the fire and does not
cause damage to the electrical items or cause the system to short circuit therefore suitable for
server rooms and factories. However, CO2 extinguishers get very cold during discharge, and
those that are not fitted with double-lined, frost-free swivel horns may cause fingers to freeze
to the horn during deployment. Fires can quickly re-ignite once the CO2 has dissipated into the
atmosphere, so they do not offer post-fire security.

Dry chemical powder:

▪ The extinguishing powders used in the extinguishing effect of the powder is mainly by
inhibition (chain reaction breaking) and effective mainly against fires in flammable liquid, gases
and electrical equipment.

DCP extinguishing systems are highly efficient, quick-acting extinguishants. The sudden
extinguishing effect of the powder cloud is caused by the suffocation effect and the
anticatalytic effect, a chemical intervention into the combustion process. Extinguishing powders
mainly consist of non-poisonous inorganic salts mixed with waterproofing and pouring agents.
They are used for fires with solid, liquid or gaseous substances and for metal fires, thus, they
are used for fire classification A, B, C and D.

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Portable fire extinguisher

Portable fire extinguishers are for immediate use in the early stages of a fire. They should not
be expected to deal with large fires since they have a limited duration of use and capacity.
The capacities of portable extinguisher vary from 9 Litres to 13.5 litres. The choice of portable
fire extinguisher, which is to be used for a particular risk, is to be decided in relation to the
nature of the fire anticipated. Portable fire extinguishers are located in conspicuous positions
where they can be readily seen by persons following the escape route. They are sited near to
room exits and in corridors and stairways. A portable extinguisher is stored near places
containing major fire risk. Spare charges are provided for each type of extinguisher.
Every portable extinguisher is marked to indicate:
a) Name of manufacturer
b) Type of fire on which the extinguisher is suitable
c) Type and quantity of extinguishing medium
d) Approval details
e) Instructions for use and recharge
f) Year of manufactures
g) Temperature range over which the extinguisher will operate satisfactory
h) Test pressure.

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SOLAS requirements for all types of fire extinguisher onboard:

• All of approved type and design capacity of portable extinguisher not more than 13.5
litres and not less than 9 litres.
• Spare charges for 100 % of extinguishers.
• Portable foam applicator consists of an air foam nozzle of an inductor type capable of
being connected to the fire main by a fire hose and a portable tank of at least 20 litres.
• Foam making liquid and one spare tank.
• Rate of foam 1.5 m3 / minute.
• One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space to be stowed
outside the entrance.

As per SOLAS, chapter II-2,

The number of portable fire extinguishers required by regulation 6.7 is the number required to
satisfy classification society rules and in no case less than 5 for ships of 1000 gross tonnage
and Upwards.

Points to pounder for fire extinguisher:

1. For fire extinguishers of the same type, capable of being recharged on board, the spare
charges should be provided as follows: 100% for the first 10 extinguishers and 50% for
the remaining extinguishers but not more than 60 (fractions to be rounded off to next
whole number).
2. For extinguishers which cannot be recharged by the crew, additional portable fire
extinguishers of the same quantity, type, capacity and number as determined in
paragraph a above should be provided in lieu of spare charges.
3. Instructions for recharging the extinguishers should be carried on board. Periodic
refilling of the cylinders should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. Lacking same, refill is required when the extinguishing media starts
to lose effectiveness. Partially emptied extinguishers should also be recharged. Only
refills approved for the fire extinguisher in question may be used for recharging.


• If the loss of gas from a carbon dioxide extinguisher or propellant bottle of any other
type of extinguisher exceeds by 10% of the original charge as stamped on the
extinguisher or bottle, then extinguisher or bottle should be recharged. Any extinguisher
or bottle which has excessive external corrosion should be replaced.
• In surveying the safety equipment on a vessel classification society should verify that:
o The manufacturer’s instructions for recharging extinguishers are on board;
o The extinguishers have been inspected and maintained in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions and the foregoing requirements;
o Records of inspections, maintenance and pressure tests are maintained.

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• Water Type Portable Fire extinguishers

1) Use ------------------------------Class A Fire

2) Working principle ------------------------------Cooling effect
3) Safety ------------------------------Safety pin and relief hole
4) Duration of working ------------------------------3 to 5-meter jet length for 60 to 90sec
Contain ------------------------------Co2 60 gram
5) Body ------------------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated

Water extinguishes the fire by cooling it.Water is a very important extinguishing agent
on board. It is cheap and easily available in large quantities. The water extinguishers having an
outer container filled with water and Inner container (Co2 cartridge) filled
with pressurized CO2. When the plunger pierce into the co2 cartridge, which forces the water
out of the container with pressure.

Procedure to Use
1. Identify the fire (Class A)
2. Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
3. Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
4. Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
5. Extinguish the fire

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Weekly Monthly yearly

1) Check nozzle
2) Check relief hole
3) Check safety pin in A. Check plunger
position B. Check spring • 1.pressure test at 35
4) Check exterior for C. Check gas cartridge bar before recharging
crack or any damage D. Check internal
and clean it E. Weighing the cylinder
5) Check the label are on

• Mechanical Foam Type Portable Fire extinguishers

1. Use ------------Class A, B Fire (oil, paint)

2. Working principle ------------Smothering effect
3. Safety ------------Safety pin and relief hole
4. Duration of working ------------2 to 3-meter jet length for 60 to 90sec
5. Contain ------------Co2 120 gram
Aqueous Film-Forming Foam
(AFFF) 0.5 Litres and water 8.5 litres
6. 6 Body ------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Mechanical Foam extinguishers are extinguishing the fire by removing/cutting off the
oxygen. CO2 gas is used for pushing water out of the cylinder. The pressure inside it is around
10 bars and it is enough to expel water and foam mixture out of the equipment with great

Procedure to Use
1.Identify the fire (Class A or B)
2.Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
3.Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
4.Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
5.Do not allow foam to strike on the surface of burning liquid the form to vertical walls so that foam runs down side and blanket the liquid.
7.Extinguish the fire


Weekly Monthly Yearly

1. Check nozzle
2. Check relief hole
A. Check plunger
3. Check safety pin in
B. Check spring • Pressure test at 35
C. Check gas cartridge bar before
4. Check exterior for
D. Check internal recharging
crack or any damage
E. Weighing the
and clean it
5. Check the label are
on place

• Co2 Type Portable Fire extinguishers

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

1. Use----------------------------oil, electrical, gaseous substances, type B

2. Working principle----------Smothering effect
3. Safety-------------------------Safety pin, control valve or safety valve and pressure relief
4. Duration of working------3-5-meter jet length for 25to 30sec
5. Contain-----------------------Co2 4.5kg
6. Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated. Discharge hose

This fire extinguisher used the inhibition method to stop the fire. They are always
marked in ‘Black’ and this provides distinction to them. They are usually used in the
galley, Bridge and engine roam spaces.

Procedure to Use
1. Identify the fire (Class B)
2. Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
3. Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
4. Remove the safety pin direct the hose at the base of the fire
5. If the fire is on electrical equipment switch-off current
6. Careful of direction of wind


Weekly Monthly Yearly

1. Check hose outlet and
2. Check safety pin in
• Pressure test at 210
position A. Weighing the cylinder
kg/cm2 before
3. Check exterior for if 10% less, send to
crack or any damage shore
and clean it
4. Check the label are on

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

• Dry Chemical Powder Type Fire Extinguishers

1. Use----------------------------Class A, B, C, D and Electrical

2. Working principle----------Smothering effect
3. Safety-------------------------Safety pin and relief hole
4. Duration of working------3-4-meter jet length for 20sec
5. Contain-----------------------Inner shell: Co2 200mg Outer shell:4.5Kg of DCP
6. DCP Powder= Sodium Bicarbonate Magnesium Stearate
6.Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated

Procedure to Use
1.Identify the fire
2.Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
3.Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
4.Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
5.Co2 will escape to main shell and push out powder in the form of FOG
6.Extinguish the fire
7.Careful of wind direction

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


Weekly Monthly Yearly

1. Check hose outlet A. Check internally • 1/3 of total number of
and clean B. Check for chocking extinguishers should punt
2. Check safety pin in of powder into operation for evaluation
position C. It must be inverted of satisfactory performance
3. Check exterior for once in a month to
crack or any avoid chocking
damage and clean D. Weight of cylinder
4. Check the label
are on place
5.Check pressure
needle on green

Fire man’s outfit:

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


Required according to SOLAS regulations Chapter II Regulation 17. “All ships shall carry at least
two fireman’s outfits complying with the requirements.”

According to SOLAS requirements the minimum number of fireman’s outfit required on board
are as follows:
1) For vessels between 500-2500 tons minimum two sets are required.
2) For vessels between 2500-4000 tons minimum three sets are required.
3) For vessels 4000 tons and above minimum four sets are required.
In addition, two fireman’s outfits shall be provided for tankers. One set contains Protective
Clothing, Boots, Gloves, Helmets, Electric Safety Lamp and Axe. However, electric safety lamp
and axe are not included in the unit.

One Complete set of fireman’s outfits include following items.

1. SCBA ( Self-contained Breathing Apparatus)

Required by the Medical First Aid Guide(MFAG) for use in accidents involving dangerous gases
where a portable oxygen apparatus is not available . A self-contained breathing apparatus is
also required by 1983 SOLAS amendments Chapter III Regulation 17. Suitable for fire fighting,
rescue work, inspection and maintenance of equipment and other related activities, especially
on board a ship

2. Fireman Suit
Required according to SOLAS regulations Chapter II Regulation 17. “All ships shall carry at least
two fireman’s outfits complying with the requirements.”
In addition, two fireman’s outfits shall be provided for tankers. One set contains Protective
Clothing, Boots, Gloves, Helmets, Electric Safety Lamp and Axe. However, electric safety lamp
and axe are not included in the unit.

3. Fireman Helmet
Fireman helmet made from the helmet shell, mask(visor), shawl, buffer layer and other
components, with characters of half-helmet design, fashionable, with anti-sharp objects impact,
anti-corrosion, heat radiation, reflective, insulation.

4. Fireman Rubber Boots

Water proof rubber construction with cloth lining.

5. Explosion Proof Light

This portable explosion proof lamp shell material use ZDL-102 aluminium alloy and molding by
die-casting, and coated with a good paint layer. Lamp case without hole, switch used reed
switch and strong magnetic structure.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

6. Fire Proof Lifeline

Combination rope of wire and nylon or hemp rope, complete with safety snap hook. Available
in 30, 40- and 50-meter lengths.

7. Fire Axe
Required with fire fighting gear by SOLAS regulation Chapter III number 17. “The axe has a pick
head with a wood or insulated handle.”

8. Fireman Safety Belt

A belt for carrying auxiliary equipment of fireman outfit, like Fire Axe, Explosion-proof Lamp,
Fire-proof Lifeline,
The SOLAS 2014 amendments and the Fire Safety Systems (FSS) Code adopted by IMO
Resolutions MSC.338(91) and MSC.339(91) will enter into force on 1 July, 2014, introducing
revised and new requirements for fireman’s outfit breathing apparatus and two-way portable
radiotelephone apparatuses.

Breathing apparatus
▪ Changes to SOLAS regulation II-2/10.10.1 and the FSS Code mean that: “Compressed air
breathing apparatus shall be fitted with an audible alarm and a visual or other device which
will alert the user before the volume of the air in the cylinder has been reduced to no less
than 200 litres.”
▪ This applies to ship’s constructed (keel laid) on or after 1 July, 2014. Ships constructed (keel
laid) before 1 July, 2014 must comply no later than 1 July, 2019.
▪ New SOLAS regulation II-2/, relating to ‘Onboard training and drills’ requires that:
“An onboard means of recharging breathing apparatus cylinders used during drills shall be
provided or a suitable number of spare cylinders shall be carried on board to replace those
▪ This applies to all ships on or after 1 July, 2014.

Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatuses

▪ New SOLAS regulation II-2/10.10.4 requires that: “For ships constructed on or after 1 July 2014,
a minimum of two two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus for each fire party for fire-
fighter’s communication shall be carried on board.
▪ Those two-way portable radiotelephone apparatuses shall be of an explosion-proof type or
intrinsically safe. Ships constructed before 1 July, 2014 shall comply with the requirements of
this paragraph not later than the first safety equipment survey after 1 July, 2018.”

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Fire blanket:

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Fires in small utensils containing cooking fats can be extinguished by smothering with Asbestos
blanket or door mat (which has been wetted first).
The Fire Blanket is a highly flame-retardant blanket that can be used either to extinguish a small
fire directly or to wrap around a person to safely escape a burning home or building. The
optional high visibility fluorescent fire blanket bag is a completely hemmed nylon, reinforced
vinyl bag with a carry handle that features 4 mounting holes with brass grommets plus a hook
and loop closure that opens in one quick motion.
In other words, we can define it as:

fire blanket is a piece of fire extinguishing equipment or gear designed to extinguish A small
fire or any fire at its initial stage. It is a blanket-like sheet typically made of wool or specially
woven fiberglass fabric treated with flame-resistant chemicals. Some old models used to be
made of asbestos, but are no longer produced as the use of such material poses significant
health risk

Prevention of Fire on Ships:

Since fire on board is very dangerous and Shore Professional Fire Brigade cannot be call at sea,
fire prevention is vital on ships. Fire fighting arrangement to be well maintained on ships. Fire
prevention included regular fire drills on board with proper training.


1. No oils, oily rags and wastes should allow in the vicinity of the heat source such as
the places of (Boiler, Heaters and M/E exhaust system). They are liable to ignite
2. No oil leak should be tolerated such as from oil tank’s trays and drip pan, fuel and lube oil
separator’s trays, fuel and lube oil valves, oil burners and piping connection.
3. Tank top and bilges should be cleaned and hose down frequently. Cleaning could be done
with some chemical if oil is accumulated considerably.
4. Tank tops and bilges should be painted white and these place illuminations to be provided.

Heat Sources

1. No naked lights and smoking should be allowed inside the engine room and near the
2. Paint should be stored in special well ventilated stored away from machinery space or
heat source and automatic water sprinkler system to be provided as per regulation.
3. Welding practice should be done only in workshop and away from combustible material
storing spaces carefully, then all the protective cloths to be put on and earthing should be

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Fire Fighting Appliances

Should be kept in working order:

1. All portable extinguishers and semi portable one to be ensured in good working order
and properly placed inside the machinery space and always made handy.
2. Fixed fire fighting installation should be test once a week and its maintenance to be
done periodically such as compress air blowing of lines and discharge nozzle and alarm
testing and function testing. The contents inside the unit to be weighed or checked
3. Emergency fire pump should be kept in good working order and test run to be done
weekly without any failure.
4. Fire detection, monitoring alarm system to be tested to weekly without any failure.
5. All fire hydrants and their connection should be kept in very good order also to the
sandboxes and scoop.
6. Fire men outfits two numbers should be also kept in good order and handy at all time.
7. International shore connection should be placed at proper location and to be in good
8. All engine room members should be properly educated about fire fighting appliances
and their operation.
9. Fire drill should be carried out at least once a month.

Action When Fire Break Out on Ships

Small Fire

Find the origin of fire, inform to chief engineer and all engine room member, restrict fire to
prevent spread out if possible and extinct it on the spot with portable extinguisher or by
another means. (In practice, as soon as, noticing of the break out of fire, the fire alarm or
emergency alarm must be activated before taking any action.)

Big Fire

1. Sound fire alarm system.

2. Evacuate all ship crew, count them and assign as per muster list.
3. Remote stopping of all fuel pump to be done.
4. Remote closing of all quick closing valves to be done.
5. Remote closing of skylight door and engine all watertight door to be done.
6. Remote closing of all engine room ventilation damper to be done.
7. Prime mover and all machinery to be stopped.
8. All engine room entry and exit door to be closed perfectly.
9. All ventilation fan in engine room to be stopped manually.
10. Fixed fire fighting installation system to be operated by C/E or 2/E in a very proper
manner. See Operation of CO2 Flooding System.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



Fixed Fire Fighting Installations on Board Ships

In a ship fire can take place anytime and anywhere. Initially the fire may be minor but it can
convert into a major fire. This may be a result of carelessness or failure to appreciate and
adopt correct fire fighting techniques. To meet such eventualities every ship is fitted with
fixed fire fighting installations, which are described in this chapter.


In Engine Room, Pump Room, Cargo holds, control Room and paint store.


Engine Room, Cargo Holds, Boiler Room, Pump Room, Paint Store.


Deck (Tanker), Heli deck, and Open spaces.


For interrupting the chemical reaction in metals, gas fires, electrical and electronic
equipment fires. Used as fixed fire fighting system in GAS (LPG) carriers.

Fire Main System.

a) Ship is fitted with 2 or 3 motor driven pump fire and bilge pump diesel driven pumps as
emergency pumps at various locations.
b) Pump take suction directly from sea through sea chest.
c) Discharge of these pumps is fed in one line known as fire main line.
d) Fire main line is spread all over the ship.
e) Fire main line is connected with the hydrants all over the ship.
f) It is provided with a coupling and a valve.
g) Every fire hydrant has got a hose basket fitted at its side.
h) Hoses are kept either in a flaked manner or in rolled position in the hose basket.
i) Hoses are connected to the hydrants and nozzle is attached to the other end of the
Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


1. During fire fighting use of water must be monitored.

2. Excess water in the vessel will affect stability.
3. Pumping out of water must be done immediately as soon as fire fighting is over
4. If water is not pumped out it will lead to listing of the ship.
5. While introducing water keep in mind the equipment fitted in the compartment.


Purpose: Whenever the fire main pump cannot be started due to total power supply failure
and also diesel driven pump is not operational, then fireman is to be taken from shore!
Another vessel. Couplings and flange sizes may be different. Thus, International Shore
Coupling would need to be used.


1. Standards flange of size 64mm 132mm and 178mm.

2. Other end of coupling made as per hose size of individual vessel.
3. The L.S.C. of the two vessels connected together by four nuts & bolts with other end
connected to the ship’s hydrant.
4. Fire main pressure from shore/ship can be fed into the fire main of the vessel in distress.
5. This coupling can also be used to transfer fresh water or fuel also in emergency.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Co2, Flooding System: This is designed to fight fires in the engine room, boiler room, pump
room, control room, electrical supply room/ switch board.

In Engine Room, Pump Room, Cargo holds, control Room and paint
CO2 flooding system or central bank CO2 system is one of the common fixed fire fighting
system installed on most of the ships. It releases carbon dioxide (CO2) in bulk quantity to a
protected space (such as engine room, cargo hold, purifier room, pump room, etc.) under fire.
Smothering action of CO2 extinguishes the fire thereby preventing spreading of fire to other
parts of the ship. It consists of several CO2 cylinders located in a separate room, called CO2
room. These bottles contain CO2 in liquid state. When the fire in a protected space goes out of
control or in a situation when the fire is not able to extinguish by local fire fighting media, CO2
flooding system comes into picture. CO2 from the bottles directed via common manifold, main
valve and distribution pipe lines to nozzles through which it is released to the protected space
for fire extinction. Due to safety reasons, the CO2 flooding system is manually released from a
release cabinet located outside the protected space.

Why CO2 is used?

Carbon dioxide is the fire extinguishing medium used in CO2 flooding system. It is an effective
fire suppression agent applicable to a wide range of fire hazards. It has a high rate of expansion
which allows it to work fast. When applied to a fire, CO2 provides a heavy blanket of gas that
reduces the oxygen level to a point where combustion cannot occur. Since carbon dioxide is a
gas, there is no clean up associated with a system discharge. CO2, a compound of carbon and
oxygen, is a colourless gas which cause coughing to occur when inhaled. At higher
concentrations it is acutely toxic. Low- and high-pressure CO2 is used for the fire protection of
machinery spaces, pump rooms, cargo holds, paint stores and galley exhaust ventilation ducts
on board ships.

There are several advantages for the CO2 as a fire fighting medium. They are:

▪ Density is 1.5 times higher than air. So, CO2 settles down and displaces air.
▪ It can be easily liquefied and bottled.
▪ 20% – 30% CO2 concentration extinguishes fire by smothering
▪ Non-corrosive
▪ Non- conductor of electricity
▪ No residues left after application
▪ No deterioration with age

Similarly, there are some disadvantages also, such as:

▪ CO2 is highly asphyxiating. 9% concentration causes unconsciousness within minutes

▪ Very little cooling effect. So, there is danger of re-ignition.
▪ When discharged, solid CO2 particles present and generate sufficient static electricity to
produce spark.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Explanation of CO2 Flooding System

As mentioned earlier CO2 flooding system floods the protected space under fire with carbon
dioxide, which displaces air, thereby removing one leg of fire triangle for the extinction of fire.
CO2 flooding system consist of main CO2 bottles, common manifold, master valve or
distribution valve and distribution pipe lines with nozzles as

Main CO2 bottles contain carbon dioxide in liquid state with a pressure of 56 bar at 20 degree
Celsius. Pressure of CO2 at 25 and 30 degree Celsius are 64 bar and 71 bars respectively. So, it is
important to keep the temperature of CO2 bottles low for limiting the pressure inside bottles.
CO2 from the main bottle is released by a ‘CO2 release cabinet’ as shown in the figure. As soon
as the release cabinet door is opened, a micro switch is activated. The micro switch will ensure
the activation of CO2 warning alarms and ventilation shut off. CO2 release cabinet or release
box consist of two pilot CO2 cylinders or bottles containing CO2 gas inside. The pressure of CO2
inside these pilot bottles is same as that of main CO2 bottles. Only quantity of gas is different.
For releasing CO2 to the protected space, one of the pilot bottle valves is opened. Now CO2
reaches two valves marked 1 and 2. First valve 1 is to be opened. Then CO2 passes through a
non return valve and opens pneumatically operated master valve. Now master valve is opened.
Next, open valve 2 in the release cabinet, which supply CO2 to main CO2 bottle head assembly
through a non return valve and ‘time delay unit’. Function of the time delay unit is explained
below. Head assembly consist of a pressure operated cylinder valve. This pressure operated
cylinder valve prevents CO2 from bottle coming to the common manifold. As CO2 reaches the
head assembly from pilot bottle, pneumatic actuator in the head moves and opens the pressure
operated cylinder valve. Then CO2 from main bottle escapes to the common manifold via non
return valve as shown. Each of the main CO2 cylinder have a head assembly and non return
valve. The pilot CO2 line is connected to all these heads. All the CO2 from the main bottles now
release to common manifold. Since the master valve is already open before, CO2 from manifold
is released to the protected space through distribution pipe lines and nozzles.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

There are two CO2 release cabinets. One is local release cabinet and is located in the CO2 room
itself. One more remote release cabinet is used, which is located in a remote place such as fire
control station. This facilitates operation of CO2 flooding system from a remote place other
than CO2 room. Both release cabinets are connected in parallel and non return valves fitted in
the lines prevent back flow of CO2. Also, two pilot CO2 bottles are placed in the release cabinet.
Only one is sufficient for the operation of both master valve and CO2 bottle head assembly.

CO2 flooding system explained here protects only a single space. There are systems which can
protect multiple spaces such as engine room and pump room together. In that case separate
release cabinets will be there for engine room and pump room. Main CO2 bottles are shared for
engine room and pump room according to the volume of the spaces.

Time Delay Unit in CO2 Flooding System

CO2 from the pilot bottles in release cabinet reaches main CO2 bottle head assembly through a
time delay unit. Function of this time delay unit is to delay the supply of CO2 to the head
assembly for 60 – 90 seconds. In other words, when valve 2 in the release cabinet is opened,
CO2 reaches only after 60 to 90 seconds to the head assembly. Reasons for providing such a s
delay in CO2 flooding system are given below.

1. As soon as CO2 release cabinet opens, alarm is sounded in the protected space. A time
delay of 60 to 90 seconds gives sufficient time for any personnel in the protected space to
escape, even after the operation of both valves in the release cabinet.
2. If CO2 is released from main bottles to the common manifold before opening master valve,
there may be difficulty in opening master valve because of the bulk CO2 pressure acting on
it. Because of the time delay, positive opening of the master valve is ensured before
releasing CO2.
3. Regulation per International Code for Fire Safety System (FSS Code) says, “The pre-
discharge alarm can be automatically activated (e. g. by opening the release cabinet door).
The alarm shall operate for the length of time needed to evacuate the space, but in no case
less than 20 seconds before the medium is released.”

The time delay can be achieved in different ways. Out of these, two types of time delay unit are
commonly used in CO2 flooding system on board ships. One is electrical type, which has an AC
220 V power supply, a pressure switch, timer and a solenoid valve as shown in the figure below.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

source is
for the
valve is

Power source is always available for the unit. Solenoid valve is normally
in closed position. When CO2 from pilot cylinder (CO2 release cabinet) reaches the time delay
unit, the pressure acts on the pressure switch. This closes the pressure switch. But the timer
allows power supply to the solenoid only after 60-90 seconds, the timing can be adjusted as
required. As soon as the specified time is reached, solenoid becomes energize and the solenoid
valve will open. This allow passage of CO2 to the pressure operated cylinder valve of main
bottle. Normally a bypass valve is also fitted across this time delay unit which can be used in
case the unit goes defective.
Another type of time delay unit uses an empty bottle fitted just before the head assembly. This
empty bottle fills first before supplying pressurised CO2 to the head assembly. This is more
reliable since there is no electrical components involved. shows two-time delay units, one for
engine room and the other for purifier room.

CO2 Main Bottle Head Assembly

Head assembly mainly consist of a cylinder valve, which is operated by a pneumatic actuator
and linkages as shown in the figure below. CO2 from the release cabinet reaches the pneumatic
actuator through time delay unit and actuator operates the cylinder valve to release CO2 from
main bottles to the common manifold.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

The pressure operated cylinder valve shown in the figure above can also be manually operated
by use of a lever inserted into the top of the valve. Free space above the valve should be
minimum 200 mm. The closing nut is to be screwed tight to the valve outlet during transport
and storing of cylinders with valve fitted. The cylinder valve is always supplied with a cotter pin
or split pin as shown for securing cylinder after filling and during any maintenance on the CO2
flooding system.

Bursting Disc in CO2 Flooding System

The pressure of CO2 inside the bottle depends on the temperature of the surroundings. As
temperature increases, pressure also increases. Therefore, to safeguard against abnormally
high pressures inside the bottle, a bursting disc is provided on the head assembly as shown in
the figure above. When the CO2 pressure inside the bottle increases to about 200 bar, bursting
disc burst and releases CO2 to the CO2 room. Pressure inside the bottle build up to such a high
value means there is a fire inside CO2 room. Here, CO2 released from the bottle itself
extinguishes fire inside the room. For better understanding have a look at the pressure-
temperature relationship at different filling densities from the graph below.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

From this graph, pressure of CO2 at different temperatures can be identified.

Function of Pressure Switch, Pressure Gauge in Manifold:

Pressure switch is fitted in the common manifold to identify any leakage of CO2 gas from
bottles to the manifold. The pressure switch activates warning alarm for the leakage. Similarly,
pressure switch will activate alarms while actual operation of CO2 flooding system. A pressure
gauge is also fitted on the manifold to read any gas pressure inside. A valve for pressure testing
of the system is also connected to the pressure gauge connection as shown in CO2 line

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Why Relief Valve is Required?

There is a relief valve fitted in the manifold of CO2 flooding system. Function of the relief valve
is to release the CO2 pressure in the manifold to the atmosphere outside CO2 room. Such a
situation arises when CO2 get released from the bottle and master valve is still closed. Set
pressure of relief valve is about 180 bar. Again, set pressure varies with the system design and
regulations. A relief valve is required for two

1. If the pressure of fluid in a pipe line increases beyond the designed working pressure, there
must be a pressure relief mechanism for bringing down the pressure to safe guard the
system. In the case of CO2 flooding system, CO2 will accumulate in the manifold when it is
released from the bottle and master valve is closed. Pressure of CO2 is 55 bars at 20 degree
Celsius. As CO2 takes temperature from surroundings, its pressure also increases to
dangerous levels. Since these pipes are pressure tested to 190 bar only, a relief valve is
necessary in the manifold.
2. Any pressure accumulate in the manifold may release other CO2 bottles which are intact, if
the non return valve between bottle and manifold is damaged.

What is the Purpose of Dip Tube in CO2 Extinguisher?

Whether it is portable CO2 fire extinguisher or cylinder in CO2 flooding system, a siphon tube or
dip tube is necessary inside bottle.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

The function of dip tube is to deliver liquid carbon dioxide outside the bottle. If dip tube in not
provided, CO2 evaporates from the surface while discharge taking latent heat of vaporization
and remaining liquid CO2 will freeze inside and hence failure of CO2 discharge. Therefore, it is
necessary to operate CO2 fire extinguishers in upright position.

What are the requirements of CO2 Room?

In CO2 flooding system, carbon dioxide bottles are placed in a separate room called CO2 room.
The requirements for location, accessibility, use and ventilation of CO2 storage spaces as per
IMO are:
1. Spaces for storage of cylinders or tanks for extinguishing gas should not be used for
other purposes.
2. These spaces should not be located in front of the forward collision bulkhead.
3. Access to these spaces should be possible from the open deck.
4. Spaces situated below the deck should be directly accessible by a stairway or ladder
from the open deck.
5. The space should be located no more than one deck below the open deck.
6. Spaces where entrance from the open deck is not provided or which are located below
deck are to be fitted with mechanical ventilation.
7. The exhaust duct (suction) should be led to the bottom of the space.
8. Such spaces should be ventilated with at least 6 air changes per hour.

Requirements of CO2 Flooding System

A. Discharge requirement is, at least 50% of CO2 discharge to be carried out in 1 minute
and at least 85% discharge in 2 minutes.
B. Capacity of CO2 in the system to be, 1.) 30% of the gross volume of the largest
protected cargo space, 2.) 40% of the gross volume of machinery space excluding engine
casings, 2.) 35% of the gross volume of machinery space including engine casings for
vessels GT < 20000. Total amount of CO2 cylinders depends on the highest gross volume
out of above 1,2,3 in a particular ship.
C. Safety procedures must be there against unauthorized use of the system.
D. Machinery space to be fitted with audio-visual alarm and ventilation blower trip.
E. Alarm must trigger well before operation of CO2 flooding system.
F. Permanent piping arrangements should be made.
G. Manifold, distribution piping to be pressure tested. See Pressure Testing of CO2
Flooding System below.
H. Diameter of associated pipe lines in the system should not be less than 20 mm.
I. Copper and flexible pipes are allowed between CO2 cylinder and common manifold.
J. Distribution pipes to cargo spaces should not pass through engine room.
K. All stop valves to be checked every month to ensure their working and position.
L. The CO2 flooding system installation to be checked monthly for any leakages.
M. All control valves to be tested annually.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Calculation of CO2 Required

▪ Quantity of free carbon dioxide calculation at 0.56 m3/ kg
▪ Mixing ratio of CO2 based on the volume of protected spaces to be as follows:
▪ Gross volume of engine room space including casing = 35%
▪ Gross volume of engine room space excluding casing = 40%
▪ Gross volume of purifier room space = 40%

▪ Quantity of CO2 in kg = (GROSS VOLUME x MIXING RATIO) / 0.56


1 CASING 7324 4577.5 102
2 CASING 6856 4897.14 109


Therefore, required quantity of 45 kg CO2 cylinder for engine room = 109

Note: The air reservoir in engine room space is not included in the above calculation since the
outlet of safety valve shall be led to atmosphere outside engine room

• Pressure Testing of CO2 Flooding System

Pipe Section Area Material Test

Galvanized Seamless
Low Pressure Section Branch Pipe to Nozzles Manganese Steel 7 Bar Air Blowing Test

Medium Pressure Master Valve to Main Galvanized Seamless

Section Pipe Branches Manganese Steel 80 Bar Pressure Test

CO2 Cylinder to Master Galvanized Seamless

High Pressure Section Valve Manganese Steel 190 Bar Pressure Test

Pilot Control Line Control Lines Copper Tube 58 Bar Pressure Test

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Maintenance of CO2 Flooding System

Fixed carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems should be kept in good working order and
readily available for immediate use. Maintenance and inspections should be carried out in
accordance with the ship’s maintenance plan having due regard to ensuring the reliability of the
system. The on-board maintenance plan should be included in the ship’s safety management
system and should be based on the system manufacturer’s recommendations.

▪ Alarms, Machinery trips, Door alarm, Quick closing valves, Flaps, Skylights, Ventilation fan
trips to be tested.
▪ General inspection of the installation, pipe lines to be checked.

2 Yearly
▪ Verify CO2 contents by mechanical advantage lever, ultrasonic liquid level
measurement or radioactive liquid level measurement. Equipment for measuring
CO2 content must be available on-board ships. A maximum reduction of 5% in
CO2 content may be allowed provided total CO2 quantity on board is not less
than the required amount.
▪ Blow through the system with 6-7 bar air with plastic air bags at the nozzle ends.

5 Yearly
• The servo cylinders and any remote-controlled stop valves to be tested by
opening one pilot cylinder. The main CO2 bottles must be uncoupled for this
• Spring loaded relief valves to be checked and pressure tested at 180 bar.
• Checking of HP alarms which operate with gas pressure.
• Section of CO2 which can be shut off must be tested with air at 25 bar.

10 Yearly

• CO2 bottles to be inspected internally. Siphon tube or dip tube to be checked.
Cylinders to be pressure tested at 250 bar. If permanent change in volume is
observed, those cylinders to be discarded. After 20 years of installation of CO2
flooding system, these tests to be carried out every 5 years thereafter.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

15 yearly and 5 year thereafter

• Pressure test HP pipes, stop valves to engine room, pump room, purifier room, etc.
at 190 bar (hydraulic), medium pressure pipes at 80 bar (hydraulic) and low-pressure
pipes at 7 bar air.
• After hydraulic pressure testing, lines to be blown through by dry air.
• Service chart sample used by marine engineers for CO2 flooding system on ships is
shown below. Click on the diagram to enlarge.

Procedure of Releasing CO2 to the Engine Room on Ships

1. Muster and take head count.

2. Master will take decision, depending upon the situation and as per the company policy.
3. If total CO2 flooding of engine room is to be done, master will consult with chief
4. Nearest coast guard to be informed as soon as possible.
5. Ensure proper sealing of the engine room.
6. Make sure emergency generator is running and on load. Power is required for running
emergency fire pump for boundary cooling.
7. All access doors, vent flaps, blower flaps, skylights, hatches, fire flaps, to be closed.
8. Quick closing valves to be closed.
9. Emergency stops for lube oil pumps, fuel oil pumps to be operated.
10. All machinery in engine room to be stopped.
11. Ensure all personnel vacated engine room.
12. CO2 must be released by competent engineer.
13. Break the glass and take out key for CO2 release cabinet from key box. Using local CO2
release cabinet is preferred.
14. Open the release cabinet. Audio visual alarms will sound and ventilation blower trips
will activate.
15. In the CO2 release cabinet, open pilot cylinder valve first. Now open valve 1 for master
valve first. Then open valve 2 for CO2 releasing mechanism. Co2 will be released after
60-90 seconds of time delay.
16. Now the system pressure can be checked from the pressure gauge on the manifold.
17. If CO2 is not released, then follow emergency releasing procedure. Open master valve
manually and open each CO2 main bottle by manual actuation lever.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Important Notes on CO2 Flooding System

▪ CO2 flooding is the final course of action, used only when all else has failed. Proper sealing
of the engine room is essential for effective extinction of fire. There were incidents like CO2
is released, effective smothering did not occur due to improper sealing of engine room and
fire remained unextinguished.
▪ To obtain a total flooding of engine room, about 35% by volume of CO2 is required in 2
minutes. This will reduce the oxygen content of the air in engine room to less than 15% to
extinguish the fire. At this CO2 concentration human life cannot be supported.
▪ Typically, it takes about 15-20 seconds after release of CO2 before the concentration in
engine room reaches a dangerous level.

Safety Precautions After CO2 Release

After CO2 flooding system is operated efficiently, engine room fire will extinguish by
smothering action. But before engine room entry is made or space ventilated, it is
recommended to obtain expert advice from shore. Nearest coast guard can be contacted for
getting assistance for the same.

1. The first question is, how to make sure that CO2 is actually released after the operation of
CO2 flooding system. When Co2 is released there will be a loud noise of gas escaping to the
protected space. CO2 bottles can be felt cold after releasing. Visual inspection of the
operation of, pressure operated cylinder valves also can be carried out.
2. CO2 has very little cooling effect. So, there is a danger of re-ignition of fire when engine
room is ventilated immediately. Keep the boundary cooling running to reduce the
temperature of the engine room.
3. Ventilation of engine room should not be started until it has been definitely established
that the fire has been extinguished completely, which will take several hours.
4. Engine room to be sufficiently ventilated before entering.
5. Entry to be carried out by trained personnel wearing breathing apparatus.
6. Even after fire has been extinguished completely, never bring bare flame such as candle
light or lighted cigarette into the burnt room, otherwise fire may break out again due to
explosion of combustible gases, if any.
7. In order to allow persons to get away quickly and safely in case of fire, entrances and exits
shall be always kept clear.
8. Back up team or support team to be ready in case any difficulties happen in side.
9. An attendant should be instructed to remain at the entrance of the engine room.
10. An agreed and tested system of communication to be established between attendant and
team inside engine room.
11. In case any emergency occurs to the team inside engine room, the attendant is not
supposed to enter inside before the help has arrived.
12. In the event of ventilation system fails, the personnel in the space should leave

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Foam firefighting System with MSC circ1312.


• The low expansion foam quickly blankets the fire and prevents further outbreak
• A balanced pressure proportional guarantees reliable foam mixing from 1-3 % ratio
• Foam monitors and portable applicators can be used individually or in conjunction
• Fixed foam monitors are used to fight fire from a predetermined safe distance, while
portable applicators and nozzles cover shadow areas not reachable by the monitors
• Sturdy and compact foam monitors are adjustable and can be used in two modes: jet or
• It comes in two operating options: manual or remotely controlled with hydraulics


• A cost-effective solution, keeping both installation and operational costs low

• Designed for optimal system performance
• Components delivered on modular units reduces installation cost
• Minimal and easy maintenance keeps operational cost low
• Easy operation
• Modular skid-based units provide easy installation and reduced footprint
• Corrosion resistance component materials and coatings provide a robust, low
maintenance system
• For services purposes, foam concentrate replacements are delivered worldwide
• Flexible, high quality and compliant system

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The Survitec Deck Foam Fire Extinguishing system consists of a fibre glass foam tank, foam
pump, proportioner, sturdy and compact foam monitors and portable foam applicators or foam
spray nozzles meeting the latest IMO regulations. The system can be delivered as either a
central system or independent modular skid units. In a modular design, foam tank, foam pump,
proportioner, valves and control panels can be delivered on skid units. All components are
constructed in corrosion resistant materials

The control station is suitably located outside the protected area, adjacent to the areas
protected and readily accessible and operable in the event of fire.
On deck
The monitors are located along the deck, with two monitors mounted on the poop deck. They
can be operated manually or remote hydraulically. The number and spacing of the monitors,
foam tank capacity and system pressure/capacity is dependent upon vessel type and the area
to be protected. For maximum effectiveness, a balanced pressure proportioner guarantees
reliable foam mixing. Foam applicators are provided for flexibility during fire fighting on deck
areas and to cover areas shielded from monitors.
In machinery spaces
In machinery spaces where a fixed low expansion foam system is fitted in addition to a total
flooding system, the system discharges foam through fixed foam spray nozzles. In addition,
inductor type portable foam applicators are required.
On helidecks
Survitec fixed low expansion foam system can be used for any size of helidecks and helicopter
landing areas. It can be a combination of deck integrated pop-up nozzles or fixed foam
monitors. In addition, the system consists of hose reels fitted with foam-making branch pipe
and non-collapsible hose.
Activation of the system
System is activated from control panel. It can be either an automatically controlled or a
manually operated system. For an automatic system two alternatives are available: electric
controlled and hydraulic controlled. In case of electric controlled system, valves are electrically
actuated, while foam monitors are manually operated. A hydraulically controlled system
requires a hydraulic power pack, which is usually installed in the machinery space. Valves and
monitors are then hydraulically controlled from a remote location with joystick connected to
the control cabinet.
Extinguishing fire using Deck Foam
The fire fighting foam concentrate is a collection of bubbles that consists of water, air and
special chemicals. The bubbles float on top of flammable liquids and work to extinguish
flammable liquid fires.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Firefighting foam extinguishing mechanism:

• The foam blankets on the fuel surface smothering the fi re.

• The foam blanket separates the flames/ignition source from the fuel surface.
• The foam cools the fuel and any adjacent metal surfaces.
• The foam blanket suppresses the release of flammable vapours that can be mixed with

Survitec Deck Foam system uses either Fluor protein or synthetic foam concentrates.
Depending on application, it can be alcohol resistant for polar solvent fi res or regular ones for
hydrocarbon fi res. Foam concentrates offered are MED, IMO MSC.1/Circ.1312 approved. Some
foam liquids are HOCNF and ICAO approved. Based on extreme applications, foam concentrates
can be freeze protected down to -45 °C.

System Configuration

Manual Monitor Remote hydraulic monitor

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

The Survitec Deck Foam system is predominantly designed for installation and use for open
deck areas on oil and chemical tankers. Portable foam equipment is normally used in addition
to Survitec total flooding system in enclosed spaces such as
machinery space. The system can also be installed on off shore installations for the protection
of helidecks and other open areas.
The system can be applied to:

• Cargo tank deck areas

• Tanker stern loading areas
• Tanker bow loading areas
• Helicopter facilities
• Floating storage facilities and off shore structures
• Car deck dangerous goods area

Tankers (oil and chemical)

Protection of helidecks and other open spaces

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

1.Installed to fight major B class (oil/Liquid fuel fires) in E/R, Boiler Areas, Helicopter
decks, paint store etc.
2.This system is based on “Bernoulli’s Principle.
3.A convergent – divergent nozzle is used to create partial vacuum by increasing velocity. Of
driving fluid (seawater from ships fire main system it pressures 7- 9 KG/CM2) at the neck,
thereby allowing the driven fluid (foam) to be sucked into the neck of the nozzle
and mixes the driving liquid (sea water).
1) A foam tank installed on upper deck of capacity 450-5000 Itrs.
2) Foam from Tank gets lifted into sea water line through ejector/educator.
3) Foams gets mixed in sea water line and goes to the area of oil fire through a manifold
valves and pipelines.
4) In case of E/R, the foam pipe is provided with nozzles, which helps in sucking away 02
in the fire areas, thereby increasing the smothering effect by reducing 02 content.
5) The reduction of 02 content help for expansion of the foam.
6) The expansion of foam may be as high as 1:2500 in E/R. Enclosed is restricted to 1: 150

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)


Gas Course Handout-Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



• Proven time release and capacity capabilities

• A wide range of pressure vessels for powder are available to meet the demands for
various system sizes
• Can be deployed by hand held hoses, fixed monitors, or a combination of both
• Up to 190-meter pipe and 33-meter hose for handheld pistol
• Up to 140-meter pipe for monitor
• Tested in minus 28 °C in long pipes
• Provides complete coverage to all the areas that need protection
• Powder penetrates into the smallest and even partially covered locations
• Can be installed as a central-, modular- or hybrid system


• Designed to keep material and installation costs low

• Standardised system components minimise maintenance and operational cost
• Modular units provide a flexible solution, reduce piping routes and eliminate the need
for distribution piping
• Components can be installed on skid for reduced installation time and cost


The DCP system comprises steel pressure vessel(s), cylinder banks with manifolds, distribution
valves, gas release arrangements, hose stations, monitors, pressure gauges and safety valves.
After the system is released, nitrogen gas pressurises the tank, and nozzles fitted in the bottom
fluidize the powder. When a certain pressure is achieved, the dry powder flows through the
distribution manifold to the monitor or handheld hose line.
The central system is designed as a single or twin storage pressure vessel located centrally
inside a powder room. The system can be used to discharge powder across the whole cargo
area at required capacity, or linked together; the entire capacity can be used on a single area. A
central system feeds powder from the central storage tanks to the on-deck hose stations and
The hose stations are organised in a way that all deck areas can be reached by two hose
stations. These stations have a local release arrangement inclusive with 33 metres of hose and
a powder pistol. In modular systems each hose station unit and monitor unit has its own self-
contained powder storage vessel.
The system can be remotely operated from the release boxes utilising pilot cylinders, or
manually at the dry powder unit. This ensures that there is operational flexibility.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Extinguishing fire using dry chemical powder

The Survitec DCP System utilises dry chemical powder based on Potassium Sulphate in
accordance with IMO Circ 1315. This ensure highest performance with flow capability and
extinguishing effect. The powder is mixed with additives that protect against lumping and
moisturising. The Survitec DCP System is a highly effective medium to extinguish flammable gas
fires. When powder is released directly to a fire, the extinguishing effect is caused by
suffocation and an anti-catalytic effect, a chemical intervention into the combustion process.
The dry powder is non-toxic and stable at both low and high temperatures. However, it should
be kept tightly closed and stored in a dry location in order to prevent absorption of moisture.

Standard Configuration)

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



The new IMO regulation requires the powder used to be based on Potassium Sulphate and that
testing is carried out with this type of powder. Potassium Sulphate offers better compatibility
with foam compared to the historical choice, Sodium Bicarbonate and hence the system can be
used together with foam fire-fighting systems.
The regulation also states that any Type Approval test shall be carried out using the same type
of powder that will be supplied with the unit, a test the system was able to satisfy.
Germanischer Lloyd was selected to witness the testing for the DCP system. GL requires Type
Approval of shipboard equipment for all the ships it classes, regardless of their flag state so the
result would have a wider impact than on European Union flag ships.
Further approvals are being considered by other Flag States and Classification Societies in order
to adopt the test standard into their requirements.
The DCP system is extensively and independently tested:

• MED -B & -D certified, fulfilling the mandatory IMO MSC.1/Circ. 1315

• DNV-GL type approval certificate
• DNV-QS - Certificate of assessment - EC

The system can be applied on merchant marine and offshore structures as design is in
accordance to IGC or IBC code and IMO MODU Code
In addition the DCP system is tested down to -28°C and in 190 meters + 33-meter pipes and

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Automatic sprinkler systems

The combination of structural fire protection and an installed sprinkler system which
incorporates detection, alarm and fire-fighting capability, has proved very successful in
combating the outbreak of fire in passenger ship accommodation. The structural fire protection
is based on zones separated by fire proof bulkheads and having fire proof divisions within

A network of sprinkler heads is arranged throughout the spaces to be protected. Each sprinkler
head is normally kept closed by a quartzoid bulb which is almost filled with a liquid having a
high expansion ratio. When the liquid is exposed to abnormal heat it expands rapidly to
completely fill the bulb. Further expansion is sufficient to shatter the bulb. Water, maintained
under pressure by compressed air, is then expelled from the sprinkler head or heads in the
form of a heavy spray. Each head adequately showers a deck area of 16 mz and the heads are
arranged so that every part of each space requiring protection, can be covered by water spray.

Figure: Sprinkler system

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Figure: (a) Sprinkler head;

Figure :14.28 a (b) Section alarm valve the system shown (Figure 14.27) has a pressure tank
which is kept part-filled with fresh water and pressurized to 8 bars by compressed air. When
the pressure drops below 5.5 bar, a salt water pump cuts in automatically so that if the
sprinklers operate a supply of water is maintained. Each installation is divided into sections
containing up to 200 sprinkler heads and each section has an alarm valve (Figure 14.28b).
When a sprinkler comes into operation water flows through the section alarm valve. The water
lifts the non-return valve exposing an annular groove which connects to a diaphragm alarm
switch. This switch is coupled to an alarm and to an indicator panel on the bridge which gives
audible and visual warning that a sprinkler has operated and fire has probably broken out in the
section indicated.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Fires have frequently been found to have been extinguished by the system alone. When any
occurrence has been dealt with the stop valve, which is usually locked open, may be closed to
replace the sprinkler head which has operated and to enable the section to be drained of salt
water before being filled with fresh from the system. Any maintenance on a section is carried
out with the stop valve closed. The test valve can be opened to create flow and cause the non-
return section alarm valve to open, to test the alarm.

Regular maintenance of the system consists of greasing the various valves and checking their
freedom of movement, logging the pressure gauge reading, before and after each alarm valve
(thus checking the tightness of the non-return valves) and checking the alarm system. The latter
is done by opening the test valves and checking that the audible and visual alarms work. The
pressure tank level is checked and recharged, if necessary, with fresh water and air.

The centrifugal salt-water pump should also be tested by closing the isolating valves and
draining the pressure switch circuit, when the pump should start automatically. Delivery
pressure should be logged. In the event of a fire, when a normal situation is recovered the
section and system are drained and flushed out; then recharged with fresh water and air.

Where an automatic system is not fitted in accommodation spaces, it is necessary to install an

automatic fire alarm system similar to that used for unmanned machinery spaces. The system
would consist of an electric circuit for smoke detectors and possibly bimetallic temperature
sensors. Warning is given by an audible alarm with visual indication showing the section in
which the fire has occurred.

1) Purpose
a. Installed in accommodation spaces, alleyways, saloons etc.
b. Fixed device to fight fire automatically by sprinkling water.
c. The sprinkling system clears the smoke by washing it out.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)



A breathing apparatus normally known as the BA set or the SCBA (Self contained Breathing
apparatus) or CABA (Compressed air breathing apparatus) is an equipment used to supply fresh
air for human breathing when a person is entering any space where the atmosphere is a
suspect and may not support human life. i.e.
• When entering into an enclosed space or
• When entering into a space to fight fire

The Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) or Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus

The equipment is designed on an open-circuit system. The exhaled air is discharged to the
atmosphere and the wearer of this apparatus gets his fresh air from the air cylinder attached to
the equipment.

The equipment consists of:

• One cylinder containing air under pressure
• A harness to mount the cylinders on the, back of the person.
• A respiratory system which incorporates a means of reducing the pressure of the air from
the cylinder and of supplying the wearer on demand with air according to his requirements,
• A facemask attached to a demand valve, which maintains a positive pressure inside the
mask at all times.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

The arrangement of a typical apparatus is as follows:

The cylinders contain approximately 1240 litres of free air compressed to give approximately 30
minutes of full air usage time and 20 minutes of working duration under normal circumstances.
Please note that the usage time greatly varies from person to person and the workload the
person is performing.
• A reducing valve is connected after the cylinders to reduce the pressure to approximately
about 4 bars. This pressure is further reduced by the demand valve, which is attached to the
mask of the wearer.
• The demand valve supplies air to the wearer when he inhales and closes when he exhales.
• An Exhalation valve releases the exhaled air from the facemask.
• When approximately 10 minutes of air is left (air cylinder pressure about 60 bar), a warning
whistle will sound continuously – warning the user that his air supply would soon be over
and he has to move out.
• This warning signal will sound continuously till the air in the cylinder is over.
• The facemask is made of moulded rubber with a series of adjustable rubber straps to secure
it to the head of the wearer and fitted with quick release arrangements.
• The user should have a good field of vision so that the wearer does not need to turn his
head constantly.
• A gauge is provided to indicate the pressure of the air in the cylinder.
• Spare cylinders should be provided for each set of breathing apparatus and a small air
compressor to charge these cylinders is provided.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

An approximate Consumption and duration table:

Air Duration of Duration of

consumption cylinder having cylinder having
Degrees (litres/minute) 1800 litres 1800 litres
of work capacity(minutes) capacity(minutes)

Resting 8 -12 150 -100 225 -150

Work 12 – 20 100 – 60 150 – 90

Work 20 – 40 60 – 30 90 – 45

Work 40 – 60 30 – 20 45 – 30

Please note in the above table the total full duration is given. Reduce the safety margin (10
MIN) from the above table to get the nominal working duration.
• Here we have taken an average consumption of 40 ltrs of air per minute being required by
human being when doing heavy work.
• If we have a 1200 ltrs of fully charged cylinder then:
• Nominal work duration= 1200/40= 30 min. – 10 min (safety margin taken as the alarm
whistle will start blowing indicating the wearer to come out to safe atmosphere) so it is 20
Body Parts

• Cylinder having full charge of 200 bar

• Ready use pressure gauge (showing pressure in cylinder)
• Main valve
• Reducing valve (reduces the pressure coming from cylinder)
• Supply hose (connected with reducing valve)
• Back Plate (rests on back)
• Shoulders straps
• Waist strap
• Face mask comprising of a) Visor b) Head harness c) Exhalation valve d) speech
diaphragm e) omasal f) demand valve g) Warning whistle – (blows at 50 bar pressure
meaning 8 minutes are left to count from the compartment.

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

Donning down procedure

• Check face seal for cracks/damage

• Check pressure before donning the set.
• Take out facemask and hang it around the neck (because not hung around the neck
then it can get damaged due banging)
• Don the set (set is always kept in upside down position lockers)
• Put on facemask at the time of entering in the compartment.
• Make sure your record is written with the attend

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

LIFE LINE SIGNALS: When a person has been sent in with caba set, certain communication is
required to set up with that person. This communication is set up in the form of signals these
signals are known as lifeline signals.









INTRODUCTION: This set is a life saving equipment. To be used only for life saving purpose.
Not to be used for fire fighting. To be used for escaping from smoke.

A) Description:
I) Comprises of cylinder having 200 bar pressure.
II) Pressure gauge (already showing pressure)
III) Main valve.
IV) Air supply hose (supplying positive pressure in the mask)

Course Handout - Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting (FPFF)

B) Donning down procedure:

I) Take out set from locker
II) Hang it around neck
III) Put on waist strap
V) Take out face mask/hood
IV) With the clean hand, clean the mask
V) Open valve for ventilation, may have foul gases contaminated).
VI) Don the mask

Forced Air Breathing Apparatus Purpose:

I) To enter in smoke filled compartment.

II) To enter in enclosed spaces.

Forced Air Breathing Apparatus

d) Description:
I) Fitted with one face mask
II) An asbestos insulated hose (hose length 120ft.)
III) Hose one end connected to mask and other end to bellow/foot pump
IV) Works on pumping principle
V) Supplies air in the mask directly
VI) Shoulder strap with back & waist

C) Signals of lifeline

Signals By whom Means

1st By Wearer Need More Air
2nd By Wearer Wants to move ahead slack
3rd By Wearer Wants to come out



Practically resuscitation consists of the following

1) Remove any oblivious obstructions over the face or constructions around the neck, open the
airway and remove any debris seen in the mouth and throat.

2) Open your mouth wide, take a deep breath, pinch the casualty’s nostrils together with your
fingers and seal your lips around his mouth.

3) flow into the casualty’s lungs looking along his chest until you can see his chest rise to
maximum expansion. Note: If the casualty’s chest fails to rise, first assume his airway is not
fully open. Adjust the position of his head and jaw and try again if there is still no ventilation
his airway may be blocked and you will have to treat him choking.

4) Remove your mouth well way from the casualty’s mouth and breath out any excess air
while watching his chest fall. Take a deep breath Repeat inflation.

5) After two inflation check the pulse to make sure the heart is blow if the heart is breathing and
a pulse is felt continue to give inflation the rate of 12 to 16 a minute until natural breathing is
assisting it when necessary and adjusting it to the casually breathing rate. When the
casualty’s is breathing independently place recovery position. If the heart is not beating
perform external Compression immediately.

c) External cardiac Massage

1. Lay the casually on his back on a firm surface kneel alongside him facing his chest and in line
with his heart. Find the junction of his rib margins at the bottom of his breast bone place
the heel on one hand along the line of the breast one two finger breadth above this point
keeping your fingers off the ribs.

2. Cover this hand with the heel of your other hand and interlock your shoulders should be
directly above the casualty’s breasted bone and your arms straight.

3. Keeping your arms straight press down vertically on the lower half of his breast bone to
move it 4-5 cm (1 ½-2 inch) for the average adults. Release pressure, Complete
4. compression at the rate of 80 compression per minute.
Compressions should be regular and smooth not jerky and jabbing. (To find the
correct speed, count one and two and tree and so on)