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Greek Alphabet: Unlock the Secrets

Α α            alpha  (αλφα)     arising, arising above                    

pronounce: a, as in "ah-hah!"

The letter Α α means “arising,” “arising-above.”

Α’s shape is that of an upwardly pointing arrow rising through

the horizontal horizon line. 


The concept of arising is at the essence of divinity and

immortality. Aei (άεί) means ever, always, eternity, immortal,
perpetual, everlasting, literally “arising essence (of) divine-
power.” Aiei (αίει) means everlasting, perpetual, literally
“arising divine-power essence.” To the Greeks, life arising from
death is as natural as a dying plant’s seeds falling to the ground
in autumn and sprouting into new plants in spring.

Aeiro (άείρω) means to lift, raise up, raise.

Aeiphanees (άειφᾰνής) means always above the horizon, ever

(άει)-shining (φᾰνής).
Aeksi- (άεξί-) is a prefix meaning increasing. Aekso (άέξω) and
aukso (αῠξω) mean to increase, exalt, glorify, grow, rise high.

Aerro (άέρρω) means lift, raise.

Aersi- (άερσί-) is a prefix meaning high, rousing, increasing,


An aetos (άετός) is an eagle. In Architecture, an aetos is a gable

or pediment, literally “arising essence tension.”

Ag- (άγ-) is a prefix meaning motion upwards, up! arise!

Ageetor (Άγήτωρ) means Leader, the basis for the Latin word
agitare: to set in motion. Ageetor (Άγήτωρ) defines an agitator
as one who shakes up the center to bring forth change, literally
“arising generative center extends, brings-forth outflow.”
Webster’s uses the words “arouse . . . disturb . . . toss” to define

Aionao (αίονάω) means to foment.

Aipeinos (αίπεινός) means high, lofty, with reference to cities

on heights, Delphi, mountain-tops, literally “arising divine-
power united/under-the-same-roof (π).”

Alpios (άλπιος) means Alps, a great mountain range of Europe.

Aipos (αἷπος, αίπός) means height, steep, high, lofty, literally
“arising divine-power unified.” Aipus (αίπύς) means high and

Aiora (αίώρα) means to be hung, raised, lifted; swing, float in

the air.

An akra (ἅκρα) is the highest or farthest point, hilltop, height,

crest. An akris (ἅκρις) is a hill-top or mountain-peak. An akron
(ἅκρον) is the highest or farthest point, moutain-top, peak.
Akro- (άκρό-, άκρω-) is a prefix meaning top, highest point
(ἅκρος). Akropolis (Άκρόπολις) means upper or higher city.

Aktaino (άκταινόω) means to lift, raise up.

An ambee (ἅμβη) is a raised edge or protuberance. Ambo

(ἅμβω) is the crest of a hill, the rim or edge of a cup. In
contrast, amblus (άμβλύς) means blunt, dulled, with edge or
point taken off, “άμβ loosened.”

Amilla (ἅμιλλα) means contest for superiority.

Ana (άνά, ᾰνᾰ) means motion upward, up! arise!

An anachoee (άναχοή) is an eruption. Anago (άνάγω) means to

lead up from a lower place to a higher. Anatheo (άναθέω), in
reference to plants, means to shoot up, rise.
Anaphora (άναφορά) means coming up, rising, ascendant.

Anasteema (άνάστημα) is height, high ground.

Anatolee (άνατολή) means the ascendant, the point where the

eastern horizon cuts the zodiac. It refers to any heavenly body
rising above the horizon. Anatolikos (άνατολικός) means
eastern, the basis for the word Anatolia.

An andeeron (ἅνδηρον) is a raised bank by the side of a river or

ditch, a dike.

Anegeiro (άνεγείρω) means to wake up, rouse, rouse the spirit,


Aneimi (ἅνειμι) means to go up, rise. Anekas (άνεκάς) means

upwards. Anecho (άνέχω) means to hold up, lift up, rise up,

Anelko (άνέλκω) means to draw up (as from a well), drag up.

Anemeo (άνεμέω) means to vomit up.

Anerpo (άνέρπω) means to creep upwards; to spring up (of


Aneeko (άνήκω) means to come up to, reach up to, amount to.

Aneelusis (άνήλῠσις) means going up.
Anieemi (άνίημι) means to send up, send forth, to make corn or
fruit spring up; to produce offspring; to send up from the grave
or netherworld; to let come up; let go, loosen, unfasten.

Animao (άνίμάω) means to draw up, to raise water.

Anisteemi (άνίστημι) means to make stand up, raise up, make to


Anodia (άνοδία) means ascent.

Anodos (ἅνοδος) means way up, rising; the first (or second)
day of the Thesmophoria (Θεσμοφορια). The Thesmophoria is
an annual Greek festival held in late November in honor of
Demeter, the immortal Goddess of generative earth.  The anodos
of Demeter is celebrated by women at night with mutual abuse
and obscene language in an attempt to make Demeter laugh
(reflecting ancient meaning for the phrase attributed to Emerson,
“earth laughs in flowers”).

(Jane Ellen Harrison. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek

Religion (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991, first
published by Cambridge University Press 1903) 136.)

(Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Hamatreya,” Poems, 1847, (reprinted

by, 2009) 34.)
Anorouo (άνορούω) means to start up, leap up.

Anorthoo (άνορθόω) means to set up again, restore, rebuild.

Anocheo (άνοχέω) means to raise up.

Ano (ἅνω) means upwards, above, higher; also accomplish,

finish, come to an end.

Anothen (ἅνωθέν) means from above, from on high.

Anotheo (ἅνωθέω) means to push up.

Anotatos (άνώτατος) means topmost. Anoterikos

(άνωτερικός) means upper, also, a medicine which takes effect
upwards, an emetic. Anoteros (άνώτερος) means upper, higher.
Anophereia (άνωφέρεια) means motion upwards.

Aorteus (άορτεύς) means hung up, suspended; arteries

springing from the heart, the aorta; the point of suspension of a

Apairo (άπαίρω) means to lift off, carry off.

Apanisteemi (άπανίστημι) means to make rise up and depart.

Apeeoros (άπήορος) means hanging on high.

An apopsis (ἅποψις) is a lofty spot or tower that commands a

Asso (άσσω) means to spring from a height.

Aukso- (αύξο-) is a prefix meaning increasing. Aukso (Αύξω)

is the immortal Goddess of growth.

Achnee (ἅχνη) is anything that comes off the surface: dew; lint;
dust; of liquids, foam, froth; of solids, chaff; literally “arising
foundation prevailing,” the basis for the word acne.


Aero- (άερο-) is a prefix meaning air, literally “arising essence.”

Aerizo (άερίζω) means to be like air. Aerinos (άερῐνος) means
aerial, like air. Aerios (άέριος) means in the air.

Aasmos (άασμός) and aazo (άάζω) mean breathing out,

expiration, the rising breath.

Aello- (άελλο-) is a prefix meaning storm, stormy wind,

whirlwind (ἅελλα), literally “arising essence loosened.”

Aeer (άήρ) means air, mist, haze. Eera (Ήρα,Ἢρη) is the

immortal Goddess of air.
Aeemi (ἅημι) means a blast, wind, to breathe hard, blow.
Aeetees (άήτης) is a blast or gale.

Aio (άΐω) means breathe, breathe out, literally “arising divine-

power bring-forth.”

Anemia (άνεμία) means flatulence, gas escaping from the

surface, literally “arising prevailing essence.”

Arteeria (άρτηρία) means wind-pipe, bronchial tube, the basis

for the word artery, literally “arising outflow stretch/extend
center outflow-of divine-power.”

Autmee (άϋτμή) means breath. Aucheen (αύχήν) means neck,


Aura (αὕρα) means breeze, a cool breeze, the fresh air of

morning; a stream of incense, literally “arising pure outflow.”

Aitheer (αίθήρ) means ether, the heaven. Aithree (αϊθρη)

means air as an element. Aithrios (αϊθριος) means clear, bright

Anemos (ἅνεμος) means wind, the winds; to the winds; wind in

the body, literally “arising prevailing essence.”

Aparktias (άπαρκτίας) is the north wind, literally “arising

unified (with the) arctic (αρκτίας).”  Apeeliotees (άπηλῐώτης)
is the east wind, literally “arising unified (with the) sun/Helios

Asthma (ἅσθμα) means panting, short-drawn of breath.

Atlas (Ἃτλας) is the immortal God who turns the heavens on

their axis, causing the stars to revolve, as described by Virgil:

". . . mighty Atlas who holds aloft on his shoulders the heavenly
firmament . . . Atlas who props the starry sky."

(Virgil. Aeneid 8.137, translated by C. Day Lewis (Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 1952, reissued 2008) 225. http://
0199537488 )

Atlas (Ἃτλας) is also equated in the Lexicon with the Atlantic

Ocean; the axis of the earth; Mount Atlas of West Africa
regarded as the pillar of the earth; also, the seventh of the neck
vertebrae which supports the head.

Atmee (άτμή) and atmos (άτμός) mean vapor; the basis for the
word atmosphere.

Astronomeo (άστρονομέω) and astrologeo (άστρολογέω) are
disciplines that involve studying the behavior/principles
(νομέω) of the stars and interpretation of their meaning

The rising and setting of heavenly bodies such as the sun and
constellations are a means of tracking the passage of time.

Aas (Ἂᾱς) means tomorrow.

Aiglee (αἵγλη) is the light of the sun, daylight, sunshine;

radiance, splendor, glory.

Augee (αύγή) is the light of the sun. Augos (αὖγος) means

morning light, dawn.

Aurion (αὕριον) means tomorrow.

Aster- (άστερ-) is a prefix meaning stars. Asterios (άστεριος)

means of the sphere of the fixed stars. An asteer (άστήρ) is the
chief star of a constellation; a shooting star or meteor.

Astrapee (Άστρᾰπη) is the immortal Goddess of lightning. 

Detail of figure Astrapee (Άστρᾰπη) (Flash of Lightning).

Astrapee holds a thunderbolt. She is depicted with wings,
flaming torch and shining aureole.

The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,

California, USA, Malibu 86.AE.680, Apulian Red Figure
Loutrophoros, Attributed to Painter of Louvre MNB1148,  circa
350 - 340 BCE.  

Astrikos (άστρικός) means of or concerning the stars. Astron

(ἅστρον) means stars.

Anakes (Ἃνᾰκες) are the Dioskoroi (Δῐοσκοροι), Poludeukees

(Πολῠδεύκης) (Pollux) and Kastor (Κάστωρ), the twins of the
constellation Gemini (May-June). 

Artikos (άρτικός) means arctic, northern, near the Bear

constellations (Ursa Major and Ursa Minor) which rotate around
the celestial pole of the northern hemisphere. Artikos (άρτικός)
also means initial, placed at the beginning, originative.

Arktos (άρκτος) means bear and north. Arks (ἅρξ) also means
bear, an animal that dominates northern climes.

Arksiphos (ἅρξιφος) means eagle, a bird that dominates the sky

(note that ξιφος means sword).

Aithees (αίθής) means burning, literally “arising divine-power.”

Aitho (αῖθω) means light up, kindle, burn, blaze, burn fiercely,

Anophoitos (άνωφοιτος) means mounting upwards, such as of

air and fire.

Apto (ἅπτω) means kindle, set on fire.

Aza (ἅζα) means heat, dryness.

Auo (αϋω) means to light a fire, take fire.


Anoig- (άνοιγ-) is a prefix meaning open, opener, to open.

Anoiksis (ἅνοιξις) means opening.

Aparchee (άπαρχή) means the beginning of a sacrifice, primal

offering (of hairs cut from the forehead); firstlings for sacrifice
or offering; first-fruits; entrance fee.

Aparcho (άπάρχω) means to lead the way.

Archaios (άρχαῖος) means from the beginning or origin,

ancient, old, the basis for the word archaic, literally “arising
outflow-of foundation.”

Archee (άρχή) means beginning, origin.

Archeganos (άρχέγανος) means original, primal, first author or


Archetupikos (άρχέτῠπικος) means archetypal, first-molded as

a pattern/model, ideal.

Archeegos (άρχηγος) means beginning, originating.

Archo (άρχω) means to be first, begin; rule, govern. Archos

(άρχός) means leader, chief.


Au (αὖ) means anew, afresh, literally “arising pure.”

Aut- (αύτ-) and auth- (αύθ-) are prefixes meaning self-, unique
to self, original.

Auto- (αύτο-) is a prefix meaning of itself, one’s own, self; of

one’s own accord; by oneself, alone. Autos (αύτός) means self. 
Authentees (αύθεντης) means author, the basis for the word

Authentia (αύθεντία) means to have absolute sway, authority.

Authentikos (αύθεντικός) means authentic, authoritative;

original, principal.

Autheuretos (αύθεύρετος) means self-discovered.

Autosophos (αύτοσοφος) means endowed with innate wisdom.

Autotelees (αύτοτελής) means ending in itself, complete in

itself, perfect, complete, self-sufficing, sovereign, independent.

Autochthon (αύτόχθων) means sprung from the land itself, not

settlers, indigenous, native.


A point is the part of an object at the very tip-top of its surface.

Akmee (άκμή) means point, edge, highest or culminating point

of anything, the basis for the word acme, literally “arising core
meta center.”
The acme of the summit of Mount Everest. http://world-

Aichmee (αίχμή) is the point of a spear.

Akantha (ἅκανθα) means thorn, prickle, or thistle.

Rose thorns.


An akis (άκίς) is a pointed object.

Akonao (άκονάω) and apakonao (άπᾰκονάω) mean to

sharpen, sharpen to a point.

Ardis (ἅρδις) is the point of an arrow, literally “arising outflow-

of directed-trajectory.”

Aks- (άξ-) is a prefix meaning counterbalancing, literally

“arising separate-from.”

Aksinee (άξϊνη) means axe, a counterbalanced tool.

Axe, Made of bronze and gold, circa 1600 BCE found in the
Arkalochori Cave in Crete, called the Arkalochori Axe,
Herakleion Archaelogical Museum, Crete. http://ancient-

Akson (ἅξων) means axis, axis of the celestial sphere, axle, the
pole/line about which a rotating body turns.

Axis of celestial sphere.



Adreo (άδρέω) means to be full-grown, matured. Adros

(άδρός) means full-grown, ripe, mature, thick, stout, full,
swollen, the best-grown, a fine animal, a fat animal. Adrotees
(άδροτής) means vigor, strength.

Aizeeos (αίζηός) means in full bodily strength.

Alkee (άλκή) means strength as displayed in action, prowess,

courage, feats of strength. Alki (άλκί) means might, strength.

Akmazo (άκμάζω) means to be in full bloom, at the prime.

Anee (ἅνη) and ano (ἅνω) mean fulfillment.

Anuo (άνύω) means to accomplish, bring to pass.

Aparti (άπαρτί) means completely, make even, perfect.

Aperdo (άπέρδω) means to bring to an end, finish.

Aperg- (άπεργ-) is a prefix meaning finish off, complete, bring

to perfection.

Aoton (ἅωτον) means the choicest, the flower of its kind, prime,


Aphalmos (άφαλμός) means springing off, jumping.

Aphepso (άφέψω) means to purify or refine by boiling off.

Aphee (άφή) means lighting, kindling.

Aphieemi (άφίημι) means to send forth, discharge, let go, loose,

set free. Apheetor (άφητωρ) means archer; prophet.

Aphesis (ἅφεσις) means letting go, release, discharge; the first

start, beginning of anything, start of a race.
Aphormos (ἅφορμος) means moving off from, departing from.

Aphros (άφρός) means foam (of the sea, of animals). Aphrioeis

(άφριόεις) means foamy. Webster’s defines foam as “a
collection of minute bubbles formed on the surface.”

Aphupnizo (άφυπνίζω) means wake up.


Aphedreia (άφεδρεία) and aphedros (ἅφεδρος) mean


Aphrodisia (Άφροδίσια) means to have sexual intercourse,

(possibly “release (άφ-) rose (ροδίσια)”?). 

Rosebud resembles vaginal opening. http://

Aphroditee (Άφροδίτη) is Aphrodite, the immortal Goddess of

sexual love, sexual pleasure. Aphro (Άφρώ) is another name for

In Hippolytus by Euripides, the Nurse, speaking of Aphrodite,

“. . . from her (Aprodite) all nature springs; she sows the seeds
of love, inspires the warm desire to which we sons (sic) of earth
all owe our being.”

(Euripides (circa 428 BCE), Hippolytus, The Plays of

Euripedes, translated by Edward P. Coleridge (London: George
Bell & Sons, York Street, Covent Garden, 1891) 87.)  (http:// )   

The Greek poet Sappho describes the overwhelming emotion of


“For when I see thee but a little,

I have no utterance left,

my tongue is broken down,

and straightway a subtle fire has run under my skin, with my

eyes I have no sight,

my ears ring,

sweat pours down, and a trembling seizes all my body;

I am paler than grass,

and seem in my madness little better than one dead.

But I must dare all, since one so poor . . .”

(Sappho (circa 600 BCE), Sappho: Memoir, Text, Selected

Renderings and a Literal Translation, “Fragment 65,” translated
by Henry Thornton Wharton (New York and London: John
Lane, 1885). (
sapphomemoir00sappiala/sapphomemoir00sappiala_djvu.txt )

Red-figure vase by the Group of Polygnotos, circa 440–430

BCE. Sappho is seated, reading one of her poems to a group of
three. National Archaeological Museum in Athens, 1260. http:// 

The following poem by Sappho addressed to Aphrodite, circa

600 BCE, is powerful in its sensuality:

“Come to me from Crete to this holy temple,

Aphrodite. Here is a grove of apple

trees for your delight, and the smoking altars

                                                fragrant with incense.

Here cold water rustles down through the apple

branches; all the lawn is beset and darkened

under roses, and, from the leaves that tremble, sleep

                                                            of enchantment

comes descending. Here is a meadow pasture

where the horses graze with flowers of


now in blossom, here where the light winds passing

                                                            blow their freshness.

Here in this place, lady of Cyprus, lightly

lifting, lightly pour in the golden goblets

as for those who keep a festival, nectar: wine for our


(Sappho, translated by Richmond Lattimore, The Horizon Book

of Ancient Greece (New York: American Heritage Publishing,
1965), 141.)

Apo (άπό) means from, sprung from, inspired by, from or of

which a thing is made, cause of, from the beginning of. Apo-
(άπο-) is a prefix for many, many words.

Apoluo (άπολύω) means to loose from.

Poll- (πολλ-) is a prefix meaning many.

Apollon (Άπόλλων, Άπέλλων) is the immortal God Apollo, the

God who sets things loose/in motion, the God from whom many
things spring, literally “arising (ά) many (πολλ) brings-forth

Apollo is the companion of the Muses and the inspiration for the
“oracle” at Delphi. Muses are immortal Goddesses who are the
bridges between the macro and the micro (the individual). An
“oracle” is an individual who channels divine truth.

According to, “Apollon (or Apollo) [is] the great

Olympian [G]od of prophecy and oracles, healing, plague and
disease, music, song and poetry, archery, and the protection of
the young. He [is] depicted as a handsome, beardless youth with
long hair and various attributes including:--a wreath and branch
of laurel; bow and quiver; raven; and lyre.”
Detail of Apollon from a painting depicting the birth of
Dionysos. The God is shown in the guise of the God of Delphi,
holding a laurel branch and wearing a laurel-wreath.  Museo
Nazionale Archeologico di
Taranto, Italy, Catalog Number Taranto 8264, circa 405-385

The Orphic Hymn 33, To Apollo (33-42), describes Apollo as

the immortal God who confers the variety of forms found in
nature and orchestrates the harmony of the seasons:

“. . . All Nature’s tribes to thee their diff’rence owe,

And changing seasons from thy music flow:

Hence, mix’d by thee in equal parts, advance

Summer and Winter in alternate dance;

This claims the highest, that the lowest string,

The Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring . . .

Since to thy care, the figur’d seal’s consigned,

Which stamps the world with forms of every kind . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by
Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 164.)


Apas (άπᾱς) means all, the whole, all together, in all things, all
possible, every one, everything, literally "arising unity."

Apeiraios (Άπειραῖος) means Limitless-land (an imaginary

place); times without number. Apeiresios (άπειρέσιος) means
boundless, countless. Apeiria (άπειρία) means infinity, eternity.
Apeiros (άπειρος) means boundless, infinite, limitless.

Apelethros (άπελεθρος) means immeasurable, countless.

Aperantos (άπέραντος) means boundless, infinite, endless,
countless, no end to. Aperatos (άπέρᾰτος) means boundless.

The Apis (Άπις) bull is central to religious worship in ancient

Egypt. Apisoo (άπῐσόω) means make equal, to be made equal
to. Apisosis (άπίσωσις) means equalization.

Stele dedicated by King Amasis to the Apis bull that died during
his reign.
Department of Egyptian Antiquities: The final Pharaonic
dynasties and the Ptolemaic period (circa 1069 - 30 BCE).
Musee du Louvre, Paris, France.


In Greek philosophy, renewal is intrinsic to the concept of


Aei (άεί) means ever, always, eternity, immortal, perpetual,

everlasting, literally “arising essence divine-power.”

Aiei (αίει) means everlasting, perpetual.

Aeizoees (άειζωης) means ever-living. Aeizoia (άειζωία)

means ever-lasting life.

Aisa (Αῖσα) is the immortal Goddess of fate who spins the

thread of life from the circumstances surrounding one’s birth.
Quintus Smyrnaeus describes Aisa as omnipotent:

“For not Kronos' Son [Zeus] can stay the hand of Aisa, whose
might transcendeth all the immortals."
(Quintus Smyrnaeus (circa 350 CE), Fall of Troy 14. 96 ff,
translated by A.S. Way, Loeb Classical Library Volume 19.
(London: William Heinemann, 1913.))

Aisimos (αϊσιμος) means appointed by the will of the immortal

Gods and Goddesses, destined, agreeable to the decree of fate.

Aeizos (άειζως) means ever-living, everlasting, the immortals,


Aeichronios (άειχρόνιος) means everlasting.

Aenaees (άεναής) means ever-flowing, everlasting.

An Aeiesto (Άειεστώ) is an eternal being who is ever-living,

with ever-lasting life.

An aion (αίων) means a lifetime, age, generation, long space of

time, the basis for the words aeon and eon.

Aeria, Eeeriee (Άερία, Ηερίη) are old names of Egypt.

Aiguptios (Αίγύπτιος) means Egyptian. Aigupios (αίγῠπιός)

means vulture, a symbol of death and renewal. In artistic
depictions, the immortal Egyptian Goddess Isis (Ἶσις) wears a
vulture headdress crowned with bull-horns.
The immortal Goddess Isis at Abydos. Isis wears a vulture
headdress (symbol of death and renewal) topped by the horns of
a bull cradling the sun-disc, circa 1371 BCE.  Image at: egyptian_Gods/isis.htm

Aidios (αΐδιος) means everlasting, eternal.

Aidas/Aidees (Ἀΐδας, Ἅιδης, Ἀΐδης) is the immortal God of

the afterlife, Hades; the netherworld, the place of departed
spirits; in Astrology, the region below the Oroskopos
(ώροσκοπος) (Horoscope) (the sign or degree rising at the time
of birth).

Aidoion (αίδοῖον) means privy parts, the genital organs,

especially those of the female.

Aidoios (αίδοῖος) means having a claim to regard, reverence.

Aidos (αίδώς) means reverence, awe, respect for the feeling or

opinion of others or for one’s conscience, self-respect, sense of
honor, sense of shame, regard for others, respect.

Aidonaia (Άιδωναία) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess of

plurality, Ekatee (Έκατη) (Hecate). (The name Hecate/Ekatee
is nearly identical to the word for one hundred, ekaton (εκατόν)
(hecaton), a number used for exaggerative effect by Greek
Azeechees (άζηχής) means continuous, unceasing. Azeesia
(Άζησία) is a name for the immortal Goddess Demeter.

Azomai (ἅζομαι) means to stand in awe of, especially of Gods

and Goddesses and one’s parents; reverence, holy fear.


Adon (Ἃδων) is Adonis (Ἃδωνις). The death and revival of

Adonis are occasions for mourning and rejoicing coinciding
with the new growth of vegetation in the spring.

The immortal Goddess of love, Aphrodite, loved Adonis and

with anguish mourned his death when he was gored by a wild

“She (Aphrodite) saw, she marked his irresistible wound, she

saw his thigh fading in a welter of blood, she lift her hands and
put up the voice of lamentation saying ‘Stay, Adonis mine,
stay . . .

“’Awake Adonis, awake for a little while, and give me one latest
kiss; kiss me all so long as ever the kiss be alive, till thou give
up thy breath into my mouth and thy spirit pass into my heart,
till I have . . . drunk up all thy love . . .
“’O Persephone, take thou my husband, take him if thou wilt;
for thou art far stronger than I . . .’

“The Paphian (Aphrodite) weeps and Adonis bleeds, drop for

drop, and the blood and tears become flowers upon the
ground . . .”

(Note that Persephone is the immortal Goddess of the afterlife

and Spring renewal.)

(Theocritus. The Greek Bucolic Poets, “The Poems and

Fragments of Bion: I. The Lament for Adonis,” translated by
J.M. Edmonds, Loeb Classical Library (London: William
Heinemann; New York: MacMillan Co, 1912) 389-391 http://

The Anthesteeria (Άνθεστήρια) is the Anthesteria, a Spring

festival of death and renewal that takes place at the end of
February/beginning of March, literally “arising prevailing divine
essence.” Harrison describes the significance of the Anthesteria:

“When the dead earth begins to awake and put forth bud and
blossom, then the ghosts too have their spring time, then is the
moment to propitiate the dead below the earth.”

(Jane Ellen Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek

Religion (Cambridge University Press, 1903) 54.)

The Anthesphoria (Άνθεσφόρια) is a Spring festival

commemorating the immortal Goddess Persephone’s return
from the afterlife to reunite with her Mother, Demeter, bringing
new life to earth.

(William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities

(London: John Murray, 1875), 98.
Anthesphoria.html )


Anth- (άνθ-) is a prefix meaning flower, bloom, literally

“arising prevailing divine.” Antheion (ἅνθειον) is a flower or
blossom. Anthemon (ἅνθεμον) means flowers. Antheo (άνθέω)
means blossom, bloom. An anthee (ἅνθη) is the full bloom of a
flower or plant. Anthos (ἅνθος) means blossom, flower, bloom.

Anthrop- (άνθρωπ-) is a prefix meaning human.

Anthropos (ἅνθρωπος) means human, the basis for the word

anthropology. The word anthropos (ἅνθρωπος) is generally
translated into English as "men."

Ag- (άγ-) is a prefix meaning holy, pure, sacred, literally

“arising generative.”

Agizo (άγίζω) means to hallow or make sacred. Agios (ἂγιος)

means devoted to the immortal Gods and Goddesses.

Agn- (ἅγν-) is a prefix meaning purify.

Agneia (άγνεία) means purity, chastity; religious.

Agnizo (άγνίζω) means to wash off, cleanse, purify, hallow,


Agnos (άγνός) means pure, chaste, holy.

Agos (ἅγος) is any matter of religious awe, such as atonement;


Agatho- (άγαθο-) is a prefix meaning good (άγᾰθος). Aganos

(ἅγᾰνός) means mild, gentle, kind.

Agapee (άγάπη) means love.

Agallo (άγάλλω) means glorify, exalt. Agalma (ἅγαλμα)
means glory, delight, honor.

Agamai (ἅγᾰμαι) means wonder, to wonder at, admire, be

delighted with.

Agee (ἂγη) means wonder or amazement.

Aglaia (άγλαΐα) means splendor, beauty, magnificence, glory,



Agro- (άγρο-) is a prefix meaning the fields, the country, the

basis for the word agriculture.

Agros (άγρός) means fields, lands, tilled land, the country,

literally “arising generative outflow.”


Interestingly, the word for “market,” agora (άγορά), in modern

terms “farmer’s market,” is formed by transposing two letters
from the word for agriculture: agros (άγρός).
Agora (άγορά) means an assembly of the People, a place of
assembly, and refers to the business of the agora, such as the
marketplace and public speaking. As a gathering place in the
city, the agora is a centerpiece of public life.

Agon (άγών) means a gathering, assembly, contest, or speech

delivered at an assembly.

Aggeion (άγγεῖον) means a vessel, pail, bucket, sack, receptacle

(perhaps for carrying purchased items).

Aggelia (άγγελία) means a message, tidings, announcement,

command, order (announced at the agora).

Agelee (άγέλη) means a herd, flock, company, crowd.

Aguia (ἅγυια) means a street; highway.

Agkas (άγκάς) means into or in the arms. Agkoina (ἅγκοινα)

and agkalee (ἅγκάλη) mean anything enfolding.


Ant- (αντ-), literally “arising prevailing tension,” is a prefix

meaning confronted with, face to face, in answer, in return,
opposite, instead of, counter, reciprocally implied, in exchange,
opposition, taken as equivalent, interchange, reply, in response,
in answer, counteracting, compensate, correspond to.  The prefix
ant- (αντ-) puts concepts in balance with one another.

Antao (άντάω) means to come opposite to, the basis for the
word antagonist.

Artio (άρτῐο) means an even number, literally “arising outflow-

of tension.” Tension requires an even balance of force.

Artios (ἅρτιος) means complete, perfect, exactly fitted; of

numbers, it means perfect, even.

Artiotees (άρτῐοτης) means soundness, entireness; of numbers,



Artemeo (άρτεμέω) means to be safe and sound.

Artemon (άρτέμων) is the foresail of a ship; the principal pulley

in a system.

Artemis (Ἃρτεμις, Ἃρταμις) is the immortal Goddess of

independence and self-sufficiency, as reflected in her virginity
and hunting skills, symbols of living outside the bonds of

Agra (Ἅγρα) is a title of Artemis at Athens. Agrias (άγιάς) and

agrios (ἅγριος) mean wild, untamed.

Artemis the Hunter.


Aristee (Άρίστη) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess Artemis.

Aristeuma (άρίστευμα) means a deed of prowess; those who
exceed in valor; chiefs; valiant; to be best. Aristo- (άριςτό-) is a
prefix meaning the best (ἅριστος). Aristokratikos
(άριςτόκρᾰτικός) means aristocratic. According to Webster’s
the prefix aristo- is “probably a term specifying at first the upper
class of society, the warrior class.”

Artemisia (άρτεμισία) is absinth wormwood, Artemesia


Artemis is also the name given by the Greeks to the immortal

Goddess of Ephesus (Turkey), whose statues feature bull-
testicles hanging from the vest of her garment to reflect her role
as tamer of bulls and facilitator of the yoking of the bull for
agricultural purposes. Castrated bulls are more easily led, more
docile, and easier to handle than intact bulls, making them useful
to agricultural tasks.  Also, castrated bulls produce more and
better quality meat.

Many ancient coins depicting Artemis on one side feature a bull

on the reverse side. A statue of Artemis at the Ephesus museum
features bulls on her chest. The protrusions on the torso of
several statues of Artemis closely resemble bull-testicles.

Phygela, a city just south of Ephesus, circa 350-300 BCE 

Head of Artemis  / Bull butting right  http://

Bulls depicted on the torso of Artemis.

Ephesus Museum, Hall of Artemis, Section 8, Item 9 on 20,

Greek Antiquities Sculpture (Torse), circa 50 CE. http://

Artemis statue with bull testicles on torso.  http://

Bull testicle.

Ara (ἅρᾰ) is a connecting word meaning, “thus, then,”

indicating that the next arises from the preceding, literally
“arising flow.”

Ardeen (ἅρδην) means lifted up on high.

Arethousa (Άρέθουσα) is the name of several fountains. Ardo

(ἅρδω) means to water, irrigate, to furnish drink.

Areion (άρείων) means better, stouter, braver.

Aretee (άρετή) means excellence, braveness, glorious deeds,

wonders, miracles.

Areego (άρήγω) and arogee (άρωγή) mean help, aid, succor.

Arsis (ἅρσις) means raising or lifting.

Aruo (άρύω) means to draw water; also, of stars rising from the


Armonia (άρμονία) means harmony; a means of joining,
fastening; framework; concord; the Pythagorean name for three. 
Monia (μονία) means stable, steady, fixed, so armonia
(άρμονία) translates as “arising flow-of stability.”

Arthmeo (άρθμέω) means to be united, arthmios (άρθμιος).

Arthmos (άρθμός) means a bond, league, friendship.

Arthritis (άρθρῖτις) means of or in the joints. Arthroo

(άρθρόω) means fastened by a joint, to be jointed.

Armee (άρμή) means a junction, fitting together, joint. Armos

(άρμός) means a joint in masonry, fastening, joining. 

Armozo (άρμόζω) means marriage; kiss; bind fast; fit well.

Arpus (Ἅρπυς) is another name for Eros (Ἕρως), the immortal

God of love.

Arsa (ἅρσα) means join, fit together.

Artao (άρταω) means to fasten or hang one thing upon another.

Arithmos (άριθμός) is the science of numbers, literally “arising
flow-of divine-power divine meta/medium.”

Arithmos (άριθμός) means number; rhythm in Prose; precise

conditions in Medicine; and degrees traversed in a given time in
Astrology; also, degrees of latitude.

Arithmeo (άριθμέω) means number, count, account, reckon.

Arithmios (άριθμιος) means numerical.


Arneios (ἅρνειός, άρνεώς) means a ram.

Arneeos (Άρνῆος) is the constellation Aries, the Ram which

rises in late March, early April, the time of the spring equinox.
The appearance of the constellation Aries marks the beginning
of the new year.

According to Webster’s, Hill, and Hyginus, Aries is “the first

sign of the zodiac.” (Hyginus 2.20 on Hermippus). Aries is also
called Krios (Κρῑός).

John Hill explains the first three signs of the Zodiac (Ram, Bull,
Goats) as corresponding to the timing of domestic animals’

“They (the original namers of the Zodiac signs, predating the

Egyptians and Greeks) saw the return of the spring call up the
grass, and they saw the same season give strength to the young
of the several domestic animals; they found the sheep the
earliest of these in its produce, and they marked the time of the
sun’s return to a certain part of the heavens, as the period at
which this return of the spring was made, and the vegetable and
animal world imbibed this new life . . .

“In the same manner a Bull (Taurus) was placed next in order,
the produce of that animal being a little later in the season than
that of the sheep, and after that the Goat (Gemini/The
Twins) . . . the goat usually bringing forth two at a time, the cow
and sheep only one.”

(John Hill, Urania: Or, a Compleat View of the Heavens;

Containing the Antient and Modern Astronomy, in Form of a
Dictionary (London: printed for T. Gardner; and sold by all the
booksellers in Great Britain and Ireland, 1754. Reprinted by
Gale ECCO Print Editions) “Aries.”)

Hill says that “the names, by which it (the constellation Aries) is

called in the oriental languages, signify a Lamb, and not a Ram.”

(John Hill, Urania: Or, a Compleat View of the Heavens;

Containing the Antient and Modern Astronomy, in Form of a
Dictionary (London: printed for T. Gardner; and sold by all the
booksellers in Great Britain and Ireland, 1754. Reprinted by
Gale ECCO Print Editions) “Aries.”)

Arneios (ἅρνειος) means of a lamb or sheep.  Areen (άρήν)

means lamb or sheep.


Aree (άρή) means bane, ruin, literally “arising outflow-of

center,” perhaps originally in reference to natural disasters such
as volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods.

Arees (Ἅρης) is Ares, the immortal God of death, destruction,

plague, war, and ruin.

Orphic Hymn 64 To Mars (Ares) addresses Ares as one who

delights in bloodshed (5-8):

“. . . Mortal destroying king, defil’d with gore,

Pleas’d with war’s dreadful and tumultuous roar:

Thee, human blood, and swords, and spears delight,

And the dire ruin of mad savage fight . . . ”

The Hymn goes on to entreat Ares to yield to Venus (Aphrodite/
Love) and Bacchus (Wine), and “to Ceres (Demeter) give the
weapons of the field,” that is, let war yield to lovemaking and
drinking, and turn weapons into farming implements.

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 197.)


Arpee (ἅρπη) is a bird of prey; a sickle.

The Arpuiai (Ἅρπυιαι) means Snatchers: whirlwinds or


Arpazo (άρπάζω) means to snatch away, carry off, seize. (This

word is frequently mistranslated as “rape.”)


Aktee (άκτή) means corn, literally “arising core/Kore.” (Kore is

another name for the immortal Goddess Persephone.)
Aleo (άλέω) and alesis (ἅλεσις) mean grind, literally “arising
loosened essence.” Aleuro- (άλευρο-) is a prefix meaning flour.

Aloao (άλοάω) means to tread, thresh, crush, smash. Alos

(ἅλως) is the threshing-floor, where grain was pounded/grinded
to loosen the husk.

Althano (άλθάνω) means to bring in, yield.

Alphee (άλφή) means produce, gain. Alphiton (ἅλφῐτον) is

barley-groats, sprinkled over roast meats, especially sacrificial

Aloa (Άλῶα) is a festival of the immortal Goddess Demeter as

the inventor of agriculture.

Amalla (ἅμαλλα) is a bundle of ears of corn, a sheaf. Amao

(άμάω) means to reap corn.

Ampelos (ἅμπελος) is any climbing plant with tendrils,

especially the grape-vine. Ampel- (άμπελ-) is a prefix meaning

Arao (άράω) means plough. Arosimos (άρόσιμος) means

arable, fruitful, fit for engendering. Arotos (ἅροτος) means
corn-field; ploughing; the procreation of children; generation.
Aroura (ἅρουρα) are corn-lands, fields. Aroo (άρόω) means
plough, till, literally “arising outflow-of entity.”

Armalia (αρμαλιά) means sustenance allotted, food.

Arto- (άρτο-) is a prefix meaning bread. Artos (ἅρτος) is a cake

or loaf of wheat-bread.

Artuo (άρτύω) means to arrange, prepare, make ready. Artusis

(ἅρτῦσις) means a dressing, seasoning, condiment, the
“finishing touch.” Artutos (άρτῡτός) means seasoned, flavored.

Aroma (αρωμα) means an aromatic herb or spice; arable land;


Astachus (ἅστᾰχυς) means an ear of corn.

Achuron (ἅχῠρον) means the chaff, bran, husks left after

threshing or grinding.


The great Greek and Roman ampitheatros (άμφιθέατρος),

ampitheatres, magnificent places of worship, were often built
into a hillside.

Ampitheatres offered complete immersion in religious

experiences, such as dramatic performances of the Hymns of

Amph- (άμφ-) is a prefix meaning encircle, all around,


The Theater at Delphi


 The Theater at Ephesus (in modern-day Turkey)  http://

The ancient theater of Dodona, Epirus, Greece.  Photo by Onno


The ancient theatre of Epidauros in the Peloponnese region of

southern Greece was built circa 350 BCE. (Greek National
Tourism Organisation).  
Download high resolution image (196.75 KB)


Thea (θέᾱ), the basis for the word theatre, in addition to

meaning “Goddess” and “that which is seen,” also means
auditorium (αύδιτωριον), a place of hearing. Thea (θέᾱ)
translates literally, “divine essence arising.”

Audao (αύδάω) means something audible, the basis for the

word audience and the prefix audio-.

Audee (αύδή) means human voice, speech.

Auteo (άϋτέω) means cry, shout, call to, proclaim.

Akousis (άκουσις) means hearing, the basis for the word

acoustic. Akou- (άκου-) is a prefix meaning hear. Akoee
(άκοή) means a sound heard, a hearing.

Aeido (άείδω) means sing. An aeedo (άηδώ) is a singer;

nightingale; poet.

Asma (άσμα) means song, lyric, ode, hymn.

Aineo (αίνέω) means to tell, speak of, praise. Ainos (αῖνος) is a

tale, story; saying, proverb; decree.

Anumneo (άνυμνέω) means divine will proclaimed by “oracle;”

celebrate in song.

Aoidee (άοιδή) means song, lyric poetry. An aoidos (άοιδός) is

a singer.

Apagg- (άπαγγ-) is a prefix meaning report, narrative, recital,


Ara (άρά) means prayer.  

Aretai (άρεταί, άρετή) are sacred words. An areeteer (άρήτήρ)

is one who prays.


Athroizo (άθροίζω) means to gather together. Athroos

(ἅθρόος) means in crowds, heaps, or masses crowded together,
together in a body.

Atthis (Άτθίς) means Attic (Άττικός), Attica, of Athens


Atheenee/Athana (Άθήνη, Άθάνα, Άθᾶναι, Άθᾱναια) is

Athena, the immortal Goddess of Athens (Άθῆναι, Άθᾶναι).
(The Laconian name for Athena is Asana (Άσάνα, Άσᾶναι,

As the Goddess of the State, Athena was frequently portrayed as

a warrior-Goddess.

Athena slays Enceladus. Interior from an Attic red figure dish,

circa 525 BCE, Louvre Museum, France. Image at: wiki/Enceladus_(mythology)

Athenian coins circa 400 BCE feature an image of Athena on

one side and an owl (glauks (γλαύξ)) on the other.  

Helmeted head of Athena right, with profile eye. Rev: Owl

standing right, head facing; olive spray and crescent above; all
within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 63. good VF.

Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated

with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the
bowl. Rev: Owl standing right, head facing, with spread tail
feathers; olive sprig and crescent behind. Cop. 32. EF toned

The magnificent Parthenon (Παρθενών), literally “unified

arising outflow-of divine essence prevailing,” that crowns the
Acropolis (Άκρόπολις, “Upper/Higher City”) in Athens
originally housed a 40-foot, gold- and ivory-plated statue of

The Parthenon dominates the Acropolis in Athens.  http://

“The radiantly beautiful Parthenon was the spiritual center of

Athens. Unlike some Greek temples, it served only one divinity,
the [G]oddess Athena, spirit of creative and active intelligence
and the guardian deity of Athens. The whole plan was
subordinated to her worship. The Parthenon was begun in 447
BCE and finished in 432 BCE. Its architect was Ictinus, its
‘master of words’ Callicrates, and its decorations were designed
and supervised by the sculptor Phidias. It is one of the largest
known Greek temples . . . Standing on its hill it is visible from
miles around, especially the sea-ships crossing the Saronic Gulf
saw it from afar, the manifest evidence of Athenian wealth and

“For Athenians, however, the Parthenon was much more than

this. It was a sacred shrine as well as symbol of temporal
authority. Standing inside in the shadowy sanctuary was
Phidias’ monumental statue of Athena, 40 feet high, fashioned
of wood and covered in gold and ivory—gold for the [G]oddess’
clothing, ivory for her flesh . . .

“The frieze encircling the building depicts the colorful

procession climaxing Athena’s festival, the Great Panathenaea,
held every fourth year. It is a solemn and also a happy occasion,
a holy day and a holiday.”

(C.M. Bowra, Classical Greece (New York: Time-Life Books,

1965) 99.)

As a commercial, trade, political, military, athletic, cultural,

social, religious, artistic, and intellectual center, ambitious
people may have been drawn to ancient Athens, perhaps saying
to themselves, “if I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere.”

(Fred Ebb. Lyrics for the John Kander theme song for Martin
Scorsese’s film New York, New York, 1977.)


Athlos (ἆθλος) means contest, either in war or sport. Aethlios

(άέθλιος) means gaining the prize.

Athleuo (άθλεύω) means to contend for a prize in the athletic

world. An athlon (άθλον) means a prize of contest or a place of

Athuro (άθύρω) means play or sport.


Aitios (αϊτιος) means responsible.

Aitolia (Αίτωλία) is Aetolia, the Aetolian League. “Delphi,

between 290 and 190 BCE, was the ecclesiastical capital of the

(William John Woodhouse, Aetolia (Princeton University

Library, 1897) 101.

A coin, below, features the immortal Goddess of the Aetolian

League, Aeotolia, on one side and the immortal Goddess
Artemis on the other. AETOLIAN LEAGUE. Laureate head
of Artemis r., hair in a tuft at back of head; bow and quiver
at back, below, FI Rev. AITWLWN Aetolia with chiton and
chlamys seated r. on pile of shields, head facing, holding
spear with her r. hand, sword in her l. hand resting on her
knees; in field r., monogram and trophy. A. J. Reinach,
L'Etolie sur les trophées gaulois de Kallion, JIAN 13
(1911), 200, 43. Weber Coll. 3124. http://

The Achaean (Άχαιΐς, Άχαιός) League was a confederation of

states on the Peloponnese.

Achaia (Άχαία) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess Demeter.

Achtheia (Άχθεία) means Demeter.

Achaneia (άχάνεια) means immensity, infinite expanse. Achri

(ἅχρι) means to the uttermost.

Map of the Aetolian (yellow) and Achaean (Άχαιΐς, Άχαιός)

(green) Leagues circa 336-323 BCE. http://


An akos (ἅκος) is a cure, remedy.

Akeomai (άκέομαι) means heal, cure, staunch, mend, repair,

apply a remedy. Akesias (άκεσίας) means healing. Akes-
(άκεσ-) is a prefix meaning to heal, medicinal.

Askeetees (ἅσκητής) means one who practices any art or trade,

the basis for the word ascetic.

Askleepios (Άσκληπιός) is Asclepios, the immortal God of


Althaino (άλθαίνω) means heal.

Aloee (άλόη) means aloes, Aloe vera. Aleipho (άλείφω) means

to anoint the skin with oil.

Aphugiazo (άφῠγιάζω) means cure, heal.

Achos (ἅχος) means pain, distress, the basis for the word ache.


Ambrotos (ἅμβροτος) means immortal, divine, belonging to the

immortal Gods and Goddesses.

Ambrosia (άμβροσία) is a mixture of water, oil, and various

fruits, the elixir of life when coupled with nectar (νέκταρ).

Ambrosia (Άμβροσία) is also a festival of Bacchus, the

immortal God of wine.


Amma (άμμά) means mother.

Amelgo (άμέλγω) means to milk, squeeze out milk, press out

Amneios (άμνεῖος) is the inner membrane surrounding the
fetus, the basis of the word amniotic.

Amnias (Άμνιάς) is an epithet of Eileithyia, the immortal

Goddess of childbirth.


Andreia (άνδρεία) and andria (άνδρία) mean manliness, manly

spirit, also of women, brave deeds, hardihood. Andreios
(άνδρεῖος) means of or for a man, manly, masculine,
courageous, literally “arising prevailing directed-trajectory.”

Arreno- (άρρενο-) and arseno- (άρσενο-) are prefixes meaning


Arreen (ἅρρην) means male. Arseen (ἅρσην) means virile.


The Greeks are seafaring people.

Alee (ἅλη) means wandering or roaming without home or hope

of rest, literally “arising loosened center.” Allee (ἅλλη) means

Alias (άλιάς) means of or belonging to the sea. Interestingly, in

English, alias means a name one goes by in lieu of one’s given

Als (ἅλς) means the sea; also, salt. Ali- (άλί-) is a prefix
meaning sea or salt. Alee (άλή) are salt-works. Alia (άλία) is a

Alm- (άλμ-) is a prefix meaning brine, saltiness.

Aluo (άλύω) means to be fretful, restless, distraught, beside


Allo- (άλλο-) is a prefix meaning another, strange, different,



The Amazons (Άμαζών) were a female society of warriors.

Ama (ἅμᾰ) means all at once, at the same time, the basis for the
word amaze, defined by Webster’s as “to overwhelm with
surprise or sudden wonder; astonish greatly.” Amudis (ἅμῠδις)
means at the same time, together, all together.
The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, gives an account
of the amazing Amazons:

“The origin of this cult (Artemis of Ephesus) was said to go

back to the Amazons, . . . female warriors who had come from
the region of the Caucasus to settle in Cappadocia on the banks
of the Thermodon (River). There the Amazons founded a state
whose capital was Themiscyra and which was ruled over by a
queen. Men were not admitted. Once a year the Amazons would
go to their neighbours the Gargarensians [Georgians?] to form
temporary unions. Of the children which resulted therefrom they
would keep only the girls who, from infancy, were trained for
the chase (hunting) and for war . . .

Map of Caucasus Region


“To the Amazons was attributed the foundation of many towns:

Smyrna, Ephesus, Cyme, Myrina and Paphos. From Cappadocia
they reached the islands, landed at Lesbos and Samothrace, and
had even penetrated Boeotia and Attica (Athens region). The
motives for the invasion of Attica was to avenge the abduction
of Antiope, the sister of Amazon Queen Hippolyta. The
Amazons also fought in Lycia against Bellerophon. During the
Trojan War they came to the aid of Troy.”

(New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (London: Hamlyn

Publishing, 1959) 122.)

Coin from Myrina, 300 BCE, Head of Athena/ Head of Artemis


Statuette of Victory,Found in Myrina (present-day

Turkey) Terracotta  H. 29 cm
Excavation of E. Pottier and S. Reinach Acquirted by the Louvre
in 1883Inventory n° MYRINA 314, normal catalogue n° MYR

Myrina is on the island of Limnos near the Hellespont. http://    

Diodorus of Sicily (Διοδώρου τοτ Σικελιωτου) gives the

following account of the Amazons:

“44. After these events there came in Scythia a period of

revolutions, in which the sovereigns were women endowed with
exceptional valour. For among these peoples the women train
for war just as do the men and in acts of manly valour are in no
wise inferior to the men. Consequently distinguished women
have been the authors of many great deeds, not in Scythia alone,
but also in the territory bordering upon it . . .

45. Now in the country along the Thermodon river (In Pontus
(cp. Strabo, 12. 3. 14-15), as the account goes, the sovereignty
was in the hands of a people among whom the women held the
supreme power, and its women performed the services of war
just as did the men. Of these women one, who possessed the
royal authority, was remarkable for her prowess in war and her
bodily strength, and gathering together an army of women she
drilled it in the use of arms and subdued in war some of the
neighbouring peoples.

2 And since her valour and fame increased, she made war upon
people after people of neighbouring lands, and as the tide of her
fortune continued favourable, she was so filled with pride that
she gave herself the appellation of Daughter of Ares; but to the
men she assigned the spinning of wool and such other domestic
duties as belong to women. Laws also were established by her,
by virtue of which she led forth the women to the contests of
war, but upon the men she fastened humiliation and slavery  . . .

4 In general, this queen was remarkable for her intelligence and
ability as a general, and she founded a great city named
Themiscyra at the mouth of the Thermodon river and built there
a famous palace; furthermore, in her campaigns she devoted
much attention to military discipline and at the outset subdued
all her neighbours as far as the Tanaïs river.

5 And this queen, they say, accomplished the deeds which have
been mentioned, and fighting brilliantly in a certain battle she
ended her life heroically.

46. The daughter of this queen, the account continues, on

succeeding to the throne emulated the excellence of her mother,
and even surpassed her in some particular deeds. For instance,
she exercised in the chase the maidens from their earliest
girlhood and drilled them daily in the arts of war, and she also
established magnificent festivals both to Ares and to the Artemis
who is called Tauropolus (The Taurian Artemis, so well known
from the Iphigeneia among the Taurians of Euripedes.).

2 Then she campaigned against the territory lying beyond the

Tanaïs and subdued all the peoples one after another as far as
Thrace; and returning to her native land with much booty she
built magnificent shrines to the deities mentioned above, and by
reason of her kindly rule over her subjects received from them
the greatest approbation. She also campaigned on the other side
(i.e. south of the Black Sea) and subdued a large part of Asia
and extended her power as far as Syria.

3 After the death of this queen, as their account continues,

women of her family, succeeding to the queenship from time to
time, ruled with distinction and advanced the nation of the
Amazons in both power and fame. And many generations after
these events, when the excellence of these women had been
noised abroad through the whole inhabited world, they say that
Heracles, the son of Alcmenê and Zeus, was assigned by
Eurystheus the Labour of securing the girdle of Hippolytê the
Amazon (The story is given in detail in Book 4. 16.).

4 Consequently he embarked on this campaign, and coming off

victorious in a great battle he not only cut to pieces the army of
the Amazons but also, after taking captive Hippolytê together
with her girdle, completely crushed this nation. Consequently
the neighbouring barbarians, despising the weakness of this
people and remembering against them their past injuries, waged
continuous wars against the nation to such a degree that they left
in existence not even the name of the race of the Amazons.

5 For a few years after the campaign of Heracles against them,

they say, during the time of the Trojan War, Penthesileia, the
queen of the surviving Amazons, who was a daughter of Ares
and had slain one of her kindred, fled from her native land
because of the sacrilege (Quintus Smyrnaeus (1. 24 f.) says that
she killed her sister Hippolyte on a hunt, while hurling her spear
at a stag.).  And fighting as an ally of the Trojans after the death
of Hector she slew many of the Greeks, and after gaining
distinction in the struggle she ended her life heroically at the
hands of Achilles.
6 Now they say that Penthesileia was the last of the Amazons to
win distinction for bravery and that for the future the race
diminished more and more and then lost all its strength . . .”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History Book II, 44-46,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library Volume
303 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd.,1935) 29-37.)
Diodorus_Siculus/2B*.html )


Adrias (Άδρίας) means Adriatic.

The Adriatic Sea lies between Italy and the Serbo-Croatian


Aigaios (Αίγαῖος) means Aegean.

Aegean in the Bronze Age.


Aigi- (αίγι-) and aigo- (αίγο-) are prefixes meaning goat. An

aigis (αίγίς) is a goatskin worn as a dress; the skin shield carried
by Zeus, Athena, and Apollo; and the dress worn by the
priestesses of Athena.

Argeios (Άργεῖος) means from Argos (Άργός), the Greeks in

general. The Argo (Άργώ) is the ship of the Argonauts. Argees
(άργῆς) is a kind of serpent. Argees (άργής) means white.
Argi- (άργί-) is a prefix meaning white. Argur- (άργῠρ-) is a
prefix meaning silver, arguros (άργῠρος). 

Arkadia (Άρκᾰδία), Arcadia, occupied the central highlands of

the Peloponnese.

Map of the regions of the Ancient Peloponnese showing


Ara (άρά) means prayer. The words Arabia (Άρᾰβία) and Arab
(Ἃραψ) share this prefix.  

Arioi (Ἃριοι) is the ancient name of the Medes, the inhabitants

of the Persian satrapy of Areia (Άρεία) (corresponding roughly
with Afghanistan).
Aria is shown in the eastern part of this map depicting “The
Oriental Empires,” circa 600 BCE. Credits University of Texas
at Austin. Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26).

Asia (Ἅσία) is Asia. Note that Sia (Σιά) is Laconian for Thea
(Θεά), Goddess.

Assuria (Άσσυρία) is Syria. Note that sur (συρ) means pipe,

anything acting as a pipe or pipeline, a flowing together,

Syria, shown in purple, below, serves as a northern

Mediterranean port for much of Asia, a “pipeline” to and from

Syria, in purple, provides port access to the Mediterranean for

much of Asia.

Ausonia (Αύσονία) is Italy. Austeeros (αύστηρός) means

harsh, rough, bitter, austere, rugged, severe, the basis for the
word austerity. 


Aima (αίμα) means blood, literally “arising divine-power


Amee (ἅμη) means a water-bucket, pail, spade.

Ammos (ἅμμος) means sand.

Aoteo (αωτέω) and aoros (αωρος) mean sleep.

Apallagee (άπαλλᾰγή) means deliverance, release, relief from,

to set free, the basis for the word apology. An apalias (άπᾰλίας)
is a suckling pig, sacrificed to the immortal Goddess Demeter.

Apaks (ἅπαξ) means once, once only.

Aploos (άπλόος) means simple, single.

Arachnees (άραχνης) means spider, arachnid.

Aruteer (άρῠτήρ) means a ladle or a cup.

Aspis (άσπίς) means a shield.

Astu (ἅστυ) means city or town; astikos (άστικός) means of a
city or town.

Asulaios (άσῦλαῖος) mean asylum, sanctuary, safe place for a

person. Asulos (ἅσύλος) means safe.

Ascholeo (άσχολέω) means engage, occupy, be busy with, such

as a scholar devoted to a particular line of knowledge.

Attideia (Άττίδεια) is a festival of Attis, beloved of the

immortal Goddess Kubelee (Κῠβέλη), Kybele.  

Aphar (ἅφᾰρ) means straightway, forthwith, swift, fleet.

Aphenos (ἅφενος) means revenue, riches, wealth, abundance.

Aphneios (άφνειός) means rich, wealthy.

Aphiksis (ἅφιξις) means arrival. Aphodos (ἅφοδος) means


Acheloos (Άχελῶος) is the name of several rivers, any stream;

water, literally “arising foundation essence loosened.”

Acheron (Άχέρων) is a river in the netherworld. One of

Sappho’s poems speaks of a yearning to see Acheron:
"but a kind of yearning has hold of me—to die

and to look upon the dewy lotus banks

of Acheron.”

(Sappho. If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho, Fragment 95,

translated by Anne Carson (New York: Vintage Books, a
division of Random House, 2000) 189.
stuff/sappho/ )

Achtheo (άχθέω) means a load, weight, burden. Achthomai

(ἅχθομαι) means to be loaded. Achthos (ἅχθος) means a
burden, a load.

Aps (ἅψ) means backwards, again, in return, yet again, literally

“arising incorporeal.” Apsinthia (άψινθία) is a wine prepared
with Artemesia/ wormwood. Apsis (άψίς) is an arch or orbit. 


The letter Α is commonly mistranslated as meaning “not, want,

or absence.”

An example of this mistranslation is the word atheist, atheotees

(άθεότης), literally “arising belief in a deity.” Arising belief in a
deity is not uncommon among polytheistic and multicultural

Arising above belief in a deity is a common perspective for

those dissatisfied with religious explanations for phenomena.

Atheotees (άθεότης) is (mis)translated by the Liddell and

Scott Greek-English Lexicon as “[G]odlessness.”
The Lexicon also translates atheotees (άθεότης) as neglect of
the [G]ods [and Goddesses] of the State.

Β β beeta (βῆτα) basis

pronounce: b

The letter Β means basis.

In Astrology, basis (βάσις) means one’s horoscope, oroskopos

(ώροσκόπος), the sign or degree rising at the time of birth,

Bankon (βανκόν) means one’s fate, destiny.

The astrological definition of basis (βάσις) as “the sign or

degree rising at the time of birth” is consistent with the letter Β’s
placement as the second letter of the alphabet, directly following
the letter Α, “arising.” The letter Β answers the questions,
“Arising where? In what context?”
The shape of the letter B shares similarities with the astrological
symbol for the ascendant:

Astrological glyph/symbol for the ascendant.

The letter Β resembles the buttocks, the seat of the body and the
base of the spine.
It should be noted that the name of the letter Β, beeta (βῆτα),
contains the phrase eeta (ῆτα) and that eetor (ἦτορ) means the
seat of life, the seat of feeling, the seat of reasoning powers.

Three other Greek letter-names include the phrase eeta (ῆτα): Ζ

(zeeta (ζῆτα)), Η (eeta  (ἧτα)), and Θ (theeta  (θῆτα)). The
letters Β, Η, and Θ are centrally divided by a horizontal line
with top and bottom a mirror image of each other. It is
interesting to note that the letter Η was originally written as a
squared letter, making it only subtly distinguishable from the
letter Β. The letter Θ originally contained a cross within a circle
rather than just a horizontal line within a circle as shown in L.
H. Jeffery’s Table of Letters.

Table of Letters. (L.H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic

Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and Its
Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C.[E.]. 
(Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.)


Basis (βάσις) means stepping, step, steps; measured step or

movement; rhythmic or metrical movement; metrical unit; order,
sequence; that with which one steps, a foot; that whereon one
stands, base, pedestal (of statues, of a column); foundation,
basement; base of a solid or plane figure; position, fixedness;
horoscope, oroskopos (ώροσκόπος), the sign or degree rising at
the time of birth, the ascendant, nativity.

Webster’s defines basis as “the bottom or base of anything: the

part on which something stands or rests; anything upon which
something is based; fundamental principle; groundwork . . . a
basic fact, amount, standard, etc., used in making

Note that the word basis pertains to waypoints as well as to a

permanent, fixed place.


Recall that basis (βάσις) means stepping, step, steps; measured

step or movement; rhythmic or metrical movement.
Babaksai (βαβάξαι) means dance. It is of interest to note that
the name of the letter Β, beeta (βῆτα), is the basis for the word
dance, beetarmos (βηταρμός), and dancer, beetarmon
(βητάρμων). One of the definitions of basis (βάσις) is
“rhythmic or metrical movement,” that is, the beat.

Badhen (βάδην) means step by step; on foot. Badizo (βᾰδίζω)

means to walk, march, go, proceed. Badisis (βάδῐσις) means
walking, going.

Bados (βάδος) means walk, literally “basis arising directed-


Bagei (βαγαῖ) means go in, enter, come in, come upon the
stage, come before the court.

Bageuei (βαγεύει) means wander about.

Baino (βαίνω) and ban (βάν) mean walk, step, motion on foot,
on ground; march, dance; come; go on, advance. 

Ballizo (βαλλίζω) means dance, jump about.

Bate (βᾶτε) and bebamen (βεβάμεν) mean walk, dance, step.

Bateo (βᾰτέω) means that on which one treads.

Bebhelos (βέβηλος) means allowable to be trodden upon.

Berreuo (βερρεύω) means run away.

Beela (βηλά) are sandals, shoes, boots. Blautee (βλαύτη) means

a slipper.

Beema (βῆμα) and bama (βᾶμα) mean step, pace, footfall; seat,
base, pedestal.

Blaudes (βλαῦδες) means enter into a procession.

Blosis (βλῶσις) means arrival, presence. Blosko (βλώσκω)

means go or come.

Bomis (βωμίς) means a step.


Recall that basis (βάσις) means metrical unit, a measured unit.

Bathmos (βαθμός), basmos (βασμός), and baino (βαίνω) mean

step, threshold; an interval in a musical scale; rung of a ladder;
degree on the dial; 15 degrees of the 360-degree zodiac; step,
degree in rank; steps. 

Baion (βαιών) means a measure.

Baios (βαιός) means little, small, few, scanty.

Baideion (βαίδειον) means at hand, ready, prepared; deion

(δειον) means that which is needful, necessaries, so that
baideion (βαίδειον) translates as “a measure of what is needed.”

Baiessa (βαίεσσα) means a bunch of grapes.

Baitee (βαίτη) means a coat or tent of skins, a covered building

in the market-place.

Bakaion (βακάϊον) means that by which anything is measured,

a metric, measure, rule.

Banotos (βανωτός) means a kind of vase used as a measure.

Bikas (βῖκας) means bind fast, tie up in a bundle. Bikos (βῖκος)

means jar, cask, drinking bowl.

Blethra (βλέθρα) means a measure of length of 100 feet.

Boion (βοιόν) means a cycle of 50 years. 

Brebion (βρέβιον) means list, inventory.

Balbis (βαλβίς) means the rope drawn across the race-course to
mark the starting and finishing point.

Ballai (βάλλαι) means step, threshold.

Beelos (βηλός) means threshold. Beerides (βηρίδες) means


Bela (βέλα) means Helios (the Sun) just arising (Eelios kai
augee (Ἣλιος καί αύγή)), the basis of a new day. Babelios
(βαβέλιος) means Helios.

Blastano (βλαστάνω) means to shoot forth, come to light, be

born; bud, sprout, grow, literally “basis loosened.”

Blastao (βλαστάω) means bring forth; growth, birth from a

parent; eruption on the skin; budding, sprouting. A blastos
(βλαστός) means a shoot, bud; offspring.

Brephos (βρέφος) means a babe in the womb, fetus, literally

“basis outflow.”

Bruchis (βρυχίς) means a twig or branch, especially a vine-

twig; a cutting, slip.

Bokaros (βώκαρος) means early spring, the beginning of

spring, literally “basis brings-forth core/Kore.”

Recall that basis (βάσις) means that whereon one stands, base,
pedestal (of statues, of a column); foundation; basement.

Bakoa (βάκοα) means base, pedestal.

Banon (βανόν) means peeled, husked, taken down to the base.

Basagei (βασαγεῖ) means the ground.

Baskon (βάσκον) means land, a definite space, a piece of

ground, place.

Basmiaios (βασμιαῖος) means a flat block used as a base.

Bauria (βαυρία) means building, house, dwelling.

Bebaios (βέβαιος) means firm, steady, steadfast, durable.

Berethron (βέρεθρον) means the underground course of a river.

Bleenai (βλῆναι) means truth, reality (the opposite of a lie or

mere appearance).

Bothreuo (βοθρεύω) means to dig a trench or pit; the sockets of

the teeth. A bothros (βόθρος) is a hole, trench, or pit dug in the

Bolos (βῶλος) means land, soil, clay.


Basileia (βᾰσιλείᾱ) means hereditary monarchy; kingdom,

dominion; queen; reign. Basileia (βᾰσίλείᾰ) means queen,
princess; of Goddesses.

Basilikos (βᾰσῐλικός) means royal, kingly; palace.

Basilis (βᾰσῐλίς) means queen, princess, empress; royal;

kingdom. Basilissa (βᾰσῐλισσα, βασίλεῐᾰ) means queen;
Roman Empress; a title of the immortal Goddess Demeter.

Bistaks (βίσταξ) and basileus (βασιλεύς) mean king, chief;

hereditary king; of Roman emperors.

Boulee (Βουλή) means the Senate. Bouleia (Βουλεία) means

the office of councilor, membership of the Senate.


Male cattle are the largest and most powerful of domesticated

animals. A castrated ox can be trained to pull a plough through
the fields.

Male cattle held a central role in both the agricultural and

religious spheres of ancient Greek and Egyptian life. The
slaughter of a bull was a sacred occasion. Below are depictions
of sacrificial bulls.

Bull prepared for sacrifice

, circa 50 CE. Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Ann
Raia, 2006.

Bo- (βο-), boo- (βοο-), and bou- (βου-) are prefixes meaning
bull, ox, male cattle.

Bous (βούς) means a bull, ox, cow, or cattle; also, the Spring
constellation Taurus (April-May), the second constellation of the

Boubalos (βούβᾰλος) means buffalo. Bison (βίσων) means


Boubeetis (βουβῆτις) means a stream for watering cattle; a

Bosaree (βωσαρη) is an Indian word for elephant, a large and
powerful animal that can be tamed.

Decorated Indian elephant. http://


Bames (βᾶμες), bomen (βῶμεν), and bomos (βωμός) mean a

base, platform, floor, altar with a base.

Bomios (βώμιος) means of an altar, at the altar, literally “basis

meta,” that is, the basis for a connection between the micro and
the macro.

Bomiskos (βωμίσκος) means an altar-shaped vessel; in

arithmetic, a solid number; the name of a constellation; the base
of molar teeth.

Some inscriptions at Eleusis include: “Bomiskos for Iakchos”

and “Bomiskos for Kourotrophos.”

(Inscriptions of Eleusis. IEO4OO. “Bomiskos for Iakchos.”

Archaeological Museum of Eleusis 1072. Praktika 1956. Image:
Cornell University Library.)

Bomitis (βωμῖτις) means consecrated land.

Bomiskos (βωμίσκος) means altar. Bomistria (βωμίστρια)

means priestess.


Written material serves as an official record as well as the basis

for communication over space and time.

Biblio- (βιβλιο-) is a prefix meaning book.

Biblion (βιβλίον) means a strip of bublos (βυβλος), paper, a


Bublos (βυβλος) means the Egyptian papyrus, Cyperus

Papyrus; the rind enclosing the pith of this plant, bark; slices of
the pith used as a writing-material; a roll of papyrus.

Bublos (βυβλος) also means book, especially of sacred writings.

Bibliakos (βιβλιακός) means versed in books.

Bibliagraphos (βιβλιαγράφος, βιβλιογράφος) means writer of
books; also, a library, collection of books, record-office,


Intercourse is the basis for procreation.

Babalon (βάβαλον) means privy parts, of both men and women.

Beblein (βέβλειν) means puberty.

Bibazo (βιβάζω) means to cause to mount, put the male to the

female; stallion.

Bolba (βόλβα) means the vulva, the external female genitalia.

Boubon (Βουβών) means groin, literally “basis entity pure


Bi- (βῐ-) and bio- (βῐο-) are prefixes meaning life. Bios (βίος)
means life, lifetime, literally “basis divine-power entity.”
Bio (βίῳ) (βιόω), bioeen (βιῴην), bionai (βιῶναι), and bioto
(βιώτω) mean live.

Babion (βάβιον) means child, the beginning or base of life.

A biographia (βῐογρᾰφία) is the written record of one’s life.

Biosis (βίωσις) means a way of life.


Bia (βία) means bodily strength, force, literally “basis divine-

power arising.”

Biaios (βίαιος) means forcible, violent. Biasmos (βῐασμος)

means violence. Biatas (βῐᾶτάς) means forceful, mighty.

Briaros (βρῐᾰρος) means strong. Briao (βρῐάω) means to make

strong and mighty. Brimee (βρῑμη) means strength, might,
literally “basis outflow-of divine-power.”


Webster’s defines weight as “the force that gravitation exerts

upon a body.”
Bareo (βαρέω) means weigh down, depress, heavy, literally
“basis outflow.”

Baros (βάρος) means a weight, burden, load, heaviness, the

basis for the word barometer.

Bareema (βάρημα) means burden, load, pressure.

Baru- (βᾰρῠ-) is a prefix meaning heavy, strong, grievous.

Barutho (βᾰρύθω) means to be weighed down. Barus (βᾰρύς)
means heavy in weight.

Brithos (βρῖθος) means weight. Britho (βρίθω) means to be

heavy or weighed down; laden with; full of.

Broulos (βρουλός) means to be oppressed by toils, in a sorry



Recall that basis (βάσις) means metrical unit, something that

can be measured.

Depth is a measure of how far something extends from the

surface downward (to the base). Height is a measure from the
bottom (base) to the top. Width measures from one side to the
other. (Webster’s)

Bath- (βάθ-) is a prefix meaning deep, high, wide, thick.

Bathos (βάθος) means depth, height, length, breadth.

Bathistos (βάθιστος), bathion (βαθίων) and bathus (βαθύς)

mean deep, high, wide, thick.

Bathrikon (βαθρικόν) means base.

Bathron (βάθρον) means that on which anything steps or

stands; base, pedestal; stage, scaffold; solid base; seat, stool,

Bathuno (βᾰθύνω) means to deepen, hollow out, penetrate


Bathus (βᾰθύς) means deep, high, thick, abundant, profound.

Bathalee (βαθάλη) means a well, spring, or fountain, the basis

for the word bathe.

Baisson (βαισσόν) means depth, height.

Bamba (βάμβα) and bamma (βάμμα) mean that in which a

thing is dipped, literally “basis meta.”
Bapto (βάπτω) means dip, literally “basis unified (with).”

Baptees (βάπτης) means a dipper or bather. Baptizo (βαπτίζω)

means to dip, plunge, the basis for the word baptism.

Baph- (βαφ-) is a prefix meaning dip.

Bapsis (βάψις) means dipping.

Benthos (βένθος) and bussos (βυσσός) mean the depth of the

sea. Bussothen (βυσσοθεν) means from the bottom of the sea.

Blothros (βλωθρός) means tall, literally “basis loosened brings-


Brachea (βράχεα) means shallows, literally “basis outflow

foundation.”  Brachus (βρᾰχύς) means short. Bradus (βρᾰδύς)
means slow.

Bruks (βρύξ) means the depth of the sea.

Bruchios (βρύχιος) means from the depths of the sea, deep.

Buthos (βῠθός) means the depth, the bottom, literally “basis

pure divine.”


Sucking draws milk out from the breast. Boiling brings bubbles
up from the base to the surface. An earthquake is an upheaval
from the depths; a cough brings the breath up from the lungs. A
fountain or spring of water bubbles up from beneath the surface.

Badelegei (βαδελεγεῖ) means to milk, squeeze out milk, “basis

arising directed-trajectory.” Bizia (βίζια) means mammary
glands, literally “basis divine-power spark-of-life.”

Beeks (βήξ) means a cough, “basis center detach-from.”

Bluzo (βλύζω) means to bubble, gush forth of liquids. Blusis

(βλύσις) means bubbling up of liquids, “basis loosened.”

Buktees (βύκτης) means swelling, blistering; hurricane, “basis

pure core tension.”

The following words begin with br- (βρ-), literally “basis


Brabeia (βρᾰβεία) means office of arbitration, judgment.

Brazo (βράζω) means boil, froth up, ferment.

Brasis (βράσις) means boiling (of water).

Brasmos (βρασμός) means boiling up.

Brastees (βράστης) and brasso (βράσσω) mean of an

earthquake, upheaving the earth vertically.

Brusis (βρύσις) means bubbling up.

Bruazo (βρῠάζω) means to swell; be pregnant.

Brutos (βρῦτος) means fermented liquor made from barley,

beer. Bunee (βύνη) means malt for brewing; also, an old name
of the immortal sea-Goddess Ino or Leucothea; the sea itself
(probably because the sea foams and froths).

Bruo (βρύω) means swell or team with, especially of plants; to

be full to bursting, abound, grow luxuriantly; of water, burst
forth, gush with.


Babazo (βαβάζω) means to speak inarticulately, or shout.

Babizo (βαβίζω), bazo (βάζω), and bagma (βάγμα) mean
speak or say.

Babaktees (βαβάκτης) means a reveler (of Pan; of Dionysos).

Baks (βαξ) means an oracular saying, inspired utterance.

Babaks (βάβαξ) means chatterer.

Boao (βοάω) means cry aloud, shout.

Boee (βοή) means a loud cry or shout, a battle-cry.

Boeetheia (Βοήθεια) means aid called for (of the Goddess or

Goddesses). Boeetheo (βοηθέω) and bathoeemi (βᾱθόημι)
mean come to aid, succor, assist, aid, come to the rescue, receive
help, resource, remedy.

Bombeo (βομβέω) means to make a booming (βόμβος) noise.

Bombuks (βόμβυξ) means a deep-toned pipe; the lowest note

on the flute.

Borborugmos (βορβορυγμός) means intestinal rumbling,


Boreas (βορέας) is the immortal God of the cold and raging

north wind.

Borrazon (βορράζων) means noise, full of sound.

Brachein (βρᾰχεῖν) means rattle, clash, ring, mostly of arms and


Bremo (βρέμω) means roar, clamor, rage.

Bront (βροντ) means thunder. Broutao (βρουτάω) means
thunder; Zeus.

Brullo (βρύλλω) and brun (βρῦν) mean a child’s cry for drink.

Bruch- (βρῡχ-) is a prefix meaning roar, bellow, death-cry of

wounded men, bellowing.

Bukan- (βῡκᾰν-) is a prefix meaning trumpet (βῡκᾰνάω); deep


Bukta (βυκτά) means complain loudly of hardship, utter

indignant complaints.


Bakchos (Βάκχος, Βακχεύς) is Bacchos, the immortal God of

revelry and wine, literally “basis arising core foundation.”

Entheos (ἕνθεος) means full of a God or Goddess; inspired,

possessed, inspired by a God or Goddess, the basis for the word
enthusiasm. Celebrations of Bacchos are characterized by
enthusiastic--enthousiastikos (ένθουσιαστικός)--song, music,
and dance as Bacchantes enter a state of fusion with Bacchos.

Bakchio (Βακχιόω) means fill with divine presence.

Bakcheia (Βακχεία) means Bacchic revelry. Bakcheios
(Βακχειος) means belonging to Bacchos and the rites of

Bakchee (Βάκχη) means Bacchante, a female worshiper of


Detail of a Bacchante from a painting of the train of Bacchos/

Dionysos. She holds a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff).

Tampa Museum of Art, Tampa,

Florida, USA
Catalogue Number: Tampa 86.102. Apulian Red Figure
Krater, Name vase of the Maplewood Painter, circa 350 BCE.

Bakchodees (Βακχώδης) and Bakchos (Βάκχος) mean filled

with the spirit of Bacchos.

In Orphic Hymn 45. To Liknitus Bacchus (5-6), Orpheus


“. . . ‘Tis thine mad footsteps with mad nymphs to beat,

Dancing thro’ groves with lightly leaping feet . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 179.)

Seneca, in Phaedra (753-755), describes Bacchos as having

Indian origins:

“Et tu, thyrsigera Liber ab India,

intonsa iuvenis perpetuum coma,

tigres pampinea cuspide territans . . .”

"And thou, Bacchus, from thyrsus-bearing India, with unshorn

locks, perpetually young, thou who frightenest tigers with thy
vine-clad spear . . ."

(Seneca (circa 41 CE), Phaedra 753-755 in Tragedies, Vol. I,

Loeb Classical Library, translated by Frank Justus Miller
(London: William Heinemann and New York: G.P. Putnam’s
Sons, 1917.)

The immortal God Bacchos holding a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped

staff), draped with a skin, and accompanied by a panther,
follows a Satyros with pipes and a Bacchante with cymbals in a
Bacchic procession.

British Museum, London, United Kingdom, from the Villa

Quintiliana on the Appian Way, south of Rome, circa 100 CE.

The pine-cone tipped staff is a symbol of followers of Bacchos.

The staff is a symbol of office or position as well as an aid in

Bakteeria (βακτηρία) means a staff, a wand as a badge of

office. Baklon (βάκλον) means stick.

Baktrophoras (βακτροφόρας) means staff-bearer.

Eating is integral to mortal life. Mortals eat other living beings
(plants, animals) in order to live. 

Bibosko (βιβώσκω) means eat, eat up; decay; devour; worm-


Bora (βορά) means food.

Bortheia (Βορθεια) is a title of the immortal Goddess Artemis,

“Goddess of food.”

Boros (βορός) means gluttonous; inducing appetite.

Bosis (βόσις) means food, fodder.

Food basics in the Mediterranean include, grains, bread, grapes,

and fish.

Baburas (Βαβύρας) means the fat of beasts.

Bagos (βάγος) means a morsel of bread; also, any matter of

religious awe.

Bekos (βέκος) and beskeroi (βέσκεροι) mean bread.

Bettonikee (βεττονική) means betony, Sideritis purpurea, an

herb thought to be a cure-all.  Betony is also called
anthrakobotanon (άνθρᾰκοβότανον); with anthrak- (άνθρᾰκ-)
a prefix meaning charcoal or carbon, so that άνθρᾰκοβότανον
translates as “charcoal herb.”

“Betony is very good in pains of the head, convulsions and

nervine affections: The dried leaves, cut, and mixed with
tobacco, are frequently smoaked (sic) for the head-ach (sic),
vertigo, and fore (sic) eyes. Mixed with Wood-sage and Ground-
pine, it makes a good diet-drink for the gout, and rheumatick
pains.” On p. 142, “Paul’s Betony is reckoned among the
vulnerary plants, both used inwardly and outwardly; it is
likewise pectoral, and good for coughs and consumptions; and is
helpful against the stone or strangury; as also against pestilential
distempers. It is used as a tea.”

(John Wilson. A Synopsis of British Plants in Mr. Ray’s Method

(Newcastle Upon Tyne: John Gooding, 1744) 91.)http://

Beerbee (βήρβη) means fruit; bean.

Beereeks (βήρηξ) means a loaf of bread.

Beerus (βῆρυς) means fish, a food staple in the sea-faring
Mediterranean; also, the constellation Pisces (Feb.-Mar.), the
last sign of the zodiac before the start of the new year marked by
Aries (Mar.-Apr.), making Beerus (βῆρυς) (Pisces) the base or
launch-pad for the new year.

Boa (βόα) means fish.

Bosmoron (βόσμορον) means an Indian millet, ragi, Eleusine

coracana (note the use of “Eleusine.”)

“Ragi is the main food grain for many peoples, especially in dry
areas of India and Sri Lanka. Grain is higher in protein, fat and
minerals than rice, corn, or sorghum (Reed, 1976). It is usually
converted into flour and made into cakes, puddings, or porridge.
When consumed as food it provides a sustaining diet, especially
for people doing hard work. Straw makes valuable fodder for
both working and milking animals. A fermented drink or beer is
made from the grain. Grain may also be malted and a flour of the
malted grain used as a nourishing food for infants and invalids.
Ragi is considered an especially wholesome food for diabetics.”

(James A. Duke. Handbook of Energy Crops (unpublished,


Botr- (βοτρ-) is a prefix meaning cluster, bunch of grapes; of

berries. Botrus (βότρυς) means a bunch of grapes. 

Brakana (βράκανα) means wild herbs.

Briza (βρίζα) means rye.

Bromos (βρόμος) means oats, wild oats. Oddly enough, bromos

(βρόμος) also means any loud noise, crackling of fire, roar of
thunder, rage, fury.

Bromeo (βρομέω) means buzz, roar, boil. Bromios (Βρόμιος)

is a name of Bacchos, the immortal God of wine. Followers of
Bacchos are known for causing an uproar.

In Euripides’ play, Bacchae, Bromios is described as inspiring

His followers to shout out loud, reveling in the flow of milk,
wine, and honey:

ὁ δ᾽ ἔξαρχος Βρόμιος,


ῥεῖ δὲ γάλακτι πέδον, ῥεῖ δ᾽ οἴνῳ, ῥεῖ δὲ μελισσᾶν


Συρίας δ᾽ ὡς λιβάνου καπνὸν

ὁ Βακχεὺς ἀνέχων

πυρσώδη φλόγα πεύκας

ἐκ νάρθηκος ἀίσσει

δρόμῳ καὶ χοροῖσιν

πλανάτας ἐρεθίζων

ἰαχαῖς τ᾽ ἀναπάλλων,

τρυφερόν <τε> πλόκαμον εἰς αἰθέρα ῥίπτων.   150

ἅμα δ᾽ εὐάσμασι τοιάδ᾽ ἐπιβρέμει·

Ὦ ἴτε βάκχαι,

ὦ] ἴτε βάκχαι,

(Euripides, Bacchae, ancient Greek text http:// last
update: 4/2012)

“He is Bromius who leads us! Euohe!

--With milk the earth flows! It flows with wine!

It runs with the nectar of bees!

--Like frankincense in its fragrance

is the blaze of the torch he bears.

Flames float out from his trailing wand

            as he runs, as he dances,

            kindling the stragglers,

            spurring with cries,

and his long curls stream to the wind!

--And he cries, as they cry, Euohe!--

            On, Bacchae!

            On, Bacchae!”

(Note that euoi/euohe (εὐοἷ) means good.)

(Euripedes, Bacchae (141-153), Euripedes V, translated by

William Arrowsmith (Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1959) 160.)
Brogchos (βρόγχος) means trachea, windpipe, throat.
Brochthos (βρόχθος) is another word for throat. Brocho
(βρόχω) means to gulp down, swallow, drink up, guzzle.
Brochhe (βροχή) means rain; inundation of the Nile; irrigation.
Brecho (βρέχω) means wet, rain.

Bruko (βρύκω) means to bite, gnash; eat greedily, gobble up.

Broma (βρῶμα) means that which is eaten, food, meat; a cavity

in a tooth (because the tooth is eaten away); moth-eaten. Bromos
(βρῶμος) means stink, noisome smell, foul-smelling (describes
something decaying, food for maggots/scavengers).

Brosis (βρῶσις) means meat; pasture; eating.

Broteos (βρωτέος) means to be eaten. Broteios (βρότειος) and

brotos (βροτός) mean human, mortal, subject to death.


Beekia (βηκία) means sheep, cattle, pasturage, grazing animals.

Boskos (βοσκός) means a herdsman, shepherd. Bosko (βόσκω)

means of shepherds; feed, tend; feed, nourish, graze.

Botan- (βοτᾰν-) is a prefix meaning herbs, the basis for the

word botany. Botanee (Βοτάνη) means pasture.

Boteios (βότειος) means of a sheep. Boteer (βοτήρ) means

herder. Boton (βοτόν) means a beast, a grazing beast.


Words that begin with βλ-, literally “basis loosened,” express

damage, flight, randomness, lack of energy, foolishness,
crookedness, smokiness, loose talk, and launching.

Blabee (βλάβη) means harm, damage, damage done.

Blaburei (βλαβύρει) means to spread wings; flutter. 

Blaburia (βλαβυρία) means random talking, “blah blah.”

Blagis (βλαγις) means a stain, spot, defilement.

Bladan (βλαδάν) means heavy sleep; sluggish; leisurely.

Bladaros (βλᾰδᾰρός) means flaccid, soft.

Blazein (βλάζειν) means silly, foolish, folly.

Blais- (βλαισ-) is a prefix meaning crooked, bent, curved,

Blakeia (βλᾱκεία) means slackness, lazy.

Blaks (βλάξ) means stolid, stupid.

Blapto (βλάπτω) means to disable, hinder, damage, hurt.

Blaskei (βλάσκει) means to make smoke, turn into smoke.

Blasta (βλαστά) means a rattle, clap, cracking sound.

Blaspheemeo (βλασφημέω) means to speak profanely of sacred

things; speak ill of, slander, defamation. Note φῆμα means that
which is said, word, so that βλασφημέω roughly translates as
“baseless words.”

Blacha (βλᾱχά) means bleating of sheeps; the wailing of

infants. Bleechazo (βληχάζω) also means bleat, of sheeps.

Blapsis (βλάψις) means harming, damage.

Bleairei (βλεαίρει) means to take pity on, perhaps by setting

aside punishments.

Blennos (βλέννος) means slime.

Bletuges (βλέτυγες) means nonsense, futility, foolishness.

Bleedeen (βλήδην) means throwing, hurling. Bleema (βλῆμα)
means throw, cast. Blees (βλής) means thrown. Bolee (βολή)
means throw. A bolis (βολίς) is a missile or javelin.

Bleer (βλῆρ) means bait, something dangled as an enticement.

Bleetos (βλητός) means stricken by disease.

Bleechon (βλήχων) means pennyroyal, Mentha Pulegium, an

herb used to terminate pregnancy.

Blima (βλίμα) means to treat disrespectfully, to treat with


Blitta (βλίττω) means to cut the honeycomb from the beehive to

take the honey.

Blituri (βλίτυρι) means the twang of a harp-string.

Blomos (βλωμός) means a morsel of bread.

Bludion (βλύδιον) means watery, ud- (ύδ-) means water.

Boleo (βολέω) means to be stricken, literally “basis entity


Eyesight is a sense that profoundly extends the realm of

Blemma (βλέμμα) means a look, glance, eyesight; lemma

(λέμμα) means husk, that which is peeled away.

Blepo (βλέπω) means see, have the power of sight, look, lep-
(λέπ-) is a prefix meaning husk. Eyes are at the center of the
skull, so blepo (βλέπω) and blemma (βλέμμα) could translate as
“basis (of the) husk/skull” or “basis of peeling away the husk/

Blepharon (βλέφᾰρον) are the eyelids; pharos (φάρος) means


Blepsis (βλέψις) is the act of sight; a thing seen, literally “basis

loosened essence incorporeal.”

Boroi (βῶροι) means eyes, oro- (ῶρο-) means observation, so

“basis of sight.”


Babulon (Βᾰβῠλών) is Babylon, the capital of Babylonia, an

ancient empire of Mesopotamia, a major city on the Euphrates
River, in what is now southern Iraq.
Babylon is located on the Euphrates River in the ancient
Assyrian empire in 834 BCE. Babylon is home to the famous
Ishtar Gate, described by Pausanias:

“[8.33.3] “Of the Babylon that was the greatest city of its time
under the sun nothing remains but the wall.” (Pausanias 8.33.3), )

Modern archaeologists attest to the grandeur of the Ishtar Gate

of Babylon.

“The magnificent approach by way of the Procession Street

corresponds entirely with the importance, the size, and the
splendour of the Ishtar Gate. With its walls which still stand 12
metres high, covered with brick reliefs, it is the largest and most
striking ruin of Babylon.”

(Robert Koldewey. The Excavations at Babylon, translated by

Agnes Sophia Griffith Johns (London, et. al.: MacMillan and
Co., 1914) 31-32.
mmary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false )

An inscription on the Ishtar Gate describes Ishtar as the

inspiration for its construction:

Column III.
“Doors of unbarked-cedars (9)

whose odor is sweet in its gates (10)

I caused to stand. That temple like the day (11)

I made brilliant. For Ishtar of Agade, (12)

the great lady, my lady, for the life of my soul, (13)

for the annihilation of mine enemy verily I have made it.”

(S. Langdon, “New Inscriptions of Nabuna’ed,” The American

Journal of Semitic Languages, Vol. 32, edited by John Merlin
Powis Smith (Chicago: University of Chicago, Dept. of Semitic
Languages.) 114.)
&f=false  )

The Ishtar Gate, 575 BCE., Babylon.

The following hymn to Ishtar describes Ishtar as reigning over
all as Queen of Heaven and Earth.

“I beseech thee, Lady of Ladies, Goddess of Goddesses, Ishtar,

Queen of all cities, leader of all men.

Thou art the light of the world, thou art the light of heaven . . .

Supreme is thy might, O Lady, exalted art thou above all [G]ods.
[and Goddesses]

Thou renderest judgment, and thy decision is righteous.

Unto thee are subject the laws of the earth and the laws of

the laws of the temples and the shrines, the laws of the private
apartment and the secret chamber.

Where is the place where thy name is not, and where is the spot
where thy commandments are not known?

At thy name the earth and the heavens shake, and the [G]ods
[and Goddesses] they tremble . . .

Thou lookest upon the oppressed, and to the down-trodden thou

bringest justice every day.
How long, Queen of Heaven and Earth, how long,

How long, Shepherdess of pale-faced men, wilt thou tarry?

How long, O Queen whose feet are not weary, and whose knees
make haste?

How long, Lady of Hosts, Lady of Battles?

Glorious one whom all the spirits of heaven fear, who subduest
all angry [G]ods [and Goddesses], mighty above all rulers; who
holdest the reins of kings.

Opener of the womb of all women, great is thy light.

Shining light of heaven, light of the world, enlightener of all the

places where men (sic) dwell, who gatherest together the hosts
of the nations.

Goddess of men, Divinity of women, thy counsel passeth


Where thou glances, the dead come to life, and the sick rise and
walk; the mind of the diseased is healed when it looks upon thy

How long, O Lady, shall mine enemy triumph over me?

Command, and at thy command the angry [G]od will turn back.

Ishtar is great! Ishtar is Queen! My Lady is exalted, my Lady is

Queen, Innini . . .

There is none like unto her.”

(Will Durant, The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage

(New York: MJF Books, 1935) 235-236.)


Bithuniarchees (Βῑθῦνῐάρχης) means the President of the

Provincial Council of Bithynia (Βῑθῦνῐά).

Bithynia is in northern Turkey.

Boiotos (Βοιωτός) means Boeotian.

Boeotia is shown northwest of Attica.


A Boeotian coin, circa 387-372 BCE, featuring a Boeotian

shield on one side, and the head of the immortal Goddess Hera,
wearing stephane (crown), 2.72g (BMC 1; Pozzi 3212; Weber

Bosporos (Βόσπορος) is the name of several straits. Note that

poros (πορος) means a means of passing through, so that
Βόσπορος roughly translates as “basis passage.”

Boubastis (Βούβαςτις), “Bull of Bastet,” is a city on the

easternmost distributary of the Nile and the site of a major
festival of Bastet, the immortal lion-Goddess.

Boubastis is located on an eastern tributary of the Nile. http://


Bakelas (βᾰκέλας) or bakeelos (βάκηλος) means a eunuch in

service of the immortal Mother of the Gods, Kubelee (Κῠβέλη),

Barbarikos (βαρβᾰρικός) means non-Greek, the basis for the

word barbaric.

Borboroo (βορβορόω) means to make muddy.

Beessa (βῆσσα) means wooded combe, glen; also, a drinking

cup that is broader below and narrower above.

Beesalon (βήσαλον) means brick, brick-work.

Bisteenee (βιστήνη) means the heart.

Brenthina (βρενθινά) are roots used to make face-paint.

Brenthos (βρένθος) means haughty, arrogant; also, tomb.

Bretanikos (βρετᾰνικός) means British. Bretas (βρέτας) means

wooden image.

Brizo (βρίζω) means to be sleepy, nod, slumber, dream.  

Britomartis (Βρῐτομαρτις) is a name of the immortal Goddess

Artemis in Crete. Brittandra (βριττανδρα) means prevailing
over men (ανδρα); the prefix mart- (μαρτ-) means witness, so
that Britomartis (Βρῐτομαρτις) translates as “prevailing over

Buzo (βύζω) means to be frequent.

Buo (βύω) means to stuff full of.

Γ γ gamma (γάµµα) generative

pronounce: g
The letter Γ means generative; as exemplified by birth; earth;
women; gnowledge; and (creative) writing.

The shape of Γ suggests an offshoot from a stem.

A sprout.

Generative is defined by Webster’s as “capable of

producing or creating; pertaining to the production of
offspring.” Generate means “to bring into existence, cause
to be.”


Gaggamon (γαγγᾰµον) means the umbilical region.

Gegaate (γεγάᾶτε), gegaasi (γεγάᾶσι), gegamen (γεγάµεν),

gegaos (γεγαως), ginomai (γίνοµαι), and ginumai (γίνυµαι)
mean to come into being, to be born, to be produced.

Geinomai (γείνοµαι) means beget, bring forth, bring into life.

Gen- (γεν-) is a prefix meaning from birth, by descent.

Genea (γενεά) and gonea (γονεά) mean race, family;

offspring; birthplace; time of birth.

Genealogos (γενεᾱλογος) means genealogist.

Genethlias (γενεθλιάς) means birthday.

Genesia (γενέσια) means a day kept in memory of deceased


Genesiourgia (γενεσιουργία) means generation.

Genesis (γένεσις) means origin, source.

Geneteira (γενέτειρα) means mother; daughter.

Genetee (γενέτη) means the hour of birth.

Genetullis (Γενετυλλίς) is the immortal Goddess of one’s


Genna (γέννᾰ) means descent, birth, origin, offspring.

Gennao (γεννάω) means bring forth, bear; produce from

oneself, create.

Genneeis (γεννήεις) means generative. Genneema (γέννηµα)

means that which is produced or born; child.
Genneetees (γεννητής) means begetter, parent, producer.

Genos (γένος) means race, stock, kin, direct descent,


Gignomai (γίγνοµαι) means come into being; also, come into

a new state of being (suggesting a progression).

Gonar (γονάρ) means meetra (µήτρα), womb, mother, a

metaphor for origin, source.

Gonao (γονάω) means produce from oneself, create; bring

forth, bear; produce, grow.

Goneia (γονεία) means generation.

Gonetees (γονέτης) and goneus (γονεύς) mean begetter,

ancestor, parents; author.

Gonee (γονή) means offspring, children.

Goneema (γόνηµα) means produce, fruits of the earth.

Gonikos (γονικός) means of the seed. Gonodees (γονώδης)

means like seed.
Gonimos (γόνιµος) means productive, fertile, fruitful.
Gonimotees (γονιµότης) means vitality (of the embryo),
generative power.

Gonoeis (γονοεις) means fruitful.

Gonon (γόνον) means thread by thread, in due order, in an

unbroken series, continuously; the thread of the warp, the
thread of destiny; in Orphic language, seed, literally
“generative entity prevailing entity prevailing.”

Gonopoieo (γονοποιέω) means to impregnate.

Gonos (γόνος) means offspring, child, product (of plants);

begetting, procreation; seed; genitals.


Ga- (γά-), geee- (γέη-), geio- (γειο-), and geo- (γεω-) are
prefixes meaning earth.

Ga (Γᾰ), Gaia (Γαῖα), Ge (Γε), Gea (Γέα), Geee (Γέη), and

Gee (Γῆ) are names for the immortal Goddess Earth.

According to Hesiod’s Theogony (an account of the origin

of the universe written around 700 BCE), the immortal
generative Goddess Gaia (Γαῖα), Earth, is the “ever-sure
foundation” that emerged first from primordial Chaos.

(ll. 116-117) “In truth at first Chaos came to be, but next
wide-bosomed Earth, the ever-sure foundation . . .” http://

(Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica. Theogony,

translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann
Ltd. 1914; Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011) 30.)

Both Homer and Orpheus describe Gaia as the Mother of


Homeric Hymn 30 “To Earth Mother of All (Εϊς Γῆν

Μητέρα Πάντων), circa 600 BCE, begins:

“I will sing of well-founded Earth, mother of all, eldest of

all beings.”

(Homer. “XXX. To Earth the Mother of All (II. 1-16),”

Harvard University Press and William Heinemann Ltd;
Dodo Press, 182.)

Orphic Hymn 25 “Gees (Γἥς) To the Earth,” begins:

Γαϊα θεά, µἥτερ µακάρων θνητὥν τ' άνθρώπων
“Goddess, Earth, of Gods [and Goddesses] and men (sic)
the source . . .”

(Orpheus, “XXV. To the Earth,” The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by

Thomas Taylor (London: 1792, reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 150.)

Gaia (γαῖα) means land, country, earth. Gaios (γάϊος) means

on land, of the land, of earth.

Gaiodees (γαιώδης) and geodees (γεώδης) mean earth-like,

the probable basis for the English word Goddess.

Gaiaoxos (Γαιάοχος), “Gaia’s Ox,” is an epithet of

Poseidon, the immortal God of the Ocean. An ox is a male
animal kept for breeding, for impregnating, such as a
stallion. (Gaiaoxos (Γαιάοχος) has been euphemistically
translated as “Earth-Mover.”)

Gabergor (γαβεργόρ, γᾱFεργός) means tilling the ground,

fertilizing (of vine-dressers, gardeners, farmers).

Gathia (Γαθία), “Earth Goddess,” means to make other than

it is, change, alter, make one thing into another (for
example, turning a seed and other elements into a plant).

Gaeon (γαεών) and gaion (γαιών) mean a heap of earth.

Gaieios (γαιεῖος), gainos (γάϊνος), gaieeios (γαιηϊος), and
geeinos (γήϊνος) mean sprung from Gaia or Earth.

Gaikos (γαϊκός) means concerning land.

Gaieethen (Γαιηθεν) means from the land, out of the earth.

Gaiographos (γαιογράφος) and geographos (γεωγράφος)

mean geographer.

Gaiodotees (γαιοδοτής) and geodaitees (γεωδαίτης) mean to

divide, parcel out land, “land (γαιο) giver (δοτής).”

Gakinas (γᾱκίνας) means earthquake.

Gametria (γᾱµετρία) and geometria (γεωµετρία) mean

geometry, land survey, land measuring.

Gaodikai (γᾱοδίκαι) means arbitrators in a territorial

dispute; “land (γᾱ) justice (δίκαι).”

Gapedon (γάπεδον) and geepedon (γήπεδον) mean estate,


Gapotos (γάποτος) means to be drunk up by Earth, of

libations; potos (ποτος) means for drinking.

Gatomeo (γᾱτοµέω) means to cleave the ground.

Gaphagas (γᾱφάγας) means earthworm.

Gaoruchion (γᾱωρύχιον) and georuchion (γεωρύχιον) mean

tunnel, mine, burrowing.

Gegeios (γέγειος) means earth-born.

Geee (γέη) and geeethen (γέηθεν) mean from the earth.

Geeeros (γεηρός) means of earth.

Geiarotees (γειᾰρότης) means plougher of earth.

Geios (γεϊος) means of land. Geinos (γέϊνος) and geeinos

(γήϊνος) mean of earth.

Geiokomos (γειοκόµος) means cultivating land.

Geiomoros (γειοµόρος), geomoros (γεωµόρος), geemoros

(γηµόρος), geioponos (γειοπόνος), and geoponos
(γεωπόνος) mean landowner or farmer.

Geiophoros (γειοφόρος) means earth-bearing.

Geitneo (γειτνεύω, γειτνέω, γειτνιάω) means to be a

neighbor, share a border. Geiton (γειτων) means neighbor.
Geitonia (γειτονία) means neighborhood; quarter, ward in a
Geneema (γένηµα) means produce (of the fruits of the

Geothalpees (γεοθαλπής) means earth-cherishing.

Geoomai (γεόοµαι) means to become earth.

Geographeo (γεωγρᾰφέω) means to describe the earth’s

surface. Geographia (γεωγρᾰφία) means geography.

Geometreo (γεωµετρέω) means to measure, survey land;


Georgeo (γᾱFεργέω, γεωργέω) means farmer, land-owner;

till, plough, cultivate.

Georgia (γεωργία) means agriculture, farming.

Georgos (γᾱFεργός, γεωργός) means tilling the ground (of

vine-dressers, gardeners).

Geotomia (γεωτοµία) means digging up the earth,


Geegenetees (γηγενέτης) means earthborn, indigenous, born

of Gaia (of the Titans).

Geethen (γῆθεν) means out of or from the earth.

Geethullis (γηθυλλίς) means spring onion, “earth’s
offering,” one of the first foods to emerge in Spring.

Geeinos (γήινος) means of earth.

Geelophos (γήλοφος) means hill, mound.

Geemorion (γηµόριον) means burial plot.

Gio (γίο) means there, exactly here, this very place.

Gloron (γλωρόν) means pasture.

Gnuthos (γνύθος) means a pit or hollow. Gnuphai (γνυφαί)

are valleys about a town, a glen (small, secluded valley).

Goloina (γολοινά) are green crops.

Goratou (γοράτου) means volcanic.

Gorgura (γόργῠρα) means underground drain or sewer.

Gorgurion (γοργύριον) means subterranean channel.

Gorna (γόρνα) means burial urn.

Gouniaios (γουνιαῖος) means place, region.

Gounos (γουνός) means high-ground.

Gountee (γούντη) means tomb.

Guees (γύης) means the curved piece of wood in a plough, to which the
ploughshare is fitted; also, a measure of land. The ploughshare is a sharp
steel wedge that cuts loose the top layer of soil.
Guos (γύος) means field.

Gupsos (γύψος) means gypsum, used as plaster and as a


Goleos (γωλεός) means a hole.

Gops (γώψ) means dividing earth, ploughing. It is also a

word for Aidees (Ἃιδης) (Hades), the afterlife, netherworld,
the unseen, literally “generative brings-forth incorporeal.”


The Greeks celebrate the Earth as the source of joy.

Gaggalides (γαγγᾰλιδες) and gelasinoi (γελασῖνοι) mean


Gagalismos (γαγγᾰλισµός) means pleasant living, luxury.

Gaza (γαζα) means treasure.

Gatho (γάθω), gegathei (γεγάθει), geetheo (γηθέω), and
geetho (γήθω) mean rejoice.

Gaion (γαίων) means rejoice, exult.

Gaka (γάκα) means pleasantly, with pleasure.

Gakeiai (γακεῖαι) means sweet, dear. Gakoudia (γακούδια)

means spice, seasoning, sweetness. Gakouponees
(γακουπώνης) means sweet drink, delicious drink.

Galeros (γᾰλερός, γαληρός) and galeenos (γαληνός) mean


Galeenee (γᾰλήνη) means calm, serene.

Ganao (γᾰνάω) means exult, rejoice, glorifying.

Ganitai (γανῖται) means lush, extravagant. Ganodees

(γᾰνώδης) means bright, rich.

Ganoma (γᾰνωµα) means joy, gladness.

Gauros (γαῦρος) means exulting in, proud, splendid,


Gear (γέαρ) means early Spring; also, juice, blood, literally

“Ge’s (Earth’s) (generative essence) arising outflow.”
Geiothen (γειόθεν) means with joy.

Geggei (γέγγει) means rain; wet; the inundation of the Nile,

literally “Ge (Earth) generative essence.”

Gelenos (γέλενος) means asphodel and narcissus, literally

“Ge’s (Earth’s) generative essence loosened essence
prevailing.” Gelea (γέλεα) means perfect, entire, complete,
without blemish.

Gelanees (γελᾶνής) means cheerful; heart; soul, spirit as the

principle of life, feeling, and thought, especially of strong
feeling and passion.

Gelao (γελάω), geloo (γελόω), and gelos (γέλως) mean

laugh, laughter, smile.

Gelodutia (γελοδυτία) means sunset, “Ge’s (Earth’s)

loosened threshold (ούδος).”

Geloios (γέλοιος) means mirth-provoking, amusing.

Geuma (γεῦµα) means taste; first of the season; food. Geuo

(γεύω) means taste, eat of, take food, dine.

Gephura (γέφῦρα) means the open space between two

hostile armies; also, a bridge; also, the causeway between
Athens and Eleusis from which abusive ridicule was hurled
at those in procession, “Ge’s (Earth’s) mixing-place



Gallazo (γαλλάζω) means to practice the religion of the

immortal Mother of the Gods and Goddesses.

Galliambikon (γαλλῐαµβικόν) is a variety of Ionic meter

used in the worship of the immortal Mother.

A Gallos (Γάλλος) is a priest of the immortal Mother.

Guberneetees (γῠβερνήτης) is a title of the immortal

Mother, “governing (γῠβ-) sprouts (ερνήτης).”


Words for "woman" (as opposed to "man") are gana (γάνα),

guon (γύον), guos (γύος), guna (γυνά), gunee (γῠνή), and
bana (βανά).

Gana (γάνα) also means land.

Interestingly, ganaeis (γᾰνᾱεις) means glorious; ganapeas

(γαναπέας) means absolute, complete, perfect, entire,
without blemish, entire, full; all-powerful.
Ganassas (γανάσσας) means beautiful, beauty.

Gandoma (γάνδοµα) means wheat, “land’s (γάν) gift


Ganea (γάνεα) means garden.

Gasteer (γαστήρ) means belly, womb, wide part of a bottle;

the basis for the prefix gastro- (γαστρο-).

Gistia (γιστία) means a place for a fire, a container for fire;

also, the external female genitals.

Gunaiko- (γυναικό-) is a prefix meaning woman.

Gunaikeios (γῠναικεῖος) means of or belonging to women,

the basis for the word gynecology.


Garrees (γάρρης) means male, literally “generative arising


Garabos (γάραβος) means the croaking of the male frog.

Garotas (γᾱρότας) means bullock, a young bull.

Garra (γάρρα) means rod, wand.

Garriai (γάρρίαι) means wedding.


Note that the name for the letter Γ is gamma (γάµµα).

Gam- (γάµ-) is a prefix meaning marriage, wedding,

literally “generative arising meta/medium.”

Gameo (γᾰµέω) means marry, take to wife, marry a wife.

Gamos (γάµος) means wedding.

Gambreno (γαµβρένω) means to form connections by

marriage. Gambros (γαµβρός) means in-laws. Gambra
(γαµβρά) means a sister-in-law.

Gamela (γάµελα) are offerings made on the occasion of


Gametee (γᾰµετή) means married woman; gametees

(γᾰµετης) means married man.

Gaopoia (γᾰοποΐα) means the celebration of a wedding.

Gneesios (γνήσιος) means born of wedded parents.


Milk-production is a uniquely female characteristic that

arises from birth-giving.

Gala- (γᾰλα-) and galak- (γᾰλακ-) are prefixes meaning

milk, literally “generative arising loosened.”

Gaulos (γαυλός) means milk-pail.

Gala (γάλα) means milk; the breast; wet-nurse.

Galaktias (γαλακτίας) and galaksias (γαλαξίας) mean

galaxy, milky-way.

Galaxia (Γαλαξία) is a festival at Athens in honor of the

immortal Mother of the Gods.

Galaktokomos (γᾰλακτοκόµος) means herder of sheep or

cattle (sources of milk).

Galoucheo (γᾰλουχέω) means to suckle; suckling; wet-


Glagao (γλᾰγάω) means to be milky. Glageros (γλᾰγερός)

means full of milk. Glagos (γλάγος) means milk.

Glauko (Γλαυκώ) is a name for the moon.

Glauks (γλαύξ) is a small owl, Athena noctua, “nocturnal-

Athena,” frequently an emblem of the immortal Goddess

Glauson (γλαυσόν) means lamp; bright, radiant, clear.

Glacho (γλάχώ), gleechon (γλήχων), and glachon (γλάχων)

mean pennyroyal, an herb used to terminate pregnancy,
literally "generative loosen."

Gleukee (γλευκη) means sweetness of taste, sweet. Gleukos

(γλεῦκος) means unfermented grape juice; sweetness. Gluk-
(γλυκ-) is a prefix meaning sweet. Glukus (γλῠκύς) means
sweet to the taste or smell.

Gleechonoeides (Γληχωνοειδές) is Dittany of Crete, a

fragrant herb.

Glinos (γλῑνος) means the Cretan maple tree, a source of

maple syrup. Glia (γλία) means glue, sticky.

Gloutos (γλουτός) means buttocks, the basis for the word

Gloks (γλώξ) means an ear of corn.


Recall that Webster’s defines generative as “capable of

producing or creating,” and generate as “to bring into
existence, cause to be.”

Gnosis (γνῶσις) means seeking to know, inquiry,

investigation; knowing, knowledge, literally “generative

Gnomee (γνώµη) is a means of knowing, hence, a mark or

token; also, the organ by which one perceives or knows;
intelligence; thought, judgment, opinion.

Gnomeestos (γνωµηστός) means knowledge.

Gnomon (γνώµων) means one that knows or examines; an

interpreter, discerner; an expert witness or valuer.

Gnorizo (γνωρίζω) means to make known, point out.

Gnorimos (γνωρῐµος) means well-known.

Gnoristikos (γνωριστικός) means capable of apprehending,


Gnotos (γνωτός) means perceived, understood, known.

Gignosko (γιγνώσκω) means to know by reflection, know,
know by observation, discern, perceive.

Gisamenai (γισάµεναι) means to know, have knowledge of,

be acquainted with; see, perceive, behold.

Goida (γοῑδα, Fοῑδα) means know. Goideemi (γοίδηµι)

means know, be able to do, capable of doing, understand a
matter, be versed with, knowing, understanding, skillful.


Glaris (γλᾰρίς) means chisel, literally “generative loosen,”

reflecting the carving action of a chisel.

Glaphis (γλᾰφίς) and gluophis (γλυοφίς) mean engrave.

A glumma (γλύµµα) is an engraved figure, signet (a small

seal for official documents).

Gluptees (γλυπτης) means carver, sculptor, engraver.

Gluphanos (γλύφανος) is a tool for carving. Glupho
(γλύφω) means to engrave.

Gluphee (γλυφή) means carving, carved work, glyph, the

basis for the word hieroglyph (“sacred carving”).
Goisos (γοῐσος) means ink, literally “generative entity.”

Grathma (γράθµα) means that which is drawn, the lines of a

drawing, picture, drawing, literally “generative outflow.”

Gramma (γράµµα) are the lines of a drawing, a picture; a

written character, letter, the letters, the alphabet; an
inscription; notes in music; papers, documents, writings,
books, treatise; laws or rules.

Grammata (γράµµατα) means written characters.

Grammateion (γραµµᾰτεῑον) means that on which one

writes, tablets; also, a place where written characters were
taught; school.

Grammatizo (γραµµᾰτίζω) means to teach the spelling of a


Grammateus (γραµµᾰτεύς) means secretary or registrar.

Grammatikos (γραµµᾰτικός) means to know one’s letters, a

good scholar; also, engraved with the alphabet; grammar;
alphabet, script.

Grammatoeis (γραµµᾰτοεις) means inscribed.

Grammee (γραµµή) means a stroke or line, as in

mathematical figures; in forming letters, the line traced by a
teacher; the cutting edge of a knife.

Grammikos (γραµµικός) means linear, geometrical, by

means of lines.

Grammos (γραµµός) is the act of writing.

Grammodees (γραµµώδης) means the mother of lines. A

leaden plummet is a device used to determine this “plumb”
line, a line regarded as directed exactly toward the earth’s
center of gravity, used to determine verticality.

Plumb line measures vertical line of newly-laid bricks.

Grapteos (γραπτέος) means to be written. A grapteer

(γραπτήρ) is a writer.

Graptos (γραπτός) means painted, marked with letters,


Graphee (γρᾰφή) and gropho (γρόφω) mean representation

by means of lines; drawing; writing; inscription.

Grapho (γράφω) means to scratch; mark or draw signs;

represent by lines, draw, paint; brand, mark; express by
written characters, write; inscribe.
A grapheion (γρᾰφεῖον) is a writing instrument, a pencil,
paint brush, engraving tool, chisel.

Grapheus (γρᾰφεύς) means painter, scribe, copyist.

Gru (γρῦ) means syllable.


In a society with limited literacy and limited means of

disseminating writing, the spoken word is a major means of
sharing information and knowledge.

Gegona (γέγωνα) means to make one’s voice carry; speak

articulately; tell out, proclaim.

Gegonos (γεγωνός) means loud-sounding, sonorous; loud of


Geerus (γῆρυς) means voice, speech.

Geeruma (γήρῦµα) means sound.

Geeruo (γηρύω) means sing, say, utter, sing of, celebrate.

Gipon (γῖπον) means speak, say, recite.

Glassa (γλάσσα) and glossa (γλῶσσα) mean tongue. Glottis

(γλωττίς) is the mouth of the windpipe.

Gnathmos (γναθµός) means jaw.

Godoulos (γοδοῦλος, γοιδοῦλος) means talk.


Gegeios (γέγειος) means earth-born; anything

extraordinarily ancient, “born of Ge.”

Geraios (γεραιός) means old, ancient, the basis for the word
geriatric. Gerairo (γεραίρω) means honor, celebrate.

Geroia (γεροῖα, Fεροῖα) are ancient tales.

Geraros (γερᾰρός) means of reverend bearing, majestic,


Geronteion (γεροντεῖον) means body of elders, senate.

Gerousia (Γερουσία) is the Council of Elders, Senate.

Geron (γέρων) means old man, old. Gerontes (Γέροντες) are

Elders, Chiefs.

Geer- (γηρ-) is a prefix meaning old. Geeras (γῆρας) means

old age. Geero- (γηρο-) is a prefix meaning old age.
Graia (γραῖα) and grais (γραῑς) mean old woman. Graus
(γραῦς) means old man.

Graikos (Γραικός) means Greek, the local name for a tribe

in West Greece, applied by the Italians to Greeks (Hellenes)
in general as an ancient people.

Graoomai (γραόοµαι) means to become aged.

Gugai (γυγαί) means grandfather.


Gum- (γυµ-) is a prefix meaning gym; naked (wearing just

what your mother gave you), literally “generative pure

Gumnos (γυµνός) means naked, unclad; unarmed. A

gumnees (γυµνής) is a lightly-armed foot-soldier.

Gumnazo (γυµνάζω) means to train naked; train in

gymnastics exercises.

Gumnastikos (γυµνᾰστικός) means skilled in athletic


Gergerimos (γεργέριµος) means olive-tree, literally
“generative essence outflow.”

Grabion (γράβίον) means torch, literally “generative


Granata (γρανᾰτα) means pomegranates.

Grastis (γραστις) means grass.

Grintees (γρίντης) means heaven. According to Hesiod’s


“And Earth first bare starry Heaven, equal to herself, to

cover her on every side, and to be an ever-sure abiding-
place for the blessed gods.”

(Hesiod (circa 750 BCE). Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica.

“Theogony 115,” translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1914.
Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011) . )

Gripos (γρῖπος) means a net, a haul of fish. Griphos

(γρῖφος) means fishing-net.

Grison (γρίσων) means pig, an earth-loving animal sacred

to the immortal Goddess Demeter. Grulion (γρῦλίων)
means a young pig.
Grubos (γρυβός) means a griffin, a beast with the head and
wings of an eagle and the body of a lion. Herodotus,
Pausanias, Aelian, and Philostratus say these creatures
guard gold treasure.

Museum Collection: Antikensammlungen, Munich,

Catalogue Number: Munich 2605
Beazley Archive Number: 200708
Ware: Attic Red Figure
Shape: Kylix
Painter: Attributed to the Euergides Painter
Date: circa 515 - 500 BCE.

Grupee (γρυπή) are vulture’s nests. A gups (γύψ) is a vulture,

symbolic of death and renewal.

Grunee (γρύνη) means frankincense.

Grunos (γρῦνός) means firebrand, torch.


Gaggeetikos (Γαγγητικός) means from the Ganges River of

western India. The Ganges River is the longest of India,
considered sacred.

Gadara (Γάδᾰρα) is a town in Palestine, Gedera.

Gadeira (Γάδειρα) is Cadiz, a city and port in southwest


Gadee (γαδή) means box, chest. A gandion (γάνδιον) is a

box for drawing lots; a voting-urn; an ark, chest, box.

Gadiks (γάδιξ) means agreement.

Gali (γάλι) means sufficient, adequate, satisfactory.

Gallikos (Γαλλικός) means Gallic (French).

Gamalee (γαµάλη) means camel.

Gambrion (γάµβριον) means cup, bowl.

Gampsos (γαµψός) means curved, crooked (of the uterus);

also, of birds of prey. Gausos (γαυσός) means crooked, bent

Gandao (γανδάω) means give light, shine, gleam.

Gapos (γάπος) means anything that bears or supports.

Gelikee (γελίκη) means helix; twisted, curved; anything

which is a spiral shape; whirl, convolution.

Gelin (γέλιν) means a solemn oath or treaty.

Gemizo (γεµίζω) means to fill full of, load, laden with.

Gemos (γέµος) and gomoo (γοµόω) mean load. Gomos
(γόµος) means a ship’s freight, cargo; a beast’s load.

Gerdios (γερδιός) means weaver. A gistiai (γιστίαι) is a worker

at the loom, a weaver.

Gia (γία, Fία) means the full bloom of a flower or plant,

literally “generative divine-power arising.”

Gias (Γίγας) mean Giants; mighty. Giganteios (Γῐγάντειος)

means Gigantic.

Giggrees (Γίγγρης) is a Phoenician name for Adonis,

beloved of the immortal Goddess of love, Aphrodite. A
giggras (γιγγρας) is a small Phoenician flute or fife of high
pitch and plaintive tone, named after Adonis, perhaps as an
accompaniment to his appearance in theatrical productions.
The death and revival of Adonis coincide with the new
growth of vegetation in the Spring. Below, a depiction of
Adonis and Aphrodite accompanied by winged Eros, the
immortal God of love.

Aphrodite, Adonis, and Eros. Museo Archeologico Etrusco,

Florence, Italy
Catalogue No: Florence 81948,
Beazley Archive No.: 220493, Attic Red Figure Hydria,
Attributed to Meidias Painter
Date: ca 450 - 400 BCE.

Gin (γίν) means thou.

Ginipteerion (γινιπτήριον) means genista, broom, a

flowering tree hardy in dry soils.

Genista aetnensis grows on Mount Etna in Sicily. http://

Giksai (γίξαι) means to be in motion or flux, go forward,

advance; passing.

Gisgon (γίσγον, FίσFον) means equal, literally “generative

divine-power synchronized.”

Gistio (γιστιῶ) means make to end, bring to an end, check,

stop, abate.

Gischun (γισχύν) means strength, might, power, brute force,


Gitea (γιτέα) means willow; of willow, wicker.

Gnophos (γνόφος) means darkness.

Goggulos (γογγύλος) means round. Groumos (γροῦµος)

means a round ball; strobe; whirling.

Guros (γυρός) means round, the basis for the word gyro.

Goees (γόης) means sorcerer or wizard.

Goinos (γοῐνος) means wine; note that oinos (οῐνος) means


Gomphos (γόµφος) means bolt, nail, fastener.

Gonees (γονής) means narcissus (νάρκισσος), an early

spring flower.

Gonu (γόνυ) means clasping the knees in earnest

supplication. Gounasma (γούνασµα) means supplication.

Gorgos (γοργός) means grim, fierce; swift; spirited,

vigorous, the basis of the word gorilla (γόριλλα).

Δ δ delta (δέλτα) directed-trajectory

pronounce: d

The letter Δ means directed-trajectory.

Webster’s defines direct as “to manage or guide; to regulate
the course of;” and traject as to “transport, transmit.” A
directed-trajectory is a guided transmission.

The delta (dέλτα) of a river is the triangular-shaped deposit

of sediment at the mouth of a river that directs the current.

The Nile River Delta in Egypt. http://

Arrows are an iconic symbol of direction.

The triangular arrow-tip directs the flight of a spear. Dour-

(δουρ-) is a prefix meaning spear.

An arrow sign.


Tellingly, the simple Greek word de (δέ) means but, a word

that redirects the current subject.

De (δέ) also implies a causal connection, as in then.


Dee (δή) means at this point; at that point; now; then;
literally “directed-trajectory center.”

Deethen (δῆθεν) means from that time, thenceforth.

Deetha (δηθά) means for a long time.

Deeladee (δηλᾰδή) means clearly, manifestly; yes plainly;

of course.

Deepothen (δήποθεν) means from any quarter.

Deepoka (δήποκα), deepote (δήποτε), and deekote (δήκοτε)

mean at some time, once, once upon a time.

Deepou (δήπου) means perhaps, doubtless, I presume,

surely it is so that . . .

Deeta (δῆτα) means what then? now . . .


As a suffix, -de (-δέ) denotes motion towards, as in alade

(άλαδε): sea-wards.

Degmon (δέγµον) means way or road.

Dedaloi (δέδαλοι) means the front-line in a battle.

Deeris (δῆρις) means battle, contest.

Deeema (δέηµα) means entreaty. Deeesis (δέησις) means

entreaty, petition. Deeetikos (δεητικός) means suppliant,
one who seeks divine intercession, forgiveness, etc.

Deiree (δειρή) means neck, throat; gully, glen; a flow-

through channel.

Deuro (δεῦρο) means here; hither; with all verbs of motion.

Deute (δεῦτε) means come hither!

Deo (δέω) means to be bound; bind, tie, fetter. Deo (δέω)

also means to be in need of; want; beg for.


In geometry, a line is defined by two points. Two points are

required to determine a trajectory.

Deuteros (δεύτερος) means second, next, literally “directed-

trajectory essence.”

Di- (δι-) is a prefix meaning two, literally “directed-

trajectory divine-power.”
Diomeetor (δῐοµήτωρ) is a Pythagorean name for two.

Dip- (διπ-) means two, twice, repeat.

Dis (δίς) means twice, doubly.

Dizo (δίζω) means to be in doubt, or “of two minds.”

Dieeko (δῐήκω) means to extend or reach from one place to

another. Note that eeko (ήκω) means to have reached a

Dioskoroi (Δῐοσκοροι) means Dioscuri, the constellation the

Twins, also known as Gemini (May-June).

Dicha (δίχᾰ) means in two, asunder.

Dichas (δῐχάς) means the half, middle.

Dioros (δίωρος) means having two boundary stones (what

good is one?)

Doioi (δοιοί) means duo, two, both, twofold, double.

Doiotokos (δοιοτόκος) means bearing twins. Doiazo
(δοιάζω) means consider in two ways, be in two minds.

Duas (δυάς) means the number two, literally “directed-

trajectory pure.”
Duo (δύο, δύω) means two.


Dia (διά) and the prefix dia- (δια-) mean in a line from one
end to another; right through, straight through; throughout.

Die- (δῐε-) is a prefix meaning throughout, go through, pass


Dio- (διο-) is a prefix meaning throughout, through.

Duo (δύω) means sink, plunge in; get or go into; enter.

Diagonios (διαγώνιος) means from angle to angle, diagonal.

Note that gonios (γώνιος) means angular.

Diagnosis (διάγνωσις) means the power of discernment,

diagnosis, decision. Note that gnosis (γνωσις) means
seeking to know, inquiry, investigation.

Diagramma (διάγραµµα) is a figure marked out by lines, a

plan, geometrical figure; musical scale; map; list; diagram.
Note that gramma (γραµµα) means that which is drawn.

Diaionizo (διαιωνιζω) means perpetuate, to be eternal. Note

that Ionizo (Ίωνίζω) means Ionic.
Dialektikos (διαλεκτικός) means conversational, dialectic,
directing a discussion by question and answer; also,
common language, talk; way of speaking, accent; speech,
language, discourse. Note that lektikos (λεκτικός) means
good at speaking, able to speak.

Dianoeo (διανοέω) means to have in mind, to intend, to

have purpose. Note that noeo (νοέω) means perceive by the
mind, apprehend, think, consider, reflect.

Diarroee (διαρροή) means channel, pipe, conduit.

Diarreo (διαρρέω) means flow through, the basis for the

word diarrhea.

Diait- (δῐαίτ-) is a prefix meaning rules of life, regimen,

diet, customs. Diaita (δίαιτα) means way of living, mode of

Diaphusikeuomai (διαφῠσικεύµαι) means to study natural

philosophy, study physics. Note that phusikeumai
(φῠσικεύµαι) means physics (φῠσι-) + explanation

Diacheo (διαχέω) means to pour different ways, scatter,

disperse, spread. Note that cheo (χέω) means pour out, let
Dialusis (διάλῠσις) means separating, parting, dissolution,
“dia- + loosened.”

Dieenekees (διηνεκής) means continuous, unbroken. Note

that eenekees (ηνεκής) means far-stretching, continuous,
without break, literally “throughout unbroken.”

Diorugee (διορῠγή) means to cut a canal; to dig through.

Diocheteia (διοχετεία) means irrigation works.

Dioureo (διουρέω) means to pass in urine, diurectic.

Drechmones (δρέχµονες) means kidneys, the organ
responsible for regulating urine.

Diorux (διώρυξ) means trench, conduit, canal.


Dios (δῖος) means heavenly, from heaven.

Dios (δῐοσ) is the first element in various compound names

of plants.

Dio- (Διο-) is a prefix sometimes used in reference to the

immortal God Zeus.

Zeus is “primarily the [G]od of the sky and the weather,

known under a variety of names . . .”

(E.O. James. The Ancient Gods: The History and Diffusion

of Religion in the Ancient Near East and the Eastern
Mediterannean (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1960)

Dioblees (Διοβλής) means struck by Zeus. Diobolos

(Διοβολος) means of the thunderbolt.

Diogenetor (Διογενέτωρ) means giving birth to Zeus, the

natal cave of Zeus.

Dan (Δάν), Deus (Δεύς), Di (Δί), Dia (Δία), Dis (Δίς), and
Deen (Δήν) are other names for Zeus. Danas (δάνας) means
governor. Deen (Δήν) means long-lived.


Deonus (Δεονῦς), Deunusos (Δευνῦσος), Dianusos

(Διάνυσος), Dienusos (Διένυσος), Dinusos (Δίνυσος), and
Dionusos (Διόνυσος, Δῐόνῦσος, Διώνῦσος) mean Dionysos,
the immortal God of wine.

Recall that dia (διά-), die- (δῐε-) and dio- (διο-) are prefixes
meaning throughout.

Nussa (νύσσᾰ) means starting point, ending point, turning

point, point.

Nusseeitas (νυσσηἷτας) is a Pythagorean name for the

number 9, a number that, in Greek literature, implies a
period of waiting that culminates in the number 10.

These definitions suggest that Dionysos is the immortal God

of turning points, which is consistent with the role of wine
in celebrating significant events and the effect of wine on

Dionysos depicted as a youth with long hair holding a

thyrsos (pine-cone tipped staff) in one hand.

Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge,

Massachusetts, USA
Catalogue Number: Harvard 1960.347
Beazley Archive Number: 217539
Ware: Attic Red Figure
Shape: Hydria-kalpis
Painter: Attributed to the Class of Brussels A3099, circa
410 - 400 BCE.


Dea (Δεά) means Goddess.

Deos (Δεός) means the Gods and Goddesses; also, fear,

Dai (δαί) is an expression of wonder or curiosity. Daidalma

(δαίδαλµα) means work of art.

Daimon (Δαίµων) means God or Goddess; divine power.

Daimonion (δαιµόνιον) means divine power, Divinity.

Daimonios (δαιµόνιος) means miraculous, marvelous, a

divine intervention.

Daimonao (δαιµονάω) means to be under the power of a


Deeo (Δηώ) is Deo, Demeter, the immortal Earth-Goddess

credited with controlling the harvest:

“The ancient Corn-Goddess and/or Earth-Mother, Demeter,

with her daughter Kore, the Corn-Maiden, embodied the
new harvest and was very closely associated with these
agricultural operations. At Eleusis she was the giver of the
corn on the Rarian plain, and while this was always her
principal function, her Mysteries had a wider and deeper
significance which extended far beyond the cornfields into
the realms of the hereafter. But in the beginning Demeter
and her worship centred in her control of the processes of
vegetation, causing the corn to germinate and the fruits of
the earth to spring forth. At the aumtumnal sowing of the
crops in October or November (11th to 13th of the month
Pyanopsion) the festival of the Thesmophoria was held in
her honour, celebrated solely by women who erected
bowers with couches and sat upon the ground to promote
the fertility of the corn that had just been sown, and to
secure their own fecundity—hence the presence of sexual
symbols. The casting of pigs scared to Demeter into
subterranean chasms (µέγαρα) during the course of the rites,
probably represented the descent of Kore into the nether
regions of Pluto, and the bringing up of the putrefied
remains of those thrown in the previous year, placing them
on an altar and mixing them with seed-corn to secure a good
crop, was said to commemorate the swallowing up of the
swineherd Eubuleus by the earth when Kore was abducted,
and the engulfing of his herd in the chasm. The festival,
therefore, was regarded as an annual commemoration of the
Corn-maiden’s descent into the underworld.”

(E.O. James. The Ancient Gods: The History and Diffusion

of Religion in the Ancient Near East and the Eastern
Mediterannean (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1960)


Dao (δάω) means to learn; to teach.

Daeesis (δάησις) means learning, understanding.

Daeira (Δάειρα) means Knowing One, an epithet of
Demeter’s immortal daughter, Persephone, at Athens.
Daeiritees (Δάειρίτης) means a priest of Persephone.

Daeemon (δαηµων) means to be knowing, experienced in a

thing; knowing best how to.

Deigma (δεῖγµα) means sample, pattern, plan, sketch, or


Deiksis (δεῖξις) means proof, a specimen, display, exhibit.

Didaktos (δῐδακτός) means taught; learnt, the basis for the

word didactic.

Didasko (δῐδάσκω) means instruct, teach.


The letters δρ-, literally “directed-trajectory outflow,”

begin action words, such as:

-drama (δρᾶµα): a deed, act; action represented on the


-dranos (δρᾶνος): doing, deed

-drao (δράω): do, accomplish, do some great thing; offer

-drasis (δρᾶσις): action, opposite of passivity

-drasteos (δραστέος): to be done

-dreeloi (δρηλοῖ): put to flight, flee in terror, literally

“directed-trajectory outflow-of center loosened”

-dreesteuo (δρηστεύω): perform holy rites

-dreesteer (δρηστήρ): laborer, worker, “do-er”

-driaousan (δριαουσαν): sprout, grow, bloom. Note that

ousia (ούσία) means the primary real, the substratum
underlying all change and process in nature.

-drialein (δριαλεῖν): make, do, produce, create, invent,


-dromos (δρόµος): run, runner, running

-dropis (δρόπις): gather fruits, harvest crop. Note that opis

(όπις) means the care or favor of the Gods and Goddesses.

-droma (δρωµᾶ): run.


Dunamai (δύνᾰµαι) means to be able or strong enough to do

something, literally “directed-trajectory pure prevailing,”
the basis for the word dynamite.

Dunameros (δῠνᾰµερός) means potent (of drugs).

Dunamikos (δῠνᾰµικός) means powerful. Webster’s defines

dynamic as “characterized by energy or effective action.”

Dunamis (δύνᾰµις) means powerful, power, might,

influence; manifestation of divine power, a miracle.

Dunasteia (δῠναστεία) means power, domination, the

exercise of political power, mighty deeds, the basis for the
word dynasty.

Dunateo (δῠνᾰτέω) means strong, mighty.


A lure distracts from one’s trajectory. The following words

share the notion of Λ “loosening” from a directed-

Dele- (δελε-) is a prefix meaning entice, bait, literally

“directed-trajectory loosened.”
Dolos (δόλος) means bait.

Dolo (δολόω) means to beguile, ensnare.

Doleros (δολερός) means deceitful, treacherous.

Doleuma (δόλευµα) means ruse.

Doloeis (δολόεις) means subtle, wily, crafty.


Dioko (διώκω) means pursue, chase; as a law-term,


Diktunna (Δίκτυννα), Diktynna, is an epithet of Artemis as

the immortal Goddess of the chase, the hunt. Diktuon
(δίκτῠον) means net, fishing-net, hunting-net.


Vision and direction are inextricably linked, as exemplified

by the adage, “watch where you’re going.”

Deik- (δεικ-) is a prefix meaning show, represent, portray,

Dokeuo (δοκεύω) means to train one’s eye on, watch
narrowly, literally “directed-trajectory core.”

Dokee (δοκή) means vision, opinion, expectation. Dokeo

(δοκέω) means to expect, think, suppose. Doksa (δόξᾱ)
means expectation, opinion.

Daktul- (δακτῠλ-) is a prefix meaning finger, fingers,

literally “directed-trajectory core extend/stretch.” Daktulos
(δακτῠλος) means fingers. Fingers are typically used for
pointing to indicate direction, as in answer to the question,
“Which way did he go?”

Fingers pointing to indicate direction. http://


Dikee (Δίκη) is Dike, the all-seeing Goddess of justice,

order, right; also, the object or consequences of an action;
atonement, satisfaction, penalty.

The all-seeing eye at the pinnacle of the pyramid on the

United States dollar bill.

Orphic Hymn 61. To Dike (Δίκης) (Justice) (3-14)

proclaims that Dike has “vision unconfin’d:”

“. . . Perceiving thence, with vision unconfin’d,

The life and conduct of the human kind:

To thee, revenge and punishment belong,

Chastising ev’ry deed, unjust and wrong; . . .

For thou art ever to the good inclin’d,

And hostile to the men of evil mind . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE),

translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by
Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792.
Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research
Society, 1981) 193-194.)

Dikazo (δῐκάζω) means judge, sit in judgment, decide on,


Dikaios (δίκαιος) is defined in the Lexicon as observant of

custom or rule, civilized, observant of duties; equal, even,
well-balanced; meet and right, fitting; right, just.

Dikologeo (δῐκολογέω) means to plead causes, advocate.

Although modern images typically depict Justice as
blindfolded, ancient writers describe Dike as all-seeing and
even included the admonishment in jury instructions that
Dike/Justice is always watching.

“You must magnify the Goddess of Order who loves what

is right and preserves every city and every land; and before
you cast your votes, each juryman must reflect that he is
being watched by hallowed and inexorable Justice, who, as
Orpheus, that prophet of our most sacred mysteries, tells
us . . . oversees all the works of men.”

(Demosthenes (circa 350 BCE). Against Aristogeiton 25.

11. Demosthenes with an English translation by A. T.
Murray, Ph.D., LL.D. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University
Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1939.

Aeschylus also speaks of the all-seeing eye of Justice:

“Justice (Dike), voiceless, unseen, seeth thee when thou

sleepest and when thou goest forth and when thou liest
down. Continually doth she attend thee . . . ”

(Aeschylus (circa 450 BCE) Fragment 253, in Stobaeus,

Anthology i. 3. 98 (Wachsmuth i. 57), Theophilus, To
Autolycus ii. 37.p.178, translated by Herbert Weir Smyth,
Assigned to Aeschylus by Hermann.) http://

Deelos (δῆλος) means visible, conspicuous, clear, manifest.

Deelios (Δήλιος, Δάλιος) means Delian, a name of the

immortal God Apollo.

Deelios (Δήλιος, Δάλιος) refers to the Gods and Goddesses

worshiped at Delos (Δάλος, Δελος, Δῆλος). Delos is the
immortal Goddess of the Greek island where Apollo and his
twin sister, Artemis, were born.

Map of Delos.


Below, a depiction of the Gods and Goddesses of Delos

including Leto and her twin children, Apollo and Artemis,
as well as Delos herself:

Leto, Artemis, Apollon and Delos/Asteria, all holding laurel

branches, stand beside the sacred palm tree on the island of

Museo Nazionale, Palermo, Italy

Catalogue Number: Palermo 21887
Beazley Archive Number: 220558, Attic Red Figure Krater,
Painter: In the Manner of the Pheidias Painter, circa 420
BCE. This is a drawing of the vase rather than a
photographic representation.

Nonnos describes the role that Delos played in the birth of

Leto’s twin children, Apollo and Artemis:

“. . . Leto carried her twin burden [pregnant with Apollo

and Artemis] and had to wander over the world, tormented
with the pangs of childbirth; . . . until Delos gave help to her
labour, until the old palmtree played midwife for Leto . . .”

(Nonnos. Dionysiaca, Vol. II, Books 16-35 (277), translated

by W. H. D. Rouse, Loeb Classical Library (London:
William Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard
University Press, 1940) 339.
0674993918/ref=rdr_ext_tmb )


Delphoi (Δελφοί), also known as Belphoi (Βέλφοι), is the

seat of one of the most revered “oracles” of the ancient
world. Belphaion (Βελφαῖον) is the name of a treasury at

The American city Philadelphia translates as “lovers of

In ancient times, governance decisions and other weighty
matters were brought before the Delphic priestess who
channeled and professed the will of the God or Goddess of

Museum Collection: Antiken-sammlung, Berlin, Germany

Catalogue No.: Berlin F2538
Beazley Archive No.: 217214
Ware: Attic Red Kylix, Attr. to the Codrus Painter
Date: circa 430 BCE

Themis sits on the Delphic tripod in the role of Pythia, the

oracular prophet of the Delphic shrine. She holds a phiale in
one hand and a sprig of laurel in the other. King Aigeus of
Athens approaches her to receive an oracle regarding the
birth of a son.

Aeschylus (circa 450 BCE), in his play The Eumenides,

depicts the Pythia priestess of Delphi professing that the
deity channeled through Delphi was initially Gaia (Goddess
Earth), who passed this responsibility on to her daughter,
Themis (Justice), who passed it on to Phoibe (Pure
Prophet), who gifted the role to Phoibos (Apollo). http://

(Aeschylus, “Eumenides (1-8),” in Aeschylus II: Agamemnon,

Libation-Bearers, Eumenides, Fragments, trans. Herbert Weir
Smyth, (London: William Heinemann; New York: Putnam’s
Sons, 1926), 272).

The meaning of the word “Delphi” has been attributed to

other words that are similar to it, such as:

-delphos (δελφος) or delphaks (δέλφαξ): pig, pork (sacred

to Demeter); delphakion (δελφάκιον) means suckling-pig

-delphis (δελφίς) or delphin (δελφίν): dolphin

-delphiks (δέλφιξ): the tripod the priestess sat upon (note

that φιξ means Sphinx (Σφίγξ))

-delphus (δελφύς): womb (note that φύς means beget, bring-

forth, engender, form by nature).


Dodonee (Δωδώνη) is Dodona in Epirus, the seat of the

most ancient “oracle” of Zeus.

Dodone/Dodona is shown on the far west of this map of

Greek temples.
Dionee (Δῐωνη) is Dione, the immortal mother of Aphrodite
(Goddess of passionate love) and, with the immortal God
Zeus, the inspiration for the “oracle” at Dodona.


A torch is a portable source of light in the darkness. It can

be used as a signal, a focal point, and an aid to visibility. A
torch-bearer leads a procession.

Dado- (δαδο-) is a prefix meaning torch. A dais (δαΐς) is a

pine-torch. Daio (δαίω) means to light up, kindle.
Daeethmon (δαηθµόν) means burning.

Torches are generally made from pine-wood, dadinos

(δάδινος). Dad- (δαδ-) is a prefix meaning resin, a tree-
liquid prized as incense, perfume, amber, and for its
flammable properties as pine-pitch or pine-tar.

Dalos (δᾱλός) means torch, beacon-light. Daos (δάος) is

another word for torch. Other words meaning torch are detis
(δέτις), detos (δετός), and detee (δετή).

Dadeephoros (δαδηφόρος) means torch-bearing.

The Statue of Liberty in New York’s harbor is a famous

torch-bearing icon.

Dadoucheo (δᾆδουχέω) means to carry a torch, especially in

pageants. Dadouchos (δᾆδουχός) means torch-bearer,
usually referring to this hereditary office at the mysteries of
Demeter at Eleusis. Dad- (δᾆδ-) is a prefix that means torch,
literally “directed-trajectory arising directed-trajectory:” the
torch-bearer lead night-time processions, directing their

William Smith, in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman

Antiquities, writes in his entry Eleusinia, “All the ancients
who have occasion to mention the Eleusinian mysteries, or
the mysteries, as they were sometimes called, agree that
they were the holiest and most venerable of all that were
celebrated in Greece.”

(William Smith. “Eleusinia,” Dictionary of Greek and

Roman Antiquities (London: John Murray, 1875.) http://

Pausanias describes a building where preparations were

made for the Eleusinian processions:

"On entering the city [of Athens] there is a building for the
preparation of the processions, which are held in some cases
every year, in others at longer intervals. Hard by is a temple
of Demeter, with images of the [G]oddess herself and of her
daughter (Persephone), and of Iacchus [leader of the
Eleusinian Mysteries] holding a torch."

(Pausanias. Description of Greece 1.2.4, translated by

W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Omerod (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1918).

The Ninnion Tablet depicts Demeter, Persephone, and

Iacchus, and the procession of Eleusinian initiates. Several
participants carry torches.

Discovered at the sanctuary of Eleusis. Musée

Archéologique National, Athènes, Greece.

Night-time, torch-lit Eleusinian processions were held to

honor Demeter’s search for her daughter, Persephone, who
was abducted by Plouton, the immortal God of the

Homer, writing circa 600 BCE in his Hymn to Demeter, as

well as Diodorus of Sicily, Ovid, and Statius, writing some
600 years later, describe Demeter as holding torches while
searching in the darkness for Persephone.

"Then for nine days queenly Deo wandered over the earth
with flaming torches in her hands [in search of her daughter
(Homer (circa 650-550 BCE). Hymn 2 to Demeter 48 ff,
translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Harvard University
Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1914. Reprinted
in English by Dodo Press, 2011).

". . . Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, kindled

torches in the craters of Mt. Aetna and visited many parts of
the inhabited world, an upon the men (sic) who received her
with the greatest favour she conferred benefactions,
rewarding them with the gift of the fruit of the wheat."

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of

History Books 5. 4. 3, translated by C.H. Oldfather
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1935) 107.)

Ovid depicts the immortal Muse Calliope singing of torch-

bearing Demeter (Roman Ceres) in Metamorphoses:

“Now it befell when Proserpine (Persephone) was lost, her

anxious mother sought through every land and every sea in
vain. She rested not . . . She lit two pines from Aetna’s
flames and held one in each hand, and restless bore them
through the frosty glooms . . ."

(Ovid (circa 50 BCE-50 CE). Metamorphoses 5. 354 ff,

translated by Brookes More (Boston: Cornhill, 1922) Book
Statius describes a similar scene:

"Even so did the bereaved Ceres [Demeter] light her torch

and from Aetna's rocks cast the shifting glare of the mighty
flame here over Sicily, there over Ausonia (southern Italy),
as she followed the traces of the dark ravisher [Plouton] . . .

(Statius. Thebaid 12. 270 ff, translated by J.H. Mozley

(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1928).)

Demeter is depicted on ancient coins, statues, and vases as

holding a torch.

The first coin depicts Ceres (Demeter) standing holding

corn in one hand and a torch in the other, Augusta on the
other side. The second depicts Demeter seated. http://

Statue of Demeter on an altar

© The Trustees of the British MuseumRoman, circa 150
From Athens, Greece.

Eleusis (Demeter, holding a cross-shaped torch) & Eniatus

(Year), Apulian red-figure loutrophoros, circa 350 BCE,
The J. Paul Getty Museum.


Deemeetreioi (Δηµήτρειοι) means Demeter’s people.

Deem- (δηµ-) and deemo (δηµο-) are prefixes meaning the

people. Deemios (δήµιος) means belonging to the people,
elected by the people.

Deemokratikos (δηµοκρᾰτικός) means of or for democracy.

Deemos (δῆµος) means district, country, land; also, the

commons, common people; the sovereign people, the free
citizens; the popular assembly.


Dee (δῆ) means earth. Da (δᾶ) is an oath, “by Earth!”

Deeo (Δηώ) means Demeter. Deeai (δηαί) means barley.

Ancient coins of southern Italy (circa 330 BCE) feature an

image of Demeter on one side and an image of barley on the

Lucania circa 325-280 BCE. Wreathed head of Demeter

left, wearing triple-pendant earring. Seven-grained Barley
ear, rake above leaf META right.  ex: Windsor

Gee (Γῆ) is Ge, the immortal Goddess of naturally

generative Earth. Demeter is the Goddess credited with
directing humanity in the cultivation of agricultural crops
and the rule of law. According to Diodorus, Ge is a more
ancient name for Demeter:

τήν δέ γῆν ὥσπερ αγµεῖόν τι τῶν φυοµένων

ύπολαµβάνοντας µητέρα προσαγορεὓσαι' καί τούς
"Ελληνας δέ ταύτην παραπλησίως Δήµητραν καλεῖν, βραχύ
µετατεθείσης διά τόν χρόνον τῆς λέξεως' τό γάρ παλαιόν
όνοµάζεσθαι γῆν µητέρα, καθάπερ καί τόν Όρφέα
προσµαρτυρεἳν λέγοντα

Γῆ µήτηρ πάντων, Δηµήτηρ πλουτοδότειρα.

“The earth, again, they looked upon as a kind of vessel

which holds all growing things and so gave it the name
‘mother’; and in like manner the Greeks also call it
Demeter, the word having been slightly changed in the
course of time; for in olden time they called her Ge Meter
(Earth Mother), to which Orpheus bears witness when he
speaks of ‘Earth the Mother of all, Demeter giver of

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of

History 1.12, translated by C.H. Oldfather (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1933) 42-43.)

Damatrizein (δᾱµᾱτρίζειν) means to gather in the fruits of

the earth.

Damateer (Δαµάτηρ), Deemeeteer (Δηµήτηρ), Deemeetra

(Δηµήτρα), and Domateer (Δωµάτηρ) mean Demeter.
Demeter is the immortal Mother Goddess credited with
directing the trajectory of Earth's fertility. While Gaia is the
Goddess of Earth's natural, organic growth, Demeter is the
Goddess who directs Earth's fertility and the art of

Deemeeteer (Δηµήτηρ) also means bread.

In Euripides’ The Bacchae, Teiresias says that Demeter

supplies humanity with “solid food:”

“There are two powers, young man, which are supreme,

In human affairs: first, Demeter—the same [G]oddess

Is also Earth; give her which name you please—and she

Supplies mankind with solid food. After her came

Dionysus, Semele’s son; the blessing he procured

And gave to men (sic) is counterpart to that of bread:

The clear juice of the grape.”

(Euripides. “The Bacche (315-322),” The Bacchae and

Other Plays, translated by Philip Vellacott (London and
New York: Penguin Books: 1954, 1973) 200.)

Diodorus of Sicily credits Demeter with teaching grain

cultivation to humanity, in essence, taming the growth of
grains from a wild, uncultivated state.

Δήµητραν δέ, τοῦ σίτου φυοµένου µέν ώς ἕτυχε µετά τῆς

ἅλλης βοτάνης, άγνοουµένου δέ παρ' άνθρώροις, πρώτην
συγκοµίσαι καί τήν κατεργασίαν αύτοῦ καί φυλακήν
έπινοῆσαι καί σπείρειν καταδεῖξαι. (Diodorus Siculus (of
Sicily). Library of History 5.68.1.)

“And Demeter, since the corn still grew wild together with
the other plants and was still unknown to men (sic), was the
first to gather it in, to devise how to prepare and preserve it,
and to instruct mankind how to sow it.”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of

History 5.68, translated by C.H. Oldfather (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1935) 281.)

Diodorus says that Demeter created the culture of laws

arising from civilization:

“Now she had discovered the corn before she gave birth to
her daughter Persephonê, but after the birth of her daughter
and the rape [sic: abduction] of her by Pluton, she burned
all the fruit of the corn, both because of her anger at Zeus
and because of her grief over her daughter.

“After she had found Persephonê, however, she became

reconciled with Zeus and gave Triptolemus the corn to sow,
instructing him both to share the gift with men (sic)
everywhere and to teach them everything concerned with
the labour of sowing.

“And some men (sic) say that it was she also who
introduced laws, by obedience to which men (sic) have
become accustomed to deal justly with one another, and that
mankind has called this [G]oddess Thesmophoros after the
laws which she gave them.

“And since Demeter has been responsible for the greatest

blessings to mankind, she has been accorded the most
notable honours and sacrifices, and magnificent feasts and
festivals as well, not only by the Greeks, but also by almost
all barbarians [non-Greeks] who have partaken of this kind
of food.”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of

History 5.68, translated by C.H. Oldfather (Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1935) 281.)

The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, circa 650 BCE, is the

oldest literary document which narrates the story of
Demeter and Persephone.

(Sir James Frazer. The Golden Bough, VII Part 5, Vol. 1

(London: Macmillan and Co., 1920, reprinted by Elibron
Classics series of Adamant Media, 2005) 35.)

Demeter and Metanira. Detail of the belly of an Apulian

red-figure hydria, circa 340 BCE. Berlin Museum.
(Metanira is the Eleusinian mother of a child cured by
Eleusis (here spelled “Elefsis”) is northwest of

Deeoinee (Δηωΐνη) means daughter of Demeter, literally

“Demeter (Δηω) divine-power prevailing (ΐν).”
Interestingly, the word dauta (δαῦτα) means herbs,
vegetables, an arguable origin for the word daughter.

Persephone and Plouton enthroned. Detail from a painting

of Orpheus in the Afterlife. Plouton holds a bird-tipped
staff, and Persephone a crossed Eleusinian torch. http://

Apulian red figure Volute krater, attributed to White Saccos

Painter, circa 320 BCE. The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,
California, USA, number Malibu 77.AE.13.

Demeter and Persephone, relief from Sanctuary of Demeter

at Eleusis, circa 450 BCE.


Webster’s defines tame as “changed from the wild or savage

state; domesticated . . . tractable, docile, or submissive.”
One who is tamed obliges willingly to direction, becomes a
medium of direction.

Interestingly, damnos (δάµνος) means horse, an animal that

is of little practical use unless tamed. Damnippos
(δάµνιππος) means horse- (ιππος) taming (δάµν).

Dmeeteer (δµητήρ) means tamer; meeteer (µητήρ) means

mother, suggesting that it is the mother’s role to tame/direct
her child.

Dmeetos (δµητός) means tamed.

Damazo (δαµάζω) means to tame, break-in animals; make

subject, force, seduce, subdue, conquer. Damasis (δάµᾰσις)
means taming, subduing.

Damatrion (δαµάτριον) is a flower like narcissus, a


Damnamenee (δαμναμένη) means to overpower by force.

Damneetis (δαμνῆτις) means she that subdues.


Desis (δέσις) means binding together.

Desma (δέσμα) means bond, fetter.

Desmos (δεσμός) means band, bond, anything for tying and


Despoina (δέσποινα) means lady of the house, princess, queen,

empress; an epithet of the immortal Goddesses Hecate, Artemis,
and particularly Persephone.

Despoinikos (δεσποινικός) means belonging to the Imperial


Desposios (δεσπόσιος) means an act of authority.

Despotees (δεσπότης) means ruler, the basis for the word



Gifts involve a giver and a receiver.

Danos (δᾱνός) means gift, present; also, loan or debt. Dan-

(δᾰν-) is a prefix meaning loan. Daneion (δάνειον) means

Doma (δόμα) means gift.

Dosis (δόσις) means giving, bequest, legacy, dose of medicine,

portion, destiny.

Doteer (δοτήρ), doteira (δότειρα), and dotor (δώτωρ) mean

giver (one who dotes?).

Dorea (δωρεά) means gift, present.

Doron (δῶρον) means gift, present, gift of honor; also, the front
part of the palm (presumably, from which the gift is released or

Dotinee (δωτίνη) means gift, present.


A banquet or feast is a form of dividing up the available food.

Daio (δαίω) means both divide and feast.

Daigmos (δαϊγμός) means division, partition.

Daizo (δαΐζω) means to cleave asunder, tear, rend, divide.

Daithmos (δαιθμός) means allotment, rule of distribution.

Dainumi (δαίνῡμι) means to give a banquet or feast.

Dais (δαίς) means meal, banquet, meat, food.   

Daisis (δαῖσις) means the division of property.

Daitee (δαίτη) means feast, banquet. A daitees (δαίτης) is a

priest responsible for dividing up the meat from the animals
sacrificed. A daitreia (δαιτρεία) is the place where the meat is
cut up.

Damothoinia (δᾱμοθοινία) means a public feast.

Darata (δαράτα) is a kind of bread offered in religious


Dasma (δάσμα) means a share, portion given as tribute to the

sovereign. Dasmos (δασμός) means a division of spoil; tribute.

Dasso (δάσσω) means divide. Dat- (δᾰτ-) is a prefix meaning


Dei (δεῖ) means it is needful for one to do, one must.

Deiema (δείεμα) means that which is eaten, food, meat.

Deipneo (δειπνέω) means to make a meal, dine. Deipnon

(δεῖπνον) means meal.

Deisia (δεισία) means distribution.

Detros (δετρός) means slaughterer, butcher, meat-seller.

Deeio (δηϊόω) means slay, rend, tear, cleave.


Fear is a great trajectory-director.

Deinos (δεινός) means fearful, awful, dangerous; also,

wondrous, marvelous, strange.

Deisedaimoneo (δεισῐδαιμονέω) means to be religious, to fear

the Gods and Goddesses.

Dedeia (δέδεια) means panic flight, fear, phobia.

Dediotos (δεδιότως) means in fear.

Deido (δείδω) means fearful, cowardly, fear, to be alarmed.

Deilaios (δείλαιος) means wretched, sorry, miserable.

Deilia (δειλία) means timidity, cowardice. Deilos (δειλός)

means cowardly.

Deima (δεῖμα) means fear. Deimos (δειμός) means fear, terror.


An itch, bite, or sting can tend to direct one’s attention and


Daks (δάξ) means itch or bite.

Daptees (δάπτης) means bloodsucker (of gnats).

Dapto (δάπτω) means to devour.

Deegma (δῆγμα) means bite, sting.

Deekt- (δηκτ-) is a prefix meaning bite, sting.

Deeksis (δῆξις) means bite, gnaw, pang.

Drimus (δρῑμύς) means piercing, sharp, keen, acidic, bitter.



Dareir (δάρειρ) means the space one can embrace between the
thumb and little finger; span; as a fixed measure. (Incidentally,
darthano (δαρθάνω) means sleep, “span of death.”)

Deka (δέκᾰ) means ten, the number of fingers of the hands.

Depho (δέφω) means to soften by working with the hand.

Dech- (δεχ-) is a prefix meaning ten.

Dechas (δεχάς) means receptacle. Dechomai (δέχομαι) means

to take, accept, receive, hold (presumably with the ten fingers).

Deksia (δεξιά) means the right hand (opposite left), the basis for
the word dexterity.

Dochos (δοχός) means able to hold.

Tree, Oak, Snake

The prefix dru- (δρῦ-) means tree, oak, snake.

Druos (δρύος) means woodland.

Druas (Δρῠας) means Dryad, a nymph (divine spirit) whose life

is bound up with the life of her tree.

Druas (Δρῠας) also means snake.

A druinas (δρῠΐνας) is a serpent living in hollow oaks.

Drus (δρῦς) means tree, oaks, the woods.

Doru (δόρυ) means stem, tree; plank, beam; the shaft of a spear.

Thick, Shaggy

Daskios (δάσκῐος) means thick-shaded, bushy.

Dasos (δάσος) means thicket, copse, shagginess.

Dasu- (δᾰσῠ-) is a prefix meaning thick, rough, bushy, shaggy.

Dasus (δᾰσύς) means hairy, shaggy, rough, thick.

Dasullios (Δᾰσύλλιος) is an epithet of Bacchus, the immortal

God of wine.

Daulos (δαυλός) means thick, shaggy.

Other Words Beginning with the Letter Δ

Dagus (δᾱγύς) means a puppet.

Daikt- (δᾰϊκτ-) is a prefix meaning to slay, murder, slay in


Dalkion (δάλκιον) means writing-tablet, any writing.

Dalmanai (δαλμᾶναι) means image, likeness, representation.

Dalmates (Δαλμᾰτες) means Dalmatia, the coastline that runs

parallel to Italy’s eastern coast, spanning from Croatia to

Dapedon (δάπεδον) means level surface, floor, ground. Note

that pedon (πεδον) means ground, earth. Dapis (δάπις) means
carpet or rug.

Dardanios (Δαρδάνιος) means Trojan; from Troy (now

northwest Turkey).

Dauo (δαύω) means sleep.

Daphnee (δάφνη) means sweet bay, laurel, Laurus nobilis.

Laurel wreaths crown victors in the games. The laurel is
particularly associated with the immortal God Apollo.
Dapsileia (δαψίλεια) means abundance, plenty.

Deielos (δείελος) means the evening part of the day. Deilee

(δείλη) means afternoon.

The prefix delt- (dέλτ-) refers to anything triangular.

Deltos (δέλτος) means writing-tablet; an official document

recorded on a tablet.

Demas (δέμας) means the bodily frame, the living body, the
body of a corpse.

Demo (δέμω) means to build, construct.

Dendreon (δένδρεον) means tree.

Depas (δέπας) means beaker, goblet, cup.

Derma (δέρμα) means skin, hide, the basis for the word
dermatology. Derris (δέρρις) means skin, leather.

Deuma (δεῦμα) means that which is steeped, seethed, boiled.

Deusopoieo (δευσοποιέω) means dye, stain. Deuteer (δευτήρ)
means kettle, cauldron. Deuo (δεύω) means to wet, drench.

Depsa (δέψα) means skin, hide.

Dorpon (δόρπον) means the evening meal.

Dipsa (δίψα) means thirst.

Dnopheros (δνοφερός) means veiled, dark, murky.

Dogma (δόγμα) means opinion, belief; decision, judgment.

Domos (δόμος) and doma (δῶμα) mean house, abode, the basis
for the word domicile. Domao (δωμάω) means to build,

Donak- (δονᾰκ-) is a prefix meaning reeds, donaks (δόναξ).

Doulos (δοῦλος) means born a slave, literally “directed-

trajectory loosened,” one without self-direction.

Dorikos (Δωρικός) means Doric, a Greek dialect that prevailed

over much of Greece. The Dorians were one of the major ethnic
tribes of Greece.

The areas in shades of brown spoke a Doric dialect. http://

Doric also refers to a style of architecture, as exemplified by the

Parthenon Temple to Athena in Athens, Greece. Doric columns
have a capital (the top, or crown) made of a circle topped by a

 Dus- (δῠσ-) is a prefix meaning hard-to-do, increasing the bad

sense of a word and destroying its good meaning. Dusgnostos
(δῠσγνωστος), for example, means hard to (δῠσ-) know

Dutikos (δῠτικός) means dive; setting; western.

Ε ε ei (εἷ), epsilon (ἒ ψιλόν) essence

pronounce: short “e”

The letter E means essence, the quintessence.

Webster’s defines essence as “the basic, real, and invariable

nature of a thing or its significant individual feature.”

Webster’s defines quintessence as “the pure and

concentrated essence of a substance.”

Psilos (ψῑλός) means bare, stripped of hair or feathers,

smooth, stripped of appendages, naked, unaccompanied (by
music), simple, so that epsilon (ἒ ψιλόν) means “essence
simply,” literally “essence incorporeal divine-power.”
The branching shape of Ε resembles many shapes in nature,
such as rainbow-bands, roots, wood-grain, tree-branches,
leaf-veins, pine-needles, flower petal-veins, feather-barbs,
some fruit interiors, and the interior branches of the lungs.


Plant roots.




Leaf veins.



Flower-petal veins.





At Delphi, a large letter E was dedicated to the immortal

God Apollo. Plutarch wrote a treatise on this monument,
Moralia, in which he gives various explanations for the E.

In Moralia, Plutarch asserts that E represents the soul, the

animating force, “the movement or disposition which sets
soul therein . . .” He concludes that E is a symbol for “being
throughout all eternity:”

“XVIII. 'For we have, really, no part in real being; all

mortal nature is in a middle state between becoming and
perishing, and presents but an appearance, a faint unstable
image, of itself . . . ‘It is impossible to go into the same
river twice,’ said Heraclitus; no more can you grasp mortal
being twice, so as to hold it. So sharp and so swift its
change . . .

“XIX. 'What then really is? That which is eternal, was never
brought into being, is never destroyed, to which no time
ever brings change . . . (the letter E represents) being
throughout all eternity . . .”

(Plutarch. Morals V.27. “Concerning the Letter E at Delphi

(περι ΕΙ τοῦ έν Δελφοῖς)”, Translated by A.O. Prickard
(Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1918) with a few minor
changes and some additional notes taken from the
translation of C.W. King (London: George Bell and Sons,

The Orphic Hymn 33, To Apollo (33-42), describes Apollo

as the immortal God who confers the variety of forms found
in nature:

“. . . All Nature’s tribes to thee their diff’rence owe,

And changing seasons from thy music flow . . .

“Since to thy care, the figur’d seal’s consigned,

Which stamps the world with forms of every kind . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE),

translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by
Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792.
Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research
Society, 1981) 164.)

Ea (ἕᾱ) means existing, being.

Eimi (είµί) means exist, to be; in reality, in fact; is and

always been; essence; the essential nature of a thing.

(Other conjugations of eimi (είµί) include easi (ἕᾶσι), eassa

(ἕασσα), eeen (ἕην), eeesi (ἕησι), eiato (είατο), ein (εἷν),
eistha (εἷσθα), eisi (είσί), eite (εἷτε), emen (ἕµεν), emmi
(ἕµµι), eneimi (ἕνειµι), enti (έντί), eoi (ἕοι), eon (ἕον),
eousa (έοῦσα), esthi (ἕσθι), essa (ἕσσα), eusa (εῧσα), eo
(ἕω) in addition to several words beginning with the letter

Esto (έστώ) means substance, the opposite of morphee


Estor (ἕστωρ) means founder.

Eri- (έρῐ-) is a prefix used to strengthen the sense of a word,

meaning with a great deal of, completely.

Erichthonios (Έριχθόνιος “Very (έρῐ) Earthly (χθόνιος),”

“Arising from Earth”) is the founding king of Athens, so
named because he did not come from another place. Below,
Gaia is shown presenting Erichthonios as an infant to
The Birth of Erichthonios. Museum of Fine Arts,
Richmond, Virginia, USA
Catalogue No.: Richmond 81.70
Beazley Archive No.: 10158
Ware: Attic Red Figure Krater, calyx, Attributed to the
Manner of Kadmos Painter.

Gaia (the earth) hands her newborn son Erichthonios over to

Athena, who will foster this founding king of Athens. Gaia
is shown only partially risen from the earth, inseperable
from her native element. Winged Hermes acts as witness.
Beside Athena flies a sacred owl bearing an olive wreath
and Nike (Victory). Aphrodite is seated. http://


Eteos (έτεός) means true, genuine. Eteetumia (έτητῠµία)

means truth. Eteetumos (έτητῠµος) means truthful, genuine,

Etum- (ετῠµ-) is a prefix meaning truth, as in etumologia

(έτῠµολογία). Etymology is defined by Webster’s as
“studying the true meanings and values of words.”

Etumos (ἕτῠµος) means true, according to its origin.


Eidos (εἷδος) means idea, that which is seen, form, shape.

The Platonic concept of idea, according to Webster’s, is “an
archetype or pattern of which the individual objects in any
natural class are imperfect copies and from which they
derive their being.” Idea is the basis for the word ideal.

Eid- (εϊδ-) is a prefix meaning form, knowledge. Webster’s

defines knowledge as “acquaintance with facts, truths or
principles.” Know is defined as “to perceive or understand
as fact or truth.”

Eido (εϊδω) means know; see, perceive; experience; see

with the mind’s eye.

Eidol (είδωλ) means idol; symbol, image, likeness, model;

to depict in words; form mental images.

Eikon (εικών) means image, icon, representation.

Eik- (είκ-) is a prefix meaning image, icon, as in

eikonographos (είκονογράφος): portrait (είκονο) painter
(γράφος), and eikonomorphos (είκονοµορφος): portrait
(είκονο)-sculptor (µορφος).

Several Greek pronouns begin with the letter Ε. Pronouns

are the “idea” of a person without naming names.
Ego (έγώ) means I, we, the basis for the word ego.

Ee (ἒε) means him.

Eee (έή) means her own.

Ethen (ἒθεν) means his, her, of him, of her.

Eos (έός) means his own, her own, their.


The combination of the letter Ε (essence) with the letter Ι

(divine-power) conveys the notion of conditional
statements, movement, and status quo.

Ei (εἷ), the name of the letter Ε, means if.

Eita (εἷτα) means then.

Eia (εἷα) means on! up! away! come then!

Eimi (εἷµι) means shall go, shall come, come, go.

Eina- (είνᾰ-) is a prefix meaning nine. The number nine,

eina (εινα), represents the point at which a holding pattern is
broken, such as a pregnancy, siege, or voyage, with a
change in circumstance occurring on the tenth (day/month/
year): when the child is born, the siege is broken, the
voyagers arrive.


Fire is obviously transitional, transforming the fuel (wood,

coal, etc.) into light, heat, and ashes. While fire can be
destructive when it rages out of control, the hearth fire is a
welcome and friendly presence. The word for hearth fire
begins with a combination of the letter Ε (essence), the
letter Σ (synchronized), and the letter Τ (stretch/extend).

Estia (Έστία, Έστίη, Ίστίη), commonly referred to as

Hestia, is the immortal Goddess of the hearth fire. Estia
(Έστία, Έστίη, Ίστίη) also means the beginning. Estia
(έστία) also means altar.

Esto (έστώ) means substance, the opposite of morphee

(µορφή) = form/shape/appearance.

Orpheus’ Hymn 83. To Vesta (Estia) (5-6) says of Estia:

“In thee, the Gods [and Goddesses] have fix’d their

dwelling place,

Strong, stable basis of the mortal race.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE),
translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by
Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792.
Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research
Society, 1981) 221.)

Estia is the first and last of the Gods and Goddesses to

receive libations and sacrifices at meals and public
occasions. Plato (circa 350 BCE) writes of Socrates
discussing Estia’s name and honored status by explaining
that Estia means essence:

“‘Socrates: Shall we, then, begin with Hestia, according to


“‘Hermogenes: That is the proper thing.

“‘Socrates: Then what would you say the man (sic) had in
mind who gave Hestia her name? . . . Take, for instance,
that which we call ousia (ούσία) (reality, essence); some
people call it essia (έσσία), and still others ôssia (ώσσία).

“First, then, in connection with the second of these forms, it

is reasonable that the essence of things be called Hestia; and
moreover, because we ourselves say of that which partakes
of reality ‘it is’ (estin) (ἕστιν), the name Hestia would be
correct in this connection also; for apparently we also called
ousia (ούσία) (reality) essia (έσσία) in ancient times.
“And besides, if you consider it in connection with
sacrifices, you would come to the conclusion that those who
established them understood the name in that way; for those
who called the essence of things essia (έσσία) would
naturally sacrifice to Hestia first of all the [G]ods [and

(Plato (circa 350 BCE). “Cratylus 401b – 401d,” Plato in

Twelve Volumes, Vol. 12. translated by Harold N. Fowler
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann, 1921.)

Homeric Hymn 29. To Hestia says of Estia:

“. . . You have gained an everlasting abode and highest


Glorious is your portion and your right.

For without you mortals hold no banquet, --

Where one does not duly pour sweet wine,

In offering to Hestia both first and last . . .”

(Homer. Hesiod, Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica,

translated by H. G. Evelyn-White, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. )

Pindar (circa 446 BCE), in his Nemean 11, describes Estia

as the “guardian of parliaments.”

(Pindar. “Nemean 11,” The Odes and Selected Fragments,

translated by G. S. Conway and Richard Stoneman
(London: J.M. Dent Orion Publishing; Vermont: Charles E.
Tuttle, 1997) 269.)

Estioucheo (έστιουχέω) means presiding over the house or

the state.

Eschara (έσχάρα) means the place for fire in domestic use,

the hearth fire, “Estia’s (Έσ) foundation (χ).”

An image of Estia is featured on a 1986 Hellenic stamp with

the words, “Elleenikee Deemokratia (Hellenic
image at: Greeks/Gods/Estia.html

The stamp image is derived from an image of Estia on an

ancient Greek vase (circa 500 BCE).
Estia. Museo Nazionale Tarquiniese, Tarquinia, Italy
Catalogue Number: Tarquinia RC6848
Beazley Archive Number: 200502, Attic Red Figure Kylix,
Attributed to Oltos, circa 500 BCE.

Cicero describes the role of Hestia in prayers and sacrifices:

". . . the name Vesta comes from the Greeks, for she is the
[G]oddess whom they call Hestia. Her power extends over
altars and hearths, and therefore all prayers and all
sacrifices end with this [G]oddess . . .”

(Cicero (circa 50 BCE). De Natura Deorum 2. 27,

translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann, 1933.)


Eis- (είσ-) is a prefix meaning into, to. Eis (είς) means into.

Eisodos (εἵσοδος) means entrance (note that οδος means

way or road). Eisoptos (εἵσοπτος) means visible, within
sight (οπτος). Eispneo (είσπνέω) means inhale (πνέω),
inspire. Eisreo (είσρέω) means stream (ρέω) into.

The combination of the letter Ε (essence) with the letter Ν

(prevailing/victorious) conveys the notion of something
within. En- (έν-) is a prefix meaning in/within:

-entheos (ἕνθεος) means filled with the God or Goddess

(θεος); inspired; enthusiastic

-enthermos (ἕνθερµος) means hot (θερµος), with


-enruthmos (ἕνρυθµος) means in rhythm (ρυθµος).

-Enuo (Ένῦώ) is Enyo, a Goddess of war, fury, the battle-

cry; a companion of the immortal God Arees (Ἅρης, Ἅρευς)
and the immortal Goddess Eris (Ἕρις). Enyo spurs soldiers
to battle, perhaps reflecting the sentiment, “All-In (Έν).”

(Quintus Smyrnaeus Fall of Troy 11. 237 ff; Nonnos:

Dionysiaca 2. 475 ff.

The prefix eg- (ἒγ-), literally “essence generative,” means

in when paired with words pertaining to generative earth,
milk, womb, and written letters:

-eggaios (ἒγγαιος) means in or of the earth (γαιος)

-eggalos (ἒγγᾰλος) means in milk (γᾰλος) (of a woman, of

an ewe, etc.)
-eggameo (έγγᾰµέω) means marry (γᾰµέω) into a family

-eggastrios (έγγάστριος) means in the womb (γάστριος)

-eggrammatos (έγγράµµᾰτος) means written; containing

letters (γράµµᾰτος).

Em- (έµ-) is a prefix meaning having:

-embios (ἕµβῐος) means having/channeling life (βῐος)

-empatheia (έµπάθεια) means empathy, having/channeling

feelings (πάθεια)

-empsuchia (έµψῡχία) means having life in one, having a

soul/psyche (ψῡχία).

The name Empedoklees (Έµπεδοκλῆς) means having/

channeling (Έµ-) earth’s (πεδο) keys (κλῆς).


Ep- (έπ-) is a prefix meaning on, upon, over, above, literally

“essence unified,” a prefix for many, many Greek words.

Epi (έπί) means upon or supported upon a surface.

Epopteia (έποπτεία) is the highest grade of initiation at the
Eleusinian mysteries; attaining to the highest happiness;
also, to study, meditate on. (Note that opteia (οπτεία) means
see, so that epopteia (έποπτεία) means “upon seeing.”)


Ε (essence) combined with the letter Ξ (detached-from)

conveys the notion of something coming out of something

Eks- (έξ-) is a prefix meaning exit, take out from, extract.

Eksodos (ἕξοδος) means going out, way out; οδος means

way, road, exodus. Eksiteelos (έξίτηλος) means going out,

Eiksis (εἷξις) means giving way, yielding.

Eks (ἕξ), the number six, is counted by going from the

fingers of one hand to the other.

The letter Ε (essence) combined with the letter Κ (core) also

conveys the notion of something coming out of something
else, the way that the interior of the core of a bulb/seed,
naturally comes out and transitions into a plant, for
Three tulip bulbs in bloom on a doorstep in Amsterdam.

Ek (έκ) means from out of, from, therefrom. Ek- (έκ-) is a

prefix meaning of, from, out of, literally “essence (of)


Ekatee (Έκάτη), Hecate, is the immortal Goddess of

countless blessings. Ekatee is usually depicted holding two
torches or a crossed torch. She is frequently depicted as a
companion of Ermees, Hermes, in their roles as escorts.

Ekat- (έκᾰτ-) is a prefix meaning 100, ekaton (έκᾰτόν).

Ekaton (εκατόν), is a number used for hyperbole and for

exaggerative effect, as in the hundred-eyed or hundred-
handed or hundred-armed giants, hundred-headed dragon,
the warrior pierced by a hundred wounds, the pit filled with
one hundred snakes, the maiden courted by a hundred
suitors, the plant whose root brings forth a hundred blooms,
or the person who lives to the age of one hundred.

“According to the most genuine traditions, Hekate appears

to have been an ancient Thracian divinity, and a Titan, who,
from the time of the Titans, ruled in heaven, on the earth,
and in the sea, who bestowed on mortals wealth, victory,
wisdom, good luck to sailors and hunters, and prosperity to
youth and to the flocks of cattle; but all these blessings
might at the same time be withheld by her, if mortals did
not deserve them. She was the only one among the Titans
who retained this power under the rule of Zeus, and she was
honored by all the immortal [G]ods [and
Goddesses].” (

Hesiod describes the wide-ranging powers of the immortal

Goddess Ekatee:

" . . . Whenever any one of men (sic) on earth offers rich

sacrifices and prays for favour according to custom, (s)he
calls upon Hecate. Great honour comes full easily to him
(sic) whose prayers the [G]oddess receives favorably, and
she bestows wealth upon him (sic); for the power surely is
with her.

“. . . Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits
by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly
whom she will is distinguished among the people.

“And when men (sic) arm themselves for the battle that
destroys men (sic), then the [G]oddess is at hand to give
victory and grant glory readily to whom she will.

“Good is she also when men (sic) contend at the games, for
there too the [G]oddess is with them and profits them: and
(s)he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the
rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his (sic)

“And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and

to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea,
and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker
[Poseidon], easily the glorious [G]oddess gives great catch,
and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will.

“She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock.

The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of
fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes
many to be less.

“So, then . . . she is honoured amongst all the deathless

[G]ods [and Goddesses].

“And the son of Cronos (Zeus) made her a nurse of the

young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-
seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the
young, and these are her honours."

(Hesiod (circa 750 BCE). “The Theogony (410-452),”

Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica, translated by H. G.
Evelyn-White, Loeb Classical Library (London: William
Heinemann, 1914.))

Ekatee (Hecate) is depicted in art holding torches and

guiding the way in Demeter’s search for her Daughter and
in Persephone’s travels through the netherworld.

In the scene, below, Ekatee is shown holding a pair of


Ekatee, from a scene showing the journey of Orpheus to the

Underworld. Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany
Catalogue Number: Munich 3297, Apulian Red Volute
krater, Name vase Underworld Painter, circa 330 - 310

Below, Ekatee holds a crossed Eleusinian torch and leads

the way in a procession of Pluto and Persephone. Ermees
accompanies the chariot.

Ermes and Ekate accompany Pluto and Persephone. Ermes

carries a herald's wand and Ekatee a crossed Eleusinian
torch. British Museum, London, United Kingdom,
Catalogue Number: London F277, Apulian Red Krater,
circa 350 BCE.

Below, Ekatee holds two torches as she leads Persephone

from the netherworld to return to Demeter. Ermees stands
beside Persephone.

Hermes, holding a herald's wand and wearing a winged cap,

accompanies a crowned Persephone in her return from the
netherworld. Hekate leads the way, carrying a pair of
burning torches. Demeter holds a royal staff.
Metropolitan Museum, New York City, USA
Catalogue No.: New York 28.57.23
Beazley Archive No: 214158, Attic Red Krater, bell,
Attributed to the Persephone Painter.

Eikosee (είκοσά) means twenty, the total number of fingers

and toes, a number that means “a lot.” In ancient Greek
literature, someone might have twenty daughters, or twenty
sons, or twenty tripods, or travel a distance of twenty
furlongs or twenty stades, or have twenty travel
companions, or be accompanied by twenty nymphs, or
possess twenty geese or twenty oxen, or reign for twenty
years, or possess a ship with twenty oars.


The combination of the letter Ε (essence) with the letter Ρ

(outflow) conveys the notion of motion and force/power.

Er- (έρ-) is a prefix meaning raise, rouse, bring up.

Era (ἕρα) means earth, literally “essence outflow arising.”

In Greece, a land of volcanoes, it is quite evident that land
mass forms from within the earth. Also, it is readily
apparent that plants and fresh-water springs emerge from
the earth.
Ear- (ἒᾰρ-) is a prefix meaning springtime, literally
“essence arising outflow.”

Ear (ἒάρ) means springtime, the basis for the word early.

Ear (ἒᾰρ) also means blood; juice, the essence of life that
flows through animals and plants.

Eiar- (είαρ-) is a prefix meaning youthful, springtime.

Erdo (ἕρδω) means to do, to offer sacrifice.

Erg- (έργ-) is a prefix meaning to work, literally “essence

outflow generative.”

Erganee (έργάνη) means worker. Ergo (ἕργω) means to do

work. Webster’s defines work as “exertion or effort directed
to produce or accomplish something.” Hesiod’s Works and
Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡµέραι), written circa 700 BCE, is a
poem about living life in harmony with the seasons and
with justice.

“Hesiod’s instruction includes high praise of the life of

work, especially that of farming and its ancillary activities
(the “works”); remarkably specific directions for carrying
out many of these activities, including the auspicious times
for doing so (the “days”); and, perhaps most prominent of
all, repeated exhortations always to choose justice over

(Robert C. Bartlett. “An Introduction to Hesiod’s Works

and Days,” The Review of Politics 68 (Cambridge
University Press, Spring, 2006), 177-205. http:// )


Empedoklees (Έµπεδοκλῆς) in The Poem of Empedocles

and other existing fragments asserts that nothing is created
or destroyed, everything is eternally mixing through two
eternal forces: attraction/love/eros (ἕρως) and repulsion/
strife/hate/eris (ἕρις).

Eros (ἕρως) means love, literally “essence outflow-of

brings-forth.” Eros (Ἕρως) is the immortal God of
passionate love. Erao (ἕράω) means love, love warmly, love
or desire passionately. Erasis (ἕρᾰσις) means love.

Eris (ἕρις) means strife, quarrel, contention, literally

“essence outflow-of divine-power.”

Empedocles quotes Hippolytus as describing Eros (Love)

and Eris (Strife) as eternal:

“[Hippolytus writes] ‘Concerning the point that both of

these [love and strife] are immortal and uncreated and have
never received a starting-point for becoming, Empedocles
says other things in roughly this fashion:

“[Empedocles] “For they are, as they were before and will

be, nor do I think that endless time will ever be empty of
these two. (20/16).’

“[Hippolytus] ‘What are ‘these’? Strife and love. For they

never began to come into being, but they pre-existed and
will always exist . . .

“[Hippolytus] For when the things which come to be by

strife’s agency die, love receives them and draws them
towards, puts them with, and assimilates them to the
universe, so that the universe might remain one, always
being organized by love in one manner and form.”

“. . . [Inwood] Later in CTXT-10g Hippolytus returns to this

point, calling the roots [earth, air, fire, and water] mortal
[G]ods [and Goddesses] and love and strife immortal . . .”

(Empedocles (circa 450 BCE). The Poem of Empedocles,

translated by Brad Inwood (University of Toronto Press,
2001.) 31-32)

Seneca’s description of Eros in Phaedra depicts the

unremitting fire of love.

“This winged [G]od [Eros] rules ruthlessly throughout the

earth and inflames Jove [Zeus] himself, wounded with
unquenched fires.”

(Seneca (circa 50 CE). Phaedra, translated by Frank Justus

Miller (London: William Heinemann and New York: G.P.
Putnam’s Sons, 1917) 186ff.)

"He [Eros] kindles the fierce flames of youth and in worn-

out age he wakes again the extinguished fires; [H]e smites
maids’ breasts with unknown heat . . .”

(Seneca. Phaedra 290 ff).

Below, the winged immortal God Eros is depicted perched

on the forearm of the immortal Goddess Aphrodite.

Winged Eros perched on the forearm of Aphrodite, the

immortal Goddess of love. The immortal God Zeus is

The J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA

Catalogue Number: Malibu 86.AE.680, Apulian Red Figure
Painter: Attributed to Painter of Louvre MNB1148, circa
350 - 340 BCE.




The Erinus (Έρῑνύς) are the immortal Goddesses who

uphold the natural and moral order, avenging crimes such as
perjury and homicide, as described by Aeschylus, Quintus
Smyrnaeus, and Apollonius Rhodius:

"The [G]ods [and Goddesses] are not blind to men with

blood upon their hands. In the end the black Spirits of
Vengeance (Erinus) bring to obscurity that one who has
prospered in unrighteousness and wear down his fortunes
by reverse."

(Aeschylus (circa 450 BCE). Agamemnon, translated by

Herbert Weir Smyth, Loeb Classical Library Volumes 145
& 146 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926)

"[Aias curses Odysseus:] 'O may his soul suffer all torments
that the Avenging Fiends (Erinus) devise for villains! On all
other Greeks may they bring murderous battle, woeful
griefs, and chiefly on Agamemnon, Atreus' son!"

(Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Fall of Troy, translated by A.S.

Way, Loeb Classical Library (London: William Heinemann,
1913) 5.470.)

"[Medea threatens Jason with the curse of the Erinus should

he hand her over to the pursuing Kolkhians:] `May my
avenging Furies (Erinus) forthwith drive thee from thy
country, for all that I have suffered through thy cruelty!
These curses will not be allowed to fall unaccomplished to
the ground. A mighty oath hast thou transgressed . . . '"

(Apollonius Rhodius. Argonautica, translated by R. C.

Seaton, Loeb Classical Library (London: William
Heinemann, 1912) 4.383.)


Eireenee (είρήνη), in contrast, means a time of peace, peace.

Eireenee (Είρήνη), Eirene, the immortal Goddess of peace,

bestows blessings on the just.

Hesiod in Works and Days, describes Eirene as prevailing

in a place where Justice is upheld:

“But they who give straight judgements to strangers and to

the men of the land, and go not aside from what is just, their
city flourishes, and the people prosper in it: Peace (Eirene),
the nurse of children, is abroad in their land, and all-seeing
Zeus never decrees cruel war against them.”

(Hesiod (circa 750 BCE). Works and Days, translated by

Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1914;
Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011)

Eiree (εϊρη) means rainbow. Eiree (εϊρη) also means speak;

also, a place of assembly.

Full featured double rainbow in Wrangell-St. Elias National

Park, Alaska.

Eiro (εϊρω) means to fasten together in rows; a connected

system; also, say, speak, tell, ask. Eirktee (είρκτή) means
enclosure. Eirksis (εἷρξις) means fencing in. Eiro- (είρο-) is
a prefix meaning wool. Eiros (εἷρος) means sheep’s coat.

Similarly-spelled Eiris (εἷρις) has several meanings

including Iris, the messenger of the immortals among
themselves; a rainbow; any bright-colored circle
surrounding another body such as the halo of a candle or the
iris surrounding the pupil of the eye; and the spring-
blooming iris flower.
Winged Iris, holding a herald’s wand and a pitcher.

Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, New York

City, USA
Catalogue Number: RISD 35.707,
Beazley Archive Number: 204107, Attic Red Lekythos,
Attributed to the Brygos Painter, circa 480 BCE. http://


Ermees (Έρµῆς, Έρµοῦ) commonly called Hermes, is the

immortal God of transitions, communication, inventions,
transactions, travel, and passageways, literally “essence
outflow-of meta.” (Meta is the medium that connects the
macro with the micro.)

A herald’s job is to voice proclamations, announcements,

and mandates. Ermees is the herald of the immortals:
announcing their intent, proclaiming their will, serving as a
medium between immortals and mortals.

Ermees serves as an intermediary between the human and

the divine and is credited with introducing most, if not all,
of the knowledge and skills that humans enjoy.

Ermees “was regarded as the author of a variety of

inventions, and, besides the lyre and syrinx (pan-pipes made
of reeds), he is said to have invented the alphabet, numbers,
astronomy, music, the art of fighting, gymnastics, the
cultivation of the olive tree, measures, weights, and many
other things. (Plut. Sympos. ix. 3; Diod. l.c. and v. 75;
Hygin. Fab. 277.)”

Ermees is a God of escort. Ermees escorts the soul in the

transition from wakefulness to sleep, from sleep to waking,
and from life to the afterlife.

Orphic Hymn 56. To the Terrestrial Hermes (9-14) says:

“. . . To wretched souls the leader of the way

When Fate decrees, to regions void of day:

Thine is the wand which causes sleep to fly,

Or lulls to slumb’rous rest the weary eye;

For Proserpine (Persephone) thro’ Tart’rus dark and wide

Gave thee forever flowing souls to guide . . . ”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE),

translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by
Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792.
Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research
Society, 1981) 189.)

Ermees is depicted in art with wings on his head or feet and

carrying a snake-entwined staff. The wings symbolize his
role as the heaven’s ambassador, while the snake
symbolizes his role as the earth’s ambassador.

Hermes with winged boots, holding the keerukeion.

Metropolitan Museum, New York City, USA
Catalogue Number: New York 25.78.2
Beazley Archive Number: 203182
Ware: Attic Red Figure Lekythos
Painter: Attributed to the Tithonus Painter, circa 500 - 450


Eo (Έω) and Eos (Ἕ

ως) mean dawn; the immortal Goddess of the rising sun,
literally “essence brings-forth.” Eoios (έώϊος) means
eastern.The chariot of Eos precedes the chariot of Helios,
the sun, as depicted below:

Chariot of Eos (Dawn) precedes chariot of Helios (the Sun),

both led by Eosphoros (God of the morning star). Staatliche
Antiksammulungen Museum, Munich, Germany, Apulian
Red Krater, circa 350 BCE.

Eosphoros (Έωσφόρος) is the morning star that heralds the

coming of a new day; phoros (φόρος) means bearing,

Esperia (Έσπερία) means Hesperia, the West, where the sun

sets below the horizon in transition from day to night,
literally “essence synchronized-contraction unified.”


The combination of the letter Ε (essence) with the letter Λ

(loosen) results in the concept of a spiral or revolution,
literally “essence loosened,” suggesting the essential nature
of cyclical patterns.

Eiliko- (είλικο-) is a prefix meaning of twisted or spiral


Eileo (είλέω) means the sun.

Eileesis (εϊλησις) means an eddy, a vortex of wind; also, the

revolution of heavenly bodies.

Ela (ἕλα) means sunrise, the transition from night to day.

Elelizo (έλελίζω) means to whirl round.

Elinos (ἕλῐνος) means vine-tendril.

Eliks (ἕλιξ) means helix, twisted, curved, anything which

assumes a spiral shape, such as a wreath of smoke, the
tendril of a vine, a lock of hair, ivy, the coil of a serpent, a
sea-shell, an orbit.

DNA forms a double helix. (It is interesting to note the E-

shaped pattern within the helix.)

(The Discovery of the Molecular Structure of DNA - The

Double Helix". 7 May 2012.) http://

Elisso (έλίσσω) means to turn round, revolve.


The people of Greece refer to their land as Ellas (Έλλας),

Hellas. (The term “Greek” (Graikos (Γραικός)) is a
designation bestowed by Italians, which translates roughly
as “old.”)

Ellas (Έλλάς) means Hellas, Greece; all lands inhabited by

Elleenes (Έλληνες), Hellenes.
Ellania ((Έλλανία), Elleenios (Έλληνιος), and Elladikos
(Έλλᾰδικός) mean Elleenikos (Έλληικός), Hellenic, Greek.

Elanee (έλάνη) means a torch of reeds. Elenee (έλένη)

means torch.

Eilipodees (Είλῐπόδης) is another name for Eephaistos

(Ἣφαιστος, Hephaistos), the immortal God of volcanoes
and fire.

Elenia (Έλένια) is a feast in honor of Helen.

Elladarchees (Έλλᾰδαρχης) is an official of the Delphic

Amphictyony (Άµφικτυονία “Surrounding Inhabitants”),
the ancient ruling body of the Ellas. Elladarcheo
(Έλλαδαρχέω) means to hold office in the Amphictyonic

“The Amphictyonic League was a religious association of

twelve peoples, almost all from central Greece … from the
very beginnings of the Amphictyonic League, whose
origins are shrouded in remote antiquity, the members met
at the sanctuary of Demeter at Thermopylae. Drawn by the
fame of the sanctuary of Pythian Apollo the Amphictyonic
league transferred its headquarters to Delphi (circa 550
BCE) . . . the two annual conventions in spring and autumn
were (then) held partly at Thermopylae and partly at
(Pierre Amandry, Delphi and Its History, translated by Dr.
Judith Binder (Athens: “Greece-An Archeological Guide”
27 Praxitelous Street, 1984) 7.)

Map showing location of Thermopylae. http://

Elleespontos (Έλλησποντος) is the Hellespont, now called

Dardanelles, a narrow strait in northwest Turkey that
connects the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean Sea,
providing a passageway between Asia and Europe.


Ealon (έαλόν) means make a beginning of, strike out, issue

forth from; also, loosing, delivering, healing. Elar (ἕλαρ)
means help, aid.

Elauno (έλαύνω) means to drive, set in motion.

Eileithuia (Είλείθυια) is the immortal Goddess of childbirth,

parturition. Parturition is defined by Webster’s as “the
process of bringing forth young.”
Pindar begins his Nemean 7 Ode to the winner in the boys’
pentathlon by honoring Eleithyia as the source/essence of
the athlete’s life and fate:

“Eleithyia, enthroned beside the deep-pondering Muses,

daughter of powerful Hera, bringer to birth of children--

hear me; without you we cannot look upon the light or the

dark night . . .”

(Pindar (circa 485 BCE), “Nemean 7,” The Complete Odes,

translated by Anthony Verity (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2007) 105.)

The name of the Goddess of childbirth is also spelled:

-Eileethuia (Είλήθυια)

-Eilioneia (Είλιόνεια)

-Eleithuia (Έλείθυια)

-Eleuthia (Έλευθία)

-Eleusia (Έλευσία).

The word eilo (εϊλω) has many definitions in the Lexicon:

shut in, hinder, hold in check, press; huddle; wind, turn
round, revolve, move to and fro, pivot, swing round;
squeeze. These seemingly unrelated terms may all be
techniques that aid in childbirth.

Eilipous (είλίπους) means bring round their legs with a

circling or rolling motion.

Eiluo (είλύω) means crouching.

Crouching is a birth-giving position depicted in artwork

from Egypt, India, Costa Rica, Africa, Greece, Germany,
and the United States.

An Egyptian relief of a woman giving birth. http://

A squatting woman giving birth, assisted by two depictions

of the Goddesses Hathor and Taweret,
from the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. http://

India, 15th century, a carving in a temple of birth-giving.

The Indian Goddess Kali, giving birth to the universe.

A Costa Rican sculpture of a woman giving birth. http://

Baluba culture, Zaire, Africa.

Wood sculpture.
Height: 7.25 inches (18.6 cm.)
Width: 7.75 inches (19.6 cm.
150 × 150 -

An Athenian relief showing a woman giving-birth.  http:// 

Another relief of a woman giving birth.


A birth scene. The men consult the position of the stars and
moon to gain insight to the child’s fate. Published in 1580.
The title of the publication was “Kunnst und Lehrbchlein fr
die anfahenden Jungen. Daraus reissen und Malen zu
lernen.” giving-birth

An early American depiction of giving birth on a birthing


Eleusis (Έλευσίς) is an ancient city of Attica sacred to the

immortal Goddesses Demeter and Kore/Persephone
(Demeter’s daughter). The worship of Demeter at Eleusis
dates to circa 1400 BCE.

“. . . Demeter came to Athens in the reign of Erichthonios,

or ca. 1409/08 B. C. [E.] . . . the reign of Erechtheus the
Parian Chronicle refers not only to the advent of Demeter,
but also the first sowing of wheat in the Rarian plain of
Eleusis . . . and the first celebration of the Mysteries at
Eleusis by Eumolpos.”

(George E. Mylonas. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries

(New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1961) 14.)

Eleusinios (Έλευσίνιος) means of Eleusis; Demeter and


The Eleusinian Mysteries were celebrated for at least 1500

years, up to and including the time of the Roman Emperor
Hadrian’s initiation circa 120 CE. (Mylonas, 185.)

It is of interest to note that the Emperor Hadrian began

designing the Pantheon in Rome near the time of his
initiation, circa 120 CE.
The interior of the dome-shaped Pantheon designed by

Eleusis (ἕλευσις) means coming, arrival.

The Bay of Eleusis is west of Athens. http://

Eleutheria (έλευθερία) means freedom, liberty.

Eleutheros (έλεύθερος) means free.

Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, the French sculptor who

designed New York’s Statue of Liberty, titled his work
“Liberty Enlightening the World (La Liberté éclairant le

Design patent for the Statue of Liberty. http://

Apuleius (circa 200 CE), in Metamorphoses XI. 1-25,

describes initiation into the mysteries of the Goddess. It is
interesting to note that he says, upon emerging from the
solemn rites, “In my right hand I wielded a torch well
alight; a garland of glinting palm-leaves projecting like the
sun’s rays encircled my head,” which sounds like a
description of the Statue of Liberty.

Head of the Statue of Liberty.


“(22)[Priest speaks to Lucius] ‘Lucius . . . at the divine

commands of the [G]oddess with many names you are to be
admitted through my agency into the most holy mysteries of
our sacred rites.’ . . .

“(24) . . . Morning came, and the rites were completed. I

emerged sacramentally clothed in twelve garments . . . In
my right hand I wielded a torch well alight; a garland of
glinting palm-leaves projecting like the sun’s rays encircled
my head.

“. . . I finally crouched before the image of the

[G]oddess . . . With rising tears and frequent sobs I
addressed her . . .

“(25) ‘O holy, perennial savior of the human race, you are

ever generous in your care for mortals, and you bestow a
mother’s sweet affection upon wretched people in
misfortune . . . I have neither the richness of speech, nor a
thousand mouths and as many tongues, nor an endless and
uninhibited flow of words to express my feelings about your
majesty . . .’”

(Apuleius (circa 120 CE). Metamorphoses 6.13 ff

(Apuleius’ title as it appears on the original manuscript;
after Apuleius’ death, Augustine re-titled it The Golden
Ass), translated by P. G. Walsh (Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press, 1994) 233-236.)

“Now the details of the initiatory rite [of Eleusis] are guarded
among the matters not to be divulged and are communicated to
the initiates alone; but the fame has travelled wide of how these
[G]ods [and Goddesses] appear to mankind [humanity] and
bring unexpected aid to those initiates of theirs who call upon
them in the midst of perils. The claim is also made that men (sic)
who have taken part in the mysteries become both more pious
and more just and better in every respect than they were before.”

Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily).


According to A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (p.

395) by Sir William Smith, New York: Harper & Brothers,
1857: Eleusinia was “a festival and mysteries, originally
celebrated only at Eleusis in Attica, in honour of Demeter and
Persephone. All the ancients who have occasion to mention the
Eleusinian mysteries, or the mysteries, as they were sometimes
called, agree that they were the holiest and most venerable of all
that were celebrated in Greece …

“The lesser Eleusinia were held every year in the month of

Anthesterion [approximately second half of February/first half
of March], and, according to some accounts, in honour of
Persephone alone. Those who were initiated in them bore the
name of mystae, and had to wait at least another year before
they could be admitted to the great mysteries. The principal rites
of this first stage of initiation consisted in the sacrifice of a sow
[female pig] . . .

“The great mysteries were celebrated every year in the month of

Boedromion [approximately late September/early October],
during nine days, from the 15th to the 23d, both at Athens and


Eleeo (έλεέω) means to have pity on. Eleos (ἕλεος) means

mercy, compassion.

Eneelusia (Ένηλύσια) is another name for the Eelusion

(Ήλύσιον), commonly called the Elysian, the place of
paradise in the afterlife. (It is interesting to note that in
Paris, France, the Avenue des Champs-Élysées and the
Élysée Palace, the official residence of France’s President,
are both named for the Elysian.)

Elegeia (έλεγεία) means elegy. Webster’s defines elegy as

“a funeral song or a lament for the dead.”


Elikon (Έλῐκών) means Helicon, a mountain in Boeotia, the

seat of the immortal Muses, Goddesses of inspiration.

Hesiod begins his Theogony with praise of the Muses of


“From the Heliconian Muses let us begin to sing, who hold

the great and holy mount of Helicon . . .”

(Hesiod. “The Theogony (1),” Homeric Hymns, Epic Cycle,

Homerica, translated by H. G. Evelyn-White, Loeb
Classical Library (London: William Heinemann, 1914.))

Callistratus describes a statue of the poet Orpheus on


“On Helicon – the spot is a shaded precinct sacred to the

Muses – . . . there stood beside the Muses a statue of
Orpheus, the son of Calliope, a statue most beautiful to look
upon. For the bronze joined with art to give birth to beauty,
indicating by the splendour of the body the musical nature
of the soul.”

(Callistratus. “Descriptions (7.1),” Elder Philostratus,

Younger Philostratus, Callistratus, translated by Arthur
Fairbanks, Loeb Classical Library (London: William
Heinemann, 1931.))

Pausanias describes Elikon as a pleasant setting:

“Helicon is one of the mountains of Greece with the most

fertile soil and the greatest number of cultivated trees. The
wild-strawberry bushes supply to the goats sweeter fruit
than that growing anywhere else. The dwellers around
Helicon say that all the grasses too and roots growing on the
mountain are not at all poisonous . . .

“On Helicon tripods have been dedicated, of which the

oldest is the one which it is said Hesiod received for
winning the prize for song at Chalcis on the Euripus. Men
(sic) too live round about the grove, and here the Thespians
celebrate a festival, and also games called the Museia. They
celebrate other games in honor of Love, offering prizes not
only for music but also for athletic events.”

(Pausanias. Description of Greece (9.28.1-9.31.3),

translated by W. H. S. Jones and H. A. Omerod, Loeb
Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Press; London: William Heinemann, 1918.)

Hesiod confirms Pausanias’ account of the tripod he won

and dedicated to the Muses of Elikon:

“And there (Chalcis) I boast that I gained the victory with a

song and carried off an handled tripod which I dedicated to
the Muses of Helicon, in the place where they first set me in
the way of clear song.”

(Hesiod. “Works and Days (646),” Homeric Hymns, Epic

Cycle, Homerica, translated by H. G. Evelyn-White, Loeb
Classical Library (London: William Heinemann, 1914.))


Ebdomas (έβδοµάς) is the number seven, a number of

special significance.

The seven vowels (Α Ε Η Ι Ο Υ Ω) are considered mystical/

magical characters and are associated with the seven
planets. The seven days of the week are named for the
seven-zoned, eptazonos (έπτάζωνος), planetary system.
Below is a proposed explanation for the association
between the vowels, days of the week, (Latin names), and
associated planets.

Α Aphroditee (Άφροδίτη)
Friday (Veneris) Venus

Ε Eos (Ἕως “Morning/ Ήλίου άστήρ”)

Saturday (Saturni) Saturn*

Η Helios (Ήλιος)
Sunday (Solis) Sun

Ι Io (Ίώ)
Monday (Lunae) Moon

Ο Oulos (Οὖλος, “Baneful”) Arees (Ἅρης)

Tuesday (Marti) Mars

Υ Upeeretees (Ύπηρέτης,“Attendant/Hermes”)
Wednesday (Mercuri) Mercury

Ω Osiris (Ώσῖρις,Ὅσῖρις, “Zeus”)

Thursday (Jove) Jupiter
*Saturn is called “The Star of Helios (Ήλίου άστήρ).” The
Roman Saturnalia was a feast heralding the winter solstice,
the turning point when the sun appears to begin its upward

Ebdomagetees (έβδοµᾱγέτης), “seven magical,” is an

epithet of Apollo, who keeps the harmony of spheres by
playing his seven-stringed lyre.

Ebdomazo (έβδοµάζω), “seven bread,” means to keep the

Sabbath. Ebraios (Έβραῖος) means Hebrew.

Ebdomos (έβδοµος) means celebrated on the seventh day

after birth. Ebdomeuomai (έβδοµεύοµαι) means to receive a
name at seven days of age, as was customary.

Epta (έπτά) means seven as a mystical number, i.e. the

Seven Wonders, Seven Sages, seven years, seven days,
seven vowels, seven gates of Grecian Thebes, seven strings
of Apollo’s lyre, seven largest islands.

There are seven stars in the Pleiades constellation, which

are “signs for sowing and reaping when they set or when
they appear once more.”

(Philostratus the Younger (circa 250 CE), “Imagines 10,”

Elder Philostratus, Younger Philostratus, Callistratus,
translated by Arthur Fairbanks. Loeb Classical Library
Volume 256. (London: William Heinemann, 1931.)
Imagines 10.)

Philebdomos (φιλέβδοµος) means fond of the number

seven; 'goes by sevens.'

It may be worth noting that the seventh letter of the Greek

alphabet is Ζ, literally “spark-of-life.”


Ebleeto (ἕβλητο) means to throw, literally “essence basis


Eblon (έβλόν) means disabled by a stroke, struck dumb,

paralyzed, crippled, literally “essence basis loosened.”

Ebrache (ἕβρᾰχε) means rattle, clash, ring, roar, literally

“essence basis outflow.”


Eth- (έθ-) is a prefix meaning according to established

customs, the basis for the word ethnic.

Ethn- (έθν-) is a prefix meaning nation, tribe, ethnicity,

“customs (έθ-) prevailing (ν).”

Ethnarchees (έθνάρχης) means ruler of a tribe or nation.

Ethnikos (έθνικός) means national.

Ethnos (ἒθνος) means a number of people living together,

company, band, flock, nation, people.

Ethas (έθάς) means accustomed, familiar, customary, usual.

Ethos (ἒθος) means custom, habit, according to custom.

Etho (ἒθω) means to be accustomed, as is the custom.


Etos (ἕτος) means year.

The Attic calendar began with the feast of Ekatombaion

(Ἑκᾰτοµβαιών), the sacrifice of 100 oxen. The 12 months
of the Attic year were as follows (my translation in parens):

Summer Solstice

1. Ekatombaion (Ἑκᾰτοµβαιών) (100-Oxen Sacrifice)


2. Metageitnion (Μεταγείτνιών) (Meet Neighbors)


3. Boeedromion (Βοηδροµιών) (Ox Race)

Sep-Oct Autumn Equinox

4. Puanopsion (Πῠᾰνοψιών) (All-Seeing)


5. Maimakteerion (Μαιµακτηριών) (Stormy)


6. Posideeion (Ποσῐδηϊών) (Drinks)

Dec-Jan Winter Solstice

7. Gameelion (Γᾰµηλιών) (Weddings)


8. Anthesteerion (Ἀνθεστηριών) (Raise Prayers)


9. Elapheebolion (Ἐλᾰφηβολιών) (Deer Hunt)

Mar-Apr SpringEquinox

10. Mounuchion (Μουνῠχιών) (Muse Night)

11. Thargeelion (Θαργηλιών) (First-Fruits)

12. Skirophorion (Σκιροφοριών) (Shade Bearing)

Jun-Jul Summer Solstice

(Jane Ellen Harrison. Prolegomena to the Study of the

Greek Religion, (Princeton , NJ: Princeton University Press,
1991, first published Cambridge, MA: Cambridge
University Press, 1903) 29.)


Eao (έάω) means leave alone, let alone, have done with,
quit; ao (άω) means satiate, so “essence of satiety.”

Edar (ἕδαρ) means that which is eaten, food, meat, bread,

honey; darata (δάρατα) is a kind of bread; darda (δάρδα)
means honey; dardapto (δαρδάπτω) means devour.

Edaphos (ἕδᾰφος) means bottom, foundation, base.

Edos (ἕδος) means seat, stool, sitting-place; abode;

dwelling place of the immortals.

Edo (ἕδω) means eat; dos (δώς) means giving.

Ezomai (ἕζοµαι) means seat oneself, sit; sink to the earth;

crouch; collapse.

Eimartos (είµαρτός) means fixed by fate.

Elaa (έλάα) means olive-tree, olive, olive-oil.

Elaphos (ἕλᾰφος) means deer, stag, hart. Ellos (έλλος) is a

young deer, a fawn.

Elaphros (ἕλαφρός) means light in weight, lightness, light-

minded; aphros (αφρός) means foamy.

Elachus (έλαχύς) means small, short, little; lach- (λαχ-) is a

prefix meaning allotted portion.

Eldomai (ἕλδοµαι) means wish, long for, desire; doma

(δόµα) means gift.

Elko (ἕλκω) means drag away, draw along, draw, drag.

Elpis (έλπίς) means expectation, hope.

Eortaios (έορταῖος) means festal, holiday. Eortee (έορτή)

means feast, festival, holiday.

Eree- (έρη-) is a prefix meaning solitary, “essence flow (to)


Etees (έτης) means clansfolk, kin and dependents, “essence


Ephesus (Έφεσος, Έφεσιος, Έφεσήϊα, Έφεσία,

Έφεσηονίκης, Έφεσίς) is a city on the coast of modern-day
Turkey and the location of the Temple of Artemis, one of
the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

The Theater at Ephesus (in modern-day Turkey). http://
Ephoros (ἕφορος) means overseer, guardian, ruler. Ephor-
(έφόρ-) is a prefix meaning observe, look upon, inspect;
phoros (φόρος) means that which is brought in by way of

Ech- (έχ-) is a prefix that means hold, hold tight, literally

“essence (of) foundation.” Echthairo (έχθαίρω), echthos
(ἕχθος), and echtho (ἕχθω) mean hate. Echthra (ἕχθρα)
means hatred, enmity.

Epsia (έψία) means amusement, literally “essence


Epso (ἕψω) means boil, literally “essence incorporeal


Ϝ   ϝ                        wau (ϝαῦ); digamma (δίγαμμα)           

                        pronounce: w

The letter Ϝ means wed-to. 

It is the 6th letter of the Greek alphabet. Similarly, the letter "F"
is the 6th letter of the English alphabet.

Webster’s defines wed as “to blend together or unite


Ϝ is commonly called digamma (δίγαμμα), “two (δί-) married

(γαμ-) ”

Many words that commence with the letter Ϝ were re-written to

begin with the letters Β (basis) or Γ (generative).

Latin completed eliminated the “w” sound and Greek words

beginning with Ϝ were subsumed under the letters F, V, U, W,
and Y.

Wecho (ϝέχω) means carriage; any means for carrying;

anything which holds; harbor.


Widio (ϝιδιό) means one’s own; private, “wed-to (ϝ) self

Wiautou (ϝιαυτοῦ) means of himself, herself, itself, themselves,

ourselves, “wed-to (ϝι) autonomy (αυτοῦ).”

Wek (ϝεκ) means as far as depend’s on one’s will, as far as

concerns one, literally “wed-to essence core.”


Weos (ϝέος), woi (ϝοι), win (ϝίν), wio (ϝίο), and (ϝέ) mean
him, her.

Wethen (ϝέθεν) means his, her, of him, of her; ethen (έθεν)

means his, her, of him, of her.


Woikea (ϝοικέα, ϝοικέυς) means servant, slave, inmate of one's

house, “wed-to (ϝ) house (οικ-).”
Woiko (ϝοίκω) means from one’s own financial resources, at
one’s own expense.

Woikos (ϝοῖκος) means house, dwelling place.

Wriza (ϝρίζα) means root, base, foundation; riz- (ρίζ-) means


Wukia (ϝυκία) means house, dwelling, home; uk- (υκ-) means

husband’s father.

Wastu (ϝάστυ) means town, city; astu (άστυ) means town, city.

Wasstuochos (ϝασστυόχος) means dwelling place.


Wilarchio (ϝιλαρχίω) means band, troop, companions.  

Wil (ϝιλ-) is a prefix meaning band, troop.

Walika (ϝƒλικα) means of the same kind, similar.

Wos (ϝός) means one’s own, fellow, comrade.


Wada (ϝαδά) means decree, decision.

Wratra (ϝράτρα) means ratify, final agreement, treaty,

covenant, compact between the Law-giver and the People,
decree, ordinance, law, pronouncement.

Wreeta (ϝρήτᾱ) means treaty, agreement, a possible basis for

the word written.

Wewiksko (ϝεϝίκσκω) means as thou deemest.

Eweupon (ἕϝειπον) means speak, say.

Wreesis (ϝρῆσις) means saying, speech.   

Wepos (ϝέπος) means word, hymn, utterance, song, promise,

oracle, proverb, saying.   

Wiwacho (ϝιϝάχω) means sound forth a strain of music;


Wreeteuo (ϝρήτεύω) means president; priest; speaker.

Wanapsa (Ϝάναψα) means queen, lady, addressed to


Wanaks (ϝάναξ) means ruler/king/queen.


Weera (ϝῆρα) means service, gratification.

Wreg- (ϝρέγ-) is a prefix meaning do, act, accomplish, make.

Wreksanta (ϝρέξάντα) means perform sacrifices.

Worzo (ϝόρζω) means do sacrifice, will sacrifice, offer to the

Gods and Goddesses.

Werggo (Ϝέργγω) and werzdo (Ϝέρζδω) means offer sacrifice.

Weeronton (ϝηρόντων) and weeronti (ϝήροντι) mean to do;

offer a sacrifice.    

Weruo (ϝερύω) means rescue, save, deliver, set free, redeem.

Wreen (ϝρήν) means lamb.

Weksakatioi (Ϝεξακάτιοι) means six hundred (note that eksak-

(εξακ-) means six; eksak (εξακ) also means mend/cure/heal/
remedy evil.)

Wior (ϝίώρ) means life flow. 

Worthasia (ϝορθασία), wortheia (ϝορθεία), worthaia

(ϝορθαία), and worthea (ϝώρθέα) are epithets of Artemis in
Laconia and Arcadia.

Weethea (ϝήθεα) means divine earth, earth Goddess.

Wad- (ϝαδ-) and weed- (ϝηδ-) are prefixes meaning of earth,

from earth. 

Wola (ϝωλά) means will, determination, especially of the Gods

and Goddesses.     


Wid- (ϝιδ-) is a prefix meaning know, see.

Weidos (ϝεῖδος) means see, know.

Wor- (ϝορ-) is a prefix meaning know, see, look.

Woroi (ϝῶροι) means see, look, have sight. 

Weenops (ϝῆνοψ) means gleaming; eenops (ῆνοψ) means

gleaming, dazzling.

Wistor (ϝίστωρ) means one who knows law and right, judge
(wed-to history).

Wistores (ϝίστορες) means witnesses.

Wisos (ϝίσος) means equal, equal in rights, equally divided or

distributed (wed-to equality, basis for the word wise).

Wiswai (ϝίσϝαι) and wiswois (ϝίσϝοις) means fair and equal.

Wisameen (ϝισάμην) means know, have knowledge of,


Wos (ϝως) means to what end, how, when, where.    


Wetos (ϝέτος) means yearly, annually, each year, every year

(wed-to the year (έτος)).
Weteon (ϝετέον) means annually.

Wetea (ϝέτεα) means of Time: that time, this time (wed-to a


Wear (ϝέαρ) means springtime, early spring (wed-to earliness)

Wora (ϝώρα) means care, concern, watching    ώρα=seasons of

the year; hours of the day; duration of time; fitting time or
season; degree of the zodiac


Werg (ϝέργ) means hold together, keep shut; be retained 

Wergon (ϝέργον) and wargon (ϝάργον) mean bearing or

enduring labor (wed-to work).


Weema (ϝήμᾶ) means rug, carpet; ήμᾶ=sit still, sit idle (put
down rug to indicate you are wed-to sitting).

Wonios (ϝώνιος) means counterbalancing, of like value, worth;

 ώνιος=to be bought; for sale; goods for sale; market-wares
(wed-to a sale).


Wekaboloi (ϝεκᾶβόλοι) means attaining one’s aim.  

Wal (ϝαλ) means enough; caught, seized, won, achieved;

succumb to.


Woian (ϝωίαν) means summit; ωίαν = edge.


Awella (ἅϝελλα) means stormy wind, whirlwind, whirling

Wel (ϝελ) means turn round or about, turning, roll, winding,
whirl (probable basis for the word wheel.)


Wradion (ϝρᾁδιον) means slow, sluggish, late, slow-moving

(wed-to outflow-of arising directed-trajectory).

Wranon (ϝρᾶνον) means rain, raindrop (wed-to outflow-of

arising prevailing).

Wreeksis (ϝρῆξις) means breaking, bursting; a probably basis

for the word wreck (wed-to outflow-of center detached-from).

Wreeg- (ϝρηγ-) is a prefix meaning broken/arable land (wed-to

outflow-of center generative).

Weruo (ϝερύω) means drag, draw, plunder, pull (wed-to

essence outflow-of pure).    


Wiphiadas (ϝιφιάδας) means strength, might, by force, by

Wioko (ϝιώκω) means cause to run, set in quick motion.

Win- (ϝῐγ-) is a prefix meaning quick movement.

Wei- (ϝεί-) is a prefix meaning rush, hasten, go.

Wia (ϝία) means full bloom of a flower or plant.

Wiso- (ϝισο-) is a prefix meaning enjoy.


Weerion (ϝηρίον) means mound, barrow, tomb; ηρίον=mound,

barrow, tomb.

Weeleo (ϝηλέω) means shut in, hinder, hold in check; enclose,

cover, protect; revolve; pack tightly.

Weeleema (ϝήλημα) means veil, covering, wrapper; arch; vault,

cellar; eddy, vortex; revolution; hindrance/impediment to

άϝεργω = lift, raise up

Πλεϝϊάδες = the Pleiades (Πλεϊάδες), a constellation of stars

that rises at the beginning of sailing-season

κατϝάξαις shatter, break in pieces

κατα-ϝάγνυμι = break, shiver

ϝράκος = long robe

ϝῆμα = garment, over-garment

ϝημένα = dress     ημέν= both . . . and . . .

Ϝακάβα = Hecabe, the wife of Priam, apparently metonymically

for a pig because of her fertility

ϝάλλοι = nailhead, stud

άείρω= άϝεργω=ϝαργω  (in note: the sense attach is prob

derived from the use)

ϝαγάνω δύο = fry; roast

ϝαδιούλογὅ = pleasant

ϝέδιμνος = a corn-measure
ϝίκατι, ϝείκατι =  twenty; Latin: viginti =two tens (ί=10)

Ζ ζ zeeta (ζῆτα)     spark                                                    

                        pronounce: "zd" or "dz"

The letter Ζ means spark; spark-of-life.

Zeesis (ζῆσις) means vitalization. Zeelos (ζήλος) means zeal,

fervor, spirit.

Zopuron (ζωπῠρον) means spark used to kindle a fire. Note that

puron (πῠρον) means pyre, fire, so that zopuron (ζωπῠρον)
translates as “spark brings-forth fire.”

Lightning is a spark on a divine scale. The shape of the letter Ζ

resembles lightning.


Zeus as Fire
Zanos purgos (Ζανός πύργος) is a Pythagorean name for the
central fire of the universe. Zanos (Ζανός) is also another name
for Zeus (Ζεύς).

In Orphic Hymn 7. To the Sun, Orpheus refers to the sun as

“Immortal Jove (Zeus).”

Empedocles uses the name “Zeus” to refer to fire as one of the

four roots/elements.

(Empedocles: The Extant Fragments 7(6).2-3, translated by

M.R. Wright (Yale University, 1981) 23.) http://

Zeus is said to have been angry when Prometheus provided fire

to humans:

“And Zeus, when Prometheus had taken fire and given it to men,
put him in chains and set an eagle at his side which devoured his

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History 4.15.2,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library Volume
303 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd.,1935.)
Zeus as Lightning and Rain

Zan (Ζάν), Zeenos (Ζηνός), Zas (Ζάς), Das (Δάς), Tan (Τάν),
and Dis (Δίς) mean Zeus.

Zeen (Ζήν) means rain, and is also a name for Zeus.

Zeus is especially associated with the fertilizing role of rain and

bears many thunderstorm-related epithets, including:

- of the rain (όμβριος, ύετιος)

- of the thunderbolt (κεραύνειος)

- descending in thunder and lightning (καταιβάτης)

- of lightning, with thunderstorms (άστρᾰπαῖος)

- God of rain (ικμαῖος).

Orphic Hymn 18. To Thundring Jove (Zeus) (1-30) describes the

flaming lightning and thunderous sounds of Zeus:  

“O Father Jove, who shak'st with fiery light

The world deep-sounding from thy lofty height:

From thee, proceeds th' ætherial lightning's blaze,

Flashing around intolerable rays.

Thy sacred thunders shake the blest abodes,

The shining regions of th' immortal Gods:

Thy pow'r divine, the flaming lightning shrouds,

With dark investiture, in fluid clouds.

'Tis thine to brandish thunders strong and dire,

To scatter storms, and dreadful darts of fire;

With roaring flames involving all around,

And bolts of thunder of tremendous sound.

Thy rapid dart can raise the hair upright,

And shake the heart of man (sic) with wild afright.

Sudden, unconquer'd, holy, thund'ring God,

With noise unbounded, flying all abroad;

With all-devouring force, entire and strong,

Horrid, untam'd, thou roll'st the flames along.

Rapid, ætherial bolt, descending fire,

The earth all-parent, trembles at thy ire;

The sea all-shining; and each beast that hears

The sound terrific, with dread horror fears:

When Nature's face is bright with flashing fire,

And in the heavens resound thy thunders dire.

Thy thunders white, the azure garments tear,

And burst the veil of all surrounding air.

O Jove, all-blessed, may thy wrath severe,

Hurl'd in the bosom of the deep appear,

And on the tops of mountains be reveal'd,

For thy strong arm is not from us conceal'd . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 144-145.)

Hesiod describes Zeus as hurling lightning bolts in his battle

against the Titans:

“Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was
filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From
Heaven and from Olympus he came forthwith, hurling his
lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand
together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame.
The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast
wood crackled loud with fire all about.” (Theogony 687)

(Hesiod. The Homeric Hymns and Homerica. Theogony,

translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1914;
Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011.)

Below, Zeus is depicted as holding a bird and wielding a


Zeus with bird and lightning, Athenian red-figure amphora, circa

450 BCE, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Catalogue Number: Louvre
Beazley Archive Number: 201898, Attributed to the Berlin

Orphic Hymn 19. To Jove (Zeus), as the Author of Lightning

describes the fire and “horrid noise” of Zeus:

I Call the mighty, holy, splendid light,

Aerial, dreadful-sounding, fiery-bright;

Flaming, aerial-light, with angry voice,

Lightning thro' lucid clouds with horrid noise.

Untam'd, to whom resentments dire belong,

Pure, holy pow'r, all-parent, great and strong:

Come, and benevolent these rites attend,

And grant my days a peaceful, blessed end.

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 145.)

Diodorus of Sicily says that wine mixed with water is thought to

contain the presence of both Dionysos and Zeus:

“. . . it is the custom, they say, when unmixed wine is served

during a meal to greet it with the words, ‘To the Good Deity!’
but when the cup is passed around after the meal diluted with
water, to cry out, ‘To Zeus Saviour!’

“For the drinking of unmixed wine results in a state of madness,

but when it is mixed with the rain from Zeus the delight and
pleasure continue, but the ill effect of madness and stupor is

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History 4.3.4,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library Volume
303 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd.,1935.)

Zeus the Father

Zeus is credited with fathering a grand plethora of Gods and

Goddesses and half-divine mortals. According to Hesiod’s
Theogony, for example, Zeus is the common father to Apollo,
Artemis, Athena, Dionysos, Heracles, Hermes, the Muses,
Persephone, and Perseus. 

(Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica. Theogony,

translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1914;
Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011.)

Orphic Hymn 14. To Jupiter (Zeus) (9-12) describes Zeus as

“all-parent” and a “light’ning, thund’ring God:”

“. . . All-parent, principle and end of all,

Whose pow'r almighty, shakes this earthly ball;

Ev'n Nature trembles at thy mighty nod,

Loud-sounding, arm'd with light'ning, thund'ring God . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 140.)

Zeus Supreme

Zeus is often described as at the pinnacle in the hierarchy of

Gods and Goddesses. His siblings include Hestia (Hearth-Fire),
Demeter (Earth), Hera (Air), Hades (Beneath the Earth), and
Poseidon (Sea). As the God of the Sky, Zeus is, quite literally,
above his siblings.

Awkward clauses asserting Zeus’ supremacy are often inserted

into descriptions of other deity’s powers, as in these examples
from Hesiod’s Theogony, below (italics inserted):

“Also she (Tethys, Goddess of the sea) brought forth a holy

company of daughters who with the lord Apollo and the Rivers
have youths in their keeping -- to this charge Zeus appointed
them --  . . .” (Theogony 346)
“So deathless Styx came first to Olympus with her children
through the wit of her dear father. And Zeus honoured her, and
gave her very great gifts, for her he appointed to be the great
oath of the [G]ods [and Goddesses], and her children to live with
him always. And as he promised, so he performed fully unto
them all. But he himself mightily reigns and rules. (Theogony

Below, Zeus permits Heracles to rescue Prometheus from the

punishment Zeus himself assigned:

“And ready-witted Prometheus he (Zeus) bound with

inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his
middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat
his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew as much again
everyway as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day.
That bird Heracles . . . slew; and delivered . . . (Prometheus) . . .
from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction -- not
without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on
high . . .” (Theogony 507)

(Hesiod, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica. Theogony,

translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1914;
Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011.)

Zephureeios (Ζεφυρήιος) is Zephyros, the west wind, the

immortal God of Spring. Note that phur- (φυρ-) means mix.

Virgil beautifully describes how Heaven descends “in fruitful

showers into the womb of” Earth in the Spring, “and the
meadows ungirdle to the Zephyr’s balmy breeze:”

“. . . Spring it is that clothes the glades and forests with leaves,

in spring the soil swells and carves the vital seed. Then does
Heaven, sovereign father, descend in fruitful showers into the
womb of his joyful consort and, mightily mingling with her
mighty frame, gives life to every embryo within. Then secluded
thickets echo with melodious birdsong and at the trysting hour
the herds renew their loves; the bounteous earth prepares to give
birth, and the meadows ungirdle to the Zephyr’s balmy breeze;
the tender moisture avails for all.”

(Virgil. “Georgics (315),” Eclogues, Georgics, Aeneid 1-6,

translated by H. R. Fairclough, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1916.)

Zo (ζῶ, ζώω) means live. Note that oo (ῲο, ῲώ) means egg, so
that zo (ζῶ) translates as “spark egg,” literally “spark brings-

Zoee (ζωη, ζόη) and zoa (ζωά) mean living, life, existence.

Zoo- (ζωο-) is a prefix meaning life, alive. Zoos (ζωός) means

alive, living.

Zoon (ζῷον) means living being.

Zooo (ζωόω) means impregnate, quicken, endow with life,

make alive.

Zosimos (ζώσιμος) means viable, likely to survive.

Zoogoneo (ζωογονέω) means propagate or engender living

creatures, make alive.

Zopureo (ζωπῠρέω) means to be quickened by fire (of the

fetus); kindle into flame, cause to blaze up.

Zotikos (ζωτικός) means fit for giving or maintaining life; tikos

(τικός) means bring into the world, engender.

Zophuteo (ζωφῠτέω) means thrive, flourish; phut- (φῠτ-)

means plant.

Zoma (ζῶμα) means loin-cloth, drawers, woman’s girdle, the

apparel that covers the life-producing loins.

Zonee (ζώνη) means girdle; belt; marriage; sexual intercourse;

also, one of the zones of the terrestrial or planetary spheres.

Zono- (ζωνο-) is a prefix meaning girdle; zone; belt.


Zodiakos (ζωδιᾰκός) means the zodiac, the 12 constellations

that appear to rotate round the earth, each denoting a 30-day
period comprising one-twelfth of a 360-degree circle, literally
“spark brings-forth directed-trajectory.”

Note that diakosmios (διακοσμιος) means pervasive throughout

the universe; universal order, so that zodiakos (ζωδιᾰκός)
translates as “life’s (ζω-) universal order (διᾰκός).

Below, close-ups of a statue of Artemis of Ephesus show

symbols of the zodiac ringing her upper garment.

Zodiac images visible on statue of Artemis: two fish (Pisces), a

water bearer (Aquarius), a Sea-Goat (Capricorn).
Zodiac images visible: Centaur (Sagittarius), scorpion (Scorpio),
a man holding scales (Libra), a woman holding a scepter
(Virgo), a lion (Leo), a crab (Cancer).  Not visible in these
images: the twins (Gemini), the bull (Taurus), the ram (Aries).

(Statue of Artemis (circa 120 CE). Excavated in the

amphitheater of Lepcis Magna in Libya on the north coast of
Africa east of ancient Carthage. The statue is now housed in the
Archaeological Museum of Tripoli.)

It is interesting to note that if certain Greek names for the zodiac

are used, the constellations of the zodiac arise in alphabetical
order, with the exception of “Capricorn:”

Greek Name of Constellation                        Timing           

            Common Name           

1. Arneios (Άῥνείος)                                     Mar-Apr                  


2. Bous (Βοῦς)                                             Apr-May                  

3. Dioskoroi (Δῐοσκοροι)                                May-Jun              

4. Karkinos (Καρκίνος)                                  Jun-Jul                  


5. Leon (Λέων)                                             Jul-Aug                    


6. Parthenos (Παρθένος)                               Aug-Sep                


7. Platigks (Πλάτιγξ)                                     Sep-Oct                  

8. Skorpios (Σκορπίος)                                  Oct-Nov                

9. Toksotees (Τοξότης)                                  Nov-Dec                

*10. Aigokeros (Αίγοκερως)                            Dec-Jan              
11. Udros (Ὕδρος)                                        Jan-Feb                  

12. Xelidonias (Χελῑδονίας)                            Feb-Mar              


*Aigokeros: Aigo (Αίγο-) means goat and keros (κερως) means

horned. In the other name for this constellation, Capricorn,
Kaprikeros (Καπρικερως): Kapri- (Καπρι-) means pig and
keros (κερως) means horned. Traditionally in the Mediterranean
goats were sacrificed in monotheist purification rites associated
with the immortal Hebrew God (Leviticus 16:15; 16:20; 23:19);
pigs were sacrificed in purification rites associated with the
immortal Goddess Demeter and other deities.


Zeo (ζέω) means boil, seethe, ferment, bubble up, literally

“spark essence brings-forth.”
Zema (ζέμα) means fermentation; bring to a boil.

Zesis (ζέσις) means seething, effervescence, boiling.

Zestos (ζεστός) means seethed, boiled.

Zuthos (ζῦθος) is an Egyptian beer brewed with barley.

Zumee (ζύμη) means leaven, beer-yeast. Zum- (ζύμ-) is a prefix

meaning leaven, ferment, cause to effervesce.

Zutas (ζυτᾶς) means brewer.



Zugon (ζῠγόν) means yoke. Note that the prefix gon- (γόν-)
means offspring, seed, fruit; fertility, so that zugon (ζῠγόν)
translates as “spark pure fertility.”

Zug- (ζύγ-), zeug- ζευγ-), zeuk- (ζευκ-), and zeuks- (ζευξ-) are
prefixes meaning in pairs, yoke in pairs.

Zugo (ζῠγόω) means yoke; join together.

A yoke used to hitch together a team of oxen.


Zaklon (ζάγκλον) means a reaping-hook, sickle; agk (άγκ)

means “hook.”

1905.74.4 Ancient iron socketed sickle found in the Thames,

Marlow and donated by Sydney Gerald Hewlett. http:// 

Zaps (ζάψ) means surf, literally “spark arising incorporeal.”

Zeia (ζεια, ζέα) is one-seeded wheat used as fodder for horses,

rice-wheat. Zeenos (ζῆνος) means made of spelt, a type of

Zeiros (ζεῖρος) is a kind of grape.

Zeemia (ζημία) means loss, damage, penalty. Zeemio (ζημιόω)

means cause loss, do damage to, penalize.

Zeeteuo (ζητεύω) means seek, search, inquire; teu- (τεύ-) is a

prefix meaning make.
Zeetreion (ζήτρειον) means a place of punishment for slaves.
Zeetros (ζητρός) means executioner.

Ziggos (ζίγγος) means humming (of bees).

Ziglas (ζίγλας) means kola/cola (κῶλα).

Zizoula (ζιζουλά) means jujube, Zizyphus vulgaris.

Zopheos (ζόφεος) means dusky, gloomy; opheo (όφεό) means

serpent, an animal that resides underground.

Zophos (ζόφος) means nether darkness. Zopho (ζόφόω) means

darken, to be or become dark.

The prefix za- (ζα-) is defined by the Lexicon as meaning  “very/

thoroughly/throughout.” Several words employ this intensifying
prefix.  Rather than meaning “very,” however, the prefix za-
(ζα-) literally translates as “spark arising-.” Below are
definitions as given in the Lexicon:

-        zaees (ζᾱής)= strong-blowing, stormy (αησις=blowing)

-        zatheos (ζάθεος)=thoroughly divine, very sacred, a place

favored by the Gods and Goddesses (θεος=Gods and
-        zatherees (ζαθερής)=scorching (θερ=hot)

-        zakallees (ζακαλλής)=very beautiful (καλλῐ- = beautiful)

-        zakotos (ζάκοτος)=exceeding wroth, anger, wrath

(κότος=grudge, rancor)

-        zakruoeis (ζακρῠόεις)=thoroughly numbing, freezing


-        zaleukos (ζάλευκος)=very white (λευκός=white)

-        zameneo (ζᾰμενέω)=to put forth all one’s fury

(μένω=stand fast, stay, remain)

-        zapimelos (ζᾰπιμελος)=very fat (πῑμελή=soft fat, lard)

-        zapleethees (ζαπληθής)=very full (πλῇθος=great number,


-        zaploutos (ζάπλουτος)=very rich (πλοῡτος=wealth,


-        zapuros (ζάπῠρος)=very fiery (πῡρός=wheat; fire)

-        zatrephees (ζατρεφής)=well-fed (τρέφω=cause to grow

or increase, reared)
-        zaphoreo (ζαφορέω)=to be fertile (φορέω=hold, bear)

-        Zagraios (zαγραῖος): very old, an epithet of the immortal

God of wine, Dionysos

-        zachreios (ζαχρεἲος)=very needy (χρεἲος=needing, in

want of)

-        Zagreus (Ζαγρεύς)=very old person; a son of Zeus and

Persephone slain by the Titans and brought back to life as

-        zachrusos (ζάχρῡσος)=rich in gold (χρῡσός=gold).

Η η  eeta  (ἧτα)   center                                                   

  pronounce: long “ee” or “he”

The letter Η means center, center-divide, half, half-way point.

Eekee (ήκή) means edge, meeting-point.

A fence, where property-line meet, resembles the letter Η.

The shape of the letter Η is that of two vertical lines with a

horizontal line connecting them at the center.
As the 8th letter of the Greek alphabet, the letter Η was
originally written in the shape of a squared number 8, as shown
below in L.H. Jeffery’s “Table of Letters.”  

Table of Letters. (L.H. Jeffery. The Local Scripts of Archaic

Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and Its
Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C.[E.]. 
(Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.)

The letter ἧ means in truth, of a surety, it is true that. In other

words, the letter ἧ means “at center (the reality is as such).”

The letter ἧ means eimi (είμί): to be, to exist; where; how; and
from the time when. Eeto (ἥτω), eeion (ἥἲον), and ees (ἦς) are
conjugations of eimi (είμί): to be, to exist.  

Eeko (ἥκω) means to arrive at a given point, to have reached a


Eechi (ἧχι) means where.

Eedee (ἥδη) means immediately. Dee (δή) means at this or that

point, so ἥδη translates as “centered at this point,” now.
Eemos (ἦμος) means a specific, agreed upon point in time.

The letter ἥ means “or.” It is the turning point of a proposition,

as in,  “this or that,” with the two sides in relative balance; ἥ
joins two comparatives.


The letter Η (center) followed by the letter Μ (meta/median)

conveys the meaning of half.

Eemisus (ἥμῐσυς) means half.

The prefix eemi- (ἡμῐ-), the basis for the prefix hemi-, means
half, a prefix for many words.

Eemi-sphairion (ήμισφαίριον) means hemisphere, half of a


The earth is divided into hemispheres.


Eemi-bios (ήμιβῐος) means half-alive.

Eemi-kentros (ήμικεντρος) means half-way between cardinal


Eemi-Elleen (ήμιέλλην) means half-Greek.   Eemi-Persees

(ήμιπέρσης) means half-Persian.

Eemi-sophos (ήμισοφος) means half-wise.

Eemi-oria (ήμιωρία) means half-hour.


Eephaistos (Ήφαιστος) is Hephaistos, is the immortal God of

volcanoes and forges (metal-working fires).

Eephaistos’ (Ήφαιστος’) name is derived from the words for

radiant (φαι) and roof (στοά). The name Eephaistos
(Ήφαιστος) translates as “center of  (Ή) a radiant (φαι) roof
(στοά),” that is, the fiery essence of a volcano or forge.


Eelios (Ἣλιος) is Helios, the immortal God of the sun and the
central source of light and warmth on earth.
Eelio- (ήλιο-) is a prefix meaning sun.

Eeliaia (Ήλιαῖα) is a festival of Eelios (Helios).

Eeliakos (ήλιᾰκός) means of the sun, solar, the solar year.

Eeliadhees (Ήλιάδης) means child of the Sun. Eelias (Ήλιάς)

and Eeliades (Ήλιάδες) mean daughter of the Sun.

Detail of Helios driving the chariot of the sun.  http://

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Catalogue Number: Boston 03.804 Apulian Red Figure
Krater, volute
Painter: Resembles the Varrese Painter
Date: circa 340 BCE.

In Orphic Hymn 7. To the Sun, Orpheus describes Eelios as:

- “Lord of the seasons”  (5)

- “With thy right hand the source of morning light, And with thy
left the father of the night”  (7-8)

- “The world’s commander” (16)

- “Source of existence, pure and fiery bright” (18-19)

- “almighty lord of years.” (19)

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 122-123.)


Eelusion (Ήλύσιον) are the fields of Eelusios (Ήλύσιος), the

Elysian Fields, the place of happiness and the light of day in the
afterlife. Pindar describes the Elysium as a place where “the sun
shineth in his strength, in the world below, while here ‘tis
night . . .”

(Pindar. “Dirges Fragment 129,” The Odes of Pindar, translated

by John Sandys, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1915) 589.)

Lusios (λύσιος) means releasing, delivering; the Gods or

Goddesses who deliver from curse or sin.  Lusis (λύσις) means
loosing, releasing, deliverance, atonement, redemption.

Eelusion (Ήλύσιον) translates as “center of deliverance.”

Pindar describes the paradise of the Eelusios (Ήλύσιος):

"For them [in Elysium] . . . in meadows red with roses, the space
before their city is shaded by the incense-tree, and is laden with
golden fruits . . .

“Some of them delight themselves with horses and with

wrestling; others with draughts, and with lyres; while beside
them bloometh the fair flower of perfect bliss.

“And o’er that lovely land fragrance is ever shed, while they
mingle all manner of incense with the far-shining fire on the
altars of the [G]ods [and Goddesses].”

(Pindar (circa 530 BCE), “Dirges 129,” The Odes of Pindar,

translated by Sir John Sandys, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann, 1915) 589.)

An inscription on a gold tablet buried with a woman in a grave

in Italy dated circa 400 BCE describes the path to the Elysian:

“When you are about to die

down to the well-built house of Hades,

There is a spring at the right side,

And standing by it a white cypress.

Descending to it, the souls of the dead refresh themselves.

Do not even go near this spring!

Ahead you will find from the Lake of Memory,

Cold water pouring forth; there are guards before it.

They will ask you, with astute wisdom,

What you are seeking in the darkness of murky Hades.

Say, ‘I am a child of Earth and starry Sky,

I am parched with thirst and am dying;

But quickly grant me

Cold water from the Lake of Memory to drink.’

And they will announce you to the Chthonian King,

And they will grant you to drink from the Lake of Memory.

And you, too, having drunk, will go along the sacred road on
which other
Glorious initiates and bacchoi travel.”

From the cist-grave of a woman, around 400 BCE, grave tablet,

Museo Archeologico di Vibo. The rectangular gold tablet,
folded several times, was found lying on the upper chest of the
skeleton and was perhaps attached to the neck by a tiny string.

(Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnson, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife:
Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (New York: Routledge,
2007) 5-6).


Eelektor (ήλέκτωρ) means the beaming sun; fire as an element.

Eelektron (ἥλεκτρον) means amber, a magnetically-charged

fossil, the basis for the word electronic.

Webster’s defines amber as “a pale yellow, reddish, or brownish

fossil resin of vegetable origin . . . capable of giving a negative
electrical charge by friction.” Amber acts as a magnet. 

Eelektris (Ήλεκτρίς) is an epithet of the Moon, reflecting its

magnetic pull on tides, etc. and, at times, its color. In Orphic
Hymn 8. To the Moon (7-8), Orpheus refers to the moon as:
“. . . Mother of ages, fruit-producing Moon,

Whose amber (ἥλεκτρον) orb makes Night’s reflected

noon . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 125.)


Eeos (ήώς) means dawn, the turning point between night and
day. Eeos (Ήώς) is Eos, the immortal Goddess of the dawn,
literally “center brings-forth.”

Eeothen (ήῶθεν) means from morn, at dawn, at break of day.

Eeoos (ήωος) means at break of day; eastern.

In Orphic Hymn 77. To Aurora (Eeos) (9-14), Orpheus


“. . . Mankind in thee eternally delight,

And none presumes to shun thy beauteous sight.

Soon as thy splendours break the bands of rest,

And eyes unclose with pleasing sleep oppress’d;

Men, reptiles, birds, and beasts, with gen’ral voice,

And all the nations of the deep, rejoice . . . ”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE). Translated

by Thomas Taylor. Introductory Preface by Manly P. Hall
(London: Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles,
CA: The Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 216.)


Eemera (Ήμέρα) is Hemera, the immortal Goddess of day.

Mera (μέρα) means share, portion, allotment, fate, lot, destiny,
so that Eemera (Ήμέρα), each day, translates as “center

Eemar (ἦμαρ) means day, in a day, on that day, within a day's

space, for a day.

Eematos (ήμάτος) means by day.


The letter Η (center) followed by the letter Ρ (outflow-of)

conveys the notion of early.

Eeri (ἦρι) means early morning; ris (ῤίς) means protrusion. The
first glimpse of sunlight on the horizon is eeri (ἦρι), “center

Eeri- (ήρι-) is a prefix meaning early; spring; dawn.

Eerios (ήέριος) means early, at early morn. 

Eerinos (ήρῐνός) means in Spring. 


Eera (Ήρα), also spelled Eeree (Ἢρη), is the immortal

Goddess Hera. Hera is often depicted in literature as raging with
jealousy over her husband Zeus’ amorous transgressions. Zeus is
the God of lightning and rain, generally accompanied by winds
and tempests.
Head of Hera from the Heraeum of Argos, circa 450 B.C.E.

Silver stater, on the left side showing the head of Hera wearing a
crown and on the reverse two dolphins and the forepart of a wolf
in the middle, with the word "ΑΡΓΕΙΩΝ", 350 BCE. http://

The prefix eeero- (ήερο-) means in mid-air, the basis for the
prefix aero-.

Empedocles in Physics (7(6).2-3) equates Eeree/Hera (Ἢρη)

with air, one of the four roots/elements.

(Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, translated by M.R. Wright

(Yale University, 1981) 23.)

In another Fragment regarding the four roots/elements,

Empedocles equates fire with Zeus (Ζεύς), air with Hera
(Ἥρη), earth with Aidoneus (Άιδωνεύς) (the poetic form of
Aidees (Ἃΐδης), Hades), and water with Neestis (Νῆστίς), a
Sicilian water-Goddess. (Emp. 6.3, 96.2, Alex. 323 K.-A. (=

τέσσαρα γάρ πάντων ῥιζωματα πρῶτον ἅκουε.

Ζεύς άργής Ἥρη τε φερέσβιος ήδ' Άιδωνεύς

Νῆστίς θ', ἥ δακρύοις τέγγει κρούνωμα βρότειον.

“And first the fourfold root of all things hear! –

White gleaming Zeus, life-bringing Here, Dis (sic),

And Nestis whose tears bedew mortality.”

(Empedocles. Poeta Philosophus 6.1, cited in The Framents of

Empedocles, translated by William Ellery Leonard (Chicago:
Open Court Publishing, 1908) 17.)

In Orphic Hymn 15. To Juno (Hera), Orpheus calls Eeree/Hera

(Ἢρη) the inspiration for gales and the mother of winds:

“O Royal Juno (Hera) of majestic mien,

Aerial-form’d, divine, Jove’s blessed queen,

Thron’d in the bosom of caerulean air,

The race of mortals is thy constant care.

The cooling gales thy pow’r alone inspires,

Which nourish life, which ev’ry life desires.

Mother of clouds and winds, from thee alone

Producing all things, mortal life is known:

All natures share thy temp’rament divine,

And universal sway alone is thine,

With sounding blasts of wind, the swelling sea

And rolling rivers roar, when shook by thee.

Come, blessed Goddess, fam’d almighty queen,

With aspect kind, rejoicing and serene."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 140-141.)

Antheia (Ἃνθεια), “arising prevailing Goddess,” is an epithet of


The flowers that spring forth from the union of Zeus and Hera
are described in Homer’s “The Couch of Zeus and Hera:”
“Zeus spoke, and seized his wife in his arms. The divine earth
beneath them put forth newly-sprung grass, and the dewy lotus,
and the crocus and the hyacinth, thickly-growing and soft. The
flowers raised them up, coming between them and the earth.

“On this bed they lay . . .”

(Homer. “The Couch of Zeus and Hera,” translated by Kathleen

Freeman in The Greek Way: An Anthology (London: MacDonald
and Co., 19 Ludgate Hill, 1947) 92.)

Temples to Eera/Hera were located in numerous cities. The

magnificent remains of the Temple of Hera in Paestum (near
Naples, Italy) still stand.

Temple of Hera in Paestum (near Naples, Italy). http://

Pausanias describes the Olympian Temple of Hera and the

maidens’ foot races in her honor:

“[5.16.1] XVI. It remains after this for me to describe the temple

of Hera (of Olympos) and the noteworthy objects contained in
it . . .

The length of the temple is one hundred and sixty-nine feet, the
breadth sixty-three feet, the height not short of fifty feet . . .

[5.16.2] Every fourth year there is woven for Hera a robe by the
Sixteen women, and the same also hold games called Heraea.
The games consist of foot-races for maidens. These are not all of
the same age. The first to run are the youngest; after them come
the next in age, and the last to run are the oldest of the maidens.
They run in the following way:

[5.16.3] . . . their hair hangs down, a tunic reaches to a little

above the knee, and they bare the right shoulder as far as the
breast. These too have the Olympic stadium reserved for their
games, but the course of the stadium is shortened for them by
about one-sixth of its length. To the winning maidens they give
crowns of olive and a portion of the cow sacrificed to Hera.
They may also dedicate statues with their names inscribed upon
them. Those who administer to the Sixteen are, like the
presidents of the games, married women . . .

[5.16.8] Whatever ritual it is the duty of either the Sixteen

Women or the Elean umpires to perform, they do not perform
before they have purified themselves with a pig meet for
purification and with water. Their purification takes place at the
spring Piera. You reach this spring as you go along the flat road
from Olympia to Elis . . .”

(Pausanias (circa 150 CE). Description of Greece 5. 16.1 – 8,

translated by W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Omerod, Loeb Classical
Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann, 1918.)

Pausanias describes a Temple of Hera in Argolis containing an

enormous gold and ivory statue of Hera:

“Fifteen stades distant from Mykenai [in Argolis] is on the left

the Heraion (temple of Hera). Beside the road flows the brook
called Water of Freedom. The priestesses use it in purifications
and for such sacrifices as are secret . . .

“This Asterion flows above the Heraion, and falling into a cleft
disappears. On its banks grows a plant, which also is called
Asterion. They offer the plant itself to Hera, and from its leaves
weave her garland . . .

“Before the entrance stand statues of women who have been

priestesses to Hera and of various heroes, including Orestes . . .

“The statue of Hera is seated on a throne; it is huge, made of

gold and ivory, and is a work of Polykleitos. She is wearing a
crown with Kharites (Graces) and Horai (Seasons) worked upon
it, and in one hand she carries a pomegranate and in the other a
sceptre. About the pomegranate I must say nothing, for its story
is somewhat of a holy mystery.”

(Pausanias (circa 150 CE). Description of Greece 2. 17. 1 – 78,

translated by W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Omerod, Loeb Classical
Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann, 1918.)


Eeros (ἥρως) means hero. Note that rosis (ρῶσις) means

strength, so that eeros (ἥρως) translates as “center strength.”
Eero- (ήρω-) is a prefix meaning of heroes.

Eerakleees (Ήρακλέης) is Herakles a Greek hero famous for

performing twelve labors at the command of the Delphic Oracle,
such as slaying ferocious beasts, etc.

Herakles seated on a stool draped with his lion-skin cape,

flanked by Hermes and Nike. Musée du Louvre, Paris,
France, Louvre K518, Lucanian Red Krater, Attributed to the
Primato Painter, circa 350 - 330 BCE.


Eetor (ἦτορ) means heart; the seat of life.

Eetron (ἦτρον) means abdomen, belly.

Eepar (ἧπαρ) means liver.


Eegemon- (ἡγεμόν-) is a prefix meaning to lead, govern, rule,

the basis for the word hegemony. Gemos (γέμος) means load, so
that eegemon- (ἡγεμόν-) translates as “center (of the) load.”

Eegemonee (ήγεμόνη) means queen.

Eegemon (ἡγεμών) means one who leads.

Eegeomai (ήγέομαι) means to go before, lead the way. 

Eegetees (ήγέτης) means leader, with etees (ἕτης) meaning

clan, kin, so that eegetees (ήγέτης) means “center of kin.”

Eegeema (ἥγημα) means guide, that which guides; thought,


Eegeesis (ἥγησις) means command.

Eenia (ήνία) means reins, literally “center prevailing.”


Eethos (ἦθος) means an accustomed place; custom; character,

the basis for the word ethos. Eethas (ήθάς) means accustomed

Webster’s defines ethos as “the fundamental character or spirit

of a culture.”

Eetheios (ήθεῖος) means trusty, honored; theios (θεῖος) means

from the Gods and Goddesses.


Eedomai (ἥδομαι) means to enjoy oneself, take one's pleasure,

please, delight, the basis for the word hedonism. Doma (δόμα)
means gift and domos (δόμος) means house, so that eedomai
(ἥδομαι) translates as "central gift" or "center of the house."

Webster’s defines hedonism as “the doctrine that pleasure or

happiness is the highest good.”

Eedonee (ήδονή) means enjoyment, pleasure.

Eedos (ἦδος) means delight, pleasure; dosis (δόσις) means
giving, gift, destiny, fate.

Eedu- (ήδῠ-) is a prefix meaning sweet.

Eedubios (ήδύβῐος) means sweetening life, living pleasantly.

Eedumos (ἥδῠμος) means sweet, pleasant.


Eeba (ἥβα) means youthful prime, youth, the strength and vigor
of youth, youthful fire, spirit, literally “center basis arising.”

Eeba (Ἥβα) is Hebe, the immortal Goddess of youth.

Herakles & Hebe, Athenian red-figure pyxis

circa 450 BCE, University of Pennsylvania Museum http:// 

Eebasko (ἡβάσκω) means to come to puberty, become

marriageable, to have the outward signs of puberty.      

Eebulliao (ἡβυλλιάω) means in the bloom of youth; bulli-

(βυλλι-) is a prefix meaning dance. Eebulliao (ἡβυλλιάω) is the
basis for the word ebullient, defined by Webster’s as
“overflowing with fervor, enthusiasm, or excitement; high-


Eesiodos (Ήσίοδος) is Hesiod, is the author of the Theogony,

an ancient Greek poem written circa 750 BCE describing the
genealogy of the Gods and Goddesses.

Ancient writers and philosophers often self-named to reflect

their specialties. Hesiod’s name means “centered on (Ή) the
Gods and Goddesses (σῐός=Laconic for θεός=the Gods and


Eecho (ήχω) means echo, a sound that reverberates back to its


Eecheo (ήχέω) means sound, ring, peal, chirp, roar. Cheo (χέω)
means pour, let flow, scatter, shed, diffuse, so that eecheo
(ήχέω) translates as “center of diffusion.”

Eechos (ἦχος) means the sound of words, breathing, voice.

Eechion (ήχεῖον) means drum, gong, or tambourine.

Eechetees (ήχέτης) means clear-sounding, musical, shrill,

chirping (of the cicada).


Eepios (ἥπῐος) means gentle, kind, soothing, with pios (πιος)

meaning fat, rich milk, reflecting the soothing properties of milk.

Eesuch- (ήσῠχ-) is a prefix meaning quiet, soothing, gentle with

suchnos (σῠχνός) meaning frequent, long, many, much, often,
so that eesuch- (ήσῠχ-) reflects the soothing essence of
repetition, such as, for example, rocking or chanting.

The Eesuchides (Ήσῠχίδες) are the priestesses of the

Eumenides (Έυμενίδες), the gracious Goddesses, a euphemism
for the immortal Goddesses of retribution. The Furies are
described in the Orphic Hymn 69. To the Furies (Eumenides)
(5-12) as “punishing:”

“. . .  Whose piercing sight, with vision unconfin’d,

Surveys the deeds of all the impious kind:

On Fate attendant, punishing the race

(With wrath severe) of deeds unjust and base . . .

Eternal rulers, terrible and strong,

To whom revenge, and tortures dire belong . . .”

Eesuchikos (ήσῠχικός) means peaceable, quiet, a state of mind

one might hope to foster in avenging Goddesses.


Eetrion (ἥτριον) means the warp, literally “center stretch/

extend.” The warp are the strings held in tension on the loom,
the weft is woven over and under, in and out of the warp.


Eegatheos (ήγάθεος) means most holy, of places immediately

under divine protection, “center (ή) earth (γά) divine (θεος).”

Eepeiros (ήπειρος) means terra firma, land (opposite the sea;

opposite land flooded by the Nile); the mainland.
Eeia (ἥϊα) means provisions for a journey.

Eeioo (ήϊόω) means to provide with food.

Eelaino (ήλαίνω) means to wander, stray, roam.

Θ θ      theeta  (θῆτα)  divine                                     pronounce:


The letter Θ means divine.

L.H. Jeffery’s Table of archaic Greek Letters shows the letter Θ

appearing as a circle bisected into four quarters.

Table of Letters. (L.H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic

Greece: A Study of the Origin of the Greek Alphabet and Its
Development from the Eighth to the Fifth Centuries B.C.[E.]. 
(Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.)

The depiction, below, of Persephone reigning over the afterlife,

circa 330 BCE, features a crossed circle suspended within an
Ionic-columned palace and Persephone holding a crossed
Eleusinian torch.

Persephone in a scene depicting Orpheus' journey to the

Underworld. The Goddess stands in the underworld palace
holding a crossed Eleusinian torch. Museum
Collection: Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany
Catalogue Number: Munich 3297, Apulian Red Figure Volute
Painter: Name vase Underworld Painter, circa 330 - 310 BCE.

Galaxies, and the Milky Way galaxy in particular, resemble the

letter Θ.

Milky Way Galaxy, with Sun indicated.

Milky Way Galaxy.

Empedocles describes a vortex from which the roots/elements


“Empedocles tells us of a mysterious vortex . . . like the nebula

in Orion or the original of our solar system, that seems to be the
first stage of the world process after the motionless harmony of
the sphere. Out of this came the elements one by one: first
air . . . then fire . . . [then] came the earth . . . and the moist
spurted forth [from earth].”

(William Ellery Leonard. The Fragments of Empedocles

(Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1908) 6-7.)

Tartaros (Τάρτᾰρος) is Tartarus, the subterranean entity that

balances against the vault of the sky, creating a perfect tension.
The letter Θ may be a visual depiction of this totality.

Hesiod’s Theogony describes the heavens and Tartaros as

equidistant from the surface of the earth.

“For a brazen anvil falling down from heaven nine nights and
days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen
anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach
Tartarus upon the tenth.”

(Hesiod (circa 750 BCE), Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and

Homerica, “Theogony 715 ff,” translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-
White (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd., 1914. Reprinted in English by Dodo
Press, 2011.) 45.)

Theo- (θεο-) is a prefix meaning Gods and Goddesses, literally

“divine essence entity.”

Theos (θεός) means God or Goddess; divine.  

Theeelasia (θεηλᾰσία) is a visitation by, or something that is

sent or caused, by the Gods and Goddesses; eelasia (ηλᾰσία)
means driven, so theeelasia (θεηλᾰσία) translates as “divinely-

Theiodomos (θειοδομος) means built by Gods and Goddesses;

domos (δομος) means house, temple, abode, domicile.

Theothen (θεόθεν) means from the Gods and Goddesses; the

suffix -then (-θεν) denotes motion from a place.

Theologeo (θεολογέω) is a discourse (λογέω) on the Gods and

Goddesses and cosmology.

Theologia (θεολογία) means to talk about the Gods and

Goddesses; the science of things divine; an oration in praise of
or an invocation of a God or Goddess; the basis for the word
theology.  Theology is defined by Webster’s as the “study of
divine things or religious truth; divinity.”

Theologikos (θεολογικός) means theological.

Theophileia (θεοφίλεια) means to be dear (φίλεια) to the Gods
and Goddesses.

Theophobos (θεόφοβος) means fear (φοβος) of the Gods and



Threeskeia (θρησκεία) means religious worship.

Threeskeuo (θρησκεύω) means to perform religious

observances, worship.

Threeskos (θρησκός) means religious, literally “divine flow

center synchronized.”


Theiaze (θειάζε) means to be inspired, to prophesy, literally

“divine essence divine-power arising.”

Theiasmos (θειασμός) means divine possession; an inspired

utterance; divine (θ) giving-up-to (ειασ).
Theoleepsia (θεοληψία) and theomaneo (θεομᾰνέω) mean
divine inspiration; leepsia (ληψία) means seized; maneo
(μᾰνέω) means mania.

Theomanteia (θεομαντεία) is a spirit of prophecy; manteia

(μαντεία) means prophetic power.

Theoreo (θεωρέω) means to look at, behold, gaze at, observe,


Theoris (θεωρίς) is the sacred ship or road which conveys state

ambassadors, theoroi/thearis (θεωροι/θεᾶρίς), to their
destination. The theoroi/thearis (θεωροι, θεᾶρίς) are
representatives to an “oracle,” the games, the theater, or to
meetings regarding governance, war, and peace.

Theoros (θεωρός) means an envoy sent to consult an “oracle.”

Thriazo (θρῑάζω) means to be rapt, possessed by a God or

Goddess; divine (θ) stream (ρῑάζω).

Thuas (θυάς, θυιάς) and thusai (θῡσαι) mean an inspired,

possessed woman, especially a Bacchante; a nymph associated
with Dionysos' revels, literally “divine pure arising.”

Thuio (θυίω) means to be inspired.  


Thamb- (θαμβ-) is a prefix for words meaning astonished,

astounded, terrified, alarmed, amazed; an object of wonder;
divinely (θ) upside-down (αμβ).

Thauma (θαῡμα) means wonder or marvel. Thaumas

(Θαύμας), the immortal God of wonders, is the father of
whirlwinds and rainbows, literally “divine arising pure meta/

(Hesiod, Theogony 265 ff  (

HesiodTheogony.html ); Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 20 http://
er=82130&layout=html&Itemid=27 ).

Thaumasios (θαυμάσιος) means wonderful, marvelous,


Thaeetos (θᾶητός) means wondrous, admirable; aeetos (ᾶητός)

means carried on the wind.

Theepeo (θηπέω) means to be astonished; divine (θ) center (η)

unified (π).

The word thea (θέᾱ) in addition to meaning “Goddess,” also

means “to see,” literally “divine essence arising.”

Theama (θέᾱμα) means that which is spectacular.

The ancient Greek theatre, theatro (θέᾱτρο), was a place for

sensory manifestations of the divine. Musicians and singers set
the mood with Muse-inspired songs written by Muse-inspired
poets and composers. Muse-inspired dancers, actors, scenery,
and special effects conveyed visual spectacle. Incense filled the
air. Libations, first-fruit offerings, and animal sacrifice were
offered to the Gods and Goddesses and shared in communal

Thespis (θέσπις) means to be filled with divine words or

inspired by a God or Goddess, the basis for the word thespian.

Thespesios (θεσπέσιος) means sounds or words that are

divinely marvelous.

Thespizo (θεσπίζω) and thesphatizo (θεσφᾰτίζο) mean to

prophesy or foretell.

Thespians portraying Gods and Goddesses made their

appearance in the theologeion (θεολογεῖον) above the stage.
The loge in a theater is the front section of the balcony.

Theeegoros (θεηγόρος) is theatrical discourse of divinities;

divine essence (θε) sit in debate/speak (γόρος).


Central to religious rites are the sacrifices offered to the Gods

and Goddesses as a show of respect, reverence, loyalty,
devotion, communion, and propitiation.

Thalusia (θᾱλύσια) are first-fruit offerings, literally “divine

arising loosened pure.”

First fruit offerings are traditionally made to Demeter, the

immortal Goddess of agriculture and grains, and, at a later time
in history, to both Demeter and Dionysos, the immortal God of

Thalusis (θαλύσις) is bread made from the first fruits of the


A thalusias (θαλῡσιάς) is a priestess of Demeter.

Thenar (θένᾰρ) is the hollow in the top of the altar on which the
offerings are laid; also, the palm of the hand; divine (θ) in (έν)
arising outflow (ᾰρ).

Thiagon (θιαγών) are sacrificial cakes; ago (αγώ) means take

with one, carry.

Thuo (θύω) means sacrificial offerings; in addition to meaning

offer sacrifice, thuo (θύω) also means rage; seethe; desire
eagerly, literally “divine pure brings-forth.”

Thu[ee]sis (θύ[η]σις) and thusia (θῠσία) mean sacrifice.

Thuma (θῦμα) means the sacrifice of animals or sacrificial

cakes in the form of animals, literally “divine pure meta/

When an offering is made, participants cry out the word for

“sacrificial,” thustas! (θυστάς).


Incense plays a central role in religious ceremonies.

Thueeta (θυητά) means purification, literally “divine pure

Thueeeis (θῠήεις) and thuodees (θῠώδης) mean a space
fragrant or smoking with incense.

Thuia (θυία) is an odorous cedar, Juniperus foetidissima; Thuia

(Θυῖα) is also the festival of Dionysos at Elis.

Thueia (θῠεία) is the mortar (the receptacle in which materials

are pounded to a powder and mixed); thuestees (θῠέστης) is the
pestle, the tool for pounding incense into powder.

Thuiskee (θῠΐσκη) is the censer in which incense is burned.

Thuleomai (θῦλέομαι) and thuos (θύος) are cakes of incense

offered in sacrifice.

Thumelee (θῠμέλη) means the place of burning, the sacrificial

hearth or altar, especially the altar of Dionysus that stood in the
orchestra of the theatre. Thumelee came to mean the stage, the
performance of music and dancing in the orchestra, and the

Thumiazo (θῦμιάςω) is the fragrant smoke of incense, used in

fumigation and purification, literally “divine pure meta.”

Thuoo (θῠόω) means to fill with sweet smells, “divine pure


Thupsis (θῦψις) means burning, “divine pure incorporeal.”


Theoinos (Θέοινος) is another name for Dionysos, the immortal

God of wine.

Theoinia (Θεοίνια) is the Attic feast of Dionysos.

Thriambos (θρίαμβος), which also means triumph, is a hymn to

Dionysos sung in festal procession in his honor.

Thusthla (θύσθλα) is a sacred implement of thiasos/thiaseia

(θῐᾰσος, θῐᾰσεία), Bacchic/Dionysian celebrations, and came
to refer to the Bacchic/Dionysian festival itself.

Devotees of Dionysos could be identified because they carried

the thursos (θύρσος), thyrsus, a staff made of fennel tipped with
a pine-cone. Thuion (θυῖον) means pine resin, a flammable
material used for torches.

The writer Nonnos asks for the thyrsus to help in his inspiration
for Dionysiaca:

“Bring me the fennel, rattle the cymbals, ye Muses! put in my

hand the wand of Dionysos whom I sing.” 
(Nonnos. Diomysiaca 1. 11, translated by W. H. D. Rouse, Loeb
Classical Library (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard
University Press, 1940.)

Dionysos holding a thursos (pine-cone tipped staff).

Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Massachusetts,

Catalogue Number: Harvard 1960.347
Beazley Archive Number: 217539, Attic Red Figure
Hydria-kalpis, Attributed to the Class of Brussels A3099, circa
410 - 400 BCE.

Below, a devotee of Dionysos is depicted carrying a thyrsus.

A female follower of Dionysos holds a thyrsos (pine-cone tipped


Tampa Museum of Art, Tampa,

Florida, USA
Catalogue Number: Tampa 86.102, Apulian Red Figure
Krater, Name vase of the Maplewood Painter, circa 350 BCE.
A Bacchante (follower of Bacchus/Dionysos) carrying a
pinecone-tipped thyrsus.


Thema (θέμα) means “that which is placed or laid down,” such

as a deposit, treasure, burial place, situation, or astrological
“nativity,” a divine fate determined by time, place, and date of
birth, “divine essence meta/medium.”

Themethla (θέμεθλα) means the foundation or root. Themelioo

(θεμελῐόω) means to lay the foundation, to found firmly.

Themis (Θέμις) is the immortal Goddess whose name means

that which is laid down or established, the immutable divine law
of justice.  

According to Diodorus of Sicily, “Themis . . . was the first to

introduce divinations and sacrifices and the ordinances which
concern the [G]ods [and Goddesses], and to instruct [humanity]
in the ways of obedience to laws and of peace.”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). The Library of History 5.67.1-5,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library 
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann Ltd., 1939) 279.)

In the Introduction to her book Themis, Jane Ellen Harrison


“Above the [G]ods [and Goddesses], supreme, eternally

dominant, stands the figure of Themis. She is social ordinance,
the collective conscience projected, the Law or Custom that is

(Jane Ellen Harrison. Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of

Greek Religion (Cambridge University Press, 1927) xxi.)

Themizo (θέμίζω) means to judge/punish.

Divinely-inspired oracular decrees are called themistes

(θέμιστες). Themisteia (θεμιστεία) is the giving of “oracles”
regarding divine law and righteous judgment. 

Aeschylus’ play, Eumenides (circa 450 BCE), opens with the

Pythia, the prophetic priestess of the “oracle” at Delphi, naming
Themis as the second divinity (after Earth) to inhabit the
“oracular” seat at Delphi:

“’First, in this prayer of mine, I give the place of highest honor

among the [G]ods [and Goddesses] to the first prophet, Earth;
and after her to Themis, for she was the second to take this
oracular seat of her mother, as legend tells. And in the third
allotment, with Themis' consent and not by force, another Titan,
child of Earth, Phoebe, took her seat here. She gave it as a
birthday gift to Phoibus [Apollo], who has his name from

(Aeschylus. Eumenides 1 ff, translated by Herbert Weir Smyth,

Loeb Classical Volumes 145 &146 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 1926.))

“Oracle” of Themis consulted by the King. Themis sits on the

Delphic tripod in the role of Pythia, the oracular prophetess of
the Delphic shrine. She holds a phiale in one hand and a sprig of
laurel in the other. King Aigeus of Athens approaches her to
receive an oracle regarding the birth of a son.

Antikensammlung, Berlin, Germany F2538

Beazley Archive No.: 217214, Attic Red Figure Kylix,
Attributed. to the Codrus Painter, circa 430 BCE.

Orphic Hymn 78. To Themis (7-11) credits Themis as the first

source of prophetic “oracles” (chreesmous (χρησμούς)) and
religious rites:
“From thee, Apollo’s oracles arose,

And from thy pow’r his inspiration flows . . .

“Mankind from thee first learnt initial rites.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor

(Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 217).

Thesis (θέσις) means setting, placing, laying down, positioning.


Thesmos (θέσμός) means law and order. Thesmios (θέσμιος)

means something that is fixed, settled, lawful, and fitting.
Thesmosunee (θεσμοσύνη) means Justice.

Thesmodeo (θεσμῳδέω) means delivering “oracular” precepts.

One of the epitaphs of the immortal Goddess Demeter was “law-

bearing,” thesmophoros (θεσμοφόρος). Each year during the
sowing season of late October/early November women of
Athens and elsewhere in Greece participated in the
Thesmophoria (Θεσμοφόρια) in honor of Demeter and
Persephone, who were called the Thesmophoro (Θεσμοφόρω)
or law-bearers. The temple of Demeter at Delos is the
Thesmophorion (Θεσμοφόριον).

Death is a divine mystery, the separation of the soul and the


Thanatos (θάνᾰτος) means death, literally “divine arising


Thneesko (θνήσκω) means to be dead, to be put to death, the

dead, to perish, literally “divine prevailing center synchronized.”

Thneetos (θνητός) means liable to death, mortal.

Thapto (θάπτω) means to honor with funeral rites, carry out to

burial, literally “divine arising unified.”

Theekaios (θηκαῖος) is a coffin, burial vault, urn for ashes,

literally “divine center core arising.”

Theema (θῆμα) means tomb, literally “divine center meta/


Thumos (θῠμός) means soul; spirit, as the principal of life,
feeling and thought especially of strong feelings and passion; in
physical sense, breath, life; spirit, strength; soul as shown by
feelings and passions; desire or inclination, appetite; in his/her
heart, with all their heart; mind, temper; spirit, courage; the seat
of anger; the heart as the seat of emotions; mind, soul as the seat
of thought, literally “divine pure meta/medium.”

The Greek word for soul is the basis for the scientific word
“thymine,” a base element of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), a
nucleic acid that contains the genetic instruction used in the
development and functioning of all known living organisms. 

A diagram of DNA.

Thumaino (θῦμαίνω) means to be wroth, angry. Thumoo

(θῠμόω) means to make angry or to provoke.

Thumodees (θῠμώδης), means fierce.

Thumoleon (θῡμολέων) means lion-hearted.

Thumomantis (θῡμομαντις) means prophesying from one’s


Thumosophos (θῡμοσοφος) means wise from one's soul.

Thumizo (θῠμίζω) is thyme, a hot, burning-flavored aromatic
herb used to create perfume and embalming materials, to flavor
wine and food, and to attract and feed honeybees.

Thumbra (θύμβρα) is savory, Satureia Thumbra, an herb

similar to thyme, used to combat infections and to preserve
foods because of its anti-bacterial properties. Its oil has a hot,
burning scent similar to thyme.


Heat is a quality of living people and animals. Heat is used to

purify, preserve, and heal.

Thalpo (θαλπω) and thalpsis (θάλψις) mean to make warm or

to foment.

Summertime in the Mediterranean is a season of heat. The

Greek word for summer is theros (θέρός) or thereia (θερεία). 
To do summer work, to mow, reap, and harvest a crop, is
therismos (θερισμός).

Therapeia (θερᾰπεία) means to serve, attend to, treat medically,

care, tend, maintain; worship, provide for, take care of; cultivate,
foster; prepare food or drugs; the basis for the word therapy.
Thermastra (θερμάστρα) means oven or furnace.

Thermos (θερμός) means hot. Thermee (θέρμη) means heat.

Recall that Ermees (Έρμῆς) is Hermes, the immortal escort of
the Gods and Goddesses, so that thermee (θέρμη) translates as
divine (θ) escort/messenger (έρμη), literally “divine essence
outflow meta/medium.”

Thermos (θέρμος) is the Greek word for the poisonous plant

lupine, Lupinus albus, also known as wolfbane. Thermo-trageo
(θερμοτρᾰγέω) means to eat lupines, a “hot tragedy.”

Thibros (θιβρός) means hot.

Theeion (θήἵον) or theiaphion (θειάφιον) is sulfur, a substance

used in purifications and fumigations, also known as brimstone,
the material used in matchheads. Theioo (θειόω) means to
fumigate with brimstone/sulfur, to purify, hallow by smearing
with sulfur.

Sulfur is a naturally occurring mineral found primarily near hot

springs and volcanic craters. It has a distinct "rotten egg" smell,
caused by sulfur dioxide gas escaping into the air. Thermopylae,
the Gates of Hot Springs, is the oldest known center of
governance in Greece and the meeting place of the
Amphictyonic League.
“The Amphictyonic League was a religious association of
twelve peoples … from the very beginnings of the
Amphictyonic League, whose origins are shrouded in remote
antiquity, the members met at the sanctuary of Demeter at
Thermopylae.” Around 582 BCE the Amphictyonic League
began to also hold annual conventions at Delphi.

(Pierre Amandry. Delphi (Athens: 27, Praxitelous Street, 1984.)


Theiodees (θειώδης) means sulphureous hot springs; things that

are the color yellow (θειώδης); and the divine (θειώδης).


Thapsinos (θάψῐνος) means yellow. Thapsia (θαψία)

garganica is a yellow-flowered plant which, when it comes in
contact with the skin, causes irritation, heat, reddening, and
severe itching; it was used for fumigations.

Thapsos (θάψος) is the yellow-wooded Rhus Cotinus, used for

dying things yellow. The plant has smoke-like blooms.

Rhus Cotinus.



Heat and motion together are characteristics of living bodies.

The suffix –then (-θεν) denotes motion from a place, the basis
for the word then.

Theo (θέω), in addition to meaning “divine,” also means

running; flying; rolling; shining, gleaming.

Thoas (θοάς) and thoosa (θόωσα) mean to be fleet, swift,

speedy. Thoos (θοός), an epithet of warriors and the immortal
war-God Ares, means to be quick, nimble, swift, hasty. On a
lighter note, thoasma (θόασμα) means a place for dancing.
Thoazo (θοάζω) means to move quickly, ply rapidly, hurry on,
rush, or dart.

Threktikos (θρεκτικός) means to be able to run; rektikos

(ρεκτικός) means able to do, active.

Thuella (θύελλα) means hurricane, literally “divine pure

essence loosened.”

Thuno (θύνω) means to rush, dart along, flit; also, rage, seethe.

Thallo (θάλλω) means to sprout, grow, thrive, bloom, literally

“divine arising loosened.”

Thallos (θαλλός) and thallia (θαλλία) mean a young shoot or

young branch, literally, “divine arising loosened.” Thalos
(θάλος) means offspring.

Thalia (Θᾰλία, Θάλεια) is the immortal Goddess of good

cheer, abundance, and festivities.

Thaletho (θᾱλέθω) means to bloom and thrive. Theeleo

(θηλέω) means to be full of, abound in, grow luxuriantly,
flourish, make to bloom.

Thalees (Θᾰλῆς) is Thales of Miletus (circa 600 BCE),

considered the first philosopher to pose and seek “to answer the
question ‘What is the reality behind phenomena?’”

(Kathleen Freeman. Companion to the Pre-Socratic

Philosophers (Oxford: Alden Press, 1949) 52).

Thales is quoted by Aristotle as saying, “’All things are full of

[G]ods [and Goddesses].’” (Freeman, 53)

“From Aristotle we learn that he (Thales) said that the magnet

had life, or soul, since it could move iron; therefore he thought
life or soul was that which made things move. (He was credited
with the idea, often expressed by later philosophers, that the soul
is in its essence ever in motion and self-moving. Elsewhere it is
said that he derived this view from studying amber as well as the

(Freeman, 53)


Thalamos (θάλᾱμος) is the innermost religious shrine; also,

rooms without windows; inner rooms or chambers without any
outside light, including bedrooms surrounded by other rooms;
the darkest part of a ship (the hold).

A thalamos or tholos (θόλος) is a round building with a conical

roof used in antiquity as a burial chamber but later referring to
any circular, domed building.

“The {Mycenaean tholos tomb} consists of a circular,

subterranean burial chamber, sometimes referred to as the
{thalamos}, roofed by a corbelled vault and approached by a
{dromos} [= entrance passage] that narrows abruptly at the
{stomion} [= doorway] actually opening into the tomb chamber.
The chamber or thalamos is built of stone rather than simply
being hewn out of bedrock. Tholoi of this kind are usually,
though not invariably, set into slopes or hillsides. Burials were
either laid out on the floor of the tomb chamber or were placed
in pits, cists, or shafts cut into this floor.

(“The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Aegean,” the lecture notes

of Jeremy B. Rutter, Chairman of the Classics Department at
Dartmouth College, copyright 1996 Trustees of Dartmouth
bronze_age/lessons/les/19.html )


Thalassa (θάλασσα) means sea; alas (ἅλας) means salt; of the


Thetis (Θέτις) is the immortal Goddess of the sea and leader of

the fifty Nereides (patron Goddesses of sailors and fishermen).  

Thetis riding on a Hippokampos (fish-tailed horse) in a painting

depicting Thetis and the Nereides delivering the armor of
Akhilleus (Achilles).

The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,

California, USA
Catalogue Number: 86.AE.611
, Apulian Red Figure Pelike
Painter: Near the Gravina Painter, circa 425 - 401 BCE. http://

As depicted in Homer’s Iliad, the immortal volcano-God,

Hephaistos, forged a set of armor for Thetis’ son, Achilles.

The armor of Achilles. Antiken-museen, Berlin, Germany

Catalogue No.: Berlin F2294
Beazley Archive No.: 204340, Attic Red Figure Kylix, Name
vase of the Foundry Painter, circa 490 - 480 BCE. http://

Thetis receives a set of armor for her son Achilles from

Hephaistos. The smith holds a hammer and helm, Thetis the
shield and spear. 


Thelkteerios (θέλκτήριος) means enchanting, soothing speech

that heals. A thelkteer (θέλκτήρ) is one who soothes or charms,
literally “divine essence loosened.” Elkt- (έλκτ-) is a prefix
meaning attract, draw.

Thelgo (θέλγω) means charm, enchant, produce by spells.

Thelgines (Θελγῖνες) are wizards.

Thelgesimuthos (θελγεσίμῡθος) means soft-speaking.

Thelgeetron (θέλγητρον) is the power to charm or cast a spell



Theelu- (θηλύ-) is a prefix meaning woman. Theelus (θῆλυς)

means female.

Theelee (θηλή) means teat, nipple, literally “divine center


Theelo (θηλώ) means wet-nurse. Theelazo (θηλάζω) means to

suckle, nurse, give suck.

Theesai (θῆσαι) means to suck, suckle.

Theia (θεία) means aunt.

Thugateer (θῠγάτηρ) means daughter.


Thulakee (θῦλάκη) means scrotum; ulakee (ῦλάκη) means

barking, howling.

Thladias (θλᾰδίας) means eunuch. Thladiao (θλᾰδίάω) means

to make a eunuch, literally “divine loosen.”

Thlao (θλάω) means crushing, bruising. Thlipsis (θλῖψις)

means pressure, crushing, castration; note that lips (λῖψ) means
stream, libation.

Some devoutly religious males would self-castrate as a sign of

loyalty to and affinity with the Divine Mother.

The word for castrate, thlipsis (θλῖψις) is very similar to the

word for shepherd’s purse, Capsella bursapastoris, thlaspis
(θλάσπις), “one of the best specifics for stopping hemorrhages
of all kinds.” Thlaspis was used to promptly arrest bleedings and
floodings from wounds inward or outward.


Thourees (θουρης) means male; oureethra (ούρήθρα) means

Thoros (θορός) means semen, literally “divine entity outflow.”

Thorikos (θορικός) means something that is of or for the


Thouraios (θουραῖος) means to be violent or lustful. Thouros

(θοῦρος) means to be rushing, impetuous, furious, with a rush
to fight.


Tharsos (θάρσος) means courage; arsos (άρσος) means


Tharseo (θαρσέω) means to be of good courage, to fear not.

Tharsaleos (θαρσᾰλέος) means to be confident, with good

courage, bold. Tharso (θαρσώ) is an epithet of the immortal
Goddess Athena.

Thrasos (θράσος) means courage in war. Thrasu- (θρασύ-) is a

prefix meaning bold, strong, impudent, brave-spirited. Thrasus
(θρᾰσύς) means to be bold and full of confidence.

Thorako (θωρᾱκο) is the breast (plate), worn to protect the

thoracic region, the trunk of the body between the neck and the
abdomen enclosed by the ribs in which the heart, lungs, etc. are

A thoraks (θώραξ) is a corslet which covers the thorax front

and back.


Thrasso (θράσσω) means trouble, disquiet, disturb; rasso

(ράσσω) means strike, dash; beat the ground, dance.

Threomai (θρέομαι) means to cry aloud or shriek; reomai

(ρέομαι) means flow, stream, gush.

Threenos (θρῆνος) means funeral dirge, lament, wail; reen

(ρῆν) means lamb, sheep.

Throeo (θροέω) means to cry aloud, as when one is in the

throes of grief, passion, anger; roe- (ροέ-) means conduit,

Thorubos (θόρὕβος) refers to the noise of a crowd, especially

the confused noise of a crowded assembly; an uproar, clamor,
applause, groans, murmurs, tumult, confusion, or clamor.

Throos (θρόος) and thrulos (θρῡλος) mean the noise of many

voices, the murmur of a crowd.

Throsko (θρῴσκω) means to leap, spring, toss, attack; rosk-

(ρῴσκ-) is a prefix meaning with violent motion.

Thruleo (θρῠλέω) means to make a confused noise, chatter,



Theer (θήρ) means a beast of prey or wild beast; eer- (ήρ-) is a

prefix meaning hero.

Theeri- (θηρῐ-) and theero- (θηρο-) are prefixes for words

pertaining to wild beasts. Other words pertaining to the hunt

- theera (θήρα): the hunting of wild beasts, the chase, fishing,

prey, game

- theer, theera (θήρ, θήρα): hunt, chase, catch, capture, pursue

- theerion (θηρίον): wild animal, prey.

Theerionarkee (θηρίονάρκη) is a plant that benumbs serpents,

Nerium Oleander (one of the most poisonous plants in the


Thremma (θρέμμα) means nursling, creature, mostly used in

reference to tame animals such as sheep and goats. Thremma
also means nourishment; rem- (ρέμ-) means roam.

Threp- (θρεπ-) is a prefix meaning to feed, nurture, nourish, and

promote growth; rep- (ρεπ-) and reps- (ρέψ-) mean to incline
one way or another, direct towards, a possible basis for the word

Threpsis (θρέψις) means nourishing.


Words that have to do with things coming loose/breaking

translate literally as “divine (θ) flow/outflow (ρ):”
- thrauo (θραύω): to break in pieces, shatter

- thrombos (θρόμβος): lump, clot, curd, drop; romb- (ρόμβ-) is

a prefix meaning spin, whirl.

- thrumma (θρύμμα): that which is broken off, bit; rum- (ρύμ-)

means divide, division

- thruon (θρυον): reed, rushes (used for making ropes, baskets,

pan-pipes, etc.)

- thrauma (θραῡμα): fragment, breakage

- thrupto (θρύπτω): break in pieces, break small; rupto (ρύπτω)

means cleanse.

- thrupsis (θρύψις): breaking in small pieces; softness,

weakness, delicate

- thraustos (θραῡστός): frangible, brittle; broken, crushed,

easily broken

- thrausis (θραῡσις): communition (make common for all);

slaughter; destruction by plague, falling off of hair in patches

- thriks (θρίξ): hair, literally “divine outflow divine-power

detached-from,” perhaps to reflect the inertness of hair
- thrion (θρῖον): leaf.


The poet Orpheus was born in Thrakee (Θράκη, Θρηἵκίη,

Θρηΐκιος, Θράκιος, Θρῆἵξ, Θρᾶξ, Θρήκιος), Thrace, a
region that covers sections of modern-day Greece, Bulgaria, and
Turkey. The Hymns of Orpheus, performed as theatrical
spectacles, reflect ancient religious beliefs and practices.
According to Kathleen Freeman, Orpheus lived in pre-Homeric

“Orpheus is said to have been born at Leibethra in Pieria, a

district round Mt. Olympus; this district in classical times was
part of Macedonia, but was originally Thracian.”

(Kathleen Freeman, Companion to the Pre-Socratic

Philosophers (Oxford: Alden Press, 1st ed. 1946, 2nd ed. 1949)

Area of ancient Thrace (shaded gold) includes parts of modern

Greece, Bulgaria, and Turkey.

Manly P. Hall, the first president of the Philosophical Research

Society, in his Introductory Preface to the Hymns of Orpheus
(translation Thomas Taylor), writes that “The Mystical Hymns
of Orpheus,” originally titled “The Initiations of Orpheus,” were
used in the Eleusinian Mysteries.

According to Alexander Fol, “The ancient sources are

unanimous in that a Thracian, Eumulpus, was the founder of the
Eleusinian mysteries.”

(Alexander Fol and Evan Marazov, Thrace & the Thracians

(New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1977) 27).

Gold treasures, circa 350-250 BCE, unearthed by archaeologists

in ancient regions of Thrace reflect the wealth of the region.

Gold Thracian treasure from Panagyurishte, Bulgaria, circa

350-250 BCE.
US Museums hosting the exhibit Ancient Gold: The Wealth of
the Thracians included the St. Louis Art Museum; the Kimbell
Art Museum, Ft. Worth; the M. H. DeYoung Museum, San
Francisco; the New Orleans Museum of Art; the Brooks
Museum of Art in Memphis; the Boston Museum of Fine Arts;
and the Detroit Institute of Arts), 1998. (http:// ) (Evgeni I. Paunov in Athena
Review, Vol.1, no. 4, 1998 (pp.76-82).)



Theebai (Θηβᾱΐ) is Thebes, a Greek city in Boeotia named after

a very ancient city in Egypt, literally “divine center basis.”


Theesauros (θησαυρός) means store, treasure, preserve, keep,

store up, the basis for the word thesaurus.

It is of interest to note that eesipees (ήσῐεπής) means throwing

words. Eesiodos (Ήσίοδος) is Hesiod, a famous writer.

Theego (θήγω) means sharpen, whet, eeg- (ήγ-) is a prefix

meaning lead, guide.

Theganee (θηγάνη) means whetstone (a stone for sharpening

cutlery or tools by friction).

Theektos (θηκτός) means sharpened, whetted; eekee (ήκή)

means sharp, edge, meeting-point.

Thoos (θοός) means pointed, sharp; on (ὅον) is the fruit of the

service-tree and a source of sorbic acid.

Thooo (θοόω) means make sharp or pointed.


Thama (θᾰμά) means often, thickly; ama (ᾰμά) means at once,

at one and the same time.

Thamees (θᾰμέες) means crowded, close-set, frequent, often,

haunt, to be accustomed, constantly, repetition.

Thamnos (θάμνος) means bush, shrub, copse.


Theetta (θῆττα) means hired servant-girl, eeton (ἥττων) means


Theeteia (θητεία) means hired service, service.

Thees (θής) means serf, bondsman.


Thoazo (θωάζω) means pay the penalty; oaiai (ώαιαί) is an

exclamation of pain.

Thoee (θωή) means penalty.

Thomizo (θωμίζω) means whip, scourge.


Thig- (θιγ-) is a prefix meaning touch; iga (ἵγα) means keep

silence, hush.

Thigano (θιγγάνω) means touch, handle, take hold of.

Thiksis (θίξις) means touching.


Thaasso (θᾰάσσω) means to sit. Thazos (θαζός) means seated.

A seat or chair is thakeion  (θᾱκεῑον) or thakos (θᾱκος).

Thairos (θαιρός) means the pivot of a door or gate. Thairaios

(θαιραἶος) means axle, the shaft on which a wheel rotates; aireo
(αίρέω) means grasp, seize.

Theen (θην) means in truth, in very truth.

Thibis (θῑβις) means a basket plaited from papyrus. 

Thoina (θοίνα) means food. Thoin- (θοιν-) is the prefix for a

meal, feast, or banquet.

Thronos (θρόνος) means throne, chair of state, “oracular” seat,

chair of a teacher; favorable combination of planetary positions,
literally “divine outflow entity prevailing.” Thranos (θρᾱνος) or
threenus (θρῆνυς) mean bench.
Thura (θύρα) means door, gates, barriers, window, entrance.

Thos (θώς) means hunting dog; os (ώς) means how; when;


Ι ι  iota (ίῶτα)    divine-power                                             

pronounce: long “e” as in see

The letter Ι means divine-power.

The invisible force of gravity, the invisible force that directs

plant growth upward toward the sun, the invisible magnetic
force of the moon that directs tides, the magnetic force that
directs the dial of the compass are all examples of divine
(immortal) power.

Iotees (ἰότης) means by the will of the Gods and Goddesses.

Ichor (ίχώρ) is the juice, not blood, that flows in the veins of
Gods and Goddesses, literally “divine-power foundation.” (Ichor
refers also to the “water” from women in childbirth.)

Iris (Ίρις) is the immortal messenger of the Gods and

Goddesses amongst themselves, literally “divine-power flow.”

Ioudaikos (Ίουδαϊκός) means Joudaikos: Jewish. The letter Ι is

often transliterated into the letter J.

The letter Ι, the tenth letter of the Greek alphabet, is associated

with the tenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet, the letter ( ‫( ) י‬Yōd),
the first character in the Hebrew word for God (‫)יהוה‬.

( )

The divine power represented by the letter Ι is bipolar, that is, it

both attracts and repels, it goes up as well as down. In describing
the meaning of the Hebrew letter Yod, the Encyclopedic
Theosophical Glossary says:

“The influence of this cosmic bipolar force is known

everywhere, expressing itself as positive and negative . . .”

(G. de Purucker, Editor-in-Chief. “Yod, Yodh,” Encyclopedic

Theosophical Glossary (Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University
Press, 1999. Last Update: October 25, 2011. ) http://

Io (Ίώ) is the immortal Goddess of the moon, a heavenly body

with easily observed magnetic properties, literally “divine-
power brings-forth.”  

Ino (Ίνω) is the immortal Goddess of the sea, an entity clearly

impacted by the moon’s magnetic pull, literally “divine-power
prevailing brings-forth.”


The letter Ι is represented as a vertical vector.

Vertical vectors for architectural, scientific, aesthetic, and other

purposes are determined with a plumb line, a line regarded as
directed exactly toward the earth's center of gravity.

A man uses a plumb line to determine the vertical line of a


Istos (ίστός) means anything set upright, such as a mast or


Ithu- (ίθύ-) is a prefix meaning straight; righteous; fair. Ithus

(ίθύς) means straight; straight-forward; just; fair, literally
“divine-power divine pure.”

A forest presents a panoply of vertical lines. Note that idee (ϊδη)

means timber-tree, literally “divine-power directed-trajectory

Plant stems.


Ian (Ίάν), Ias (Ίάς), Iakos (Ίᾰκός), Ion (Ἵων), and Ionikos
(Ίωνικός) mean Ionic.

The Ionic column is a style of architecture developed in Ionia

circa 550 BCE. It is distinguished from other types of columns
by the scroll, “volute,” at the top.

An Ionic capital on the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, 421-407


Ionic columns.
Greek temples, sacred places of divine power, consist primarily
of vertical columns.
Parthenon, Temple of Athena on the Acropolis, Athens, Greece,
447-432 BCE.

Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens, circa 550 BCE-150 CE.

Temple of Poseidon at Sounion, circa 440 BCE. http://

Temple of Aphrodite, the Tetrapylon, Aphrodisias, Turkey, circa

150 CE.

Side-view of the façade of the Library of Celsus, Ephesus, circa

150 CE.

Temple of Zeus at Cyrene (modern Libya), circa 450 BCE.

Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Peloponnese, circa 450-400 BCE.            

Temple of Segesta, Sicily, circa 450 BCE.            http://

Temple of Hera Paestum, southern Italy, circa 550 BCE. http://

Temple of Hephaestus, northwest of the Acropolis, Athens, circa

450 BCE.

Temple of Concordia, Sicily, circa 450 BCE. http://

The Cardo “Colonnaded Street,” Jerash (in modern Jordan),

circa 150 CE.

Temple of Artemis, Jerash (in modern Jordan), circa 150 CE.


Ier- (ίερ-) is a prefix meaning sacred, holy. Ierizo (ίερίζω)

means consecrate, purify.

Ieraomai (ίεράομαι) and ireeteuo (ίρητεύω) mean to be a

priest, iereus (ίερεύς), or a priestess, iereia (ίερεια).

Many, many Greek words begin with the prefix ier- (ίερ-),

- ierageo (ίερᾱγέω): to carry holy offerings

- ierateion (ίερᾱτεῖον): a sanctuary

- ieraphoria (ίερᾱφορία): bearing of holy vessels

- ieraphoros (ίερᾱφόρος): bearer of holy vessels

- iereia (ίερεία): sacrifice; festival; sanctuary

- iereion (ίερεῖον): animal for sacrifice; offering for the dead; of


Ieros (ίερός) means filled with or manifesting divine power;

holy, hallowed, consecrated.

Iero- (ίερο-) is a prefix meaning sacred, holy, divine. It is a

prefix for many Greek words, including:

- ieroglossos (ίερογλωσσος): of prophetic tongue; sacred


- ierogluphikos (ίερογλῠφικός): hieroglyphics, sacred writings

- ierotheekee (ίεροθήκη): depository for holy things, sanctuary

- ierologia (ίερόλογία): inspired, mystical language

- ieronoumeenia (ίερονουμηνία): feast of the new moon

- ieropolis (ίερόπολις): holy city

- ierophanteo (ίεροφαντέω): to initiate or instruct in the


- ierophantees (ίεροφαντης): hierophant, one who teaches the

rites of sacrifice and             worship

- ierophonos (ίεροφωνος): make a holy utterance, with sacred

voice, utterer of oracles

- ierochthon (ίεροχθων): hallowed soil

- ieropsuchos (ίεροψῡχος): a holy, pious soul

- ieropsaltees (ίεροψάλτης): singer in the temple

- ieroo (ίερόω): consecrate, dedicate.

Ieroma (ίερωμα) means sacred image.

Ieronumos (ίερώνῠμος) means of hallowed name.

Greek religious festivities, such as the Nemean and Olympic

games, included physical contests.

Ierodromos (ίεροδρομος) means sacred race-course, race, foot-


Ieromeenia (ίερόμηνία) means sacred month, during which the

great festivals are held and hostilities suspended, of the Nemean
games; sacrifices offered during the sacred month.

Ieronikees (ίερονίκης) means conqueror/victor in the games.


Ieroskopia (ίεροσκόπία) is divination by inspection of the

entrails, especially the liver, of sacrificial animals. The ieroptees
(ίερόπτης), haruspex, is trained in ieroskopeomai
(ίεροσκοπέομαι), the inspection of animals’ entrails. This
practice was employed by practitioners in Babylon (Iraq), the
Hittite empire (Turkey), and Etruscan society (Italy).

Model of a sheep's liver, used in divination. http:// 

Clay model of a sheep's liver circa 1900-1600 BCE, inscribed

with the significance of marks found on different parts of its
surface. © The British Museum. View large image on the British
Museum's website.

The Etruscans developed an elaborate understanding of the

sheep's liver, its various parts being related to the heavens, and
the outer edge of the liver was divided into the same 16
divisions as the sky. Special attention was paid to the lobe or
head, the part described in modern anatomy books as the
processus pyramidus, its absence or malformation was generally
regarded as a bad omen.

The Liver of Piacenza with its Etruscan inscriptions.

Liver of Piacenza, Italy, circa 250-150 BCE. Markings indicate

interpretations of various parts of the liver.

The Liver of Piacenza is an Etruscan artifact found on

September 26, 1877 near Gossolengo, in the province of
Piacenza, Italy. It is a life-sized bronze model of a sheep's liver
covered in Etruscan writings. The writings on the liver are
names of Etruscan deities. It is believed that the bronze model
served as a tool for haruspicy. It has been dated to the 2nd-3rd
century BCE. [1] The bronze liver is now on display in the
Municipal Museum of Piacenza, in the Palazzo Farnese.


Iktar (ίκτήρ) means suppliant, a word also applied to one who

comes to seek purification, and to pilgrims who come to a
healing shrine.

Ikesia (ίκεσία) is the prayer of a suppliant; supplication.

Iketeia (ίκετεία) means supplication; beseech a deity’s aid,


An iketeeria (ίκετηρία) is the olive branch the suppliant holds

as a symbol of his/her condition; the suppliant represents him/
herself as an olive branch.

Iketosuna (ίκετώσυνα) means purification.

The platform, stage, and benches in a theatre where religious

rites took place are the ikria (ἵκρια).

Ikano (ίκάνω) means to come (to), reach, attain, fulfill.

Iketees (ίκετης) means one who comes to seek aid or protection,

suppliant; one who comes to seek for purification after killing
someone; pilgrims to a healing shrine. 

“The Priestess of the Pythian Apollo speaks: ‘I was on my way

to the inner shrine, decked with wreaths; I saw on the center-
stone a man defiled in the eyes of the [G]ods [and Goddesses],
occupying the seat of suppliants. His hands were dripping blood;
he held a sword just drawn and an olive-branch.’”
(Aeschylus (circa 450 BCE). Eumenides, translated by Herbert
Weir Smyth, Loeb Classical Library Volumes 145 & 146,
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926.))

Note: “Center-stone: omphalos “navel” is the name given by the

Delphians to a white stone (in Aeschylus' time placed in the
inmost sanctuary of Apollo) regarded as marking the exact
center of the earth.

Ikneomai (ίκνέομαι) means come, arrive at, approach as a

suppliant, supplicate, beseech; that which is fitting, proper.

Iko (ἵκω) means to come.

Ilaos (ϊλαος) refers to propitious, gracious Gods and Goddesses.

Ilas- (ίλᾰσ-) is a prefix meaning appease, conciliate, expiate, be

merciful, gracious; atonement, sin-offering; propitiatory gift or


Healing is a realm of divine supplication, with prayers employed

in seeking relief and cures.
Ia- (ίά-) is a prefix meaning healing, heal.

Iaino (ίαίνω) means heat; warmth; cheer; heal; save.

Iaomai (ίάομαι) means attempt to cure, treat, repair, heal.

Iama (ϊᾱμα) is a remedy; medicine. Iamai (ϊαμαι) means heal,


Iasis (ϊᾱσις) means healing, remedy.

Iaso (Ίᾱσώ) is the immortal Goddess of healing and health.  

Iaso with mirror, Athenian

red-figure amphora, circa 450 BCE,
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Iasimos (ίάσιμος) and iatos (ίᾱτός) mean curable.

Iasionee (ίάσιώνη) is bindweed, Convolvulus sepium, the root

of which is strongly purgative. http://

Iasmee (ίάσμη) is jessamine, Jaminum officinale; oil of jasmine.

Iaspis (ίασπῐς) is jasper, a quartz stone with medicinal

Iateira (ίάτειρα) means healing.

Iatos (ίᾱτός) means curable.

Iaton (ίᾱτον) is a drink prepared from honey, wine, and violets.

Ia (ϊα) means violet. Io- (ίο-) is a prefix meaning violet. Ion
(ϊον) means violet.

Iatr- (ϊατρ-) is a prefix meaning one skilled in curing; surgeon;


An iatra (ἵατρα, ἵητρα) is a medical fee, a thank-offering for a


An iatrinee (ἵατρίνη) or iatromaia (ίατρομαια) is a midwife.

An iatros (ίᾶτρός) is one who heals, a physician, surgeon,

midwife; medicine.

Iauo (ίαύω) means sleep, a regenerative source of energy and

Idio (ϊδίω) means sweat, perspiration. Idos (ΐδος) means sweat,
warmth, violent heat, fever.

The mortar (bowl) is the igdis (ϊγδις). The pestle (pounding

tool) is the igdokopanon (ίγδοκόπᾰνον). These tools for
grinding medicinal herbs and other elements are a symbol of

Iera (ίερά) is a kind of serpent; also, a name for many medicines

in the Greek pharmacopoeia; also, of a plaster, especially aloes.

Ios (ίός) means poison, as of serpents, venom.

Iotokos (ίοτόκος) means poison-bearing, venomous.

The mortar and pestle decorated with the hawk and serpent, a
symbol of medicine/pharmacy. The hawk is symbolic of the
divine power of the sky, while the serpent is an ambassador of
the divine power of the earth.


The hawk or falcon, ieraks (ίέραξ), is a sacred animal. Ierak-

(ίερᾱk-) is a prefix meaning hawk.
Words pertaining to the sacred hawk reveal that it was
domesticated, revered, and honored with burial rites:

- ierakeion (ίερᾱκεῖον): shrine of the hawk

- ierakidion (ίερᾱκίδιον): statuette of a hawk

- ierakizo (ίερᾱκίζω): behave like a hawk

- ierakion (ίερᾱκιον): hawk-weed, Urospermum picroides,

Hymenonema graecum, a compound eyesalve

- ierakisti (ίερᾱκιστί): in hawks’ language

- ierakoboskos (ίερᾱκοβοσκός): hawk-feeder, falconer

- ierakotaphos (ίερᾱκοτάφος): one who buries sacred hawks.

Another bird revered as sacred is the ibis (ϊβις), an Egyptian bird

of which there are two species, white ibis (Ibis religiosa) and
black ibis (Plegadis falcinellus). This bird received burial
honors and has a flower named for it, the hibiscus (ίβίσκος):

- ibion (ίβιών): chapel of the sacred ibis

- ibiauboskos (ίβῐοβοσκός): keeper of the sacred ibis

- ibiostolistas (ίβῐοστολιστής): maker of shrouds for the sacred

- ibiotapheion (ίβῐοτᾰφεῖον): tomb of the sacred ibis

- ibiostaphos (ίβῐοστάφος) ibis-burier.

Herodotus reports that the ibis is revered by Egyptians because it

kills poisonous snakes, protecting the people of Egypt.

“. . . winged serpents fly from Arabia toward Egypt, but at this

mountain pass they encounter ibis birds, which not only do not
let them pass but which kill them. Because of this service, the
Arabians say, the ibis is highly honored by the Egyptians, and
the Egyptians agree that this is why they hold these birds in such
high esteem."

(Herodotus (circa 450 BCE). The Landmark Herodotus: The

Histories, edited by Robert. B. Strassler, translated by Andrea L.
Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, div. of Random House,
2007) 150.)


Force is inherent to the meaning of the letter Ι. For the Greeks,

ultimately, all power/force is divine.
Ithi (ἵθῐ) means both “come” and “go,” literally “divine-power
divine divine-power.”

Ithma (ϊθμα) means step, motion.

Ia (ίά) means arrow.

Iallo (ίάλλω) means send forth, put forth, set down, send,
dispatch; send oneself from, flee, run.

Ieemi (ϊημι) is a word that conveys motion, it means press

forward, desire; release, let go; let hang, let fall, let loose; throw,
hurl, shoot; let flow, spout forth, send; hasten, rushing; of
sounds, utter, speak.

Iapto (ίάπτω) means send, drive on (of missiles), send forth,


Iaphetees (ίαφέτης) means archer (of Apollo); aphetees

(αφέτης) means ballistics, let loose.

Iesis (ϊεσις) means going.

Iko (ϊκω) means come, attain to, reach.

Illas (ίλλάς) means rope, band. Illo (ϊλλω) means plait, braid.
An imas (ίμάς) is a leather strap or thong, reins, lash, rope,
leash, whip.

Imao (ίμάω) means draw up (water from a well), tapped of,

yield. Imonia (ίμόνιά) is a well-rope.

Iptomai (ϊπτομαι) and iposis (ϊπτωσις) mean to press hard,


Is (ϊς) means sinew, tendon, fibrous vessels in the muscles;

strength, force.

Ischas (ίσχάς) means that which holds, anchor. Ischo (ϊσχω)

means to keep back, restrain. Ischanao (ίσχᾰνάω) means hold
back, stay, wait, cling to. Ischano (ίσχάνω) means to check.
Ischi- (ίσχῐ-) is a prefix meaning hips.

Ischus (ίσχύς) means strength, power, force.

Ischuros (ίσχῠρός) means strong, powerful.

Iphi (ῑφι) means by force or might. Iphthimos (ϊφθῑμος) means

stout, strong, powerful.

Iksis (ϊξις) means coming, passage through; direction, straight

line; in line with.

Ide (ἵδε, ίδέ) means behold.

Idea (ίδέα) means idea; ideal form, archetype; mode, form,

shape, style, nature, outward appearance.

Ideros (ίδέρως) means one who loves at first sight: behold (ίδ-)
+ eros/passion (έρως).

Ideskon (ἵδεσκον) means to know.

Idman (ίδμάν) means one who knows.

Idmon (ϊδμων) means having knowledge of, skill.

Idreia (ίδρεία) means knowledge, skill.

Idris (ϊδρις) means experience, knowing, skilled.

Indalma (ϊνδαλμα) means form, appearance, image.


Idios (ϊδιος) means one's own, pertaining to oneself, private,

personal; natural; separate, distinct, peculiar, the basis for the
word idiosyncrasy.

Idikos (ίδικός) means special; one's own.

Idiotees (ἵδῐοτης) means individuality, the basis for the word



Idanos (ίδᾰνός) means fair, comely, lovely.

Idon (ίδών) means joy.

Iladon (ίλᾰδόν) means in abundance.

Ilaros (ίλᾰρός) means cheerful, merry; gracious; gaiety, the

basis for the word hilarity.

Ilaro (ίλᾰρόω) means gladden, brighten.

Imero- (ίμερό-) is a prefix meaning lovely, desirable, charming.

Is- (ισ-) is a prefix meaning equal, literally “divine-power

Iso- (ισό-) is a prefix meaning equal; like; similar; balanced.

Isazo (ίσάζω) means equality, make equal, balance, of a person

holding scales; to be made equal or to be equal; to be even,

Isee (ίσὴ) means equality, an equal share.

Isos (ϊσος) means equal; equality; equal in rights; equal in force;

two sides equal; equilibrium; fairness; justice. Isoo (ίσόω)
means make equal.

There are many, many Greek words with the prefix is- (ίσ-).

Iseemeria (ίσημερία) (equal portions) and isounuktion

(ίσονύκτιον) (equal night) mean equinox.

The prefix ίσ- figures prominently in Greek words pertaining to

politics, mathematics, and knowledge.

The Greeks are revered as pioneers of the democratic form of

government, which gives equal rights and equal voice to all
citizens. Words pertaining to the equalizing, democratic form of
government include:
- iseegaria (ίσηγαρία): equal right of speech, political equality

- isokratees (ίσοκρᾰτής): of equal power, possessing equal

rights with others; evenly balanced

- isologia (ίσόλογία): counterbalancing arguments

- isonomia (ίσονομία): equal distribution, equilibrium, balance;

equality of political rights

- isopoliteia (ίσοπολῑτεία): equality of civic rights granted to

individuals or to communities

- isopseephia (ίσοψηφία): equality of votes; equal right to vote.

In mathematics, squared or cubed numbers are called isakis

(ίσάκῐς). Other mathematical words employing the ίσ- prefix

- isoglochin (ίσογλώχῑν): equiangular shapes

- isodiastos (ίσοδιάστος): equal in dimension, such as the

surfaces of a cube

- isopleuros (ίσόπλευρος): equilateral, with equal sides

- isotacheia (ίσοτάχεια): equal velocity.


Ismee (ίσμή) means knowledge. Isma (ϊσμα) means foundation,


One who knows law and right, a judge, one who is

knowledgeable or learned is an istor (ἵστωρ), the basis for the
word history.

Istorikos (ιστορικός) means to be historical, exact, precise,


Istoreo (ιστορέω) means history; to inquire, examine, observe,

be informed about, or to give an account of what one has


Isis (Ἶσις) is the immortal Goddess of Egypt. 

“As for Isis, the Egyptians say that she was the discoverer of
many health-giving drugs and was greatly versed in the science
of healing; consequently, now that she has attained immortality,
she finds her greatest delight in the healing of mankind and
gives aid in their sleep to those who call upon her, plainly
manifesting both her very presence and her beneficence towards
men who ask her help . . .

“… and many who have been despaired of by their physicians

because of the difficult nature of their malady are restored to
health by her, while numbers who have altogether lost the use of
their eyes or of some other part of their body, whenever they
turn for help to this [G]oddess, are restored to their previous
condition. Furthermore, she discovered also the drug which
gives immortality . . .”

(Diodorus of Sicily. Diodorus Siculus Library of History 1 .25:

2-6, translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann Ltd.,1933) 81.)

A temple of Isis is an Iseion (Ίσεῖον, Ίσιεῖον, Ίσεῖa, Ίσιεῖa).

The keeper of the temple of Isis is the Isiounomos (Ίσιονόμος).

Temple of Isis at Philae, Egypt.   http://
Iskos (Ίσκός) means priest of Isis.

An ancient text dated prior to 1400 BCE describes the power of

“Saith Osiris Ani, triumphant: ‘The blood of Isis, the charms of
Isis, the power of Isis, are a protection unto me, the chief, and
they crush that which I abhor.’”

(E. A. Wallis Budge, translator. The Book of the Dead: The

Papyrus of Ani (circa 1500 BCE.-1400 BCE), Plate XXXIII,
Chapter CLVI. (1) The Chapter of the Buckle of Carnelian
(made of carnelian, red jasper, re porphyry, red glass, or red
faience) (New York: Dover Publications, 1967) 358.)

An image of Isis, below, predates 1400 BCE.

Isis at Abydos. Isis wears a vulture headdress (symbol of death

and renewal) topped by the horns of a bull. The bullhorns cradle
the disc of the sun. Isis holds the ankh, the symbol of life, in her
right hand. In her left hand, she holds the was scepter, symbol of
authority, circa 1371 BCE. 

image at: egyptian_gods/isis.htm

Diodorus of Sicily describes Isis as the discoverer of grains and

the establisher of laws, which suggests strong similarities
between the Egyptian Isis and the Greek Demeter.

 “ . . . after Isis had discovered the fruit of both wheat and barley
which grew wild over the land along with the other plants but
was still unknown to man . . . all men were glad to change their
food, both because of the pleasing nature of the newly-
discovered grains and because it seemed to their advantage to
refrain from their butchery of one another.

“As proof of the discovery of these fruits they offer the

following ancient custom which they still observe: Even yet at
harvest time the people make a dedication of the first heads of
the grain to be cut, and standing beside the sheaf beat
themselves and call upon Isis, by this act rendering honour to the
[G]oddess for the fruits which she discovered, at the season
when she first did this.

“Moreover in some cities, during the Festival of Isis as well,

stalks of wheat and barley are carried among the other objects in
the procession, as a memorial of what the [G]oddess so
ingeniously discovered at the beginning.

“Isis also established laws, they say, in accordance with which

the people regularly dispense justice to one another and are led
to refrain through fear of punishment from illegal violence and
insolence . . .”

(Diodorus of Sicily. Diodorus Siculus Library of History,

Book I, 14: 1-4) 49.)

“The Praises of Isis,” found in Cyme in Asia Minor [Turkey]

circa 200 CE, describes Isis as having profound, wide-ranging
“I am Isis, the mistress of every land, and I was taught by
Hermes, and with Hermes I devised letter, both the sacred
[hieroglyphs] and the demotic (writing for documents), that all
might not be written with the same [letters].

I gave and ordained laws for men (sic), which no one is able to


I am the eldest daughter of Kronos.

I am the wife and sister of King Osiris.

I am she who findeth fruit for men (sic) .

I am mother of King Horus.

I am she that riseth in the Dog Star.

I am she that is called [G]oddess by women.

For me was the city of Bubastis built.

I divided the earth from the heaven.

I showed the paths of the stars.

I ordered the course of the sun and the moon.

I devised business in the sea.

I made strong the right.

I brought together woman and man.

I appointed to women to bring their infants to birth in the

            tenth month.

I ordained that parents should be loved by children.

I laid punishment upon those disposed without natural affec-

            tion toward their parents.

I made with my brother Osiris an end to the eating of men (sic).

I revealed mysteries unto men (sic).

I taught [men] (sic) to honor the images of the [G]ods [and


I consecrated the precincts of the [G]ods [and Goddesses].

I broke down the governments of tyrants.

I made an end to murders.

I compelled women to be loved by men.

I made the right to be stronger than gold and silver.

I ordained that the true should be thought good.

I devised marriage contracts.

I assigned to Greeks and to barbarians their languages.

I made the beautiful and the shameful to be distinguished by


I ordained that nothing should be more feared than an oath.

I have delivered the plotter of evil against other men (sic) into

            hands of the one he plotted against.

I established penalties for those who practice injustice.

I decreed mercy to suppliants.

I protect [or honor] righteous guards.

With me the right prevails.

I am the Queen of rivers and winds and sea.

No one is held in honor without my knowing it.

I am the Queen of war.

I am the Queen of the thunderbolt.

I stir up the sea and I calm it.

I am in the rays of the sun.

I inspect the courses of the sun.

Whatever I please, this too shall come to an end.

With me everything is reasonable.

I set free those in bonds.

I am the Queen of seamanship.

I make the navigable unnavigable when it pleases me.

I created walls of cities.

I am called the Lawgiver [Thesmophoros, a classical epithet of


I brought up islands out of the depths into the light.

I am Lord [note masculine form] of rainstorms.

I overcome Fate.

Fate hearkens to me.

Hail, O Egypt, that nourished me!”

(Fredrick C. Grant, Heleinistic Religions: The Age of Syncretism

(Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, Liberal Arts Press, 1953) 131-133.
Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, LI (1927), 379 f. (Text
in W. Haussman, editor, Pantheion, 1948) 37.) Werner Peek,
Der Isishymnus von Andros und verwandte Texte (Berlin 1930);
cf. Karl Kundsin, Charakter and Ursprung der Johanneischen
Reden (Riga, 1939), 291-293. A recension found in Cyme in
Asia Minor [Turkey] circa 200 CE.)

Isis is depicted in texts and ancient art as bestowing the breath of


“[Isis saith:] ‘I waft unto thee air for thy nostrils . . . I have made
whole thy lungs.”

(E. A. Wallis Budge, The Book of the Dead: The Papyrus of Ani,
Plates XXXIII and XXXIV, Chapter CLI. (New York: Dover
Publications, 1967) 360.)

The Blood of Isis icon, the tit amulet below, resembles the
modern tampon.

Blood of Isis, British Museum, from Egypt

New Kingdom, circa 1250-1100 BCE.

“The tit amulet was one of several which was placed on the neck
of the deceased at the time of burial. It is first mentioned in
funerary papyri and first appears on mummies in the mid-
Eighteenth Dynasty (circa 1550-1295 BCE.). From then on it
was considered vital.

“This Blood of Isis icon, above, is made of red jasper, as

prescribed in the Book of the Dead, though many examples were
of other red materials such as glass or carnelian. Some were also
made of green faience or glass. In ancient Egypt, green was
symbolic of regeneration. The amulet was linked with the
[G]oddess Isis, and also known as the knot-amulet or girdle of
Isis. It consists of a loop of cloth, from the tied lower end of
which hung two folded loops.

“According to Spell 156 of the Book of the Dead the amulet

bestowed the protection of Isis against 'whoever would commit a
crime against him'. The spell, invoking the [G]oddess' blood,
power, and magic, was to be recited over the amulet, which was
moistened with the juice of various fruit. This example is
inscribed with Nefer's name, to ensure that the spell would be
specifically applied to him.”

(C.A.R. Andrews, Amulets of Ancient Egypt (London, The

British Museum Press, 1994). 


Ian (Ίάν), Ias (Ίάς), Iakos (Ίᾰκός), Ion (Ἵων), and Ionikos
(Ίωνικός) mean Ionian.

Ionia comprised the central west coast of modern Turkey,

including the city o f Ephesus.

Ionia is the central west coast of modern Turkey.

 Ancient Ionia/Modern Turkey is east of modern Greece.

The Ionian sea is west of Greece and southeast of Italy.

Ionian Sea.


The Ionian dialect was one of the three major Hellenic/Greek

dialects (Ionian, Dorian, Aeolian).

Ionizo (ίωνίζω) means to speak in the Ionian dialect.

The Ionian school of philosophy refers to scientific and

philosophical writers from Ionia during the period circa 625-475

The following description of Ionian philosophers is from New

World Encyclopedia

“The Ionian philosophers . . . sought to explain the material

universe as it could be perceived by the physical senses, in terms
of matter, movement, and energy . . .”

Iastti (Ίαστί) means in the Ionic mode of music. Iastios

(Ίάστιος) means Ionic Music.

Iambeios (ίαμβεῖος) means iambic, iambic verse.

An iambos (ϊαμβος) is a metrical foot containing two syllables:

one short + one long. Note that αμ means up, while βος means
basis/down. In modern verse, this can also be expressed as a foot
containing “one unstressed + one stressed” syllable.

Iambic pentameter has five sounds of two syllables each,

alternating short/long or unstressed/stressed:

ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM / ba-BUM.

William Shakespeare wrote plays and poems in iambic

pentameter. In Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night (Act 1, Scene 1:
1-3), Duke Orsino says :

“If mu- / -sic be / the food / of love, / play on.”


Iakchos (Ἳακχος) is described in the Lexicon as a mystic name

of Dionysos, the immortal God of wine.  
It is worth noting that the similar-sounding Iakos (Ίᾰκός)
means “from Ionia.”

In Aristophanes play The Frogs, the Chorus of the shades of

Eleusinian initiates sing:

“‘O Iakchos! power excelling,

here in stately temples dwelling.

‘O Iakchos! O lakchos!’”

Aristophanes, Frogs 316 ff (trans. O'Neill) (Greek comedy circa

450-350 BCE
FrogsThe3.html  :

Herodotus has Dikaios (an Athenian) describe to Demaratos (a

Lacedaemonian) the cry of “Iakchos!”:

"’. . . that cry is divine, and comes from Eleusis . . . The

Athenians celebrate a festival each and every year in honor of
the Mother [Demeter] and Kore [the Daughter/Persephone], and
any of the Athenians or other Hellene who want to are initiated.
The sound you hear is the Iakhos hymn they sing at this

(Herodotus (circa 450 BCE), The Histories 8. 65. 4, translated

by Andrea L. Purvis (New York: First Anchor Books, Random
House, 2009) 627.)

An image of Iakchos (circa 350 BCE), below, depicts Iakchos

holding two torches: one pointing upward, and the other
pointing down.

Detail of Hekate and Iakchos from a painting depicting the Gods

and Goddesses of Eleusis. Hekate stands between the enthroned
Goddesses, Demeter and Persephone, holding a pair of burning
torches in her hands. Iakchos holds one upturned and one
downturned torch.

State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia

Catalogue Number: St Petersburg PAV8
Beazley Archive Number: 230341
Ware: Attic Red Figure
Painter: Name vase of the Eleusinian Painter, circa 350 BCE NOTE This is a
drawing of the vase rather than a photographic representation.


Ipta (Ἵπτα) is Ipta, defined in the Lexicon as the nurse of


Orphic Hymn 48 to the “nurse of Bacchus” is addressed

(possibly in error: the prefix ipp- (ίππ-) means horse) “To Ippa
(Ἵππας),” with a note from Thomas Taylor, the translator, that
“Ippa according to Proclus is the same with Juno (Hera).”
Geographical references in the hymn suggest that Ippa/Ipta is
the Great Phrygian Mother of the Gods:

“Great nurse of Bacchus, to my pray'r incline,

For holy Sabus' secret rites are thine,

The mystic rites of Bacchus' nightly choirs,

Compos'd of sacred, loud-resounding fires:

Hear me, terrestrial mother, mighty queen,

Whether on Phrygia's holy mountain seen,

Or if to dwell in Tmolus thee delights,

With holy aspect come, and bless these rites.”

Note: Sabus is another name for Bacchus/Dionysos. Phrygia is
in Turkey, its holy mountain is Mount Ida. Tmolus is a mountain
in Lydia (Turkey).

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 180.)

Idogenas (Ίδογενής) means born on Mount Ida. Mount Ida is a

mountain near Troy (northwest Turkey) sacred to the immortal
Mother of the Gods.

Mount Ida, east of the island of Lesbos, home of the immortal



Ikm- (ικμ-) is a prefix meaning moist, wet, damp, full of fluid.

Ikmas (ίκμάς) means moisture. Ikmios (ϊκμιος) means moist.

Iks- (ίξ-) is a prefix meaning sticky/icky. Ikso (ίξο) is bird-lime,

an adhesive substance used in trapping birds. Iksos (ίξός) is
mistletoe; any sticky substance.
Ilus (ίλύς) means mud, slime.

Iluo (ίλύω) means cover with slime or dirt, muddy, slimy.


Ignua (ίγνύα, ίγνύη) is the part behind the thigh and knees, the

Ignus (ϊγνυς) and iknus (ϊκνυς) mean dust, ashes.

Izo (ϊζω) means make to sit, seat, place; set-up and dedicate; sit,
sit down; take up a position; settle down.

Ithris (ϊθρῐς) means eunuch.

Imat- (ίμᾰτ-) is a prefix meaning clothes, apparel.

Imeiro (ίμείρω) means to long for, desire, wish to do. Imeros

(ἵμερος) means longing, yearning after, literally “divine-power
meta,” suggesting that the longing is the medium of
communication between the macro (divine) and micro

Ina (ἵνα) means in that place, there.

Ioulos (ϊουλος) means down (of a chick/duckling); the first
growth of whiskers or beard; also, corn-sheaf, whence the
immortal Goddess Demeter is said to be named Ioulo (Ίουλώ).
Ioulo is a song sung in honor of Demeter as Goddess of the
sheaves. The prefix oul- (ουλ-) means whole, perfect, complete;
also, barley.

Ipnos (ίπνός) means oven.  The prefix pno- (πνό-) means wind,

Ippos (ϊππος) means horse. Ipp- (ίππ-) is a prefix meaning

horse, a prefix for many Greek words.

Ichthu- (ίχθῠ) is a prefix meaning fish (ίχθῦς).

Ichn- (ίχν-) is a prefix meaning track, hunt after. Ichnos (ϊχνος)

means track, footstep, trace, trail.

Ipsos (ἵψος) means cork-oak.


Interestingly, Greek names for many major countries

surrounding the Greek mainland begin with the letter Ι,
including Ionia (coast of Turkey), Ilios (Troy), Illyria/Istria
(Croatia/Serbia), India, Ispania (Spain), and Italia (Italy).
Ilios (Ἲλιος) means Ilios or Ilium, the city of Ilus, Troy. Ilias
(Ίλιάς) is a woman of Ilios (Troy).

Ilios (Troy) is located at the mouth of the Hellespont in ancient

Phrygia (Turkey), near Mount Ida.

Illyrioi (Ίλλῠριοί ) means Illyrian. Illyria is (roughly) present-

day Croatia and Serbia.

Croatia and Serbia comprise Illyria.

Istros (Ἲστρος) means Ister (the Danube River); of or from

Istria. The Ister/Danube River originates in Germany and flows
east until it empties into the Black Sea.

Map of the Ister/Danube River.


Indos (Ίνδός) means Indian. India is to the far east of Greece
and Turkey.

Map showing India’s relation to Turkey and Greece. http://

Ispania (Ίσπᾱνία) means Hispania; Spain.


Italia (Ίτᾰλία) means Italy. Italy is west of Greece.

Map of Italy.

Several Greek islands and cities begin with the letter Ι.

Ialusos (Ίᾱλυσός) is one of the three Dorian cities of the island

of Rhodes.

Rhodes is off the southwest shore of Turkey.

Ialysos is near the north shore of Rhodes. http://
The district of Ialysos encompasses the northern part of the

Ialyssos, Rhodes Island, archaeological site of temple of Polias


Ithaki/Ithakee (Ίθάκη) is Ithaca, one of the Ionian islands west

of central Greece.

Ionian islands west of Central Greece.

Icarios (Ίκάριος) means Ikarian, from the island of Ikaria off

the coast of Turkey.

Ilisos (Ἲλῑσός) is the Ilissus in Attica. The Lesser Mysteries of

Demeter were celebrated at Agrae In Ilisos, south-east of the
Acropolis of Athens.

Κ κ  kappa (κάππά)     core               pronounce: “k” sometimes

Anglicized as “soft c=s”

The letter Κ means core, with the implication of something

emerging from the core.

Many Greek words beginning with Κ were Anglicized by

replacing the letter Κ with the letter C. For example, the proper
name Core (the immortal daughter of Demeter) is defined by
Webster’s as “Kore.”

Webster’s defines core as “the central part of a fleshy fruit,

containing the seeds; the central, innermost, or most essential
part of anything.”

A sprouting seed extends both upward and downward from its

core, similar to the legs of the letter Κ. .

Germinating chickpea.

Germinating bean seed.

Kentro- (κεντρο-) is a prefix meaning center, literally “core

essence prevailing.”

Kentron (κέντρον) means centron, a cardinal point (north/south/

east/west); any sharp point, spike. Kentrikos (κεντρικός) means
of or belonging to a cardinal point.

Kentrophoros (κεντροφόρος) means containing the center of

the universe, “center (κεντρο) bearing (φόρος).”

Centro Barika (Kentrobarika (Κεντροβᾰρικά)) is the title of a

treatise by Archimedes (circa 300 BCE) on the center of gravity
and problems related to this subject; note that barika (βᾰρικά)
means weight, pressure, “center (Κεντρο) weight (βᾰρικά).”

Archimedes famously said regarding the center of gravity and

leverage, "Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the

(Quoted by Pappus of Alexandria (circa 340 CE) in

Synagoge, Book VIII, edited by Friedrich Otto Hultsch (Berlin:
1878) 1060.)  

Engraving from Mechanic’s Magazine, cover of bound Volume

II (London: Knight & Lacey, 1824).

Keuthos (κεῦθος) means the depths of the earth; innermost

chambers, literally “core essence pure divine.”

Diagram of the center of the earth. http://



Fruit of the Womb

Kaloi (Καλοί) are divinities worshipped in childbirth, literally

“core arising loosen.”

Kapee (κάπη) means crib or manger, literally “core arising

unified center.” Kapetolios (Κᾰπετώλιος) is both the citadel
(fortress) of any city and the month of December when the
winter solstice occurs.

Kuo (κύω), kueo (κῠέω), kueeros (κύηρός), kueesis (κύησις),

and kuma, (κῦμα) mean pregnant.
The prefix kuo- (κύο-) means pregnant; fetus, literally “core
pure entity.”

Kueema (κύημα) means that which is conceived, the embryo or

fetus. Kuma (κῦμα) means fetus, embryo.

The kudonea (κῠδωνέα), quince-tree, has fruit similar to that of

a pear, appearing pregnant.

Quince fruit.


Kuoura (κύουρα) is a plant used to terminate a pregnancy.

Kuthnon (κυθνόν) is a drug that prevents conception.

Kuneo (κῠνέω) and kuso (κύσω) mean kiss.

Kupris (Κύπρις) is a Greek island and also the word for love,
passion, and Aphrodite, the immortal Goddess of love. Other
Greek islands sacred to Aphrodite include Kutheera (Κύθηρα)
and Kos (Κῶς).

The Nurse of Phaedra in Euripides’ play Hippolytus says of


“. . . from Her all nature springs; she sows the seeds of love,
inspires the warm desire to which we sons [sic] of earth all owe
our being.”

(Euripides (circa 428 BCE). “Hippolytus,” Medea and Other

Plays, translated by E. P. Coleridge ( Publishing,
2012) 69.)

Modern Cyprus.

Paphos, Cyprus, circa 310-306 BCE. Head of Aphrodite right,

wearing ornamented stephane and earring, Eagle standing left.
Fruits of the Earth

Karpos (καρπός) means the fruits, vegetables, and grains of the

earth and, specifically, corn, literally “core arising outflow.”

Fruits and vegetables of the earth.


In plants, the core is the:

-        kokkos (κόκκος):  seed, literally “core entity core core


-        karuan (κάρῡαν): nut, literally “core arising outflow”

-        kuamos (κυᾰμος): bean, literally “core pure arising meta”

-        konos (κῶνος): cone, as in pinecone, literally “core

brings-forth prevailing”

-        kodeia (κώδεια): bulb, literally “core brings-forth


-        kotinos (κότῐνος): olive, literally “core entity stretch/


-        krithee (κρῑθή), kostai (κοσταί): barley, barley corn,

literally “core outflow divine-power”
-        kaulos (καυλός): stalk/stem, literally “core arising pure

-        kormos (κορμός): trunk, literally “core entity outflow.”







Tree trunk.

Wild olive.


Krith- (κρῑθ-) is a prefix meaning barley. Barley appears on the

opposite side of many ancient coins bearing the image of the
immortal Goddess Demeter.

Lucania   325-280 BCE, Wreathed head of Demeter left,

wearing triple-pendant earring.
Seven-grained Barley ear, rake above leaf  META right. ex:
Windsor Antiquities


Many words beginning with the prefix ka- (κα-), literally “core
arising,” pertain to stems, stalks, reeds, and cane, the “main
ascending axis” of a plant which, according to Webster’s,
“ordinarily grows in an opposite direction to the root or
descending axis.”

Kal- (καλ-), literally “core arising loosened,” is a prefix for

words pertaining to corn, reeds, cane, and anything beautiful.

Kam- (καμ-), literally “core arising meta,” is a prefix for words

pertaining to reeds and cane. Kamaks (κάμαξ) means vine-pole;
any pole; the shaft of a spear; tent-pole.

Kontos (κοντός) means pole.

Kan- (καν-), literally “core arising prevailing,” is a prefix for

words pertaining to reeds and cane. The word candle derives
from the Greek kandeelee (κανδήλη); deeloo (δηλόω) means
make visible or manifest, show. Reeds are used as wicks in wax

(David Fisher. “History and Types of Candle Wicks,”, 2/5/13
And-Types-Of-Candle-Wicks.htm )

Kanon (κᾰνών) means general rule, derived from the word

cane, kanna (κάννα, κάννη), Arundo Donax. Canes were used
as measuring sticks. Webster’s defines canon as “the body of
rules, principles, or standards accepted as axiomatic and
universally binding in a field of study or art; a fundamental

Giant Cane (Arundo donax)


Cane reeds played a central role in the daily lives of ancient

Greeks, not only as measuring sticks but in the creation of
household items, equipment, cloth, buildings, and music. Cane
reeds were used to make:



-straight rods or bars especially to keep a thing straight

-staves which preserve the shape of a shield

-weaver’s rods to which alternate threads of the warp are


-ruddled lines used by masons and carpenters

-rulers, straight-edges

-beams or tongues of the balance


-reeds of a wind-organ

-bars of a window.

Kau- (καυ-), literally “core arising pure,” is a prefix pertaining

to stems and stalks. Kaulos (καυλός) means the reed or stalk of
the plant. Kalamos (κάλᾰμος) is a reed, cornstalk, or straw used




-pipes, flutes



- rope, line, cable (κάλως).


In Orphic Hymn 12. to Saturn (Κρόνος), Orpheus describes

Saturn/Kronos as “venerable root, From which the various forms
of being shoot:”

“Etherial father, mighty Titan, hear,

Great sire of Gods [and Goddesses] and men (sic), whom all

Endu’d with various council, pure and strong,

To whom perfection and decrease belong.

Consum’d by thee all forms that hourly die,

By thee restor’d, their former place supply;

The world immense in everlasting chains,

Strong and ineffable thy pow’r contains;

Father of vast eternity, divine,

O mighty Saturn, various speech is thine:

Blossom of earth and of starry skies,

Husband of Rhea, and Prometheus wise.

Obstetric Nature, venerable root,

From which the various forms of being shoot;

No parts peculiar can thy pow’r enclose,

Diffus’d thro’ all, from which the world arose.

O, best of beings, of a subtle mind,

Propitious hear to holy pray’rs inclin’d;

The sacred rites benevolent attend,

And grant a blameless life, a blessed end."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 136 - 137.)

Kronos is equated with the planet Saturn. The Saturnalia is a

Roman festival celebrated at the time of the winter solstice, the
turning point when the daylight hours begin to grow longer.

Saturn orbits approximately every 29.5 years. Interestingly,

Diodorus of Sicily reckons a generation to be a period of 30

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History 2.55.1-10.3). 

Kronos is the immortal God of the Golden Age, when people

lived well and harmoniously, as described by Diodorus of Sicily
and Hesiod:
"Cronus . . . caused all men who were his subjects to change
from a rude way of living to civilized life . . .

“. . . he introduced justice and sincerity of soul, and this is why

the tradition has come down to later generations that the men of
Cronus’ time were good-hearted, altogether guileless, and blest
with felicity . . .

“And because of the exceptional obedience to laws no injustice

was committed by any one at any time and all the subjects of the
rule of Cronus lived a life of blessedness, in the unhindered
enjoyment of every pleasure. To this the poet Hesiod also bears
witness in the following words:

“‘And they who were of Cronus’ day, what time

He reigned in heav’n, lived like the [G]ods [and Goddesses], no


In heart, remote and free from ills and toils

Severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares;

Old age lay not upon their limbs, but they,

Equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed

Endless delight of feasting far from ills,

And when death came, they sank in it as in

A sleep. And many other things were theirs;

Grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them


Abundantly and without stint; and glad

Of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout

The earth, in midst of blessings manifold,

Rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed [G]ods [and


(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History Books 5. 66.

4-6, translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA and London, England: Harvard University
Press, 1939) 275-277.)

The stories surrounding Kronos as a son and father are violent

ones. In an effort to secure his own power, he is said to have
castrated his father, Ouranos, and attempted to eat all his

Koros (κόρος) means boy, lad; sprout.

Kouro- (κουρο-) is a prefix meaning youth.

Koros (κορός) means dark, black; pure. Note that the immortal
God Kronos (Κρόνος) is described in the Lexicon as koros nous
(κορός νοῦς), “pure (κορός) mind (νοῦς).”


Koree/Kora (Κόρη, Κόρα, Κώρα, Κούρη, ΚορFα) is

Persephone, the immortal Goddess of the afterlife and spring

Koree (Κόρη) means daughter and also flour in deference to

Demeter and Persephone’s roles as the immortal Goddesses of
the fruits and grains of the earth.

Koriasia (Κοριάσια) is the festival of Kore.

Korthuno (κορθύνω, κορθύω) means to lift up, raise.

Kortaia (κορταία) means pastureland.

Koronee (κορώνη) means the tip of the plough-pole; on- (ών-)
is a prefix meaning price paid. offers a summary of the story of Persephone/Kore:

“Persephone was titled Kore (the Maiden) as the Goddess of

spring's bounty. Once upon a time when she was playing in a
flowery meadow with her Nymph companions, Kore was seized
by [Pluto] and carried off to the underworld as his bride. Her
mother Demeter despaired at her disappearance and searched for
her the throughout the world . . . she was furious, and refused to
let the earth fruit until Persephone was returned . . . but because
the girl had tasted of the food of [Pluto]--a handful of
pomegranate seeds—[Persephone] was forced to forever spend a
part of the year with her husband [Pluto] in the underworld.

“Her annual return to the earth in spring was marked by the

flowering of the meadows and the sudden growth of the new
grain. Her return to the underworld in winter, conversely, saw
the dying down of plants and the halting of growth.”

(, February 1, 2013

Persephone.html )

Pausanias describes numerous temples where Kore is honored in

conjunction with her immortal mother, Demeter:
"On entering the city [of Athens] there is a building for the
preparation of the processions, which are held in some cases
every year, in others at longer intervals. Hard by is a temple of
Demeter, with images of the [G]oddess herself and of her
daughter [Kore], and of Iacchus [leader of the Eleusinaian
Mysteries] holding a torch. On the wall, in Attic characters, is
written that they are works of Praxiteles."  

 (Pausanias. Description of Greece 1.2.4.)

"The small parishes of Attica, which were founded severally as

chance would have it, presented the following noteworthy
features. At Alimus is a sanctuary of Demeter Lawgiver and of
the Maid [Kore], and ... Prospalta also has a sanctuary of the
Maid and Demeter . . ."

(Pausanias. Description of Greece 1.31.1)

"As you go to Eleusis from Athens along what the Athenians

call the Sacred Way you see [before crossing the River
Cephisus] ... a sanctuary of Demeter and her daughter [Kore].”

(Pausanias. Description of Greece 1.36.3 – 1.37.2)

"On the citadel [of Phlius] is another enclosure, which is sacred

to Demeter, and in it are a temple and statue of Demeter and her
daughter [Kore] ... As you go down from the citadel you see ... a
theater. Not far from it is a sanctuary of Demeter . . ."
(Pausanias. Description of Greece 2.13.5)

 ”The ritual performed at the pit hard by [at Argos] they say was
instituted by Nicostratus, a native. Even at the present day they
throw into the pit burning torches in honor of the Maid [Kore]
who is daughter of Demeter."

(Pausanias. Description of Greece 2.22.3)

(Pausanias. Description of Greece, translated by W. H. S. Jones

and H. A. Omerod, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd.

Image of Persephone (Kore) presiding over the afterlife holding

crossed torch, Krater circa 350 BCE,
Antikensammlungen, Munich.


Kokkon (κόκκων) means pomegranate-seed.

Kokkora (κόκκωρα) means pomegranate fruit.

Kutinos (κύτῐνος) means flower of the pomegranate. Kobaloi

(κώβαλοι) is another name for the pomegranate flower.

The pomegranate has a brilliant orange flower and its fruit is

rich with juicy red seeds.

Pomegranate flower

Pomegranate fruit


Pomegranate seeds



Kairos (καιρός) means vital part; the exact or critical time, in

season, literally “core arising divine-power flow.”

Kairios (καίριος) means the vital part; chief, principal; at the

exact moment; in season; in or at the right place.

A speaker wishing to emphatically assert a point will say kai

(καί), meaning “and certainly,” or kai toi (καί τοι), meaning
“and indeed.” 

Krisis (κρίσις) means separating, distinguishing; decision,

judgment; event, issue, turning point, sudden change, climax;
the basis for the word crisis.

Krima (κρίμα) means decision, judgment; decree, resolution.

Krino (κρίνω) means separate, distinguish; pick out, choose;

decide (disputes, a question, a contest); judge, interpret; pass
sentence, condemn.


The ancient Greek New Year was celebrated at the spring

equinox, the point at which daytime hours begin to exceed
nighttime hours.

Krios (Kρῑός) is the Ram, the constellation Aries, whose

springtime rising (in late March/early April) marks the equinox.
The appearance of Krios heralds the rebirth of spring, literally
“core outflow-of divine-power.”

In Nonnos’ Dionysiaca, Helios (the Sun) tells his son, Phaethon,

that the Ram (Krios) is the center of the universe. 
“‘Just listen to me, and I will tell you everything. When I reach
the Ram, the center of the universe, the navel-star of Olympos, I
in my exaltation let the Spring increase; and crossing the herald
of the west wind, the turning-line which balances night equal
with day, I guide the dewy course of that Season when the
swallow comes [Spring].’”

Nonnos (circa 450 CE). Dionysiaca 38. 248-272, translated by

W. H. D. Rouse, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA and
London: Harvard University Press, 1940.)

Hermes, the immortal herald of the Gods and Goddesses, is

depicted below carrying a ram across his shoulders.

Hermes Kriophoros, Hermes the Ram-bearer, circa 450 BCE,

Museo di Scultura Antica Giovanni Barracco, Second Floor,
Room 5.


Many of the body’s vital parts begin with the letter Κ:

- kara (κάρᾱ), kareenon (κάρηνον), kephalee (κεφἅλή), kraira

(κραῖρα), kras (κράς), krata (κρᾶτα), kubee (κύβη): head

- kranion (κρᾶνίον): the part of the skull that encloses the brain,

- kerebron (κέρεβρον): cerebrum

- kardia (καρδία): heart, cardio

- kitharos (κιθαρος), the part of the body between the neck and
the abdomen: thorax

- koilia (κοιλία): belly, abdomen, intestines

- kas (κάς): skin; note that kasis (κάσις) means brother, kasia
(κασία) means sister

- kolpos (κόλπος): bosom; lap; vagina; bosom-like hollow;

enveloping force

- kolon (κόλον): colon

- kochonee (κοχώνη): the perineum (area containing the vulva;

the base of the penis).

Kubee (κύβη) means head.

Kubizo (κῠβίζω) means cube; cubic; raised to the cube; to be

multiplied; make into a solid.

Kubelee (Κύβέλη), Cybele, is the Phrygian immortal Mother of

the Gods and Goddesses. Ancient Phrygia is located within
modern Turkey.

Kubeena (κύβηνα) means old woman.

Kubeebos (κύβηβος) is a minister of Kubelee.

Korubas (Κορύβᾱς) is a Korybant, a priest of Kubelee in

Phrygia or a priest of Dionysos, the immortal God of wine.  

Male devotees of Kubelee were notable for their practice of self-

castration as a sign of devotion to the Mother of the Gods and
Goddesses and in imitation of Kubelee’s beloved Attis.

In Ovid’s Fasti, a Muse describes Attis’ self-castration upon

breaking his vow to Kubelee:

“’[Attis cries:]            “Ah, death to the parts which have ruined


“Ah, death to them!” he said, and cropped his groin’s weight.

            Suddenly no signs of manhood remained.

His madness became a model: soft-skinned acolytes

            Toss their hair and cut their worthless organs.’"

(Ovid. Fasti 4.240-244, translated by A. J. Boyle and R. D.

Woodard (London and New York: Penguin Books, 2004) 89.)


Kabeiria (καβείρια) are immortal deities of creation.

William Smith’s A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities

provides a description of the Kabeiria (καβείρια) deities: the
Mother (Demeter), her Daughter (Persephone) her Son (Hades/
Pluto), and Hermes:

“CABEIRIA (καβείρια), the mysteries of the Pelasgic Cabeiri,

were celebrated in the islands stretching from Euboea to the
Hellespont, in the volcanic Lemnos, Imbros, and most of all in
Samothrace. We also find them on the adjacent coasts of Europe
and Asia Minor, at Thebes and Andania in Greece; and we even
hear of their worship as being solemnized in an island near

Map showing Samothrace, Imbros, Lemnos, Euboea, and

Turkey (Asia Minor).

Thebes (Greece) is located between Athens and Delphi. Andania

is located on the Peloponnese near Olympia. http://

“Like the Eleusinia, an almost complete secrecy had been

maintained as to the ceremonies and teaching of these mysteries.
Yet we know the names of the [G]ods [and Goddesses] . . . they
are four in number . . . The names of the Samothracian
Cabeiri . . . are Axieros ( = Demeter), Axiokersa ( =
Persephone), Axiokersos ( = Hades), Casmilos ( = Hermes) . . .
Axiokersos (Hades) appears further as Zeus, Uranus, Jupiter,
Apollo, Dionysus-Liber; and Casmilos (Hermes) as Mercurius
or Eros . . .

“The group is a primal mother [G]oddess, issue of whom are

two divinities, a male and a female (Hades and Persephone),
from whom again springs a fourth, Casmilos (Hermes), the
orderer of the universe.

“ . . . Throughout the Roman period the Cabeiric mysteries were

held in high estimation, second only to the Eleusinian . . .

“. . . As in all mysteries, the votary must be purified in body and

mind before initiation . . . Women and children appear to have
been admitted as well as men. Of the religious ceremonies
themselves we may say we know nothing . . . We hear of
dances . . . But the whole matter is quite obscure and unsettled.

“The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius tells us that the initiated

wore a purple band round their waist . . . Diodorus further
says . . . that those who were initiated became more pious, more
righteous, and in every respect better than they were before . . .

“The initiation at Samothrace took place at any time from May

to September, in this differing from the Eleusinian and more
resembling the Orphic mysteries.

“. . . the Cabeiri themselves do appear to be symbols of the

creation of the world. From the primeval mother emanate or
differentiate themselves two elements, matter (earth) and force
(especially fire, celestial and terrestrial) . . . and by the action of
the former on the latter the ordered world is generated.”

(William Smith, William Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, editors. A

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London: John
Murray, 1890) 319-321.)
se )

Kaisar (Καῖσαρ) means Emperor, Caesar, the central ruler.

Kraino (κραίνω) means reign. Kreion (κρείων) and koiraneo

(κοιρᾰνέω) mean ruler, master, sovereign.

Krateo (κρᾰτέω) means to rule, hold sway, conquer, prevail.

Kartos (κάρτος) and similarly-spelled kratos (κράτος) mean

strength, vigor, might.

Krateesis (κράτησις) means might, power, dominion.   

Kuria (κῦρία) means authority, power, possession, control,

literally “core pure outflow-of divine-power.”

Kuros (κύρος) means supreme power, authority.


The “legs” of the letter Κ resemble the “legs,” of a right triangle.

The kathetos (καθετος) is either of the sides of a right triangle

other than its hypotenuse.

In architecture, the kathetos (καθετος) is the exact center of the

spiral-shaped volute crowning an Ionic pillar, literally “core
arising divine essence extend.”
(Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition/Cathetus
(Cambridge, England: University of Cambridge, 1911).  

 Diagram of the top of an Ionic column and its volute.

(Charles Philippe Dieussart, Architektur & Kapitell & Volute &

Ornament & Eierstab Blatt & Ornament (Deutsche Fotothek:

(Serlio, quoting Vitruvius,  Chapter VII, On the Ionic order and

its ornaments, . Serlio, Architettura (1537-1551), IV (1)

It is of interest to note that the volute is a feature of modern

pump systems, used to convert kinetic energy into static

“Designers use volutes and/or diffusers to efficiently convert

kinetic energy imparted by the impeller into static pressure and
to direct the flow to the next stage or pump discharge . . . The
most common method for controlled velocity reduction in a
single stage centrifugal pump is a volute used in concert with a
discharge nozzle.”
(Dale B. Andrews, Editor, “Volutes & Diffusers, Run Times,”
Lawrence Pumps Newsletter, October 2006.)  

The volute is an example of Archimedes golden ratio,

represented by the letter phi, Φ. Archimedes wrote a book
entitled On Spirals, circa 287-212 BCE, calling spirals

“Nature loves logarithmic spirals. From sunflowers, seashells,

and whirlpools, to hurricanes and giant spiral galaxies, it seems
that nature chose this marvelous shape as its favorite

(Mario Livio, The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, The World's
Most Astonishing Number (New York: Broadway Books, 2002)

Kochlos (κόχλος) is a shellfish with a spiral shell.

Seashell in a volute shape.

Galaxy in a volute shape.

Kukao (κύκάω) means to stir.

Kuklos (κύκλος) means circle, cycle, literally “core pure core


Kuklops (Κύκλωψ) means Cyclops, “round (Κύκλ)-eyed


Kuknos (κύκνος) means swan, a large bird with curved wings.

Swan with curved wings.


Kulio (κῠλίω) means to roll, the basis for the word cylindrical/
kulindrikos (κῠλινδρικός).

Kurtos (κύρτος) means something convex, curving out or

bulging outward, literally “core pure outflow.”

Kosmos (κόσμος) means order, good order, government, world-

order, universe; of stars; of planets, literally “core entity

Kosmeo (κοσμέω) means to order, arrange, prepare; of this

world, earthly; well-ordered.

Kosmo- (κοσμο-) is a prefix meaning world. Kosmo (κοσμώ) is

a title of the priestess of  the immortal Goddess Pallas (Athena).

This image of the nearby spiral galaxy M101, better known as

the Pinwheel Galaxy, is a three-color combination of images
from NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) spacecraft.
The ultraviolet light, seen in blue in the arms of the galaxy,
shows young stars (only 10 million years old), while the diffuse
green visible light traces stars that have been living for more
than 100 years. The red visible light image shows the stars that
formed over a billion years ago.


Klotho (Κλώθώ) is the immortal Goddess of fate who spins the

threads of life, literally “core loosened brings-forth.”

The Klothes (Κλῶθες) are the immortal Goddesses of fate who

“clothe” individuals in their destiny.

Woman spinning, detail from an Attic white-ground oinochoe,

circa 490 BCE, said to be from Locra, Italy, British Museum,
Upper floor, room 69: Greek and Roman Life, Photographer
Jastrow (2007)
“The woman on this vase is spinning wool into thread. In her
left hand she holds a rod which holds clumps of wool. With her
right hand, she is drawing out a strand of the wool. This is
attached to a weighted spindle hanging down which twists the
wool to form a strong thread.”

Spinning fiber into thread. http://

The spinners of fate drew their fibers from the heavens, the
spinning galaxies.
In Orphic Hymn 68. To the Fates (1-8), Orpheus calls on the
“Daughters of darkling night” who reside in the “heavenly lake”
in “a cave profound:”

“ . . . Who in the heavenly lake (where waters white

Burst from a fountain hid in depths of night,

And thro’ a dark and stony cavern glide;

A cave profound, invisible) abide;

From whence, wide coursing round the boundless earth,

Your pow’r extends to those of mortal birth . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 190-191.)

In a battle scene, Quintus Smyrnaeus depicts the immortal God

Apollo reassuring two soldiers by saying:

". . . Fate hath spun long destiny-threads for thee and thee.”

(Quintus Smyrnaeus (circa 350 CE). The Fall of Troy 11.40 ff),
translated by A. S. Way,  Loeb Classical Library (London:
William Heinemann, 1913.)

Bas relief of Klotho spinning the thread of human life. This

relief appears on the base of a lampstand in front of the Supreme
Court of the United States. Note the rams’ heads appearing as
volutes at the top of the structure.

In a more pragmatic, domestic sense, klotho (κλώθω) means

spinning the koas (κῶας) (fleece) (“core brings-forth”) of sheep
or the fibers of karpasos (κάρπᾰσος) (flax/cotton) (“core arisng
outflow”) into thread that can be woven into cloth.

Before spinning, the wool/flax/cotton has to be kteis (κτείς)

(teased/combed/straightened out) (“core extend/stretch”) to
remove bits of twigs, dirt, dust and other hard fragments. This is
known as knao (κνάω), carding the wool.

When all tangles have been straightened, the mass of wool or

flax/cotton is pulled into rope form and spun. The spindle holds
the spun shape so that it doesn’t untwist. Then the thread is
ready to be kreko (κρέκω) (woven) into cloth.

The kerkis (κερκίς) is the weaver’s shuttle.

Kathuphaino (καθῦφαίνω) means to interweave, weave in. 


Kaio (καίω) means to kindle, to be lighted, burn, blaze, smelted,

set on fire, cauterize, literally “core arising divine-power.”

Kaos (κάος) means that which burns.

Other words pertaining to burning and heat translate literally as

“core arising pure:”

-kaumos (καῦμός) = burning heat

-kausis (καῦσις) = burning, cautery, smelting

-kauso (καυσόω) = heat, burn with intense heat

-kauteer (καυτήρ) = burner, cauter, the basis for the word



Kio (κίω) means go, the most basic of verb concepts, literally
“core divine-power brings-forth.”  Keekio (κηκίω) means gush
or bubble forth (as of a fountain).
Kineetikos (κῖνητικός) means of or for putting in motion, the
basis for the word kinetic.

Kino (κῖνώ) and kinasis (κίνησις) mean motion (as opposed to

rest); dance; movement; change, literally “core divine-power

Kineo (κῖνέω) means set in motion, move, to be put in motion,

go. Kineetos (κῖνητός) means moving. 

Kineema (κῖνημα) means movement; political movement;

uproar, excitement; moving things. 

Kineethmos (κῖνηθμός) means motion.



Kerameia (κερᾰμεία) means the potter’s craft, ceramics, and

anything made of clay or earth, the basis for the word ceramics.
Kerameous (κερᾰμεοῦς) means of clay or earth.

Keramos (κέρᾰμος) is potter’s earth or potter’s clay, literally

“core essence outflow.”

The kernos (κέρνος) is an earthen dish with small pots affixed

for various offerings.

Kernophoreo (κερνοφορέω) means to carry the kernos. The

priest or priestess who carries the kernos is the kernophoros

An insight into the Mysteries may be provided by this passage

from Athenaeus of Naucratis regarding the kernos:

“. . . Polemo . . .  says --‘And after this he . . . takes the sacred

fleece out of its shrine, and distributes it among all those who
have borne the cernus (kernos) in the procession; and this is a
vessel made of earthenware, having a number of little cups
glued to it; and in these little cups there is put sage, and white
poppies, and ears of wheat, and grains of barley, and peas, and
pulse, and rye, and lentils, and beans, and vetches, and bruised
figs, and chaff, and oil, and honey, and milk, and wine, and
pieces of unwashed sheep’s-wool. And he who has carried the
cernus (kernos) eats of all these things . . .”

(Athenaeus of Naucratis, translated by C.D. Yonge. The

Deipnosophists, Vol. II, Book XI (London: Henry G. Bohn,
1854) 762-763)
Keraia: Horn

Ker- (κέρ-) is a prefix meaning horn, keraia (κεραία). A horn is

a ceramic-like projection from the heads of some animals such
as deer, oxen, moose, goats, rhinos, elephants, etc.



The earth is the source of prosperity, wealth, minerals, and


Kerdaino (κερδαίνω) means gain, derive profit or advantage.

Kerdos (κέρδος) means gain, profit. Kerma (κέρμα) means

Springs and Flowers

Krana (κράνα) means a well, spring, or fountain, literally “core

outflow arising.”

Krinon (κρίνον) means a white lily, literally “core outflow-of


Krokos (κρόκος) means crocus, an early spring flower that

heralds Spring.


Keeruks (κῆρυξ) means crier, herald, public messenger, envoy,

literally “core center outflow.”

Keerukeuma (κηρύκευμα) means proclamation, message.

In a time before radio, television, and newspapers, the herald

conveyed official government proclamations and other important

Keerugma (κήρυγμα) means that which is cried by a herald;

announcement as of victory; reward offered by proclamation.

Keerukeia (κηρυκεία) is the office of herald or crier.

A keerukeion (κηρύκειον, κηρύκιον) is a herald's wand; a


Keerusso (κηρύσσω) means to be a herald, make proclamation

as a herald, by voice of herald, proclaim, announce, declare,
teach publicly.
In Aeschylus’ Seven against Thebes the herald says:

“‘It is my duty to announce the will and decrees of the council

on behalf of the people of this our Cadmean city.’”

(Aeschylus. Seven against Thebes (1011), translated by Herbert

Weir Smyth, Loeb Classical Library Volumes (Cambridge, MA:
Harvard Universrity Press, 1926.)

Keraun- (κεραυν-) is a prefix meaning thunderbolt. Keraunos

(κεραυνός) is a bolt of lightning accompanied by thunder.
Lightning can be interpreted as a divine message.

Kroteo (κροτέω) means making one’s presence known; making

a rattling noise; clapping; hammering; creating a beat.

Krouo (κρούω) means strike one thing against another; tapping;

clap the hands; strike a stringed instrument; knock at the door.


Kelados (κέλᾰδος) means loud noise, din, clamor; musical

sound; the loud, clear voice of an oracle.
Keleuo (κελεύω) means urge, drive on; command, order.

Klazo (κλάζω), literally “core loosened,” means to make a

sound: of birds, scream; of dogs, bark; of the wind, whistle; of
wheels, creak; of the sea, roar; of people, shout, scream.

Kleio (Κλειω) is Klio, the immortal Muse of fame.

Kleo (κλέω) means to make famous, celebrate. Kleos (κλέος)

means news, rumor, repute, fame.

Kleinos (κλεινός) and kleitos (κλειτός) mean famous,


Kleezo (κλήζω) and kleizo (κλειζω) mean make famous;

applaud; summon, call.

Kleesis (κλῆσις) means to call, invite, invoke. Kikleesko

(κικλήσκω) means to call, summon, invoke, implore, or call by

Kleedon (κλῆδών) means omen, tidings, report, rumor.

Kluo (κλύω) means to hear.

Klutos (κλῦτός) means renowned, glorious.


Kaleo (κᾰλέω) means to summon, demand, require, invite, the

basis for the word call; a respectful address along the lines of,
“oh, beautiful one! oh, noble one!”

Kalos (καλός), kallos (κάλλος), and kallonee (καλλονή) mean


Kalli- (καλλῐ-) is a prefix meaning beautiful, glorious, noble.  

Kalamaia (Καλαμαῖα), “Beautiful Mother,” is a festival of

Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis.

Kallioulos (καλλίουλος), “Wholly Beautiful,” is a song to


Kalligeneia (Καλλιγένεια), “Beautiful Creator,” means to offer

sacrifice to Demeter.

Kalligonee (Καλλιγόνη), “Beautiful Birth-giver,” is an epithet

of Demeter at Pergamon.

Kalathos (κάλᾰθος) is a basket narrow at the base especially for

wool and for fruit that is carried in procession in honor of

Kalliereo (καλλῐερέω) means to have favorable signs in a

sacrifice, obtain good omens, give favorable omens.

Kalliopee (Καλλῐόπη) is the immortal Muse of eloquence,

music, and song. She is the mother of Orpheus and the
inspiration for musicians, singers, poets, and speakers.

Hesiod describes Kalliopee’s effect on princes she favors:

". . . Calliope, who is the chiefest of them all [the Muses], for
she attends on worshipful princes: whomsoever of heaven-
nourished princes the daughters of great Zeus honour, and
behold him at his birth, they pour sweet dew upon his tongue,
and from his lips flow gracious words.

“All the people look towards him while he settles causes with
true judgements: and he, speaking surely, would soon make wise
end even of a great quarrel; for therefore are there princes wise
in heart, because when the people are being misguided in their
assembly, they set right the matter again with ease, persuading
them with gentle words.

“And when he passes through a gathering, they greet him as a

[G]od with gentle reverence, and he is conspicuous amongst the
assembled: such is the holy gift of the Muses . . ."

(Hesiod, “The Theogony (75-103),” The Homeric Hymns and

Homerica. Theogony, translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann Ltd. 1914; Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011) 31-32.)

A muse is depicted playing the kithara/lyre, below, circa 445


Detail of a Muse, posssibly Kalliope, seated on the rocks of

Mount Helikon (named) and playing a lyre. At her foot sits a
small bird, and to her left stands a second Muse.

Antikensammlungen Museum, Munich, Germany

Catalogue Number: Munich S80
Beazley Archive Number: 213977, Attic Red Figure (White
Lekythos, Attributed to the Achilles Painter, circa 445 BCE.


Klako- (κλακο-) is prefix meaning key, klaks (κλάξ), literally

“core loosened.”

Kleis (κλεις) means key.

Kleitoris (κλειτορίς) means clitoris, derived from the word for

key (κλεις).

Kleps (κλέψ) means thief, the basis for the word kleptomaniac.

Klepsto (κλέψτω) means to steal or be thievish.


The history of seafaring Greece is the story of colonization.

Kolon (κῶλον) means a body limb such as an arm or leg, the

basis for the word colony, literally “core brings-forth loosened

Kleeros (κλῆρος) means to distribute land, inheritance,

distribute by lots, assign by lots a piece of land, farm, or estate,
literally “core loosen center.”

A kleerouchia (κληρουχία), cleruchia, is a politically-dependent

Athenian colony (in contrast to a politically-independent colony)
in which citizens were allotted land in exchange for military

Cleruchia were established, according to William Smith, “to

relieve surplus population, or to provide a home for those whom
internal quarrels had exiled from their country.”   
(William Smith, Editor.  Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Antiquities (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1857) 266.) https://

Ktisis (κτίσις) means founding or settling. Ktizo (κτίζω) means

to found, build houses, literally “core stretch/extend.” Ktaomas
(κτάομας) means to procure for oneself, get, or acquire.

Ktee- (κτη-) is a prefix meaning property, kteema (κτῆμα).

Kteras (κτέρας) means possession or gift.

Kteenos (κτῆνος) means livestock, such as flocks and herds.


Although the Lexicon defines kata (κατά) as meaning

downwards, and many words beginning with the prefix kata-
(κατα-) are defined in the Lexicon with the connotation of going
down, it should be noted that many words beginning with the
prefix kata- (κατα-) do not reflect the meaning downward.

In many words, the prefix kata- (κατά-) reflects the meaning to

initiate or exchange, literally “core arising stretch/extend.”
Kata (κατά) is the basis for the word catalyst (initiating agent).

Kataluo (καταλύω) is defined in the Lexicon as destroy,

dissolve, break up, abolish, bring to an end, end the peace, end
the war, decay of life; unloose, unyoke.

Katarksis (κάταρξις) means beginning.

Katarchee (καταρχή) means beginning; astrological forecast of

an undertaking or voyage; part of sacrificial animal first offered;
starting-point, basis.

Katarcho (καταρχω) means make beginning of a thing; lead the

way; begin doing; begin.

Katageometreo (καταγεωμετρέω) means geometrize, turn into


Katagrapho (καταγρᾰφος) means scratch, mark, graze,

engrave, draw in outline; convey, transfer by deed; convert into

Katarruthmizo (καταρρυθμίζω) means bring into rhythm, parts

given rhythmical form.

Katapharmakeuo (καταφαρμᾰκεύω) means dose with drugs,

anoint with drugs; pharmakeuo (φαρμᾰκεύω) means pharmacy.
Kataineo (καταινέω) means agree to, promise to, betroth; neo
(νέω) means new, so that  kataineo (καταινέω) means initiate
something new.

Katadunasteuo (καταδῠναστεύω) means get control, oppress;

dunasteuo (δῠναστεύω) means hold power, the basis for the
word dynasty.

Katakoimao (κατακοιμάω) means put to bed, put to sleep.

Katakosmeo (κατακοσμέω) means to set in order, arrange.

Katalaktees (καταλλάκτης) means money-changer; reconciler,


Katalasso (καταλλάσσω) means to change or give way, to

exchange one thing for another; to reconcile; to atone for.

Katalogee (καταλογή) means enrollment, enlistment. 

Katasteema (κατάστημα) means condition, state (not

necessarily permanent); weather; demeanor; political condition;
state of affairs; position of the stars and planets.

Interestingly, katizo (κατίζω) means place among the stars.

Katismos (κατισμός) means placing among the stars. Katos
(κατος) means sprinkled as with stars, literally “core arising
Katago (κατάγω) means lead into the netherworld; bring into
land from the sea; turn in and lodge somewhere; spin; derive;
wind up a torsion engine; return.

Katecho (κατέχω) means hold fast, hold back, withhold,

control, restrain, bridle.

Katoikeo (κατοικέω) means to settle in, settle down, colonize,

build over, dwell, inhabit.


Klao (κλάω) means to break off, literally “core loosened.”

Klasis (κλάσις) means to take a plant down to its core by

breaking off the shoots and tendrils of vines in order to
strengthen the main stem.

Kladeia (κλᾰδεία) means to prune or strip off leaves.

Klasteerion (κλαστήριον) is a knife for dressing vines.

Klastees (κλαστης) is a vine-dresser.

Pruning/dressing the cane vine. http://
Purgation is a technique for eliminating physical and spiritual

Many words pertaining to purgation begin with the prefix keno-

(κεν-), literally “core essence prevailing.”

Keneaggeo (κενεαγγέω) means to have the vessels of the body

empty; undergo evacuant treatment.

Kenosimos (κενώσιμος) is a purgative, something that induces

vomiting and/or diarrhea.

Kenosis (κένωσις) means emptying, evacuation; of the moon,


Kenoteos (κενωτέος) means needing to be purged.

Kenoma (κένωμα) means empty space, vacuum, empty vessel.

Several herbs beginning with the letter Κ are used as purgatives.

Kneoros (κνέωρος), Daphne Guidium, is spurge-flax, a highly

poisonous evergreen shrub used as a purgative.

Kutisos (κύτῐσος) is Laburnum vulgare, a highly toxic “golden

chain tree” with golden boughs of flowers. All parts of the plant
are poisonous and can be lethal if consumed in excess.
Symptoms of laburnum poisoning may include intense
sleepiness, vomiting, convulsive movements, coma, slight
frothing at the mouth and unequally dilated pupils.

Kytisos, Laburnum vulgare: all parts of the plant are poisonous,

especially the seeds. Highly toxic. Symptoms: Nervousness,
stomach and intestinal irritation with nausea, vomiting, and
diarrhea; irregular pulse, convulsions, coma; may be fatal.

Knakos (κνῆκος), Cathamus tinctoris, is safflower, a plant used

to color cotton and silk and to anoint Egyptian mummies prior to
binding. Safflower is also used as a purgative and to promote
sweating, to promote menstruation, induce labor, to counter
retained afterbirth and, when mixed with wine, to terminate an
early pregnancy.

(Li Dajue and Hans-Henning Mundel. “Safflower” (International

Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).)


Kath- (καθ-) is a frequent base syllable in words pertaining to

purifying, purging, and cleansing, literally “core arising divine.”
To purge means to purify, to rid of whatever is impure or
Kathairo (κᾰθαίρω) means purify.

Kathareios (κᾰθάρειος, καθάριος) means clean, neat, tidy,

decent, respectable, irreproachable; pure, correct.

Kathariotees (καθᾰριότης) means cleanliness, neatness;

scrupulousness, moral integrity; elegance, refinement;
simplicity, frugality; clean or pure; purgative medicine; sifting;

Katharmos (κᾰθαρμός) means cleansing, purification from

guilt, atonement, expiation; purificatory rite of initiation into

Katharos (κᾰθᾰρός) means free from guilt or defilement; clean,

spotless, clear, pure; free from debt or pollution; purity.

Katharsios (κᾰθάρσιος) means cleansing from guilt or

defilement; purifying, purificatory offering, expiation; cleansing;
clarification, explanation; evacuation; pruning of trees,
winnowing of grain; clearing of land; to be purged, purgative;
the basis for the word catharsis.

Anakatharsis (άνακαθαρσις) means clearing away rubbish,

cleansing; the end of an eclipse.

Anakathartikos (άνακαθαρτικός) means promoting vomiting.

Apokathairo (άποκαθαίρω) means remove by purging or
clearing, purge by emetics.  

Diakathairo (διακᾰθαίρω) means purge thoroughly.  

Epikathairo (έπικᾰθαίρω) means purge yet more.  

Perikatharizo (περικᾰθᾰρίζω) means purge entirely.  

Prokathairo (προκᾰθαίρω) means purge first of defects.  

Sunekkathairo (συνεκκαθαίρω) means purge together.  

Upanakathairo (ύπανακᾰθαίρω) means purge gently; upana–

(ύπανα-) means rise up gradually.

Upokathairo (ύποκᾰθαίρω) means purge downwards; upo-

(ύπο-) means under.

See the Appendix for words beginning with the prefix kath-
(καθ-). In almost all instances, the prefix kath- (καθ-) serves to
strengthen the sense of the base word.


Kapros (κάπρος) means wild boar.

It is interesting to note that the word kapros (κάπρος), wild
boar, is nearly identical to the Greek word for the fruits of the
earth: karpos (καρπός).

Kapraina (κάπραινα) means wild sow.

Kapron (καπρών) means pig-sty.

Kapria (καπρία) is the ovary of sows, cut out to prevent


Kapr- (καπρ-) is a prefix that means pig.

For some reason, the zodiac sign Kaprikeros (Καπρικερως),

Capricorn, is depicted as a horned goat. The first half of the
word, Kapri- (Καπρι-) translates as “wild pig,” and the second,
-keros (-κερως), translates as “horned.” 

Capricorn is a December-January constellation. In medieval

times, the “Labor of the Month” for December was “killing

Capricorn is a sign associated with the afterlife and the winter

solstice. Its opposite sign, Cancer, Karkinos (Καρκίνος), a
June-July constellation, is associated with birth and the summer
Pigs are symbols of purification and are sacred to the immortal
Goddesses Demeter and her daughter, Persephone.

Images on of December pig slaughter, below:

Book of Hours
Brotherton Collection MS 8
University of Leeds, December

Da Costa Hours, in Latin

Illuminated by Simon Bening
Belgium, Bruges, ca. 1515
MS M.399
Morgan Library

The Labours of the Months, Santa Maria, Mesocco, Tessin, CH

December: a man slaughtering a pig and singeing off his bristles

December pig hunt. Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry.

Koi (κοΐ) means the squealing of young pigs. The priest in the
mysteries of Samothrace is called the Koiees (Κοίης).

Kola (κωλῆ) means ham, the thighbone with flesh on it (esp. of

swine); the portion given to the priestess at a sacrifice. Kolea
(κωλέα) means a prize given in a contest.

Kreas (κρέας) means flesh, meat.

The pig is sacred to Demeter, the immortal Goddess of the earth.

A pig is an animal that loves the earth, in fact, wallows in it.
Pigs were likely as important a source of sustenance in the year
1000 BCE as they were 2000 years later in the year 1000 CE, as
described by Lacey and Danziger in The Year 1000:

“Once the harvest had been gathered in early medieval times,

every farmer and householder had to work out the basic equation
of survival through the winter . . . and the pig was the crucial
factor in this calculation.

“. . . You could make use of virtually every bit of the medieval

pig, which, foraging alongside and sometimes mating with its
wild cousins, had a distinctly boar-like appearance . . . Its
stomach lining provided tripe. Its intestines provided skin for
sausages, and its blood was the main ingredient for black

“ . . . the omnivorous pig was the most versatile and least trouble
of all [livestock]. ‘Pannage’ was the term for the natural, self-
foraging diet with which pigs sustained themselves in the
Middle Ages, and the value of medieval woodland was often
expressed in terms of how many pigs that sector of forest could

(Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger. The Year 1000 (Boston,

New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1999) 133-134.)

Some of the ancient coins bearing the image of Demeter feature

a boar (uncastrated male pig) on the reverse side.
Lucania, Paestrum; æ 15, 268-89 BCE (3.57 gm.); Sextans

Obv: Head of Demeter Right within beaded border.

Rx: Forepart of boar right; below, two pellets; PAIS above.

ex John Twente.

The ancient Greeks believed that the blood of a sacrificed pig

cleanses away the guilt of transgressions. In light of the sacred
status of pigs in the Mysteries of Demeter, the Jewish and
Moslem prohibitions against pork may illustrate a means of
distinguishing religious differences in the Mediterranean.

Aeschylus, in his play Eumenides, features Orestes as a

suppliant who comes before Athena with reassurances that he
has been properly purified with the blood of a suckling pig:

“Athena: ‘What do you wish to say, stranger, in your turn in

answer to these charges? . . .

“Orestes: ‘Queen Athena . . . I am not a guilty suppliant: nor did

I take my seat at your statue with pollution on my head. And I
will mention to you a great proof of this. It is the custom that the
murderer should not speak or be spoken to, until . . . the spurted
blood of a slain sucking-pig shall have sprinkled him. Long ago
have we had these cleansing rites performed on us . . . ”
 (Aeschylus. Eumenides 426-457, translated by F.A. Paley
(Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co., 1871) 230-231.)

The vase painting, below, depicts Orestes sitting in front of the

omphalos stone at Delphi. He still holds the sword he used to
kill Clytemnestra. Apollo purifies him of the blood-guilt
(miasma) by dousing Orestes with the blood of a pig. The Furies
(avenging spirits) lie sleeping at the left--at the far left you can
just see Clytemnestra's ghost trying to wake the Furies and rouse
them to action. 

Eumenides bell krater, South Italian, c. 375 BCE (Louvre, Paris)

A piglet was part of the initiation rights of the Eleusinian


“Pigs were sacrificed by the mystae before their initiation, and

figures of swine are found in Demeter's sanctuaries at Eleusis, at
Cnidus, and elsewhere.”
(Martin P. Nilsson. “The Religion of Eleusis,” Greek Popular
Religion (New York: Columbia University Press, 1940.) http://

“On the second day (of the Eleusinian Mysteries), Boedromion

16, the heralds ordered all participants to cleanse themselves in
the sea. The shout, ‘To the sea!’ filled the city. Initiates carried a
small pig, which was also washed in the sea.”

(George E. Mylonas. Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (New

Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1961) 249.)

In Aristophanes' The Peace, a character requests the opportunity

to be purified with a pig before he dies:

“Trygaeus: ‘Then it’s absolutely necessary that I die now?’

“Hermes: ‘That’s right.’

“Trygaeus: ‘Then lend me three drachmas for a piglet; I’ve got

to get initiated before I die.’”

(Aristophanes. “Peace (372-374),” Aristophanes: Clouds.

Wasps. Peace, translated by Jeffrey Henderson, Loeb Classical
Library (Harvard College, 1998) 477.)
The Eleusinian Mysteries were open to all who wished to be
initiated. The required sacrifice of a piglet made participation
easily accessible.  In Plato’s Republic, Socrates proposed
limiting access to mysteries regarding Kronos by requiring the
sacrifice of a bigger, less accessible animal:

“Socrates: ‘. . . it should be done as part of a secret ritual in

which they sacrifice not a common pig, but a huge victim that is
hard to get so that the number of listeners will be as small as

(Plato. Plato’s Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett (Millis,

MA: Agora Publications, 2001) 70-71.)

Ovid in Fasti says that  a pig obscured Persephone’s footprints,

inhibiting Demeter’s search for her daughter.

“. . . she (Demeter) lit on prints of the girlish feet and marked

the traces of the familiar figure on the ground. Perhaps that day
had been the last of her wanderings if swine had not foiled the
trail she found.”

(Ovid. Fasti 4. 455, translated by James G. Frazer, Loeb

Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;
London: William Heinemann, 1931.)

Roast Suckling Pig Recipe


1 suckling pig, 10-12 pounds

1/2 cup olive oil

1/4 cup lemon juice

Salt and pepper

2 lemons, halved


Carefully clean a small suckling pig, wash inside and out with
cold water, and dry thoroughly.

Rub inside and out with salt and pepper and cut lemons, saving
1 of the lemon halves.
Allow to stand for about 1 hour.

Pull front legs of the piglet forward and tie together.

Wedge the mouth open with a small piece of wood or an apple.

Rub entire pig generously with olive oil and lemon juice, mixed.

Place pig on a rack in roasting pan and roast in a 425 to 450

degree oven for 30 minutes.

Reduce temperature to 325 degrees and continue roasting for

about 4 to 5 hours.

Baste often, using a lemon half dipped in pan drippings as



Kantharos (κάνθᾰρος) is the dung-beetle or scarab, Scarabaeus

pilularius, historically believed to be born of the earth, literally
“core arising prevailing divine arising outflow.”
“The sacred beetle was an image of self-creation since the
Egyptians believed that the beetle came into being of itself from
a ball of dung, which in reality only serves to protect the eggs
and larva. Thus the anthracite-coloured dung beetle was
worshipped under the name Khepir, i. e. ‘he who came forth
from the earth’ . . . [The beetle] was placed with the deceased in
the tomb as a symbol of new life.”

(Manfred Lurker. An Illustrated Dictionary of The Gods and

Symbols of Ancient Egypt (Scherz Verlag-Munchen-Wien fur
Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, 1974); English-language edition
revised, enlarged and picture-edited by Peter A. Clayton
(London and New York: Thames & Hudson, 1980) 105.)

Scarab pendant from Egypt, circa 1890 BCE, British Museum.

Dung beetles rolling a ball of dung. http://


Ka is the Egyptian word for the individual soul of people, plants,

and animals.
“‘To go to one’s ka’ meant ‘to die’, since the ka then left its
mortal house and returned to its divine origin.”

(Manfred Lurker. An Illustrated Dictionary of The Gods and

Symbols of Ancient Egypt (Scherz Verlag-Munchen-Wien fur
Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, 1974); English-language edition
revised, enlarged and picture-edited by Peter A. Clayton
(London and New York: Thames & Hudson, 1980) 73.)

The Egyptian concept of ka is very similar to the Chinese

concept of ki.

“In Oriental medicine and philosophy, a healthy life consists of

ki energy. This ki-energy comes from two aspects—one is
physical life and the other is spiritual and psychological life
power. From birth to death, we are governed by this ki . . . The
duration of life—from birth to death—is the duration of ki.
When our ki fades out either physiologically or spiritually, our
life returns to eternity.”

(Ohashi. “Ohashiatsu Touch,” The Big Book of Relaxation,

edited by Larry Blumenfield (Roslyn, NY: The Relaxation
Company, 1994) 125.)

Claudio Barocas in Monuments of Civilization: Egypt asserts

that the ka is associated with the earth:

“We have compared the ka to the soul, but the first thing that
differentiates the concept of the ka from our (sic) religious
concepts is that the former was tied to the earth first and

(Claudio Barocas. Monuments of Civilization: Egypt (New

York: Madison Square Press, Grosset & Dunlap, 1972) 91.)


Kar (Κᾶρ), also Kares (Κᾶρες) is the immortal Goddess of


Karoo (κᾰρόω) means to plunge into a deep sleep or torpor.

Karos (κάρος) means heavy sleep, torpor.

Kaino (καίνω) means kill, slay. Interestingly, kainos (καινός)

means new, fresh, novel, newly invented.

Kainosis (καίνωσις) means renewal, literally “core arising

divine-power prevailing.”

Keimai (κεῖμαι) means to be laid, lie outstretched, lie down to

rest, lie sick or wounded, or to lie buried.

Keedeos (κήδεος) is the job of burying the dead. Keedos

(κῆδος) means care about or caring for.

Keer (Κήρ) and Keeros (Κηρός) are names for the immortal
Goddess of death. Note that keer (κῆρ) means heart.

Keer- (κηρ-) is a prefix meaning wax, honeycomb. A keerion

(κηρίον) is a honeycomb. Honeycombs serve as containers for
bees’ offspring, pollen, and honey.

Keeros (κηρός) means bees-wax, sealing wax; white-wax used

in medicines; wax tapers. Bees-wax is used for writing, painting,
candles, torches, ointments, molding/making models, and
sealing/providing a coating.

Kterea (κτέρεα) means funeral gifts, funeral honors.


Kerberos (Κέρβερος) is Cerberus, the three-headed dog that

guards the gate of the afterlife.

Apuleius describes Kerberos in Metamorphoses:

 "When you [Psyche on her journey to the underworld] have

crossed the river [Acheron] and have advanced a little further,
some aged women weaving at the loom will beg you to lend a
hand for a short time. But you are not permitted to touch that
either, for all these and many other distractions are part of the
ambush which Venus [Aphrodite] will set to induce you to
release one of the cakes from your hands. Do not imagine that
the loss of a mere barley cake is a trivial matter, for if you
relinquish either of them, the daylight of this world above will
be totally denied you. Posted there is a massive hound with a
huge, triple-formed head. This monstrous, fearsome brute
confronts the dead with thunderous barking, though his menaces
are futile since he can do them no harm. He keeps constant
guard before the very threshold and the dark hall of Proserpina
[Persephone], protecting that deserted abode of Dis [Pluto]. You
must disarm him by offering him a cake as his spoils. Then you
can easily pass him, and gain immediate access to Proserpina
[Persephone] herself. She will welcome you in genial and kindly
fashion, and she will try to induce you to sit on a cushioned seat
beside her and enjoy a rich repast. But you must settle on the
ground, ask for coarse bread, and eat it. When you have obtained
what she gives you, you must make your way back, using the
remaining cake to neutralize the dog’s savagery."

(Apuleius (circa 155 CE), Metamorphoses (renamed The Golden

Ass after the author’s death), translated by P.G. Walsh, Book 6.
19 ff (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) 110).


Keutho (κεύθω) means contained, concealed, hidden, literally

“core essence pure.”

Krubda (κρύβδᾰ) and krupha (κρύφᾰ) mean secretly, literally

“core outflow pure.”  

Krupsis (κρύψις) means hiding or concealment.

Kruptos (κρυπτός) means hidden.


Koinos (κοινός) means common, shared in common;

community; guilds, associations, corporations; the state,
government; public affairs.

Koitee (κοίτη) means bed, especially the marriage-bed; lair of a

wild beast; nest of a bird; quarters; pen, fold for cattle, the basis
for the word coitus. 


Key locations in Greece beginning with the letter Κ include

Korinthos (Κόρινθος), Corinth, and Kreetee (Κρήτη), Crete.

Korinthos (Κόρινθος) was an extremely wealthy and powerful

Greek city, on a par with Grecian Thebes.
Kreetee (Κρήτη), Crete, is a large, mountainous Greek island
with sacred caves believed to be the birthplace of many Gods
and Goddesses.

“Indeed, the majority of the [G]ods [and Goddesses], the

Cretans say, had their beginning in Crete and set out from there
to visit many regions of the inhabited world, conferring
benefactions upon the races of men (sic) and distributing among
each of them the advantage which resulted from the discoveries
they had made.

“Demeter, for example, crossed over into Attica and then

removed from there to Sicily and afterwards to Egypt; and in
these lands her choicest gift was that of the fruit of the corn and
instructions in the sowing of it, whereupon she received great
honours at the hands of those whom she had benefited.”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History 5. 77: 3-7,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA and London, England: Harvard University
Press, 1939) 309.)


Kadmeia (Καδμεία) is the citadel of Grecian Thebes.

Dictys of Knossos, in The Trojan War, credits Kadmos
(Κάδμος) with bringing the alphabet to Greece from Phoenicia.
He also comments on the many languages that are spoken not
just on the island of Crete, but throughout the Greek world. That
the current Greek alphabet and language of Kadmos survived
intact from among all alphabets and languages in use at the time
is a testament to its utility.

“I, Dictys of Cnossos, the companion of Idomeneus, have

written this account in the language (how many there are!) I best
understand, using the Phoenician alphabet bequeathed to us by
Cadmus and Danaus. No one should marvel that many different
languages are spoken on this one island of mine, for such is the
case all over Greece.”

(Dictys of Crete. The Trojan War: The Chronicles of Dictys of

Crete and Dares the Phrygian, translated by R. M. Frazer, Jr.
(Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1966.

Note: The Frazer volume is no longer available in print. It is

currently the only English translation available of Dictys. http:// ) 

Herodotus (5.58) confirms the account that Kadmos brought the

Phoenician alphabet to Greece.

When Kadmos came to a spring near Thebes to fetch water for

the founding of the city of Thebes, he killed the deadly serpent
who guarded it, as described by Nonnos:

“[348] Then the oracular hoof of the cow gave way, and she
sank to the ground foretelling the city to be. Now that the divine
utterance of the Pythian cave was fulfilled, Cadmos brought the  
sacred cow beside an altar smoking with incense, and sought for
a rill of spring water, that he might cleanse his ministering hands
and pour the pure water over the sacrifice . . .

“[356] He . . . stood amazed when he saw the speckle-back

serpent, Ares’ child, appear from one side and girdle the spring
with snaky coil. The serpent scared away the great company
who followed Cadmos, biting one under the chest with his
flashing jaws, rending another with a stroke of bloody tooth,
tearing another’s lifesaving liver when he showed fight and
laying him dead . . .

“[406] . . . Cadmos where he stood on the dry earth lifted a well-

rounded boundary-stone of the broad farm-land, a rocky missile!
and with a straight cast of the stone smashed the top of the
dragon’s head; then drawing a whetted knife from his thigh he
cut through the monster’s neck.”

(Nonnos. Diomysiaca 4. 348-420, translated by W. H. D. Rouse,

Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard
University Press, 1940) 159-165.)
Kadmos with a water-pitcher (hydria) in hand confronts the
Dragon of the Ismenian spring near Thebes. The hero is
accompanied by his wife Harmonia. Musée du Louvre, Paris,
Catalogue Number: Louvre N3157, Paestan Red Figure Calyx
krater, Attributed to Python, circa 360 - 340 BCE. http://


Kuon (κύων) means dog. The prefix kun- (κῠν-) means dog.

Kunastros (κῠναστρος) means Syrius/the dog (κῠν)–star

(αστρος), the most important star to the Egyptians because its
appearance marked the rising of the Nile.

Interestingly, several words beginning with the prefix kun-

(κῠν-) have no relation to dogs. The prefix may have been used
to reflect cultural disdain.

Kunosoura (Κῠνόσουρα) is Ursa Minor/the Little Dipper, an

important navigational constellation to sailors.

Kunolugmate (κῠνολύγματε) is an epithet of the Moon.

Kunomorphos (κῠνόμορφος) is saffron, made from crocus,

used as an incense and yellow dye.

Kunomorion (κῠνομόριον) is the fruit of the pomegranate.

Kunara (κῠνάρα) is the artichoke, Cynara Scolymus.

Kunokoron (κῠνοκορον) means like a satyr.

Kunthos (Κύνθος) is a mountain in Delos, the birth-place of the

immortal twin deities Artemis and Apollo.


Interestingly, the prefixes kak- (κακ-) and kach- (καχ-), literally

“core arising (to) core,” and “core arising (to) foundation,” mean
bad, evil, miserable.

Kachrus (κάχρῠς) means “parched barley, winter bud,”

suggesting that the prefix kach- (καχ-) pertains to instances
when the core does not arise, but remains stunted within itself.
The prefix kak- (κακ-) invites similar interpretation.


Kalpis (κᾰλπις) means pitcher; box; urn.

Kaltios (κᾰλτιος) means shoe. Kalika (κάλικα) means caliga,

Kalubee (κᾰλῠβη) means cottage, hut, cabin, tent; barn,

granary; shrine or grotto containing the image of a God or

Kalumma (κάλυμμα) means head-covering, hood, veil; skull (as

the brain’s covering); eyelid; shutter.

A kalux (κάλυξ) is a covering, seed-vessel, husk, shell, pod; the

calyx of a flower.

Kella (κέλλα) means cellar or storage chamber, the basis for the
word cellar.

Keluphos (κέλῦφος) means sheath, case; pod, shell; membrane.

Keelee (κήλη) means tumor, hernia, hump.


Kapnos (καπνός) means smoke, literally “core arising unified

prevailing.” Kapnoteerion (καπνωτήριον) means altar.

Karphos (κάρφος) is any small dry body, especially dry stalk as

the dry sticks of cinnamon, dry twigs, straw; bits of wood.
Karpho (κάρφω) means to dry up or wither.

Keazo (κεάζω) means to split, cleave.

Kear (κέᾰρ) means carpenter’s axe.

Kedros (κέδρος) means cedar-tree; kedroo (κεδρόω) means to

embalm with the oil of cedar.

Keiro (κείρω) means cut, shear, clip, crop, cut down.

Kestra (κέστρα) means hammer.

Keensos (κῆνσος) means the counting of citizenry, the census.

Keeodees (κηώδης) means smelling of incense, fragrant.

Kithara (κῐθάρα) means lyre.

Muse with kithara (κῐθάρα). Musée du Louvre, Paris,

France, Louvre K570, Paestan Red Figure, Attributed to Asteas,
circa 360 - 340 BCE.

Kion- (κῑον-) is a prefix meaning pillar.

Kissos (κισσός) is ivy, Hedera Helix, sacred to the immortal

God of wine, Dionysos.

Klima (κλίμα) means an incline or slope of ground, the basis for

the word climb.

Klonos (κλόνος) mean confused motion, turmoil, or agitation.

Kludon (κλύδων) means wave, billow, surf, or rough water.

Kneephee (κνήφη) means itch; knizo (κνίζω) means scratch;

knuo (κνῦω) means scratching.

Koluo (κολούω) means cut short, dock, curtail.

Kolossos (κολοσσός) means colossus, gigantic, enormous.

Kolaks (κόλαξ) means one who flatters or fawns over someone;


Kollao (κολλάω ) means glue, cement; weld; join fast together.

Komee (κόμη) means hair of the head.

Kommoo (κομμόω) means beautify, embellish.

Kondu (κόνδῠ) means drinking vessel, the basis for the word
Koniama (κονίᾶμα) means stucco, plaster. Konis (κόνις) means
dust, powder.

Kopee (κοπή) means cutting, breaking up, slaughtering, cutting

in pieces. Kopis (κοπίς) means chopper or cleaver. Kopto
(κόπτω) means to cut, smite, or slaughter. Koptos (κοπτός)
means chopped small or pounded. Kopros (κόπρος) means
excrement, manure, dung.

Kopos (κόπος) means striking, beating; toil and trouble,


Koriannon (κορίαννον) is coriander, Coriandum sativum.

Koronee (κορώνη) means crow, a bird that feeds on carrion.

Similarly, a raven is koraks (κόραξ). A hawk or falcon is kirkos

Koruza (κόρυζα) means mucous discharge from the nostrils.

Koteo (κοτέω) means to bear a grudge, be angry at, wrathful, or

jealous. Kotos (κότος) means grudge, rancor, or ill will.

Kouphos (κοῦφος) means to be light, nimble, unsubstantial, or


Kophos (κόφος) means basket-load.

Kraipalao (κραιπᾰλάω) means to be intoxicated, drunkenness.

Krateer (κρᾱτᾕρ) means a mixing vessel in which wine was

mixed with water, also, a bowl of wine.

Krateeria (κρᾱτηρία) is a bowl for compounding drugs. Krasis

(κρᾶσις) means mixing, blending, tempering. Krama (κρᾶμα)
means mixture.

Krueros (κρῠερός) means icy, cold, chilling. Krumos (κρῠμός)

means icy cold, frost.

Kuaneo (κυᾰνέω) means to be dark in color.

Kudos (κῦδος) means glory, renown. Kudos (κύδος), with a

slightly different accent, means reproach, abuse.

Kumbalon (κύμβᾰλον) means cymbal.

Kuminon (κύμῑνον) is cumin, a popular spice native to the


Kuparissos (κῠπᾰρισσος) means cypress tree. The wood of the

cypress evergreen tree is extremely resistant to decay and was
used to make boats and coffins. The Cupressus sempervirens,
Mediterranean Cypress, is very long-lived, with some trees
reported to be over 1,000 years old.
Cypress trees at the ancient Minoan city of Knossos on the
Greek Island of Crete.

Kupellon (κύπελλον) means cup, goblet, drinking vessel, the

basis for the word cup.

Kureo (κῠρέω) means attain, meet with, hit the mark.

Kustis (κύστις) means bag.

Kutos (κύτος) means hollow container.

Kuphi (κύφι) (frequently written κοιφὶ) is an Egyptian

compound incense described by Plutarch in Isis and Osiris:

“Every day they make a triple offering of incense to the Sun, an

offering of resin at sunrise, of myrrh at midday, and of the
so-called cyphi at sunset . . .

80 Cyphi is a compound composed of sixteen ingredients:

honey, wine, raisins, cyperus, resin, myrrh, aspalathus, seselis,
mastich, bitumen, rush, sorrel, and in addition to these both the
junipers, of which they call one the larger and one the smaller,
cardamum, and calamus. These are compounded, not at random,
but while the sacred writings are being read to the perfumers as
they mix the ingredients. As for this number, even if it appears
quite clear that it is the square of a square and is the only one of
the numbers forming a square that has its perimeter equal to its
area,399 and deserves to be admired for this reason, yet it must
be said that its contribution to the topic under discussion is very
slight. Most of the materials that are taken into this compound,
inasmuch as they have aromatic properties, give forth a sweet
emanation and a beneficent exhalation, by which the air is
changed, and the body, being moved gently and softly400 by the
current, acquires a temperament conducive to sleep; and the
distress and strain of our daily carking cares, as if they were
knots, these exhalations relax and loosen without the aid of
wine . . .”

Kupselee (κυψέλη) means hollow vessel, such as a bladder or


Koma (κῶμα) means coma. Interestingly, komos (κῶμος)

means revel, carousel, merry-making. The word komodeo
(κωμωδέω), comedy, shares the same base.

Koneion (κωνειον) (Conium maculation) is the poison hemlock,

which induces a gradual, deadly state of coma, by which
prisoners were put to death at Athens.
Kos (κῶς) and karkaron (κάρκᾰρον) mean prison.

Red-figure kantharos, National Archaeological Museum of



Below are words beginning with the prefix kath- (καθ-). In

almost all instances, the prefix kath- (καθ-) serves to strengthens
the sense of the base word.

kathagiazo (καθᾰγιαζω) - devote, dedicate, make offerings to

the dead; generally, burn a dead body, funeral rites; purify,
hallow, offer as an expiatory sacrifice

agiazo (ᾰγιαζω) = hallow, make sacred especially by burning a


kathagismos (καθᾰγισμός) - funeral rites

agismos (ᾰγισμός) = offering to the deceased

kathaimaktos (καθαιμακτός) - bloodstained, stain with blood,


aima (αιμα) = blood; kto- (κτό) =  slay

kathairesis (καθαίρεσις) - pulling down, demolition, overthrow,
subjugation, reduction, diminution, bringing down superfluous
flesh, lowering, reducing; eclipse of a sun or moon

airesis (αίρεσις) = take (a town), acquire, seize

kathaireo (καθαίρέω) - take down, put down, close the eyes of

the dead, put down by force, destroy, overpower, seize;

aireo (αίρέω) = take, grasp, seize

kathairo (κᾰθαίρω) - purify, refine; purge, clear a land of

monsters and robbers; in religious sense, purify; purge,
evacuate; prune (a tree)

airo (αίρω) = ὰείρω=lift, raise up; take up, take up and bear, lift
and take away

kathalos (κάθάλος) - full of salt, over-salted

alos (άλος) = salt

kathamakseuo (καθᾰμαξεύω) - hackneyed, stale, trite

makseuo (μαξεύω) = max

kathamma (κάθαμμα) - knot, knotty point

amma (αμμα) = knot

kathammizo (καθαμμίζω) - cover with sand

ammos (αμμος) = sand

kathapan (καθάπαν) - on the whole

apan (άπαν) = finish entirely

kathapaks (καθάπαξ) - once for all, out-and-out, absolutely;

singly, each time

apaks (άπαξ) = once

kathaplo (καθαπλόω) - spread out

aplo (απλόω) = make single, unfold, spread out

kathaptas (καθαπτής) - a kind of vase

aptan (απτήν) = unwinged

kathaptos (καθαπτός) - bound with, equipped with; cymbal or


aptos (απτός) = fasten, bind to; tangible, touch

kathapto (καθάπτω) - fasten or fix on, attach, fasten upon

apto (άπτω) = fasten

katharma (κάθαρμα) - that which is thrown away in cleansing;

refuse of a sacrifice; purification; within the purified ground
where the assembly was held

arma (αρμα) = that which one takes, such as food; burden, load;
union, love; chariot; ship

katharologeo (κᾰθᾰρολογέω) - to be precise or accurate in

language; sift, winnow; clear property from debris

aros (ἅρος) = use, profit, help, fit, arable, fit for engendering

logeo (λογέω) = language

katharpaga (καθαρπᾰγή) - direptio (plundering); snatch down;

seize, appropriate

arpazo (άρπάζω) = snatch away, carry off

kathauaino (καθαυαίνω=καταυαίνω) - wither up

auaino (αυαίνω) = dry, wither, waste away, pine away, parched

kathapsis (κάθαψις) - good reaction provided by friction after

the bath

apsis (αψις) = loop, mesh such as forms a net

kathedra (καθέδρα) - cathedra, seat, sitting part, posteriors;

chair, throne, basis for the word cathedral

edra (έδρα) = seat, chair, stool

katheirgo (καθείργω) - shut in, confine

eirgo (είργω) = imprison

katheis (καθεῖς) - one by one, one after another

eis (εῖς) = into, upon, on, toward

kathek (καθεκ-) - prefix meaning keep back, restrain, check

ek (εκ) = out of, forth from

kathelko (καθέλκω) - of ships, draw to the sea, launch; draw

down, depress the scale, metaphor “outweigh;” in building,
carry down; constrain, compel;

elko (έλκω) = draw up, drag on, drag to, attract

kathelisso (καθελίσσω) - wrap round with bandages; of a

serpent, drag down its coils;

elisso (ελίσσω) = turn round or about, dance round, run round,

roll or wind round, revolve, turn to face (the foe), whirl

kathelkomai (καθελκόομαι) - break out into ulcers, covered

with wounds

elkos (ελκός) = wound, festering, wound, sore, ulcer

kathelkusmos (καθελκυσμός) - launching; collapse

elkusmos (ελκυσιμός) = that may be dragged down, dragged,

attraction, draw, drag

kathelko (καθέλκω) - draw to the sea, launch; draw down,

depress the scale; carry down; constrain, compel

elko (έλκω) = drag away, draw along, draw, drag, pull, tow,
compel, to be drawn, attract, wrenched

kathema (κάθεμα) - necklace, collar

ema (εμα) = oneself, of me, of oneself

kathennumi (καθέννῡμι) - clothe

ennumi (έννῡμι) = put clothes on, clothe

katheksis (κάθεξις) - holding, retention, possession

eksis (εξις) = having possession of

katherpo (καθέρπω) - creep, steal down; return from exile

erpo (έρπω) = move slowly, walk, come, go

kathesimon (καθέσιμον) - fee for attendance at the βουλή

(counsel, Council, Senate)

esis (εσις) = sending forth

mon (μον) = one

kathesis (κάθεσις) - letting down, insertion, descent

esis (εσις) = sending forth

kathesteekotos (καθεστηκότως) - fixedly, steadily

estakotos (εστηκότως) = firmly

katheteer (καθετήρ) - catheter, anything let down into, inserted;

surgical instrument for emptying the bladder; fishing-line;
etee (έτη) = origin, source; basis for the word etymology

Eteephila (Έτηφίλα) = title of Persephone; in plural, Demeter

and Persephone

Eteephilios (Έτηφίλιος) = epithet of Roman Emperor Hadrian

(76-138 CE) as a devotee of Persephone; Hadrian re-built the
Pantheon in Rome.

katheudo (καθεύδω) - lie down to sleep, sleep

eudo (εύδω) = sleep

katheurema (καθεύρεμα) - invention

eurema (εύρεμα) = invention, discovery of a thing

katheuresilos (καθευρεσῐλος) - invent reasons

euresis (ευρεσῐς) = a finding, discovery (eureka!)

katheurisko (καθευρίσκω) - discover

eurisko (ευρίσκω) = find, discover

katheptheos (καθεφθέος) - boiled down

ephtheos (εφθέος) = to be boiled

kathepso (καθέψω) - boil down; dried up by the sun

epso (έψω) = boil, seethe

kathee (κάθη) = Attic for katheesai (κάθησαι) - 2nd pers. of

katheemai (κάθημαι) - to be seated, sit, sit still

eemai (ημαι) = to be seated, sit, encamp

katheeg- (καθηγ-), kateeg- (κατηγ-) - act as guide, lead the

way, lead, command, exercise authority over; to be the first to
do, establish, institute; to be antecedent; teacher, professor;

eeg (ηγ) = guide

katheegeesis (καθηγησις) - rule, principle; teacher, professor

eegeesis (ηγησις) = command

katheeduno (καθηδύνω) - sweeten, gratify

eedun (ηδύν) = season, seasoning, make pleasant, ηδύ=sweet,


katheedupatheo (καθηδῡπᾰθέω) - squander in luxury or

eedupatheia (ηδῡπᾰθεια) = pleasant living, luxury, enjoyment

katheeko (καθήκω) - come or go down

eeko (ήκω) = to have come, be present, to have returned

katheeliazo (καθηλιάζω) - bring the sun upon, illuminate

eeliazo (ηλιάζω) = bake in the sun, bask in the sun (ηλιά=the

sun, Helios)

katheeliks (καθῆλιξ) - contemporary

eeliks (ῆλιξ) = of the same age, fellow, comrade

katheelo (καθηλόω) - nail on

eelos (ηλος) = nailhead, stud, nail

katheemereia (καθημερεία) - daily business

eemera (ημερα) = day

katheemero (καθημερόω) - soften, tranquillize

eeemero (ημερόω) = tame, make tame, be pacified, cultivate

plants, civilize people
kathidros (κάθιδρος) - sweating violently

idro (ιδροω) – sweat

kathidruma (καθίδρῡμα) - foundation festival, establish

idruma (ίδρῡμα) = establishment, foundation

kathiereusis (καθιέρευσις) - consecration, deification

iereusis (ιέρευσις) = priest, sacrificer, diviner, minister

kathiero (καθιέρόω) - dedicate, devote

iero (ιέρόω) = consecrate, dedicate, offering

kathizo (καθίζω) - make to sit down, seat, set, place, post

(watchers, guards), set up, cause an assembly to take their seats;
appoint a judge, constitute, establish

izo (ίζω) = make to sit, seat, place

kathieemi (καθίημι) - let fall, drop, send down, lower down

ieemi (ίημι) = release, let go, make flow, throw, hurl, send

kathikneomai (καθικνέομαι) - come down to, hast touched,

come down upon, attack, affect, take effect, reach or touch,
attain one’s purpose; that which comes to one (share of an

ikneomai (ικνέομαι) = come, reach, attain to; approach as a

suppliant; supplicate, beseech; befits, pertains, fitting, proper

kathimao (καθῑμάω) - let down by a rope

imao (ῑμάω) = draw up especially water from a well, to be

tapped of, yield

kathinnumai (καθίννυμαι) - take a hip-bath

in (ίν) = in that place, there;  num (νυμ) = spring, water source

kathiksis (κάθιξις) - arrival

iksis (ιξις) = coming, passage through, direction, straight line,

vertical line, corresponding to

kathippeuo (καθιππεύω) - conquer by means of a horse, ride

down, trample underfoot

ipp- (ιππ-) = prefix meaning horse    eu- (εύ-) = prefix meaning


kathisma (κάθισμα) - buttocks, part on which one sits; seat;

sinking, settling down of a wall
isma (ισμα) = foundation, seat

kathodeegeo (καθοδηγέω) - guide

odeegeo (οδηγέω) = lead, guide

kathodos (κάθοδος) - descent, especially of Persephone as

represented in the mysteries; procession; coming back, return;
cycle, recurrence

odos (οδος) = way, road, travel

katholikos (καθολικός) - general, generic description, universal

olikos (ολικός) = universal, general, absolute

katholou (καθόλου) - on the whole, in general, generally; in

Roman times, accounts kept by the central government

ol (όλ) = all

kathomileo (καθομῑλέω) - conciliate by daily intercourse, win

the favor of; to be used in daily intercourse, to be current; has
become a proverb

omileo (ομῑλέω) = be in company with, consort with, joining in

company, hold converse with, busy oneself with, enter, visit,
intercourse, deal with

kathomoio (καθομοιόω) - assimilate

omoio (ομοιόω) = make like, become like

kathomologeo (καθομολογέω) - confess, allow, consent,

promise, vow, betroth, engage, agree

omologeo (ομολογέω) = agree with, say the same thing as,

agree, promise

kathoplizo (καθοπλιζω) - equip, arm fully; array, set in order;


oplizo (οπλιζω) = make or get ready, to be prepared, harness,

equip, furnish

kathor- (καθορ-) - prefix meaning to have within view, see

distinctly, perceive

or (ορ) = to see

kathorizo (καθορίζω) - determine, bound, define, lay claim to

orizo (ορίζω) = divide or separate from as a border or boundary,

separate, bound, delimit
kathormizo (καθορμίζω) - bring a ship into harbor, bring to
anchor, bringing to land

ormizo (ορμίζω) = bring to a safe anchorage, bring into harbor,

moor, anchor

kathosios (καθόσιος) - dedicate, devoted, betroth, fidelity

osia (οσία) = divine law, law, offering, funeral rites, sanctioned

by divine law, hallowed, holy, not profane

kathosio (καθόσιόω) - dedicate; betroth; devotion, fidelity

osio (όσιόω) = make oneself pure, be purified

kathoti (καθότι) - so far as, inasmuch as

oti (ότι) = for what, wherefore, why, because

kathubrizo (καθυβρίζω) - treat despitefully, insult, mock

ubrizo (υβρίζω) = run riot in the use of superior strength or

power or in sensual indulgence; of plants run riot, grow rank and

kathugraino (καθυγραίνω) - moisten well, be relaxed, liquefy,

very wet, flowing, connect with water or the sea
ugra (υγρα) = become moist, be wet or moist, collect in pools,

kathudros (κάθυδρος) - very watery, full of water

udros (υδρος) = water

kathulizo (καθῡλίζω) - strain, filter, clarify

ulizo (ῡλίζω) = filter, strain

kathumneo (καθυμνέω) - sing of much or constantly, make a

hymn of

umneo (υμνέω) = sing of, celebrate in a hymn, commemorate;

tell over and over again

kathuomai (καθύομαι) - to be rained upon     

uo (ύω) = rain on       mai (μαι) = mother

kathupakouo (καθυπᾰκούω) - consent

upakouos (υπᾰκουός) = obedient to, one must accept; hearken,

give ear, listen to, heed, regard, submit, comply, conform,

kathuperakontizo (καθυπερᾰκοντίζω) - overshoot completely

uperakontizo (υπερᾰκοντίζω) = overshoot, outdo

kathuperthe (καθύπερθε) - from above, down from above, atop,


uperthe (ύπερθε) = above

kathupertereo (καθυπερτερέω) - of planetary influences,

prevail, prevail over, prevalent; having the upper hand; superior,

upertereo (υπερτερέω) = surpass, preeminence

kathuperecho (καθυπερέχω) - to be much superior; treat with


uperecho (υπερέχω) = hold over, to be above, rise above,


kathupertithemai (καθυπερτίθεμαι) - communicate

upertitheemi (υπερτίθημι) = set higher, erect, set on the other

side, outlast, outlive, delay, carry over, transpose, shoot over,

kathupeereteomai (καθυπηρετέομαι) - assist, keeping up with

upeereteia (υπηρετέια) = do service (onboard a ship), be a
servant, minister to, serve, military service;  μαι=mother

kathupobaino (καθυποβαίνω) - occupy a lower place than,

subject, place underneath

upobaino (υποβαίνω) = stand under, subordinate, go under or


kathuponoeo (καθυπονοέω) - suspect, harbor suspicions; from

a vague conception of, suppose

uponoeo (υπονοέω) = suspect, suspicious

kathupnees (καθυπνής) - happening in sleep, fall fast asleep

upnees (υπνής) = sleep, drowsy

kathupo- (καθυπο-) - prefix meaning underneath, occupy a

lower place

upo (υπο) = from under

kathupourgeo (καθυπουργέω) - render service

upourgeo (υπουργέω) = render service, help, assist

kathustereo (καθυστερέω) - fall behind, be slow, delay, fare

badly, be kept waiting

ustereo (υστερέω) = to be behind or later, come late

kathuphaino (καθῡφαίνω) - interweave, weave in

uphaino (ῡφαίνω) = weave

kathuphesis (καθύφεσις) - collusion; give way, yield, slacken

uphesis (ύφεσις) = letting down, slackening

katho (κάθω) - barbarism for kathizo (καθιζω) - make to sit

down, seat, set

izo (ιζω) = make to sit, seat, place

katham- (καθᾱμ-) -prefix meaning day-by-day, daily

ᾱμ = at once, at the same time

Λ λ   lambda (λάμβδα); labda (λάβδα); lal (λάλ)     loosen

                         pronounce: “L”

The letter Λ means loosen, liberate, loose, release, express.

The shape of Λ is an upward pointing arrow, as if to suggest

freedom from gravity; gravity-defying.

Libertos (λίβερτος) means liberty.

Lagaio (λαγαίω) means to release. Laggazo (λαγγάζω) means

to slacken.

Lath- (λαθ-) is a prefix meaning escape. Lathos (λάθος) means

to escape from detection.

Laparos (λᾰπᾰρός) means to be slack or loose.

Leipo (λείπω) means to leave, quit, to be left, left behind, left

without. Leipsis (λεῖψις) means an omission, lack, or loss.

Lophao (λωφάω) means to give over, take rest from, cease to

do, lighten, or relieve, as in “loafing off.”

Luaios (Λῠαῖος) means “Loosener” or “Deliverer,” an epithet

of the Great Mother as one who looses, delivers one from.
Luteer (λύτήρ) means deliverer. 

Luee (λύη) means dissolution or separation.

Lus- (λῦσ-) is a prefix meaning end of, deliver from, relaxing.

Lusis (λύσις) means loosing or releasing.

Luteira (λύτειρα) means one must open.

Lutron (λύτρον) is the price of release, ransom, a sum paid;


Luo (λύω) means to unbind, unfasten, loose, slacken, open,

unyoke, unharness, release, dissolve, undo, break, atone for,
make up for.

It is interesting to note that Lutetia was the original name for

the  Île de la Cité in Paris, the first Roman settlement in Paris
and the site of the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Our Lady). The
Emperor Julian settled in Lutetia subsequent to his initiation into
the Eleusinian mysteries.

“Many historians claim that it was during this stay in Athens

that Julian (the Apostate (361-363 CE) was initiated by an
Eleusinian hierophant into the ancient mysteries of Eleusis . . .

“(Subsequently) Julian’s main seat in Gaul was in Lutetia.”

(Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine

Empire: 324 CE – 1453 CE (Madison, Wisconsin: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1952) 70.)

Julian in his Oration to the Mother of the Gods [and Goddesses]

said,  “She is the mistress of all life, and the cause of all
generation . . .”

(Emperor Julian. “To the Mother of the Gods [and Goddesses]”

Two Orations of the Emperor Julian, translated by Thomas
Taylor (Kessinger Publishing Rare Reprints) 115

Notre Dame was built on the site of the Basilica of St. Etienne.
Note that Eteephilos (Έτηφίλος) is an epithet of the Roman
emperor Hadrian as a devotee of the immortal Goddess

Some theorize that the earliest settlers of Lutetia (Paris) were

Trojans displaced by the fall of Troy.

(Raoul de Presles. “Description de Paris sous Charles V. 1371.”

In: Le

Roux de Lincy and L. M. Tisserand. Paris et ses Historiens aux

XIVe et
XVe Siècles. Documents et Écrits Originaux. Paris.

Consistent with this theory, Paris is a Trojan prince depicted in

Homer’s Iliad. Also, the Champs-Élysées, a major Paris road
passing through the Arc d’ Triumph and the Élysée Palace, the
official residence of the President of the French Republic, are
named for Elysian, the blessed paradise in the afterlife.


The harvest of grain is prepared by threshing (beating/pounding/

grinding) to release the grain or seeds from the plant and
winnowing (tossing the grain into the air) to remove the chaff
(husks), dirt, etc. from the grain.

A laktis (λάκτις) is a pestle, a grinding instrument, literally

“loosen arising core.”

A likmas (λικμάς) or liknon (λίκνον) is a winnowing basket, a

broad basket in which corn/grain is placed after threshing.  The
corn/grain is then thrown against the wind so as to winnow the
heavier grain from the lightweight chaff. The grain falls to the
ground ready for collection and the chaff is blown away by the
Likmao (λικμάω) means to part the grain from the chaff, to

Likmaios (λικμαῖος) means presiding over winnowing (an

epithet of the immortal Goddess Demeter).

Liknotephei (λικνοστεφεῖ) means to carry the sacred liknon

(λίκνον) (winnowing basket) in procession.

Louka (λοῦκα) is a food made of wheat-meal.

Hesiod, Homer, and Virgil describe the sacred winnowing


“. . . winnow Demeter’s holy grain, when strong Orion (the

constellation) first appears, on a smooth threshing-floor in an
airy place.”  

(Hesiod, Works & Days (597-599), translated by Hugh G.

Evelyn-White, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;
London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1914. Reprinted in English
by Dodo Press, 2011) 14.)

“ . . . as the wind carrieth chaff about the sacred threshing-floors

of men (sic) that are winnowing, when fair-haired Demeter amid
the driving blasts of wind separates the grain from the chaff . . .”
(Homer, Iliad 5.500, translated by A.T. Murray, Loeb Classical
Library (London: William Heinemann; New York: G.P.
Putnam’s Sons, 1928.)

“ . . . while the floor groans

 Heavily as the corn is threshed, and while

The empty chaff is tossed to the rising Zephyr (Wind).”

(Virgil. “The Georgics (134-136),” The Eclogues and the

Georgics, translated by R. C. Trevelyan (Cambridge: University
Press, 1944) 82.)

Winnowing is still practiced in agricultural societies around the

world, as it was in ancient Egypt.

Winnowing grain

Winnowing grain.

Winnowing grain.

Winnowing grain.

Winnowing grain.

Winnowing grain.

Winnowing grain. A scene from the tomb of Nakht at Thebes

(18th Dynasty). http://ww
Winnowing grain.


Lakao (λᾰκάω) means to burst asunder.

Lakeema (λάκημα) is a fragment broken off.

Lakizo (λᾰκίζω) means to tear, rend, or split.

Lepo (λέπω) means to strip off rind or bark. Lepos (λέπος) and
lepuros (λεπύρός) are the husk, peel, bark, or rind. Lemma
(λέμμα) means that which is peeled off, the rind or husk.

Lepizo (λεπίζω) means to peel off the husk, skin, or bark.

Leekeo (ληκέω) means to crack, crackle, or burst asunder.


Lebees (λέβης) is a basin of purifying water, pan for washing,

or bath.
Lou- (λου-) is a prefix meaning washing, bathing. Louo (λούω)
means to bathe.

Lousis (λοῦσις) means washing or bathing.

Luma (λῦμα) means the water used in washing.


Labros (λάβρος) means to be furious, boisterous, violent, or


Laidros (λαιδρος) means to be bold or impudent. (Laertes is a

bold, impulsive character who serves as a foil to the paralyzed-
by-thought Hamlet in Shakespeare’s play, Hamlet.)

Leesmon (λήσμων) means to be unmindful.

Lelieemai (λελίημαι) means to strive eagerly or to be rushing.

Leereia (ληρεία) means to be foolish or silly.

Labreia (λαβρεία) means to talk rashly or to brag.

Lakazo (λᾰκάζω) means to shout or howl.

Lakeros (λᾰκερός) means to be talkative.

Lal (λάλ) is one of the names for the letter Λ. Words beginning
with λάλ convey the idea of bringing forth thoughts at a rapid
pace. Lalos (λάλος) means to be talkative, babbling, loquacious.
Laleo (λᾰλέω) means to prattle. A lalaks (λάλαξ) is a babbler.

Lasthee (λάσθη) means to mock, insult.

In a twist on the notion of “loose tongues,” lichmazo (λιχμάζω)

means to lick. Leicho (λείχω) means to lick or lick up. Lapto
(λάπτω) and lapsis (λάψις) mean to lap with the tongue or lick.


Log- (λόγ-) literally means “loosen entity generative,” that is,

release something creative/productive.

Logas (λογάς, λογάδην) means to be picked or chosen.

Logch- (λογχ-) is a prefix meaning something with a point.

Logos (λόγος) reflects many meanings, generally suggesting the
expressed main or essential part of a matter, as in:

-rule, principle, law, formula

-statement of a theory, argument

-thinking, reasoning

-idea, thought

-divine utterance, “oracle”

-proverb, maxim, saying

-continuous statement, narrative

-word, expression, phrase

-sentence, complete statement

-discussion, debate, deliberation, assertion

-thing talked of, event

-common talk, report, rumor.

The prefix log- (λογ-) often pertains to incidences of speaking.
Speaking was the main way to express or release one’s thoughts
through words prior to the advent of the printing press and mass

Logao (λογάω) means to be fond of talking.

Logeia (λογεία) means speaking-place, stage, platform; mouth.

Logikos (λογϊκός) means of or for speaking, speech suited for

prose; possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical,
argumentative, the basis for the word logic.

Logion (λόγιον) means something worth mentioning; noble, or

famous; also, an “oracle,” especially one preserved from
antiquity; learned, erudite, skilled in words, eloquent; reason,

Logistikos (λογιστικός) means to be skilled or practiced in

calculating or in practical arithmetic; to be endued with reason,
to be rational, logical.

Logodees (λογώδης) means verbal.


Lego (λέγω) means to recount, tell over, say, speak.

Lekteos (λεκτέος) means to be said or spoken, the basis for the

word lecture.

Leksis (λέξις) means speech, words, the basis for the word

A librarios (λιβράριος) is one who writes down words, a scribe,

the basis for the word library.


Playing a musical instrument is another means of expression; of

releasing what is within.

Lur- (λῠρ-) is a prefix meaning lyre/lura (λύρα), literally

“loosen pure outflow.” A lyre is a stringed instrument that dates
to ancient antiquity, the basis for the word lyrical. The immortal
God Apollo was frequently depicted playing a lyre.

Apollo with Lyre.

The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA, Malibu

85.AE.101, Lucanian Red Figure, Volute krater, Attributed to
the PKP Group, probably the Palermo Painter. Detail of Apollon
playing the lyre, from a scene depicting a company of Gods and
Goddesses. Apollon is crowned with a wreath of laurel.

In Orphic Hymn 33. To Apollo (27-32), Orpheus says:

“ . . . Tis thine all Nature’s music to inspire,

With various-sounding, harmonising lyre;

Now the last string thou tun’st to sweet accord,

Divinely warbling now the highest chord;

Th’ immortal golden lyre, now touch’d by thee,

Responsive yields a Dorian melody . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 162-163.)

Lura (λύρα) also refers to lyric poetry and the constellation

Lyra, visible from the northern hemisphere from spring through

Loteo (λωτέω) means to play the flute. Loteo (λωτέω) also

means to bloom.
Lasko (λάσκω) means ring, rattle, crash.


Light shines forth, seemingly miraculously, from solid objects

when they burn.

A lampadeia (λαμπᾰδεία) is a torch-light procession.

Lampas (λαμπας) and lampee (λάμπη) mean a torch or lamp.

Lampo (λάμπω) means to give light or to shine, the basis for the
word lamp.

Lampros (λαμπρός) means to be bright or radiant.

Lampsis (λάμψις) means shining.

Loumenarion (λουμενάριον) means a window, that which

allows light to flow through.

Lugee (λύγη) means twilight, the transitional time that loosens

night or day.

Luchn- (λυχν-) is a prefix meaning lamp. A luchnos (λύχνος) is

a portable light or lamp.


Lucretius credits Mater Matuta (the Great Mother) with bringing

about the light of day:

“At a fixed time Matuta sends abroad the rosy dawn through the
coasts of heaven, and spreads the light . . . from the high
mountains of Ida scattered fires are seen as the light rises, and
then they gather as if into a single ball, and make up the orb.

“Nor again ought this to be a cause of wonder herein, that these

seeds of fire can stream together at so fixed a time . . . For we
see many events which come to pass at a fixed time in all things.
Trees blossom at a fixed time, and at a fixed time lose their
flower . . . thunder, snow, rains, clouds, winds come to pass at
seasons of the year more or less fixed.

“For since the first-beginnings of causes were ever thus . . . one

thing after another they come round even now in the fixed

(Lucretius (circa 50 BCE). Religion in Archaic and Republican

Rome and Italy 5, 656-79, translated by Bailey, edited by
Edward Bispham and Christopher John Smith (UK: Edinburgh
University Press, 2000) 147).

Leukos (λευκός) means light, bright, clear, or white. Leusso

(λεύσσω) means to look or gaze upon, to see.

Leuk- (λευκ-) is a prefix meaning white. Leukon (λευκόν)

means white. Leukatheo (λευκᾰθέω) means to be white,
colorless. Leukaino (λευκαίνω) means to make white.

Leukathea (Λευκἃθέα) is Leucothea, the immortal white

Goddess believed to come to the aid of sailors in distress. 

“While he (Ulysses) was being tossed about by the waves,

Leucothea, who we call Mater Matuta, who lives forever in the
sea, gave him her girdle to bind around his chest, to buoy him
up. When he had done this, he swam to safety.”
(Gaius Julius Hyginus (circa 150 CE). “Fables,” The Myths of
Hyginus, translated by Mary Grant (Lawrence: University of
Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies, no. 34, University of
Kansas Press, 1960) 125.

Etruscan, Mater Matuta, seated holding a child and flanked by

winged animals (lions?) with human face, circa 475 BCE.
National Archaeological Museum of Florence, Italy.

Orphic Hymn 73. To Leucothea (9-16) appeals on behalf of


“. . . When rushing billows with tempestuous ire

O’erwhelm the mariner in ruin dire,

Thou hear’st, with pity touch’d, his suppliant pray’r,

Resolv’d his life to succour and to spare.

Be ever present, Goddess! in distress,

Waft ships along with prosperous success:

Thy mystics thro’ the stormy sea defend,

And safe conduct them to their destined end."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by
Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 204.)

Leukoinos (λευκόϊνος) is the snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, a

white flower that blooms very early in Spring.  


Latho (λάθω) means to escape notice, without being observed;

make one forget, forget.

Lanthano (λανθάνω) means to make one forget.

Leethaios (λήθαιος) means to cause forgetfulness or to be of or

from Lethe/Leethee (Λήθη).

Leethargeo (ληθαργέω) means drowsiness, lethargy.

Leethee (λήθη) means forgetting or forgetful.

Leestis (λῆστις) means to forget.

Leethee (Λήθη) is Lethe, the river of forgetfulness in the

afterlife. If the souls of the departed drink from the waters of
Lethe, they forget all their experiences of life and come back to
the world reborn. If they go past Lethe, however, and drink from
the waters of Mnemosyne, “memory,” they recall all their
experiences of life and go on to live in the joyful realm of the
Elysian Fields.

An inscription on a gold tablet buried with a woman in a grave

in Italy dated circa 400 BCE describes the path to Elysian:

“When you are about to die

down to the well-built house of Hades,

There is a spring at the right side,

And standing by it a white cypress.

Descending to it, the souls of the dead refresh themselves.

Do not even go near this spring!

Ahead you will find from the Lake of Memory,

Cold water pouring forth; there are guards before it.

They will ask you, with astute wisdom,

What you are seeking in the darkness of murky Hades.

Say, “I am a child of Earth and starry Sky,

I am parched with thirst and am dying;

But quickly grant me

Cold water from the Lake of Memory to drink.”

And they will announce you to the Chthonian King,

And they will grant you to drink from the Lake of Memory.

And you, too, having drunk, will go along the sacred road on
which other

Glorious initiates and bacchoi travel.”

From the cist-grave of a woman, around 400 BCE, grave tablet,

Museo Archeologico di Vibo. The rectangular gold tablet,
folded several times, was found lying on the upper chest of the
skeleton and was perhaps attached to the neck by a tiny string.

(Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, Ritual Texts for the

Afterlife: Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets (London and
New York: Routledge,  2007) 5.)
Note that the word for left is laios (λαιός), with
αιός=αιων=lifetime, life, so that “laios” means “loosen life.”
The instruction on the grave tablet is to ignore the river on the
right in order to avoid reincarnation.

Virgil, Seneca, and Pausanias describe the role of Lethe in

religious rituals and in the afterlife.

"And Lethe River drifting past the tranquil places.

Hereabouts were flitting a multitude [of the deceased] without

number . . .

Aeneas, moved by the sudden sight, asked in his ignorance

What it might mean, what was that river over there

And all that crowd of people swarming along its banks.

Then his father, Anchises said:--

                                    ‘They are the souls who are destined for

Reincarnation; and now at Lethe's stream they are drinking

The waters that quench man's troubles, the deep draught of

            oblivion. . .
. . . and they come in crowds to the river of Lethe,

So that, you see, with memory washed out they may revisit

The earth above and begin to wish to be born again.”

(Virgil. Aeneid 6. 705-715, 749-750 ff, translated by C. Day

Lewis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952, reissued 2008)

“All these, after they have passed away a thousand years, are
summoned by the divine one in great array, to the Lethmean
river. In this way they become forgetful of their former earth-
life, and revisit the vaulted realms of the world, again to return
into bodies.”

(Virgil, translated by Thomas Taylor. The Eleusinan and

Bacchic Mysteries: A Dissertation (New York: J.W. Bouton, 8
West 28th Street, 1891; reprinted by BiblioLife) 125.)

Seneca, Hercules Furens 679 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy

circa 50 CE.) :

"Within the abyss [of the afterlife], Lethe, measureless in sweep,

glides smoothly on with placid stream, and takes away our
cares . . .”

(Seneca (circa 50 CE). “Hercules Furens 679 ff,”  Tragedies,

translated by Frank Justus Miller, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann, 1917.)

“. . .he [the suppliant] must drink water called the water of

Forgetfulness, that he may forget all that he has been thinking of
hitherto, and afterwards he drinks of another water, the water of
Memory, which causes him to remember what he sees after his

(Pausanias (circa 150 CE). Description of Greece. translated by

W.H.S. Jones and H.A. Omerod (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1918) 9.39.8.)

Orphic Hymn 76. To Mnemosyne (7-12), the immortal Goddess

of memory, describes Mnemosyne’s role in breaking “Lethe’s

“ . . . ‘Tis thine, to waken from lethargic rest

All thoughts deposited within the breast;

And nought neglecting, vigorous to excite

The mental eye from dark oblivion’s night.

Come, blessed power, thy mystic’s mem’ry wake

To holy rites, and Lethe’s fetters break.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 215.)


The role of memory and forgetfulness in religious ceremonies

may have been aided by the use of herbs. Two flowers beginning
with the letter Λ are credited with narcotic properties: the lily/
narcissus and the lotus.

Leirion (λείριον) means the lily/narcissus, also known as the

Madonna lily, Lilium candidum, polyanthus narcissus, autumn
narcissus, Narcissus serotinus, narcissus, and daffodil. The lily/
narcissus/daffodil has narcotic properties.

In the Odyssey, Homer describes sailors becoming forgetful

when they eat the fruit of the lotus (λωτός):
“And whosoever of them ate of the honey-sweet fruit of the
lotus, had no longer any wish to bring back word or to return,
but there they were fain to abide among the Lotus-eaters,
feeding on the lotus, and forgetful of their homeward way.”

Homer. Odyssey 9.82, translated by A. T. Murray, Loeb

Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;
London: William Heinemann, 1919.)

The lotus (λωτός, λώτῐνον) is a name applied to various plants

and trees that provide fodder or fruit, including:

- clover, trefoil, Trifolium fragiferum

- fellbloom, Lotus corniculatus

- fenugreek, Trigonella Foenum-graecum

- melilot

- Medicago arborea

- Nile water-lily, Egyptian lotus

- nettle-tree.
Libuon (λίβυον) means wild lotus.


Lakpateo (λακπᾶτέω) and laktizo (λακτίζω) mean to trample

on grapes to loosen the juice from the skin.

Leenos (ληνός) means wine-vat. Leenaios (ληναῖος) means

belonging to the wine-press.

A leenis (ληνίς) is a Bacchante, one who practices the wine rites

of the immortal God of wine, Bacchos/Dionysos. Leenai
(Λῆναι) means Bacchanals, those who celebrate Bacchanal
rites. Leenaizo (Ληνᾰΐζω) are Bacchanal rites.

A scene of Bacchic revelry is depicted on The Great Dish of the

Mildenhall treasure, circa 350 CE.

Mildenhall treasure, The Great Dish, circa 350 CE

The Mildenhall Treasure, “The Great Dish,” found in eastern

England in 1942 CE, circa 350 CE, The British Museum.

“The face in the centre represents Oceanus, with dolphins in his

hair and a beard formed of seaweed fronds. The inner circle,
bordered by scallop shells, consists of sea-nymphs, a sea-horse,
a triton, a sea-stag and a ketos, a dragon-like sea-monster. The
wide outer frieze features Bacchus holding a bunch of grapes
and a thyrsus and resting a foot on his panther. He presides over
a celebration of music, dancing, and drinking.”

A verse in Nonnos’ Dionysiaca describes Dionysos’ discovery

of wine and seems to describe the scene on the Mildenhall

“[292] . . .  once upon a time fruitful Olympian ichor fell down

from heaven and produced the potion of Bacchic wine, when the
fruit of its vintage grew among the rocks selfgrown, untended. It
was not yet named grapevine; but among the bushes, wild and
luxuriant with many-twining parsleyclusters, a plant grew which
had in it good winestuff to make wine, being full to bursting
with its burden of dewy juice . . .

[326] When Bacchos saw the grapes with a bellyful of red juice,
he bethought him of an oracle which prophetic Rhea had spoken
long ago. He dug into the rock, he hollowed out a pit in the stone
with the sharp prongs of his earth-burrowing pick, he smoothed
the sides of the deepening hole and made an excavation like a
winepress; then he made his sharp thyrsus into the cunning
shape of the later sickle with curved edge, and reaped the
newgrown grapes.

[337] A band of Satyrs was with him: one stooped to gather the
clusters, one received them into an empty vessel as they were
cut, one pulled off the masses of green leaves from the bibulous
fruit and threw away the rubbish.

Another without thyrsus or sharpened steel crouched bending

forwards and spying for grapes, and put out his right hand
towards the branches to pluck the fruit at the ends of the tangled
vine, then Bacchos spread the fruitage in the pit he had dug, first
heaping the grapes in the middle of the excavation, then
arranging them in layers side by side like cornheaps on the
threshingfloor, spread out the whole length of the hole.

When he had got all into the hollowed place and filled it up to
the brim, he trod the grapes with dancing steps. The Satyrs also,
shaking their hair madly in the wind, learnt from Dionysos how
to do the like. They pulled tight the dappled skins of fawns over
the shoulder, they shouted the song of Bacchos sounding tongue
with tongue, crushing the fruit with many a skip of the foot,
crying ‘Euoi!’

The wine spurted up in the grape-filled hollow, the runlets were

empurpled; pressed by the alternating tread the fruit bubbled out
red juice with white foam. They scooped it up with oxhorns,
instead of cups which had not yet been seen, so that ever after
the cup of mixed wine took this divine name of Winehorn.

[363] And one went bubbling the mind-charming drops of

Bacchos as he turned his wobbling feet in zigzag jerks, crossing
right over left in confusion as he wetted his hairy cheeks with
Bacchos’s drops. Another skipt up struck with a tippler’s
madness when he heard the horrid boom of the beaten drumskin.
One again who had drunk too deeply of care-dispelling wine
purpled his dark beard with the rosy liquor . . .

[394] After the revels over his sweet fruit, Dionysos proudly
entered the cave of Cybeleïd Goddess Rhea, waving bunches of
grapes in his flower-loving hand, and taught Maionia (Lydia/
Western Anatolia/modern Turkey) the vigil of his feast.”

(Nonnos. Diomysiaca 12. 292-394, translated by W. H. D.

Rouse, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA and London:
Harvard University Press, 1940.)


Lo (λῶ) means wish, desire. Leio (λείω) is the original form of

the word.

Leema ((λῆμα) means will, desire, purpose, courage. 

Lilaiomai (λῐλαίομαι) means to long to be or do, to long or
desire earnestly.

Litee (λῐτή) means prayer or entreaty.

Litos (λῐτός) means suppliant.  


Lein (λείν) means gluttony, the unleashing of hunger.

Lichnos (λίχνος) means to be gluttonous.


Laas (λᾱας) are stones, especially stones thrown by warriors.

Other words for stone include leuo (λεύω) and lithos (λίθος).

A lagkia (λαγκία) is a lance, spear, or javelin.

Lithas (λῐθάς) means a shower of stones.

Leusimos (λεύσιμος) means stoning. 

Leusteer (λευστηρ) means one who stones, death by stoning.


A laarchees (λᾱάρχης) is a commander of a division of native

machimoi (μάχιμοι) (fighting men) settled in cleruchies
(κληρουχία). Cleruchies were colonies politically dependent on
Athens; the cleruchs formed military garrisons.


Lepra (λέπρα) means leprosy, a disease that causes flesh sores

and a loss of sensation.

Loigios (λοιγιος) means to be pestilent or deadly. Loigos

(λοιγός) means ruin or havoc pertaining to death by plague; it
also means the destruction of ships.

Loidoreo (λοιδορέω) means to abuse, revile, or rebuke.

Loim- (λοιμ-) is a prefix meaning pestilent or destructive.

Loimos (λοιμός) means plague.
Lumeo (λῦμέω) means to grieve, vex, distress, or cause pain.
Lumeon (λῦμεών) means a destroyer or corrupter.

Lupros (λυπρός) means distressful, wretched, poor.


Lagaros (λᾰγᾰρος) means loose, thin, narrow, porous, hollow,

sunken, slack, least defensible.

An entity is only as fortified as its weakest point of access. In a

human or animal body the hollow on each side below the ribs
and above the hips, the flanks, are the lagon (λᾰγών). These
areas are loose in that they do not contain bones. In a military
formation the flanks can be vulnerable to attack.

Laimo (λαιμο-) is a prefix meaning throat. The throat or neck is

the laimos (λαιμός), a major point of vulnerability. It is of
interest to note that λ=loosen and αιμο=blood, so that λαιμός
translates as “loosen blood.” Liphaimeo (λῐφαιμέω) means to
lack blood.

Laura (λαύρα) means access to or from via an alley, lane, or


Lepto- (λεπτό-) is a prefix meaning small, thin, fine, feeble,

slender, or delicate.

Leptunsis (λέπτυνσις) means attenuation, a gradual loss, to

make thin.


A labee (λᾰβή) is the handle or haft of a knife, sword, or cup.

Labee (λᾰβή) is also the word for a boxing or wrestling grip/

hold; opportunities for refutation; an attack of fever; the eye of a
needle; forceps, tweezers, tongs, and clamps. Labee (λᾰβή), in a
broad sense, is a way to grab (or release) something.

Lazomai (λάζομαι) means to seize, grasp, or attack. Note that

azomai (ἃζομαι) means to stand in awe of or in fear of, so
lazomai (λάζομαι) translates as “loosen fear/awe,” a necessary
first step in an attack.

Leepsis (λῆψις) means taking hold, seizing, catching.

A lepas (λέπας) is a scaur, an isolated or protruding rock in the


The lobos (λόβός) refers to the lobe, a loose portion of the ear,
liver, or lung.
Lophos (λόφος) is the back of the neck; of a horse, its withers;
the crest of a hill or ridge; the crest of a helmet; or the crest or
tuft on the head of birds. Lophao (λοφάω) means to have a crest
or mane.  Similarly, loma (λῶμα) means hem or fringe.


Ladreo (λαδρέω) means flow strongly.

A lailaps (λαῖλαψ) is a furious storm, hurricane, or whirlwind

sweeping upwards.

Lasana (λάσᾰνα) means night-stool/chamber-pot/commode/


Lataks (λάταξ) are the remaining drops of wine in the bottom of

the cup thrown into a basin with a splash.

Leibdeen (λείβδην) means to pour, pour forth, make a libation

of wine, a running or dripping liquid.

Libas (λῐβάς) means anything that drips or trickles, a spring,

font, stream, libation (drink-offering to a deity).

Lipsouria (λιψουρία) means the desire to make water (urinate).

Loibee (λοιβη) means pouring, libation, or drink-offering in
honor of a deity.

Louma (λοῦμα) means stream.


Lecho (λεχώ) means a woman in childbed or one who has just

given birth. Lechoias (λεχωϊάς) means of or belonging to

A lechos (λέχος) is a couch or bed on which one reclines/

relaxes/sleeps. Lechomai (λέχομαι) means to lie down.

Locheia (λοχεία) means child-birth or the childbed. Lochao

(λοχάω) means to lie in wait. Lochos (λόχος) is a place for
lying in wait.

Leeto (Λητώ) is Leto, the mother of the twin immortals Apollo

and Artemis. 

Leeda (Λήδα) is Leda, mother of the twins Kastor and Pollux

(the stars of the constellation Dioskoroi, originally twin goats). 

Lagneia (λαγνεία) is the act of coition, sexual intercourse.

Lakkopedon (λακκόπεδον) is the scrotum; lakko (λακκό)

means tank, cistern; pedon (πεδον) means earth, ground.

Lamuria (λᾰμῦρία) means wantonness.

Leiktees (λείκτης) means cunnilingus, oral stimulation of the

female genitals.

Lektron (λέκτρον) means marriage-bed.

Leeko (ληκώ) means penis.

Liros (λϊρός) means to be bold, shameless, or lewd.

Lombros (λομβρός) is the name of an indecent dance.


Lagos (λᾰγώς) is the hare, a symbol of fertility and of libido

because it breeds prolifically.
Lagoos (λᾰγῶος) means of the hare, the hare’s flesh.  A leveret,
rabbit, or hare is a lagion (λάγιον). A leveret/lagideus
(λᾰγῐδεύς) is a young hare, especially one less than one year
old. Another word for hare is leporis (λέπορις).

A hare is traditionally the gift of a lover. Philostratus the Elder

describes a scene of the Erotes, the immortal Gods of love,
trying to catch a hare as a gift for Aphrodite, the immortal
Goddess of love:

“For you know, I imagine, what is said of the hare, that it

possesses the gift of Aphrodite [i.e. libido] to an unusual degree.
At any rate it is said of the female that while she suckles the
young she has borne, she bears another litter to share the same
milk; forthwith she conceives again, nor is there any time at all
when she is not carrying young.”

(Philostratus the Elder (circa 250 CE), “Imagines 1.6,” Elder

Philostratus, Younger Philostratus, Callistratus, translated by
Arthur Fairbanks, Loeb Classical Library Volume 256 (London:
William Heinemann, 1931.))

The Erotes, Eros, Himerus & Pothos, British Museum, London,

United Kingdom,  London E440,
Beazley Archive Number: 202628, Attic Red Figure
Stamnos. Name vase of the Siren Painter, circa 500 - 480 BCE.
Eros, Pothos & Himeros, the three Erotes (love Gods) wing their
way over the sea bearing gifts: a hare, a sash, and a branch. This
is a drawing of the vase rather than a photographic

Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, New York

City, USA, RISD 1986.158, Apulian Red Figure, Gnathian, 
Squat lekythos, circa 340 BCE.

Hermaphroditos is depicted as a winged Eros (love God) in the

form of a young woman (breasts, thighs, and hair-style) with
male genitalia. S/He chases a hare, an animal which for the
Greeks symbolized sexual desire.


Leipo (λείπω) means to leave, quit, to be left, left behind, left

without. Leipsis (λεῖψις) means an omission, lack, or loss.

Limo- (λῑμο-) is a prefix meaning hunger, famine. Limos

(λῑμος) means hunger or famine. Limaino (λῑμαίνω) means to
suffer from famine.

Liperneo (λῐπερνέω) means poor.

Lipo- (λῐπό-) is a prefix meaning without.

Litos (λῖτός) means something simple, inexpensive, or frugal.

Laganophakee (λᾰγᾰνοφᾰκῆ) is a lentil pudding or cake.

Lentils are considered fasting food, food consumed during
fasting periods.

“The meal, prepared the day before, is quite simple, usually

consisting of lentils boiled in plain water, vinegar, and oregano,
and served with olives, scallions, and halva, all considered
fasting food.”

“Lentil soup is a perennial favorite as well as a Lenten dish

consumed during fasting periods.”


In a warrior society, a significant source of wealth is derived

from “liberating” or looting treasure, etc. from defeated foes.

Laa (λάα=λέια) and laphura (λάφῦρα) mean booty, spoils

taken in war.

Lambano (λαμβάνω) means to take, take hold of, grasp, seize,

take by violence, carry off, apprehend.
Lao (λάω) means to seize.

Leeidios (ληϊδιος) means that which is taken as booty. Leeis

(ληΐς) means booty, plunder, or spoil.

Leesteia (ληστεία) means robbery or piracy.


Laggano (λαγχάνω) means to obtain as one’s portion.

Laksis (λάξις) means that which is assigned by lot.

Lachee (λάχη) means lot or share.

Lachesis (Λάχεσις) is one of the three Fates, the dispenser of

lots, the immortal Goddess of distribution who determines a
mortal’s lot in life.

"By fate are we driven; yield ye to fate. No anxious cares can

change the threads of its inevitable spindle. Whate’er we mortals
bear, whate’er we do, comes from on high; and Lachesis
maintains the decrees of her distaff which by no hand may be
(Seneca (circa 50 CE). “Oedipus 980 ff,” Tragedies, translated
by Frank Justus Miller, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann,

Lachos  (λάχος) is an allotted portion or share.

Leeksis (λῆξις) means determination or appointment by lot.

Leeksis (λῆξις) also means the cessation of a river; death,
decease; end, and extremity.

Leepteos (ληπτέος) means to take, accept, choose.


Lachan- (λᾰχᾰν-) is a prefix meaning vegetables. Lachanon

(λάχᾰνον) means garden herbs.

Leimaks (λεῖμαξ) means meadow, a field of grassland used for

pasturing animals.

Leimon (λειμών) is any moist, grassy place such as a meadow.


The prefix luk- (λύκ-), literally “loosen pure core,“ is associated

with the wolf (λύκος), an animal known for attacking domestic

Besides meaning “wolf,” lukos (λύκος) also means a bird and a

spider that hunt; a hook; a noose; a lozenge to treat dysentery;
and a fish associated with wild rage. Lukos (λύκος) means:

- a kind of daw (black and grey Eurasian bird noted for thievery)

- a kind of spider that hunts prey

- anything shaped like a hook (jagged bit for hard-mouthed

horses, knocker or hook on a door, flesh-hook)

- the flower of the iris

- a kind of noose

- a pastille used in dysentery/diarrhea

- a fish, kallionumos (καλλιωνυμος).

“The presence of a very large gall-bladder in Kallionymos was

so well known that this fish was commonly referred to in
passages descriptive of excessive anger.”  http://
The prefix luk- (λύκ-) also pertains to viper’s herb, Echium
italicum, lukapsos (λύκαψος). The leaves of Echium Italicum/
lukapsos (λύκαψος) in wine “facilitate delivery.”

(Theophilus Redwood, Samuel Frederick Gray. “Echium,”

Gray’s Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia (London: Longman
and Company, 1848) 391.)

The prefix luk- (λύκ-) also pertains to:

- the year/month/day, lukabas (λῠκάβας)

 - dyer’s buckthorn, Rhamnus petiolaris, lukion (λύκιον), a

plant that yields a yellow and a green dye.

According to Gray’s Supplement (p. 243), Rhamnus/lukion

(λύκιον) is a diuretic, laxative, and purgative.

The Lukeion (Λύκειον) is the Lyceum, a gymnasium at Athens

named for the nearby temple of Apollo Lukeios (Λύκειος).

Lukeios, the Lyceum, may refer to the wolf; to “loosening

energy/fat;” or may refer to the region of Anatolia called Lukios
(Lycian) (Λύκιος, Λῠκαῖος) on the southern coast of Anatolia/
Asia Minor/Phrygia/modern Turkey. Diodorus of Sicily and
Virgil associate Apollo with Lycia (Lukios):

“Apollo has been called Delian and Lycian and

Pythian.” (Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History

“Apollo quits Lycia, his winter home, and the streams of

Xanthus, to visit his mother’s Delos, and renews the
dance.” (Virgil, Aeneid 4. 145, translation H.R. Fairclough.)

Lycia is located on the southern coast of Anatolia/Asia Minor/

Phrygia (Turkey). It was a highly desirable region that was
invaded/ attacked by the Athenians and others, a source of

“The history of Lycia is a story of fierce struggles against those

who sought to invade and dominate it, as it was a very desirable
region.  It appears that Greek efforts to colonize Lycia during
the first millennium BCE were largely unsuccessful even though
there were several Athenian expeditions.” http://

Luko (λῠκω) is an epithet of the moon. Lukee (λύκη) is

morning twilight. Lukophos (λῠκοφως) is both morning and
evening twilight. These types of lights are grey, like the wolf,
and transitional: “liberating” night and day.

The diversity of meaning surrounding the prefix luk- (λύκ-)

suggests that it should not necessarily be narrowly interpreted as
“wolf,” and perhaps refers more broadly to “that which liberates


Ancient Goddesses are frequently depicted as lion tamers. While

the bull and the lion are both associated with the immortal
Goddesses Isis and Hathor in Egypt, the lion is particularly
associated with Goddesses in ancient regions east of Egypt (the
Sinai peninsula, Jordan), as well as Sumer (Iraq), and Phrygia
(Turkey). Ancient artworks throughout the Mediterranean depict
a lion-headed Goddess (Bastet), a Goddess standing on lions, a
Goddess seated on a thrown flanked by lions, and the Magna
Mater (Great Mother) driving a chariot pulled by lions.

Lis (λίς) or leon (λέων) mean lion, literally “loosen divine-

power” or “loosen essence brings-forth prevailing.” Leaina
(λέαινα) means a lioness, which is also the term for women
dedicated to the immortal God Mithras, the bull-slayer. Leonto-
(λεοντο-) is a prefix meaning lion. Female lions are the primary

Lions are frequently referred to as “bull-slaying.”

Female deities tame the “bull-slaying lion” in ancient Phrygian

(Turkey), Sumerian (Iraq), Syrian, Phoenician, and Egyptian art
dated as early as 5900 BCE.

Seated Goddess on a Throne Flanked by Female Lions, Catal

Huyuk, circa 5900 BCE.
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature http:// features hymns addressed to the immortal
Goddess Ninegala (Inana), referred to in one hymn as the
“lioness of heaven:”

A hymn to Inana as Ninegala (Inana D): c.4.07.4

“Great light, heavenly lioness, always speaking words of assent!

Inana, great light, lioness of heaven, who always speaks words
of assent!

Ninegala! As you rise in the morning sky like a flame visible

from afar, and at your bright appearance in the evening sky, the
shepherd entrusts (?) the flocks of Sumer to you. Celestial sign,
…… glory of heaven! All the countries are building a house for
you as for the risen sun; a shining (?) torch is assigned to you,
the light of the Land.”

Temple hymn sources identify Ninhursag (NIN.URSAG)

(“Lady of the Mountain”) as the “true and great lady of heaven”
and kings of Sumer were “nourished by Ninhursag's milk.”
Inana/Ninhursag is typically depicted with wings, wearing a
tiered dress, often with bow cases at her shoulders, and not
infrequently carries a mace or baton, sometimes standing on or
seated above a lion. The depiction, below, dates to circa 2200

Black-stone cylinder seal. Akkadian, circa 2334-2154 BCE.

S. Beaulieu, after Wolkstein & Kramer 1983:92.

Inana on Her Throne, circa 2000-1600 BCE. Akkad period.

Nephrite. Cylinder seal. Mesopotamia. She is seated above a
The Goddess Astarte is depicted standing on a lion, circa 1500

Gold pendant depicting the immortal Goddess Astarte standing

on a lion. Ugarit, (the modern Ras Shamra on the coast of
Syria.) circa 1500 BCE. Museum: Musée du Louvre

The immortal Goddess Qudshu is also depicted standing on a

lion, circa 1250 BCE:

The Egyptian immortal Goddess Qudshu, standing on a lion. 

From Deir el-Medina, Thebes, Egypt, circa 1250 BCE. British
Museum. Height: 75 cm

A winged Babylonian Goddess is depicted standing on a lion,

circa 1800 BCE:

Old Babylonian, A Goddess standing on a lion, from southern

Iraq, British Museum. Height: 49.5 cm 1800-1750 BCE.

Ancient coins of Orthosia, Phoenicia (West Bank) feature the

head of Tyche (Fortune) and, on the obverse side, Tyche
(Fortune) driving a chariot drawn by winged lions.
Phoenicia, Orthosia. 24/23 BCE). Turreted head of Tyche right /
Tyche in a chariot pulled by winged lions. http://

A fragment of pottery features the immortal Goddess Rhea-

Kybele riding on the back of a lion, circa 450 BCE:

The Goddess Rhea-Kybele rides side-saddle on the back of a


Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Boston

10.187, Attic Red Figure Kylix fragment, circa 450 BCE.

A Thracian coin depicts Kybele riding on a lion, circa 245 CE:

Thracian Coin depicting Kybele riding a lion, circa 245 CE.

T0231: THRACE. Bizya. Philip I, A.D. 244-249. AE 33

(21.13 g).           

THRACE. Bizya. Philip I, A.D. 244-249. AE 33 (21.13 g) ( mm,

gm). Diademed and radiate bust right. Rev: Kybele riding lion
right. Jurukova 122 (1 example recorded). VF/F
In Ovid’s Fasti:  April 4 Megalensia Ludi Comitialis, Ovid
describes a conversation regarding the Spring festival in
celebration of the Mother of the Gods and Goddesses:

“And the Idaean Mother’s feast begins . . .

            ‘Why do fierce lions strangely

Submit their manes to her arcing yoke?’

            . . . ‘It’s thought she tamed their wildness.

            Her own chariot testifies to this.’”

Ovid. Fasti (4. 183, 215-221), translated by Anthony J. Boyle

(London and New York, et. al.: Penguin Books, 2000.)

The immortal Goddess Kybele is depicted in a chariot drawn by

lions at the Palacio de Communicaciones in Madrid, Spain.

The Plaza de Cibeles, Madrid, Spain, the Cibeles


Orphic Hymn 26. To The Mother of the Gods [and Goddesses]

(1-10) describes her as enthroned on a car drawn by bull-
destroying lions:
“Mother of Gods [and Goddesses], great nurse of all, draw near,

Divinely honor'd, and regard my pray'r:

Thron'd on a car, by lions drawn along,

By bull-destroying lions, swift and strong,

Thou sway'st the sceptre of the pole divine,

And the world's middle seat, much-fam'd, is thine.

Hence earth is thine, and needy mortals share

Their constant food, from thy protecting care:

From thee at first both Gods [and Goddesses] and men (sic)

From thee, the sea and ev'ry river flows . . . ”

The appearance of the constellation Leo (July-August)

immediately precedes the constellation Virgo (August-
September) in the summer sky, which may explain the many
images of a female deity depicted as standing on a lion, riding a
lion, or in a chariot drawn by lions.

Card 20. Leo Major and Leo Minor, from Urania’s Mirror or a
View of the Heavens.

Card 21. Virgo, From Urania’s Mirror or a View of the


Leopardos (λεόπαρδος) means leopard.

A lugks (λύγξ), lynx, is a wild cat and the name of a Northern

springtime constellation.

Card 8. Lynx Constellation. From Urania’s Mirror or a View of

the Heavens.


Leimma (λεῖμμα) means remnant, residue, or what is leftover.

Leipsanon (λείψᾰνον) means a remnant or a piece left.

Loipos (λοιπός) means something remaining over, left over; for

the future, for the rest; further, then.
Loistheeios (λοισθήϊος) means for the last, the prize for the last
race, last prize, last (but not least?).


Larinos (λᾱρῑνος) means fat.

Lipaino (λῐπαίνω) means to oil, anoint.

Lipao (λῐπάω) means to be sleek, the basis for the word lipid, an
organic compound that is greasy/fatty.


Loksias (Λοξίας) means oblique and refers to the ecliptic orbit

of the sun, the path that the sun appears to follow through the
sky during the year.

Loksikos (λοξικός) means oblique or ecliptic. Loksos (λοξός)

means something slanting, crosswise, ecliptic, or ambiguous.

Lopdaina (λορδαίνω) means to be bent backward so as to be

convex in front. Lopdo (λορδόω) means to bend oneself
supinely so as to throw back the head.
Lugizo (λύγίζω) means to bend or twist as one does with a
withe (a flexible tough supple twig such as a willow used to bind
things together).

Lugos  (λύγος) means withy and also refers to the Vitex agnus
castus or chaste-tree, so named because it is believed to play a
role in helping to dampen libido.


Linon (λίνον) means linen or anything made of flax.

Lin- (λῐν-) is a prefix meaning linen or flax. Lino (λῐνό-) is a

prefix meaning linseed, linen. Linarion (λῐνάριον) means
thread. The flax fiber is obtained from the stalk of the plant.

The flax or linen flower.


Lita (λῖτα) means linen cloth. Lention (λέντιον) means cloth,

napkin, or towel.

Lasion (λάσιον) means to be rough or shaggy. Lasios (λάσῐος)
means something shaggy, woolly, hairy, or bushy.

Leio-  (λειό-) is a prefix meaning smooth. Leios (λεῖος) means

smooth to the touch. Leuros (λευρός) means smooth, level,
even, or polished. 

Lis, lissos, or leazo (λίς, λισσός, λεάζω) mean smooth.  Lispos

(λίσπος) means to be smooth or polished.


Lao- (λαο-) is a prefix meaning of the people. Laos (λᾱός)

means people or multitude, the basis for the word laity.

Laikos (λἃϊκός) means someone of or from the people,

unofficial, common, a layperson.

Leeiton (λήϊτον) means town-hall, council-chamber; public


Laodees (λᾱωδης) and leodees (λεώδης) mean popular or

common. Lagetos (λᾱγέτος) means leader of the people.

Laggon (λαγγών) means trader or merchant.


Many Mediterannean locales begin with the letter Λ λ.

Lakon (Λάκων) means Laconian. Lakedaimoniazo

(Λᾰκεδαιμονιάζω) means Lacedaemon, the capital of Laconia
in the southern Peloponnese.

Lakkos (λάκκος) means a pond, cistern, or pit for storing wine

or oil.

Larisa (Λάρῖσα) is the name of many old Greek cities. Laros

(λᾱρος) means pleasant: pleasant to the taste, to the smell, to the
eye. Liaros (λῐᾰρός) means warm, gentle, balmy, or a warm,
soft wind.

Latinee (Λᾰτίνη) refers to anything from Latium/Ausoniee

(Αύσονίη), central Italy.

Latreia (λατρεία) means hired labor, service, duties.

Lebua (Λεβύα= Λῐβύη) means both the city of Libya and

Africa in general; it generally refers to the west bank of the Nile.
Libikos (λῐβικός) means western.

Lesbos (Λεσβος) is an island renowned for its poets and


“They [Lesbians] have the reputation of being exceedingly

skilled in the art of music.” Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 7

Leschee (λέσχη) means a resting place, couch, lounging, funeral

bier or tomb, public building or hall, lounge, or meeting-place,
and the gossip that occurred there.

Leemnos (Λῆμνος) is an island sacred to Hephaistos, the

immortal God of volcanoes and metalworking. Leemnos
(Λῆμνος) translates literally “loose center,” a fitting description
for a volcano.

Leemao (λημάω) means bleary, misty, literally “loose central

middle/meta arising.” To be full of rheum, a secretion of rheum
in the eyes is leemodees (λημώδης).  

Libanos (Λίβᾰνος) is Lebanon, the home of the frankincense

tree, Boswellia Carterii, Libanos (λίβᾰνος) means frankincense.

Liguria (Λίγυς) is a coastal mountainous area now part of

northwest Italy. According to Herodotus (7.165) and Diodorus
of Sicily (11.1, 21.3), the Ligurians served as mercenaries in the
Carthaginian and Sicilian armies. According to William Smith
(Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography), the Greeks never
established their power far inland in this region and “the
mountain tribes of the Ligurians were left in the enjoyment of
undisturbed independence.”

Ligus (λῐγύς) means a clear, sweet, shrill sound. Liga (λίγᾰ)

means in a loud, clear tone.  A thick smoke mixed with flame, a
murky fire is a lignus (λιγνύς).

Liguria is the northern coast of the Ligurian sea.

Locrian/Lokros (Λοκρός) is a region north of the Peloponnese.

The region of Locris is shown in yellow north of the


Lydia/Ludia (Λῦδία) is a region of Phrygia (modern Turkey)

that includes the city of Ephesus, home to the Temple of

Image at: asia/turkey/turkey1.htm


Laburinthos (λᾰβύρινθος) means labyrinth, a large building

consisting of numerous halls connected by intricate and tortuous
passages. Such buildings are noted in antiquity in Egypt, Crete,
Rome, and Miletus. Labyrinth also means tortuous questions or

Lagkee (λάγκη) means lanx, a plate or platter, dish. According

to Webster’s, lanx is the substantive syllable in the word

Lanx, circa 350 CE. The scene shows the God Apollo at the
entrance to a shrine, holding a bow, his lyre at his feet. Artemis
enters from the left, holding a bow. Athena stands with her hand
raised to indicate conversation. Two other female figures
complete the scene, one holding a staff and the other seated.

Lagunos (λάγῦνος) is a container for transporting liquids, a

flask, flagon, or pitcher.

Laipseeros (λαιψηρός) means to be light, nimble, or swift.

Lekanee (λεκάνη) or lekos (λέκος) is a dish, pot, or pan.

Lopas (λοπάς) is a flat dish or plate. Lopad- (λοπᾰδ-) is prefix
meaning dish.

Lekithos (λέκῐθος) means the yoke of an egg, literally “loosen

essence core.”

Lemphos (λέμφος) means putrescent (rotting) carcasses.

Leos (λέως) means entirely or wholly.

Leet- (λητ) is a prefix meaning to serve the public.

Lian (λίαν) means very or exceedingly.

Limn- (λιμν-) is a prefix meaning pool, lake, marsh, or

irrigation. Limeen (λῐμήν) is a harbor, haven, retreat, or refuge.

Litra (λίτρα) means a silver coin of Sicily: 12 ounces; 1

measure of capacity, the basis for the word liter.

Lips (λίψ) means the SW wind, the South; also, the position of a
star on the Western horizon at sunrise or sunset.

Lopee (λῶπη) is a covering, robe, or mantle.

Μ μ      mu (μῦ), mo (μῶ)         meta (macro-micro

medium)            pronounce: m
The letter Μ means meta: the macro-micro medium: the
medium connecting the macro and the micro.

The macro is the overarching real and conceptual Something,

while the micro is the realization of the Something in the
individual. For example, “Life” as embodied in “a life.” “Art” as
embodied by “a work of art.”  “Distance” as embodied in the
measure “five feet.”

The word meaning is a good example of meta. The response to

the question, “What is the meaning of this?” puts a concept into
digestible terms. In a mathematical sense, a mean is a number
that helps embody a whole set of numbers. The means by which
something is accomplished is the medium or mechanism that
connects will with specific outcome. Media convey ideas from a
source to a recipient.

Webster’s defines medium as:

-        a middle state or condition;

-        a mean;

-        an intervening substance through which a force acts or an

effect is produced;

-        an environment;
-        a means by which something is conveyed or

-        a means of communication, media;

-        a person who channels spirits;

-        the halfway between extremes. 

The shape of the letter Μ lends itself to its meaning: the top of
two verticals are connected in the middle at the bottom in a

The shape of Μ also resembles mountains. The volcanic and

tectonic mountains of Greece are media connecting the depths of
the earth with the heights of the sky.

The foothills of Mount Olympos form the shape of the letter



Methorios (μεθόριος) means lying between as a boundary, the

border between, border, limit.
Mes- (μεσ-) is a prefix meaning middle, half-way, in the midst,

Mesee (μέση) means the middle string (on a lyre); the mean;

Mesos (μέσος) means middle, in the middle.

Meseuo (μεσεύω) means to keep the middle or mean between

the two, to stand midway, to be neutral. Messoo (μεσσόω)
means to be in or at the middle.

Mespha (μέσφᾰ) means until. Mesphi (μέσφι) means as far as,

up to. These are useful terms when trying to divide up portions

A modiolos (μοδίολος) is the nave (central point) of a wheel.


Meta (μετά) means among, between, in common, in cooperation

with, in conjunction with, in company with, into the middle.

Metaksu (μεταξύ) means between, in the midst of, in the

interval, meanwhile, in the middle. 
Meta- (μετα-) is a prefix meaning exchange, barter, transfer,
equating one thing with another. Meta (μετά-) is a prefix
meaning change or divert into a new form or place.

Metamorphosis (μεταμορφωσις) means transformation.

(Morphee (μορφή) means form, shape.)

Metago (μετάγω) means to derive a metaphor.

Metaphora (μεταφορά, μεταφέρω) means transfer, translate,

change, alter, transport, transfer a word to a new sense or
meaning. (Phora (φορά) means carry; gestation; borne or
carried along; that which is brought forth, fruit. Phero (φέρω)
means bear, carry, convey.)

Metaphraso (μεταφράζω) means to paraphrase or translate. 

Metaggizo (μεταγγίζω) means to pour from one (larger) vessel

into another (smaller) vessel.

Meteimi (μέτειμι) means to be among, to have a share or claim

to, to go between or among.

Mete- (μετε-) is a prefix meaning transfer.

Metempsuchosis (μετεμψύχωσις) is defined in the Lexicon as

the transmigration of the psyche/soul. (Psuchosis (ψύχωσις)
means giving soul or life to, animating, quickening (of the
fetus); also, the principle of life.)


Memory is the medium that connects the vast expanse of all that
has come before with the finite and immediate present.

Mna (μνᾶ) means remembrance, reminder, commemoration.

Mneemee (μνήμη) means memory.

A memory connects the present with the past. Mneia (μνεία)

means remembrance. Mneema (μνῆμα) is a memorial,
remembrance, or record. Mneemon (μνήμων) and mnaomai
(μνάομαι) mean to be mindful, to remember. Mnees- (μνησ-) is
a prefix meaning remember.

Memneo (μέμνεο, μιμνήσκω) means to remind, put in mind,

call to mind.

Membrana (μεμβράνα) is a parchment, a tool for recording


A memorion (μεμόριον) is a memorial chapel or shrine.

Mneemo (Μνημώ) and Mneemosunee (Μνημοσύνη) mean
Mnemosyne, the immortal Goddess of memory and the Mother
of the immortal Muses.

According to Diodorus of Sicily:

“Mnemosyne discovered the uses of the power of reason,

and . . . she gave a designation to every object about us by
means of the names which we use to express whatever we would
and to hold conversation one with another . . . And to this
[G]oddess is also attributed the power to call things to memory
and to remembrance (mneme) which men (sic) (anthropois/
άνθρώποις) possess . . .”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of History

(5. 67. 1-5), translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical
Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd., 1939) 279.)


A Muse is the medium that connects Whatever Goes into Art

with an individual work of art. The Muse inspires works of
creativity that come from a place bigger than the artist, writer, or
Museums are repositories for work inspired by the Muse.

Music is a product of the Muse’s inspiration.

Moisa (Μοῖσα), Mousa (Μοῦσα) and Moa (Μῶά) mean Muse.

Mousa (μοῦσα) means music, song; the liberal arts; poetry,

literature; science.

Mouseion (Μουσεῖον) means Museum, a philosophical school

and library of works inspired by the Muse.

The British Museum, one of the world’s great repositories of art

and culture, has as a centerpiece over its entrance an image of
the Muse of Science.

The Muse of Science at the center of the pediment over the main
entrance of The British Museum, London, England. Artist: Sir
Richard Westmacott, 1851 CE.

Platos’ Academy, founded circa 388 BCE, had a shrine to the

Muse. The Lyceum, an institute for the study of historical,
political, literary, and scientific research founded by Aristotle in
Athens in 335 BCE also had a shrine to the Muse. (Diog. Laert.
4.1 on the Academy and 5.51 on the Peripatos. Cf. Athen. 12.
547d; Diog. Laert. 4.19; Paus. 1.3).
Established some forty-five years later, circa 290 BCE, the
Museum of Alexandria in northern Egypt was a center of
scientific research dedicated to the Muse. Connected with the
Museum, the Alexandrian Library contained, according to
Callimachus, over 500,000 volumes or rolls (manuscripts).

 (“Libraries,” The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., edited by

Hugh Chisholm (New York: 1911) 546.) http://

It is worth noting that nearly 2000 years before Galileo (1600

CE) “discovered” that the earth revolved around the sun,
Archimedes (circa 250 BCE) cited Alexandrian scholars who
asserted heliocentrism:

“Aristarchus of Samos . . . hypotheses are that the fixed stars and

sun remain unmoved, that the earth revolves about the sun in the
circumference of a circle, the sun lying in the middle of the
orbit . . . ”

(T.L. Heath, Works of Archimedes, London: C. J. Clay and Sons,

Cambridge University Press, 1897) 221-222.)


Music is a medium that connects the vast Whatever Goes into

Music with the individual expression of a musician.

 In Theurgia, Iamblichus (250-325 CE) describes music as a

medium of the Gods and Goddesses:

“. . . choric songs are sacred to the [G]ods [and Goddesses] . . .

By the agency of such a relationship of the choric songs to the
[G]ods [and Goddesses] it is that their presence actually
becomes manifest, for there is nothing intervening; and hence
whatever has a mere incidental resemblance to them becomes
immediately participant of them. There also takes place at once
a perfect possession and filling with the divine essence and

(Iamblichus, “Chapter 7: Origin of the Art of

Divination,” Theurgia or The Egyptian Mysteries (Περὶ τῶν
αἰγυπτίων μυστηρίων), translated by Alexander Wilder
(London: William Rider and Son; New York: The Metaphysical
Publishing Co., 1911.)
iambl_t2.htm#chap7 This digital edition by Joseph H. Peterson,
Copyright © 2000.

Music is defined by Webster’s as “the art of sound in time that

expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the
element of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color.”  It is
interesting that Webster’s includes color as an element of music.

Mathematics and music both involve metrics. Pythagoras, the

Greek philosopher and mathematician (circa 500 BCE),
perceived an intrinsic link between the proportions found in
math, cosmology, and music as described by Sir William Smith
in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities:

“The first four (kinds of proportions), according to Iamblichus,

were invented or introduced from Babylon by Pythagoras. These
are the arithmetical . . . the geometrical . . .the harmonical . . .
and the musical.”

(William Smith, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin, editors. A

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Volume 1 (London:
John Murray, 1890) 189.)

The mathematician and philosopher Aristotle (circa 350 BCE) in

his treatise Metaphysics reflects Pythagoras’ belief that numbers
hold the key to understanding the universe and that music is an
expression of the harmonies of the universe, “the whole heaven
a musical scale and number:”
“They (the Pythagoreans) saw that the modifications and the
ratios of the musical scales were expressible in numbers;—
since, then, all other things seemed in their whole nature to be
modeled on numbers, and numbers seemed to be the first things
in the whole of nature, they supposed the elements of numbers
to be the elements of all things, and the whole heaven to be a
musical scale and a number.”

(Aristotle. Metaphysics (985b 23-986a 3; see also

1090a20-29), translated by William David Ross (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1908,)

The concept of magic and music is present in the word magadis

(μάγαδις), to sing or play a succession of notes in octaves.
Magadis is the name of an instrument with twenty strings
arranged in octaves. (Magadis is also the word for a Lydian flute
producing a high note and low note together.) Magadizo
(μᾰγᾰδίζω) means to play the magadis. The bridge of the
cithara/lyre is the magas (μᾰγάς). A mardos (μάρδος) is a kind
of flute.

The “magical” properties of music and its relation to the cosmos

was studied intensively by Pythagoras and his followers.
Pythagoras discovered that the first and fourth strings when
sounded together produced the harmonic interval of the octave,
for doubling the weight had the same effect as halving the string.
He then related this to the proportion of the distance between the
planets. His discovery formed the basis for the musical law of
octaves, the “Pythagorean interval,” the diapson or diatonic

In chemistry some 2300 years later, the chemical law of octaves

was discovered by the English chemist John R. Newlands (1864
CE) who, while making a list of the elements in the ascending
order of their atomic weights, observed at every eighth element
a distinct repetition of properties. His work formed the first
Periodic Table of elements.

More than 1900 years after Pythagoras, Renaissance architect

Leone Battista Alberti (1404-1472 CE) expressed his confidence
in the notion that proportions in nature and in music are a model
for proportions in architecture: "[I am] convinced of the truth of
Pythagoras' saying, that Nature is sure to act consistently . . . I
conclude that the same numbers by means of which the
agreement of sounds affect our ears with delight are the very
same which please our eyes and our minds."

Leione Battista Alberti designed magnificent shrines in Italy,

such as the Santa Maria Novella in Florence (Firenze).

 Leon Battista Alberti, Santa Maria Novella, interior, 1458 CE,

Melos (μέλος) means limbs, bodily frame, or form, especially
with reference to a musical member, phrase, song, strain, tune,
or melody. Melizo (μελίζω) means to modulate, sing, to be like
music, to celebrate in song. Melikos (μελῐκός) means lyric.

Melodeo (μελῳδέω) means to chant, sing, set to music, the

basis for the word melody.

Melpo (μέλπω) means to celebrate with song and dance.

Melpomenee (Μελπομένη) is the immortal Muse of song.

Melographia (μελογρᾰφία) means both songwriting and

divination. With reference to the universe, melographia refers to
the position of the universe’s parts at the beginning of events
(for the purpose of divination).


Math connects the vast expanse of What Is Knowable with the

finite pool of what is known.

Today, we narrowly define mathematics as the realm of

numbers, but in ancient Greece, mathematics meant knowledge,
instruction, learning.

Matheema (μάθημα) means that which is learnt, a lesson,

learning, knowledge.

Matheeteia (μᾰθητεία) means instruction from a teacher. 

Matheetees (μᾰθητής) means learner, pupil.

Meetis  (μῆτις) means wisdom, skill.

Matos (μάτος) means to search.

Manthano (μανθάνω) means to learn by practice, by

experience, by study, to acquire a habit of, to perceive, remark,
notice, understand.

Masteia (μαστεία) means inquiry, search for, seek, the basis for
the word mastery.

Methodos (μεθοδος) means pursue, follow, pursuit of

knowledge, investigation, and method of pursuing inquiry, the
basis for the word method. A method is a means of getting from
one place of knowledge to another unknown place.

Mematheemenos (μεμᾰθημένως) means to know by learning.

Metrics are a medium for expressing concepts in a specific

Metreo (μετρέω) means to measure/count and is the basis for

the word meter.

Metron (μέτρον) means measure, rule, meter. 

Metrios (μέτριος) is something that is measurable, within

measure; moderate, average size, a reasonable number, not too
great, neither exaggerating nor depreciating.

Metriotees (μετριότης) means moderation.

Some of the metrics of math include:

- makros (μακρός): length-wise, long-distance, tall, high, long,

far, remote

- megethos (μέγεθος): greatness, magnitude

- meiotees (μειότης): minimizing

- meio (μειόω): lessen, diminish, become smaller, decrease

- meion (μείων):  minus, of less value

- meron (μερῶν): make less or smaller, diminish, reduce in


- mechri (μέχρί): approximation, as far as, to express a round

sum, up to, about

- meekos (μῆκος): length

- meekikos (μηκικός): longitude

- mikos, mikros (μίκκός, μῑκός, μικρός): small, little

- milion (μῑλῐον): a Roman mile

- minutho (μῐνῠθω): minus, lessen, curtail, reduce, diminish the

number of, become smaller.


A meteorologos (μετεωρολόγος) is one who talks of the

heavenly bodies, an astronomer, literally, “one who measures
(μετ-) what is raised up high (εωρο);” eoro- (εωρο-) means lift,
lift up, raise.

Meteoros (μετέωρος) means raised from off the ground; on the

surface; in mid-air, high in the air.
A meteorskopion (μετεωροσκόπιον) is an instrument for taking
celestial observations. Celestial observations are used both for
purposes of divination and for weather forecasting. The seasons
of the year are determined by the position of celestial bodies
which rotate around the earth in a consistent and predictable

Aristotle begins his treatise Meteorology by defining


“. . .  meteorology . . . is concerned with events that . . . take

place in the region nearest to the motion of the stars. Such are
the milky way, and comets, and the movements of meteors. It
studies also . . . air and water, and . . . earth . . . These throw
light on the causes of winds and earthquakes . . .  Further, the
inquiry is concerned with the falling of thunderbolts and with
whirlwinds and fire . . .”

(Aristotle (circa 350 BCE). Meteorology, translated by E. W.

Webster (Kessinger Publishing, 2004) 3.) http://

Greek scientist Theophrastus wrote in his treatise On Winds and

on Weather Signs that whoever:

“ . . . wishes to forecast, must pay special attention to the rising

and settings of these (celestial) bodies . . . The Pleiades
(constellation) divide the year by their rising and setting . . . And
the solstices and the equinoxes have the same operation.”

(Theophrastus of Eresus (circa 300 BCE). On Winds and on

Weather Signs, translated by Jas. G. Wood (London: Edward
Stanford, 1894) 55.)

Maira (Μαῖρα) is another name for the star Sirius, whose rising
signals the midsummer solstice.  

Martios (Μάρτιος) is the month of March, the month when the

Spring Equinox occurs.  


The moon is a medium that bridges the gap between the stars,
the sun, and the earth. The moon reflects the sun’s light and
illuminates the night.

The moon also serves as a calendar, with the kalends (new

moon) indicating the beginning of the month (moon), a simple
and effective way to set a date for an event, meeting, or festival
in a time before the printing press and calendar.

Meis (μείς) means month, a crescent moon.

Meenee (μήνη) means moon.

Meeno- (μηνο-) is a prefix meaning crescent-shaped. Meeniskos

(μηνίσκος) means the lunar crescent. 

Meen/Meis (Μήν, Μείς) is a divinity of Anatolia (modern


Meenaios (μηναῖος) means lunar; monthly; the menstruation of

women. It is of interest to note that both moon cycles and
menstrual cycles average about 30 days. At the midpoint of the
moon cycle, the moon is full. At the midpoint of the menstrual
cycle, an egg is released.

The moon orbits Earth every 27.3 days. However, since the
Earth is moving in its orbit around the Sun at the same time, it
takes about 29.5 days to observe the phases of the moon.   

(C. Renee James. “The Ugly Side of Gravity,” Astronomy Vol.

35, Issue 8, edited by David J. Eicher (USA: Kalmbach
Publishing, August 2007) 36.)

“Menstrual cycles normally range from about 25 to 36 days.

Only 10 to 15% of women have cycles that are exactly 28 days.”

(“Biology of the Female Reproductive System.” The Merck

Manual Home Health Handbook for Patients and Caregivers,
Women’s Health Issues.


The condition of mania is frequently associated with the moon.

Today, mania has the connotation of insanity, whereas
traditionally it meant channeling the divine.

Mania (μᾰνία) means madness, enthusiasm, inspired frenzy.

Note that the word enthusiasm is derived from “in theos” or
“divinity within.”

Mana (μάνη, μάνα) means madness, enthusiasm, inspiration,

passion; looseness of texture, porous. 

An open, porous disposition is required to absorb the divine


Iamblichus describes the role of prayer in “conjoining” with the

Gods and Goddesses:

“No sacred performance takes place properly, without the

supplications in the prayers. But continual exercise in them
nourishes our mind and spiritual nature, makes the reception-
chambers of the soul vastly more spacious for the Gods [and
Goddesses], opens the arcana of the Gods [and Goddesses] to
human beings, accustoms us to the irradiations of the light, and
by degrees perfects the qualities within us to a conjoining with
the Gods [and Goddesses].”   

(Iamblichus, Theurgia or The Egyptian Mysteries (Περὶ τῶν

αἰγυπτίων μυστηρίων), translated by Alexander Wilder
(London: William Rider and Son; New York: The Metaphysical
Publishing Co., 1911.))

Manos (μανός) means loose or open in texture. Manotees

(μανότης) means looseness of texture, porousness, loose.

Man- (μήν-, μᾱν-) is a prefix meaning to disclose what is secret,

reveal, make known, declare, inform.

Mantis (μαντῐς) means presager, foreboder. The term mantis

was also applied to comets/meteors. The non-Greek word
“oracle” is often used in translations of the Greek word mantis.

Manteia (μαντεία) is prophetic power or the power of

divination; divination of the will and wisdom of the immortals;
the “oracle,” the “oracular” response, and the words of

Mantikos (μαντικός) means prophetic, “oracular.”

Iamblichus (250-325 CE) describes the porous state of the

prophetess at Delphi:

“The prophetess at Delphi . . . gives herself up entirely to the

divine spirit and is shined upon by the ray of the fire.

“In fact, when the fiery mist coming up from the aperture, dense
and abundant, encompasses her on every side in a circle, she
becomes filled by it with a divine luminance, and when she sits
down in the seat of the [G]od [or Goddess] she comes into
harmony with the unwavering oracular power of the divinity,
and from these two preparatory operations she becomes entirely
the medium of the [G]od [or Goddess].”

(Iamblichus, Theurgia (Περὶ τῶν αἰγυπτίων μυστηρίων), Part

III, “Chapter 7: Origin of the Art of Divination,” translated by
Alexander Wilder (London: William Rider and Son; New York:
The Metaphysical Publishing Co., 1911) 28-29.)

Meenigks (μῆνιγξ) is the word for the selectively-permeable

membrane, a thin, pliable layer of tissue serving to line an organ,
connect parts, etc.
Manias (μᾰνιάς) is a frantic, mad, raving state of mind. A
Mainas (Μαινάς) is a Maenad or Bacchante, a woman devoted
to the immortal God of wine, Dionysos/Bacchos. Mainolees
(μαινόλης) means to be raving or frenzied with the maddening
effects of wine.


Overwhelming states of mind are divinely inspired.

Maleros (μᾰλερός) means fierce, raging, fiery, glowing, violent.

Mamao (μαιμάω) means to be very eager, to quiver with

eagerness, to rush into.

Mainomai (μαίνομαι) means to rage, be furious, to be mad, to


Margao (μαργάω) means raging; madly eager to, rampant,

furious, greedy, gluttonous; lusty, wanton.

Memona (μέμονα) means to be furiously eager, expectant,

hoping, presuming.

Meenis (μῆνις) means wrath. Meenio (μηνίω) means to cherish

wrath or be wroth against.


An actor is a medium for portraying a character. In Greek

theatre, so-called because it is a place to see portrayals of Theos
(Gods and Goddesses), actors are a medium for portrayals of

Mim- (μῑμ-) is a prefix meaning mimic, imitate, represent,

portray, impersonate.

A mimos (μῖμος) is an imitator, mimic, or actor. Mimes/actors

occupy both their own selves and the character they are

Mokos  (μωκός) means mimic, the basis for the word mock.


Martyr did not originally have the connotation of sacrificing

oneself for a greater cause. Martyr simply meant witness.

A witness is a medium who conveys the circumstances of

another place or point in time to the jury.
Martur (μάρτῠρ, μάρτῠς) means witness, one who gives
testimony, proof, evidence.

Marturion (μαρτύριον) means testimony, proof.


A mother is the medium that transforms Whatever Goes into

Life and an individual life.

Ma (μᾶ) is defined in the Lexicon as “shorter Aeolic and Doric

form for μάτηρ.”

It is worth noting that the Lexicon goes to extraordinary lengths

to avoid using the word mother in translations of Greek words
and prefixes that mean “mother.”

The Lexicon defines μάτρως as: “Doric for μητρ-.”

It then goes on to define μήτρη as: “Ionic for μήτρα.”

It then goes on to define μήτρα variously as “womb; a swine’s

matrix; metaphor for source, origin; core, heart-wood of trees;
queen-wasp; bolts for locks; and register of house-property.”
It defines μήτειρα as “μήτηρ.”

It defines μᾰτήρ as “Doric for μήτηρ.”

It defines μήτηρ as “μάτηρ,” but finally, under this heading,

continues on to at last give an English word for these terms:

Other words for mother include:

- mammee (μάμμη) mamma (μάμμα): a child’s word for


- mammikos (μάμμικός): of a grandmother

- meemee (μήμη): great-grandmother.

Meetr- (μητρ-) is a prefix meaning mother.

Meetroon (Μητρῷον) means temple of the immortal Goddess

Demeter; temple of the immortal Goddess Cybele (especially at
Athens, where it was a depository of state archives.)

Meetris (μητρίς) means one’s mother country. Meetropolis

(μητροπολις) means mother-state, mother-city. A
meetropolitees (μητροπολίτης) is a citizen of a metropolis.

Meetriazo (μήτρῐάζω) means worship of the Mother of the

Gods and Goddesses.

Meetrizo (μήτρίζω) means to be inspired by the Mother of the

Gods and Goddesses.

Meetrozo (μητρώζω) means to celebrate the festival of the

Mother of the Gods and Goddesses.

In Euripides’ Helen the Chorus sings about the fury of the Great
Mother when her daughter, Persephone, was stolen from her,
causing famine:


There was a time, they say, when the Great Mother

Ran to and fro frantic over the mountains,

Through green glades of the forest,

Scanning the swirl of every river,

Scouring the deep-voiced swell of the salt ocean,

Searching in anguish for her lost Persephone,

Maiden of mysteries.
“Then with a shrill shout

Sang out the ecstatic cymbals,

The Phrygian lions were yoked,

And in her gorgeous chariot the [G]oddess rode

To seek Persephone, stolen from the dancing ring of girls.

Beside her swept like whirlwinds the virgin [G]oddesses,

Artemis armed with invincible arrows,

Athene with spear and Gorgon shield . . .

“Now when, wearied and bewildered, the Great Mother

Ceased her swift searching over the mountains,

In despair for her stolen daughter

She climbed the dazzling snow-bound summits

Sacred to nymphs of Ida; and at her command

The swollen torrents that leap down the mountain gorges

Were swallowed in the sink of the sea.

“And cattle starved on the brown plains;

The sapless earth could bear no fruit;

The child died in the womb;

No lusty bud or curling tendril-spray

Burst from the vine; and on cities a deathly silence fell;

No pious thanksgiving thronged the temples,

No altar flamed with holy oil;

Even the shining springs the [G]oddess forbade to flow,

In frenzy of grief for her lost child.”

(Euripides (circa 450 BCE). “Helen,” The Bacchae and Other

Plays, translated by Philip Vellacott (London and New York:
Penguin Books: 1954, 1973) 177-178.)

Maiomai (μαιόμαι) means to deliver a child or practice
midwifery. Maiotra (μαίωτρα) is a midwife’s wages. Maieia
(μαιεία) is the business of a midwife.

Maios (Μάϊος) is May, a month known for “giving birth” to

flowers. Webster’s defines May as “short for Maius mensis
Maia’s month.”

Maia (μαῖα) means good mother, mother; earth; midwife;

female doctor.   

Maia (Μαῖα) is the mother of Ermees (Έρμῆς), Hermes, the

immortal God of invention and communication. According to

“[Hermes] was regarded as the author of a variety of inventions,

and, besides the lyre and syringe, he is said to have invented the
alphabet, numbers, astronomy, music, the art of fighting,
gymnastics, the cultivation of the olive tree, measures, weights,
and many other things. (Plut. Sympos. ix. 3; Diod. l.c. and v. 75;
Hygin. Fab. 277.)”   

Mogostokos (μογοστόκος) is an epithet of the Goddess of

birth-pangs, especially of the immortal Goddess Eileithyia.
Mogeo, mogos (μογέω, μόγος) mean toil, suffer, distress.
Mogostokia (μογοστοκία) means painful childbirth, hard
travail, literally “meta entity generative.”

Muthos (μῦθος) means word, speech; tale, story, narrative, the

basis for the word myth, literally “meta pure divine entity.”

Webster’s defines myth as stories “especially concerned with


Interestingly, the Lexicon equates muthos (μῦθος) with fiction,

“opposite logos (λόγος), historic truth.”

Mythology is a term consistently used to refer to ancient Greek

and other non-monotheistic religious beliefs.


Mueo (μῠέω) means to initiate into the mysteries, teach,

instruct, literally “meta pure essence brings-forth.”

Mueesis (μύησις) means initiation.    

Musos (μύσος) means uncleanness, defilement, literally “meta

pure synchronized.” (It is possible that the translation
“uncleanness” reflects a cultural bias.)
Musteeri- (μυστηρι-) is a prefix meaning mysteries.

Mustagogeo (μυστᾰγωγέω) means to initiate, to celebrate

sacred rites, to act as a guide, to participate in divine worship, to
introduce or initiate into the mysteries.

Mustees (μύστης) means one initiated. The mustargees

(μυστάρχης) is the chief of the initiated.

Other terms associated with the mysteries include:

- musteelasia (μυστηλᾰσία) driving of initiates

- musteerikos (μυστηρικός) mystic implements and ornaments

of or for mysteries

- musteeriotis (μυστηριῶτις) an armistice called during the

Eleusinian mysteries

- mustographos (μυστογράφος) confidential clerk

- mustilaomai (μυστῑλάομαι) to sop bread in soup or gravy and

eat it

- mustilee (μυστῑλη) a piece of bread scooped out as a spoon to

sup soup or gravy with
- mustron (μύστρον) spoon, spoonful

- mustriopolees (μυστριοπώλης) dealer in small spoons

- mustrothekee (μυστροθήκη) spoon-case.

According to William Smith, “The most celebrated mysteries in

Greece were those of Samothrace and Eleusis.”

 (William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities,

Vol. 2 (London: printed for Taylor and Walton, 1842)
632.) ,

Smith describes the Samothracian mysteries of the Kabeiri:

“The names of the Samothracian Cabeiri . . . are Axieros ( =

Demeter), Axiokersa ( = Persephone), Axiokersos ( = Hades),
Casmilos ( = Hermes) . . .  

“The group is a primal mother [G]oddess, issue of whom are

two divinities, a male and a female (Hades and Persephone),
from whom again springs a fourth, Casmilos (Hermes), the
orderer of the universe . . .

“. . . the Cabeiri themselves do appear to be symbols of the

creation of the world. From the primeval mother emanate or
differentiate themselves two elements, matter (earth) and force
(especially fire, celestial and terrestrial).”

(Wiliam Smith, William Wayte, and G. E. Marindin, editors. A

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London: John
Murray, 1890) 319-321.)
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Note: The prefix ax- (αξ-) means worthy, honoured; as well as

axle; axis. Webster's defines axis as "the line about which a
rotating body, such as the earth, turns."

Smith’s description of the Eleusinian mysteries demonstrate

similarities to that of the Kabeiri:

“ELEUSINIA. This title was chiefly applied to a festival held by

the Athenians in autumn, in honour of Demeter, Persephone, and
Iacchus, consisting of sacrifices, processions, and certain
mystical ceremonies. It was one of the most important festivals
of Greece, dated from the earliest times … 

“The Mysteries at Agrae.—These were held in the spring at

Agrae . . . There is no doubt that they were held in Anthesterion,
when there were the first signs of returning vegetation just after
field-work began . . . at Agrae there was a temple to Demeter . . .
The mysteries at Agrae consisted probably to a large extent of
purifications . . . They were held more especially in honour of
Persephone . . . It appears that the carrying off of Persephone
was the most important representation in these mysteries . . .

“The Course of the Festival at Eleusis.--. . . Sincere devotees

appear to have fasted for nine days, from the 13th to the 21st ,
i.e. ate nothing during the day, taking whatever food they did
take between sunset and sunrise; and votaries appeared to have
abstained from domestic birds, fish, pomegranates, apples, and
beans . . . and then the order for purification given, “Ye mystae
to the sea.” . . . the two salt streams on the Sacred Road, one
dedicated to Demeter, the other to Cora (Kore/Persephone) . . .
The night of the 18th may have been spent by the very devout in
sleeping in the temple of . . . Demeter . . . Meanwhile there were
being brought from Eleusis certain religious objects-- . . . certain
sacrifices were performed, consisting probably in part of swine,
to Demeter . . . (For the offering of swine to the Earth Goddess,
which offering was of a magical import, and how it was believed
that to mix the flesh of swine with the seed-corn added to its
fertility, see the Scholion on Lucian, Dial. Meretr. ii. quoted by
Mr. Andrew Lang, “Demeter and the Pig,” in the Nineteenth
Century, April 1887, p. 562)

. . . the evening . . . consisted in a symbolical search after Cora

(Kore/Persephone) with torches . . . the actual (sacred objects)
themselves were . . . among others sesame cakes of particular
shapes, pomegranates, salt, ferules, ivy, poppy-seeds, quinces
&c. . . .

“ . . . the blade of corn symbolized, we are told, the

Inexpressible One . . . or rather perhaps it was the symbol of life,
the cutting down being death . . .

“The Eleusinian mysteries lasted for more than five centuries

after Greece became a Roman province. . . the  mysteries did not
finally perish till the destruction of Eleusis by Alaric in his
invasion of Greece, 396 [CE].” 

(William Smith, William Wayte, and G.E. Marindin, editors. A

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London: John
Murray, 1901) 715-725.)
a%20%20&f=false )

Ancient Greeks believed that mortality is a microcosm of the

Immortal phenomena, such as observations regarding immortal

sky, earth, love, etc., are a model for how mortals should live
their lives. Greek attempts to understand immortal phenomena
in order to bring mortality in line with immortality engendered
the most sophisticated science, math, literature, art, and
philosophy that the world has ever known.

The word mortal is derived from mortee (μορτή), a piece or a

portion. The notion that the individual is a portion of the
universal is intrinsic to the Greek concept of fate, moros
(μόρος). Moros (μόρος) means fate, destiny; doom, death.

Mortos (μορτός) means mortal.

Moira (μοῖρα) means part, portion; political party; a degree in

astronomy; a division of the zodiac; lot, share, inheritance,
destiny, lot in life; appointed time of death; and that which is
meet and right.

Moira (Μοῖρα) is the immortal Goddess of fate, Destiny.

According to Iamblichus in Theurgia, the power of fate, moira

(μοῖρα), can be overcome through proper propitiation to the
Gods and Goddesses:
“The [G]ods [and Goddesses] do ‘unbind Fate,’ …With good
reason, therefore, do we perform to the [G]ods [and Goddesses]
every holy rite in order that they may deliver us from the evils
impending over us from destiny.”

(Iamblichus, Theurgia or The Egyptian Mysteries (Περὶ τῶν

αἰγυπτίων μυστηρίων), translated by Alexander Wilder
(London: William Rider and Son; New York: The Metaphysical
Publishing Co., 1911.))

Mera (μέρα), meros (μέρος), and meris (μερίς) mean a share,

portion; heritage, lot, destiny.

Merizo (μερίζω) means to split up the amount, assign a part,

allot, assign spheres of duty, allocate funds, divide among,

Meiromai (μείρομαι) means to receive as one’s portion,

allotted, divide, destiny.

The Ancient Greeks believed that an individual’s fate is

intrinsically linked to the cosmos.

The moiro-gnomonion (μοιρογνωμόνιον) is the pointer in the

dioptra (διόπτρα), an optical instrument for measuring angles. It
is used to determine both the position of the stars for divination
and in the construction of structures such as tunnels and bridges
which require calculating the position of an unknown point. 
Gnom (γνωμ) is a means of knowing such as a sun-dial,
carpenter’s square.

An excerpt from A Dictionary of Greek and Roman

Antiquities illustrates some of the projects employing a dioptra:

“The dioptra described by Heron . . . the general aim of all the

problems being to find the difference of level between two given
points, or to draw a straight line from a point to an unseen point.
Thus Prop. 13 is to cut a straight tunnel through a hill from one
given point to another; 7 is to find the height of an inaccessible
point; 14 and 15 are to sink a shaft which shall meet a horizontal
tunnel . . . ”

(A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Volume 1,

edited by William Smith, et. al., 924.)
jgo#v=onepage&q=dioptra&f=false )

A dioptra.

A dioptra.

The use of the dioptra in astronomy is described by Taunton


“With the disc tilted appropriately (on the dioptra), angular

distances between the heavenly bodies could be measured
against a degree scale round the rim.”

(Michael Jonathan Taunton Lewis.  Surveying instruments of

Greece and Rome (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.))


Mechanics are the means by which a desire is linked to a

specific outcome.  

Meechos (μῆχος) means expedient, means, remedy.

Meechan- (μηχᾰν-) is a prefix meaning make, construct, build,

prepare, make ready, devise, contrive, engineer. A meechanarios
(μηχᾰνάριος) is a mechanic or engineer. Fans of the television
show Star Trek: The Next Generation will recall Captain Jean-
Luc Picard ordering his chief engineer, “Make it so.”

A meechanee (μηχᾰνή, μηχᾰνημα) is a machine, contrivance,

engine, or any artificial means or contrivance for doing a thing,
such as a machine for lifting weights and the like, a crane, a
theatrical machine by which Theos (Gods and Goddesses) were
made to appear in the air in the theatre.


Like mechanics, fighting is a means of achieving an end. Many

battles lay claim to divine sanction. Warriors often invoke divine
strength, guidance, and protection.

Machimos (μάχῐμος) means fit for battle, a fighting man, an

effective force, warlike.

Machomai (μάχομαι) means to fight. Machatar (μᾰχᾱτάρ)

means the obligation to fight, battle, combat.

A machaira (μάχαιρα) is a large knife, dagger, sword, or


Marnamai (μάρνᾰμαι) means to fight, do battle, quarrel,

wrangle, contend.
Marpto (μάρπτω) means to lay hold of, seize, overtake, catch.


Rulers are the medium by which large groups are brought into
some kind of accord. Rulers often make claims to being divinely
chosen for their roles.

Medeon (μεδέων) means guardian, ruler.

Medo (μέδω) means protect, rule over.

Medeousa (μεδέουσα) means guardian Goddess; an epithet of

Aphrodite (Love), of Mnemosyne (Memory), of Pallas (Athena).

Meedomai (μήδομαι) means to be minded, take care, keep

watch. Meedos (μῆδος) means counsel; plan; art; prudence;

A mentor (μεντορ) is a wise and trusted counselor. A mentor

imparts wisdom derived from experience, judgment, and,
perhaps, divine guidance.

Meestor and meetieta (μήστωρ, μητίετα) mean adviser,

Meetioeis (μητῐόεις) means wise in counsel.


According to Webster’s, words synonymous to magic, “imply

producing results through mysterious influences of unexplained
powers . . . Magic is an art employing some occult
(supernatural) force of nature.” Although magic eventually
became synonymous with sleight-of-hand tricks, magic
originally meant spiritually channeling the powers of the
universe into a specific aim.

Magos (μάγος) means magical.

Mageuma (Mάγευμα) is a piece of magic art, charms, spells.

Mageia (μᾰγεια) is the theology of the Magians of ancient

Medea and Persia. A Magos (Μάγος) is a Magian, one of the
Median tribes; one of the priests and wise men in Persia who
interpreted dreams.

Magikos (μᾰγῐκός) means Magian; magical.

Magganarios (μαγγᾰνάριος) mean conjurer; mechanical

A Magnees (Μάγνης) is a dweller of Magnesia in Lydia
(modern Turkey). Magnees (Μάγνης) also refers to the
philosopher’s stone, a substance that can turn baser metals, such
as lead, into gold. (In alchemy, maza (μᾶζα) is an amalgam
used in the extraction of gold from ore.) Magnesium is a
substance that burns in a dazzling white light. It is used in flares
and fireworks, and as an antacid/laxative. Magnesium may have
been a material used for theatrical effect in the Mysteries:

“Meanwhile, the [G]ods [and Goddesses] beam forth light to

such a degree of thinness that the bodily eyes are not able to
sustain it, but are affected in the same way that fishes are when
they are drawn from a muddy and thick fluid into rare and
transparent air. For the men (sic), the Beholders of the Divine
Fire not being able to breathe because of the thinness of the fire,
become enfeebled as they come to the sight, and are excluded
from natural respiration.”

(Iamblichus, Theurgia or The Egyptian Mysteries (Περὶ τῶν

αἰγυπτίων μυστηρίων), translated by Alexander Wilder
(London: William Rider and Son; New York: The Metaphysical
Publishing Co., 1911.))  

A magneetis (μαγνῆτις) is an object that attracts and repels due

to its magnetic field.
Mastigeo (μαστῑγέω) flagrum is a kind of plant used in magic.

Interestingly, magic also refers to cooking.  Magis (μᾰγίς)

means any kneaded mass, cake, or bread. One who kneads is a
mageus (μᾰγεύς). A butcher shop, cook shop, place where food
is cooked, or kitchen is a mageireion (μᾰγείρεῖον). Wiping,
cleansing is magmos (μάγμός). Magla (μάγλα) is a kind of

Magma (μάγμα) is a thick unguent.


Maz- (μαζ-) is a prefix meaning barley. Maza (μᾶζα) is a


Mazao (μαζάω) means to knead a barley-cake.

Maza (barley) is a plant considered sacred to Demeter. Maza

mixed with mint (μίνθα), Mentha viridis, is a sacred drink of the
Eleusinian mysteries.

"Then Metaneira (Μετανειρα, “Meta-Female-Belly”) filled a

cup with sweet wine and offered it to her [Demeter]; but she
refused it, for she said it was not lawful for her to drink red
wine, but bade them mix meal and water with soft mint and give
her to drink. And Metaneira mixed the draught and gave it to the
[G]oddess as she bade. So the great queen Deo received it to
observe the sacrament."

Homer.  “Hymn to Demeter (208-210),” Hesiod, Homeric

Hymns, Epic Cycle, Homerica, translated by H. G. Evelyn-
White, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heinemann, 1914.) http://

Barley appears on the “tails” side of ancient coins of

Metapontum (southern Italy) bearing the image of Demeter.
(Metapontios (μεταπόντιος) means in the midst of the sea.)

Lucania   325-280 BCE

Wreathed head of Demeter left, wearing triple-pendant earring.

Seven-grained Barley ear, rake above leaf  META right.

ex: Windsor Antiquities

Lucania is the “instep” of the “boot” of Italy.

Metapontum is located on the northeastern coast of Lucania.


Mukees (μύκης) means mushroom or other fungus.

Mukees (μύκης) also means any knobbed round body shaped

like a mushroom, such as a penis.

A mushroom.

Some types of mushrooms have mind-altering properties.

Wasson, Hofmann, and Ruck, in The Road to Eleusis, argue that
mushrooms may have played a role in the mystical experience of
the Eleusinian Mysteries.

(R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann, Carl A. P. Ruck. The

Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (New
York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978) 118-123.)

Fruits are the original fast-food. Fruits require no preparation

and are available for eating right off the tree, truly a divine gift.

Meelea (μηλέα) means apple, Pyrus malus; apricot, Prunus

Armeniaca; citron, Citrus Medica; peach, Prunus persica; and
quince, malus Punica.

An apple.

An apricot.


A peach.

A quince.

Meeliades (Μηλιάδες) are nymphs (female Goddesses)

worshipped as the protectors of flocks and of fruit-trees.  
Meelo- (μηλο-) is a prefix that means sheep and apple/quince/

Sheep are relatively easy to control. http://

Sheep are malleable, obedient creatures that provide milk, meat,

and wool. Melka (μέλκα) means milk. Mallos (μαλλός) means
wool, fleece. A mageiros (μᾰγείρος) is a butcher or meat-seller.
Mistullon (μίστυλλον) means a piece of meat.

Meelon (μῆλον) means sheep or goat; apple; any tree-fruit;

seed-vessel of the rose; anything shaped like an apple.

Meelon (μηλών) means orchard.

Melina (μελίνη) is millet, Setaria italica, a cereal grass.  


Melo (μέλω) means to be an object of care and thought, care for,

take an interest in. Meleta (μελετη) means care, treatment,

Melissa (μέλισσᾰ) is a term referring to poets for culling the

beauties of nature; also, a term for the priestesses of Delphi,
Demeter, and Artemis; and, any pure, chaste being such as souls
coming to birth. Melissa also means honey.

A melisson (μελισσών) is a bee-house. Melisso- (μελισσο-) is a

prefix meaning bees.

Meli- (μελί-) is a prefix meaning honey, sweetness. Meli (μέλῐ)

means honey, sweetness.

Medos (μέδος) means mead, an alcoholic liquor made by

fermenting honey and water.

Melilotos (μελῐλωτος), Trigonella graeca, is a kind of clover,

so-called because of the quantity of honey it contains.


Manna (μάννᾰ) is frankincense powder or granules.

Mur- (μῠρ-), literally “meta pure outflow,” is a prefix meaning

myrrh, sweet oils, unguents, perfumes. Muraros/muron
(μῠρηρός, μύρον) is myrrh, sweet oil, perfume. Murizo
(μῠρίζω) means to rub with ointment or to anoint. Muris
(μῠρίς) is a box for unguents, fragrances.
Murina (μῠρίνη) means sweet wine. Muro (μύρω) means flow,

Muri- (μῡρῐ-) is a prefix meaning many, myriad, “10,000.”

Murios (μῡρίος) means countless. Several herbs have the μυρ-

- murton (μύρτον): myrtle-berry

- murtos (μύρτος): myrtle, Myrtus communis

- murika (μῠρίκη): tamarisk, produces a sweet sap associated

with manna

- murris (μυρρίς): sweet cicely, Myrrhis odorata, licorice-



Meth- (μεθ-) is a prefix meaning to another place, change. It is

telling that wine, methee/methu (μέθη, μέθῠ), has this meaning
as a substance that can cause a transformative state.

Makon (μηκων) means poppy, especially the opium poppy,

Papaver somniferum, opium. Makar (μάκαρ) means blessed,
happy; the blessed ones; fortunate; the blessed dead; Isles of the
Blest. Makaria (μᾰκᾰρία) means happiness, bliss. Makarios
(μᾰκάριος) means blessed, happy, prosperous.

Other herbs beginning with M include:

- mamira (μαμιρά): a medicinal root

- masouchas (μασουχᾶς): a compound remedy

- muosotis (μυοσωτίς): madwort, Asperugo procumbens

- mandragoras (μανδρᾰγόρας): mandrake, Mandragon

officinalis (a narcotic, short-stemmed plant of the nightshade
family having a fleshy, often forked root somewhat resembling a
human form; the May apple); belladonna, Atropa Belladonna
(also called deadly nightshade, a poisonous plant of the
nightshade family; a drug from the leaves and root of this plant
containing atropine and related alkaloids: used in medicine to
check secretions and spasms, to relieve pain or dizziness, and as
a cardiac and respiratory stimulant)

- marathon (μᾰρᾰθον) fennel, Foeniculum vulgare; Marathon is

so-called from its being overgrown with fennel.

- Meedikos (Μηδικός, Μηδικῂ), lucerne, Medicago sativa, a

form of silphium juice, probably assafoetida, the basis for the
word medical
Medicago sativa

Ferula scorodosma syn. assafoetida

- magudaris (μαγύδαρις) a plant, distinct from silphion/

silphium, also Prangos ferulacea; magudaris refers to the
inflorescence  (flower), seed, or root of the silphion/silphium, a
medicinal plant that appears on the coins of Cyrene (North

A coin from Cyrene (modern Libya) depicting the silphium

plant, circa 550 BCE.

- maspeton (μάσπετον) is the leaf/stalk of the silphion/silphium,

semen ferulae.

“Though the whole plant appears latterly to have been called

silphion, this name was originally that of the root. The stem of
the plant is called magydaris (μαγύδαρις) by Theophrastus, the
leaf maspeton (μάσπετον), the seed phyllon (φυλλον). These
names are however differently applied by other authors. Laser
was subsequently called lazaron, and was applied to the juice
alone. This was in such high estimation as to be sold for its
weight in gold, having many marvelous properties ascribed to

(“Intestines.” The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the

Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 13 (London: Charles
Knight and Co., 22, Ludgate Street, 1839) 342.)

Morios (μώριος) means male-mandrake (a narcotic); also, a

name of various plants including sleepy nightshade, Withania
somnifera. Mor- (μώρ-) is a prefix meaning silly, foolish, folly;
dull, stupefied, sluggish, imbecility.

Male mandrake on the left, female mandrake on the right. http:// 


Meta is the means or medium by which something big (macro)

is connected to something small (micro).

A mill converts big food particles into smaller, digestible

particles. Teeth serve the same function. Grinding/chewing food
into something digestible is a medium for making the divine gift
of food available to support mortal life.
Mul- (μῠλ-) is a prefix meaning mill; tooth; any hard stone used
for grinding, literally “meta pure loosened.”

A mulee/mulos/mullo (μῠλη, μύλος, μύλλω) is a mill or

millstone, a machine for grinding/crushing.

Ancient millstone.


Mastaks (μάσταξ) means that which one chews. Masaomai

(μᾰσάομαι) and mastazo (μάστάζω) mean to chew, the basis
for the word masticate: to chew, crush, knead.

Masso (μάσσω) means to knead, massage; wipe; press into a

mold, especially of barley-cakes, which were subsequently
moistened and eaten without baking.


Miks- (μιξ-) is a prefix meaning mix. A mixture can produce an

effect that is more than the sum of its parts, particularly with
respect to baking and pharmacopoeia.

Miksis (μίξις) means mix, mingle, half and half, partial. Miga
(μίγα) means mixed, blent with, together with. A mixture or
compound is a migma (μίγμα). An apothecary (seller of spices
and drugs) is a migmatopolees (μίγμᾰτοπώλης).

Miktos (μικτός) means mixed, blended, compounded.

Mei- (μει-) is another prefix meaning mix, join, bring together,

bring into connection with, mingle, intercourse.

Meidiama and meidamn (μειδίᾱμα, μειδάμν) mean smile,

smiling. Smiling can facilitate social mixing.

Meilia (μείλια) means soothing things, gifts, propitiation,

kindness, the basis for the word meliorate (make better).


Metallikos (μεταλλικός) means of or for mines, miner;

possessing knowledge of metals; metallic.

Metallon (μεταλλον) means mine, quarry, pit; later, mineral,


Misu (μίσυ) is copper ore found in Cyprus.

Marmar- (μαρμᾰρ-) is a prefix meaning marble.

Marmairo (μαρμαίρω, μαρμᾰρεος) is the flash, sparkle, gleam
of marble.

Carrara marble quarry near Antona in Apuane Alps, Tuscany,

Italy, Europe

© Robert Harding Picture Library / SuperStock http://


Melas (μέλᾱς) means black, dark.

Melania (μελᾰνία) means blackness, the opposite of white,

leukon (λευκόν). Melaino (μελαινω) means to blacken or make

Melag- (μελάγ-), melam- (μελαμ-), and melan- (μελᾰν-) are

prefixes meaning black.

Melinoe (Μελινοέ) is the black-and-white daughter of

Persephone begat by Zeus disguised as Pluto, as described in
Orphic Hymn 70. To Melinoe (5-8):

". . . When under Pluto’s semblance, Jove (Zeus) divine

Deceiv’d with guileful arts dark Proserpine (Persephone).

Hence, partly black thy limbs and partly white,

From Pluto dark, from Jove etherial, bright . . ."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor

(Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 202.)

From this description of Melinoe, Melinoe may be a name for

the moon.

Melaina is the name for the black Demeter of mourning. There

is a cave in Arcadia called Melaina where Demeter mourned
Pluto’s abduction of her daughter, Persephone. Pausanias
describes a spectacular image of the black Demeter,
“Melaina,” (head of a horse, snake hair, holding a dolphin in one
hand and a dove in the other). Pausanias comments, “Now why
they had the image made after this fashion is plain to any
intelligent man who is learned in traditions:”

“The image, they say, was made after this fashion. It was seated
on a rock, like to a woman in all respects save the head. She had
the head and hair of a horse, and there grew out of her head
images of serpents and other beasts. Her tunic reached right to
her feet; on one of her hands was a dolphin, on the other a dove.
Now why they had the image made after this fashion is plain to
any intelligent man who is learned in traditions.

“They say that they named her Black because the [G]oddess had
black apparel.”

(Pausanias. Description of Greece 8. 42. 4, translated by W. H.

S. Jones and H. A. Omerod, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann,

The animal imagery in the sculpture of the black Demeter may

illustrate Melaina’s connection to the four realms of earth,
underworld, sea, sky: the horse is a land animal, the snake an
underworld creature, the dolphin is of the sea, and the dove of
the sky.


Mellaks (μέλλαξ) means youth.

Mell- (μέλλ-) is a prefix meaning not quite yet ready, delay,

procrastinate, about to, unfulfilled.
Mello (μέλλω) means to be destined or likely to, doubtless,
fated to, to be about to. It can also mean to be always going to
do (without ever doing).

Meirak- (μειρᾰκ-) is a prefix meaning child/boy/girl/youth.

Mosch- (μοσχ-) is a prefix meaning sucker (of a plant); calf;

leveret; young ram; young offspring.

Moschos (μόσχος) is a young shoot or twig; calf, young bull;

any young animal.


Marilee (μᾰρῑλη) means embers of charcoal, coal-dust, hot


Marilo- (μᾰρῑλο-) is a prefix meaning charcoal.

Maraino (μᾰραίνω) means quench fire; die away from, abate,

wither; fade away.

Maransis (μάρανσις) means causing to die away, dying/fading/

wasting away.


Mon- and mono- (μον-, μονο-) are prefixes meaning solitary,

unique, individual, consisting of a unit, one, literally “meta
entity prevailing.”

Monas (μονάς, μόνος) means solitary, alone, single, one.

Mona (μονή) means abiding, tarrying, a permanent place,

stopping-place, station.

Monia (μονία) means changelessness, solitude, celibacy.

Monimos (μόνῐμος) means staying in one place, stable.

Monotees (μονότης) means unity.


Impurity is a condition that precludes participation in religious

Miasma (μίασμα) means stain, defilement especially by murder
or other crime; to taint by guilt.

Miaino (μῐαίνω) means to stain, dye, sully, taint, defile. Miansis

(μίανσις) means polluted, stained, defiled.

Miaros (μῐᾰρός) means to be stained with blood, defiled with

blood, referring to actions resulting in ritual impurity, such as


Maiandros (Μαίανδρος) is Maender, a river of Caria (modern

Turkey), a metaphor of winding, meandering.

Maiotai (Μαιῶται) is a Scythian tribe to the north of the Black


Makedon (Μᾰκεδών), Macedonia, is north of Greece.

Macedonia is north of Greece.

Massalia (Μασσᾰλία) is Marseilles, a town on the southern

shore of France.
Marseille is on the southern shore of France. http://

Megara (Μέγᾰρα) is west of Eleusis. Megaron (μέγᾰρον)

means a large room (mega-room), hall; chief room in a palace;
women’s apartment; bedchamber; house; palace; sanctuary;
shrine; tomb; and the pits sacred to Demeter and Persephone
into which young pigs were let down in the Thesmophoria.

Megalathea (Mεγάλαθεα) means the Great Goddesses, Demeter

and Persephone.

Megara is west of Eleusis.


Meedis, Meedos (Μηδίς, Μῆδος) mean Mede, Median,

Persian. Meedizo (Μηδίζω) means to side with the Medes in
the Persian war. The Median empire (circa 600 BCE) is shown
below in yellow.

Mileesios (Μῑλήσιος), Mileetos (Μίλητος) mean Miletus, on

the southwest shore of modern Turkey.

Minuai (Μῐνύαι) are Minyans, a race of heroes in Orchomenos

in the north central Peloponnese.

Meelios (μήλιος) means from the island of Melos/Milos, Melian

in the southwest Cycladic Islands of the Aegean Sea.

Melos/Milos is one of the southwest Cycladic Islands.

Mopsopia (Μοψοπία) is an old name of Attica, a region that

includes Athens and Eleusis.

Mukeenee, Mukeenai (Μῠκήνη, Μῠκῆναι) mean Mycene,

Mycenae, a very ancient city on the Peloponnese famous for its
Lion Gate, circa 1200 BCE.
Musio, Musos (Μύσιος, Μῡσός) mean Mysian, an area
northwest of ancient Troy (Troad) in modern Turkey.           

Mutileenee (Μῠτῐλήνη) is Mytilene, the chief city of the island

of Lesbos (off the coast of modern Turkey).


Madaros (μᾰδᾰρός) means wet, runny sores, water, pulpy.

Madao (μᾰδάω) means to be moist or sodden; of hair, to fall

Mal- (μάλ-) and malthak- (μάλθᾰκ-) are prefixes meaning soft.

Malakos (μᾰλᾰκός) means soft, gentle, mild, weak.

Malk- (μάλκ-) is a prefix meaning numb with cold. Malka

(μάλκη) means numbness from cold.

Mandeelee (μανδήλη) means mantle, towel, cloak.

Mandolos (μάγδωλος) means watch-tower.

Mastigo, mastizo, mastiks, mastio (μαστῑγόω, μαστίζω,

μάστιξ, μαστίω) mean whip, flog.

Mastos (μαστός) means the breast (of men, of women).

Maschala (μασχάλη) means armpit; hollow at the base of a
shoot, axil; young palm-twigs; part of the olive-leaf; bay; corner.

Matan (μάτην) means in vain, fruitless, random, without reason.

Mauro (μαυρόω) means darken, blind, make dim or obscure.

Maps (μάψ) means in vain, without result, thoughtless, foolish,

reckless, useless, worthless, without reason.

Memnon (Μέμνων) means Steadfast, Resolute.   

Men (μέν) is a particle used to express absolute certainty.

Menos (μένος) means might, force, strength, life, spirit, passion,

intent, purpose.

Merimna (μέριμνα) means care, thought.

Meen (μήν, μάν) means truly, doubtless, full surely.

Meera, meeros (μῆρα, μηρός) mean thigh-bones, thighs.

Min (μιν) is a pronoun meaning him, her, or it.

Mis- (μῑσ-, μῑσο-) is a prefix meaning hate. Miseo (μῑσέω)

means hate.
Mitos (μίτος) means thread of the warp; thread by thread; in
detail, in due order; thread of destiny; string of a lyre; seed.

Mothon (μόθων) are children of Helots brought up as foster-

siblings of young Spartans.

Moimuao (μοιμυάω) means to compress the lips as a sign of


Moitos (μοῖτος) means like-for-like, mutual.

Moichos (μοιχός) means adultery.

Moleuo (μολεύω) means cut off and transplant the suckers or

shoots of trees.

Molubdaina (μολύβδαινα) means piece of lead used as the sink

of a fishing line, the plumb on a mason’s line. Molubdos
(μολύβδος) means lead; plumbago (used as a test for gold);
circular piece of lead for drawing ruled lines.

Moluno (μολύνω) means defile, pollute.

Momphee (μομφή) means blame, reproof, cause of complaint.

Moto (μοτόω) means plug a wound with lint. A motos (μοτός)

is a tampon.
Moul- (μουλ-) is a prefix meaning mule (the sterile offspring of
a female horse and a male donkey).

Mudao (μῠδάω) and mudos (μύδος) mean damp, dripping,

clammy; decay.

Mol- (μῶλ-) is a prefix with various meanings including

contention, battle (μῶλία); garlic (μῶλον); a fabulous herb
(μῶλῠ); soft, weak, feeble (μῶλυς); parboil, scald, simmer

Momos (μῶμος) means blame, reproach, disgrace, blemish.

Ν ν              nu (νυ)                        prevailing                              

            pronounce: n

The letter Ν means prevailing; prevailing-point: the point at

which prevailing forces converge, turning point.

Webster’s defines prevailing as “predominant; having superior

power or influence.”

Webster’s defines converge as “to tend to meet in a point or line;

incline toward each other.”

Note that the shape of the letter Ν illustrates prevailing upward

forces converging (left side of letter), as well as prevailing
downward forces converging (right side of letter).

The letter Ν, the 14th letter, prevails over the exact center of the
27-letter Greek alphabet.

Nun (νῦν) means now, present moment, presently. The present

moment could be considered the ultimate prevailing-point.


In mountains, prevailing upward forces meet in a point.

Nussa (νύσσα) means turning-point. Nusa (Νῦσα) is the name

of several mountains sacred to the immortal God of wine,
Dionysos (Διόνυσος).

Downward forces converge in valleys.

Napos (νάπος) means ravine or gully.

Napee (νάπη) is a woodland vale (valley), dell (small wooded

valley), glen (small secluded valley), or valley (an elongated
depression between uplands, hills, or mountains, especially one
following the course of a stream). 

Neeekees (νεήκης) means newly whetted or sharpened.

Nug- (νύγ-) is a prefix meaning pricking.

Nusso (νύσσω) means touch with a sharp point, prick, stab,

pierce, nudge.


Nai (ναί) means a strong affirmation, yes, verily.

Nee (νή) is a particle of strong affirmation when accompanied

by the divinity invoked.

Neuo (νεύω) means to nod, beckon, assure, incline towards,

literally “prevailing essence pure.”

Neuma (νεῦμα) means nod, an expression of will, command;

approval, sanction.

Neuron (νεῦρον) means sinew, tendon; nerves, the basis for the
word neuron.
Neusis (νεῦσις) means inclination, tendency of physical forces
to or from a center.

Neuseis (Νεύσεις) is the title of a work by Apollonius of Perga

(circa 210 BCE), an Anatolian (modern Turkey) mathematician
who studied in Alexandria, Egypt. He is famous for writing
Conics and other treatise.

“About neusis itself, Pappus writes at the start of his description

of Apollonius’s work, ‘A line is said to make a neusis on a
point . . . if it passes through it when produced.’”

(Michael N. Fried and Sabetai Unguru. Apollonius of Perga’s

Conica, Text, Context, Subtext, (Leiden, Netherlands:
Koninklijke Brill (2001) 193.)

Nosteo (νοστέω) means to go or come home; return.


Neikeio (νεικείω) means to wrangle, quarrel. Neikos (νεῖκος)

means quarrel, strife, feud.

Nikao (νῑκάω) means conquer, prevail, be superior, overpower,

literally “prevailing-point divine-power core.”

Nikee (νίκη) means victory, win, conquer.    

Nikee (Νίκη) is Nike, the immortal Goddess of victory.

Orphic Hymn 32. To Victory (Νίκης) (4-8), says of Nike:

“ . . . ‘Tis thine in battle to confer the crown,

The victor’s prize, the mark of sweet renown;

For thou rul’st all things, Victory divine!

And glorious strife, and joyful shouts are thine . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE). translated by

Thomas Taylor, Introductory Preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 160.)

Below are images of Nike, in order from oldest (415-405 BCE)

to most recent (150-100 BCE), covering a territory from as far
west as Italy to as far east as Russia.

Camarina, Sicily, 415-405 BCE. Camarina on the obverse and a

flying Nike on the reverse. U. Westermark and K. Jenkins, The
Coinage of Kamarina, Royal Numismatic Society Special
Publication No. 9 (London, 1980).

Winged Nike. Terracotta figurine of Myrina, circa 180 BCE.

From Myrina (present-day Turkey). Louvre, Paris, France.

Statuette of Goddess Nike found in Vani, Georgia (Russia),

150–100 BCE, The Georgian National Museum.

Image at: Cities/Colchis.html


For Greeks, justice is not just what occurs in courts of law.

Divine justice ultimately prevails.
Nemesis (νέμεσις) means distribution of what is due, justice,

Nemesis (Νέμεσις) is the immortal Goddess of divine


Nemetor (νεμέτωρ) means dispenser of justice.

Nemesao (νεμεσάω) means to feel just resentment, to be wroth

at undeserved good or bad fortune, to be displeased with oneself
or others; to be indignant; to be ashamed.

The coin, below, featuring Nemesis and Athena, was cast circa
182 CE to celebrate a partnership between Smyrna (in modern-
day Turkey near Ephesus) and Athens. Note that winged
Nemesis and winged Nike (Victory) are very similar in their

Bronze coin from Smyrna, in Ionia; reign of the Roman

Emperor Commodus,          182-5 CE.
It celebrates the homonoia (harmony, friendship) between
Smyrna and Athens, two of the great intellectual centres of the
Roman world. Signed by the strategos Heracleides.
The coin shows the Winged Nemesis of Smyrna, pulling on her
chiton and holding a bridle; with Athena, representing Athens,
holding a patera.
Str(athgou) Hrakleidou Omo(noia) Aqhnai(wn) Smurnaiwn
‘In the magistracy of Herakleides. Harmony between the
peoples of Athens and Smyrna.’

The image is shown courtesy of the Visitors of the Ashmolean

Museum, and was provided through the research project Roman
Provincial Coinage in the Antonine Period, based in the
Ashmolean Museum. Image at:

Below is a statue of Nemesis found in Egypt and currently

housed in the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.

Nemesis. Marble, found in Egypt, circa 150 CE, Louvre, Paris,

Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Denon
wing, ground floor (Ma 4873), Photographer: Jastrow (2006)

Nonnos (circa 450 CE) describes Nemesis as the “all-

vanquishing deity” presiding over the “avenging wheel of
justice” and accompanied by a winged griffin:

“A wheel turned itself round before the [Q]ueen’s (Nemesis’)

feet, signifying that she rolls all the proud from on high to the
ground with the avenging wheel of justice, she the all-
vanquishing deity who turns the path of life.

“Round her throne flew a bird of vengeance, a griffin flying with

wings, or balancing himself on four feet, to go unbidden before
the flying [G]oddess and show that she herself traverses the four
separate quarters of the world: highcrested men she bridles with
her bit which none can shake off, such is the meaning of the
image, and she rolls a haughty fellow about as it were with the
whip of misery, like a self-rolling wheel.”

(Nonnos, Dionysiaca Books 36-48, translated by W.H.D. Rouse,

Loeb Classical Library vol. 356 (Cambridge, MA and London:
Harvard University Press, 1940) 48. 375 ff, ps. 451-453).

Orphic Hymn 60. To Nemesis (1-14) describes Nemesis as

having “boundless sight . . . and men beneath thy righteous
bondage groan:”

“Thee, Nemesis I call, almighty queen,

By whom the deeds of mortal life are seen:

Eternal, much rever’d, of boundless sight,

Alone rejoicing in the just and right:

Changing the counsels of the human breast

For ever various, rolling without rest.

To every mortal is thy influence known,

And men (sic) beneath thy righteous bondage groan;

For ev’ry thought within the mind conceal’d

Is to thy sight perspicuously reveal’d.

The soul unwilling reason to obey

By lawless passion rul’d, thy eyes survey.

All to see, hear, and rule, O pow’r divine

Whose nature Equity contains, is thine . . .”

(Orpheus, The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

(London: Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles,
CA: The Philosophical Research Society, 1981), 192-193.)

Nomos (νόμος) means law, habitual practice, custom; statute,


With reference to music, nomos means melody, strain.

Webster’s defines melody as “the principal part in a harmonic

Nomisis (νόμῐσις) means established belief, custom, law.

Nomophulakeo (νομοφῠλᾰκέω) means preserve the laws;

phulakee (φῠλᾰκή) means watching or guarding.

Nomophulaks (νομοφύλαξ) means guardian of the laws.           

Nomodos (νομῳδός) means one who chants or proclaims the


Greeks have great reverence for Natural Law.

Orphic Hymn 63: To Law (Νόμου), describes Nomos as

celestial, the basis of Nature, eternal, giving order and rule to
every dwelling, and a foe to the lawless:

“The holy king of Gods [and Goddesses] and men (sic) I call,
Celestial Law, the righteous seal of all;

The seal which stamps whate’er the earth contains,

Nature’s firm basis, and the liquid plains:

Stable, and starry, of harmonious frame,

Preserving laws eternally the same:

Thy all-composing pow’r in heav’n appears,

Connects its frame, and props the starry spheres;

And shakes weak Envy with tremendous sound,

Toss’d by thy arm in giddy whirls around.

'Tis thine, the life of mortals to defend,

And crown existence with a blessed end;

For thy command alone, of all that lives

Order and rule to ev’ry dwelling gives:

Ever observant of the upright mind,

And of just actions the companion kind;

Foe to the lawless, with avenging ire,

Their steps involving in destruction dire.

Come, blest, abundant pow’r, whom all revere,

By all desir’d, with fav’ring mind draw near;

Give me thro’ life, on thee to fix my sight,

And ne’er forsake the equal paths of right."

(Orpheus, The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor

(London: Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles,
CA: The Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 195-196.) 

The Larousse Encyclopedia of Astronomy describes astronomy

as underpinning the concept of law:

“Astronomy, which is without doubt the oldest of the

sciences . . . was . . . the first science to form the concept of
natural physical law, which was demanded by the regularity of
heavenly phenomena.”

(Lucien Rudaux and G. De Vaucouleurs, The Larousse

Encyclopedia of Astronomy (New York: Prometheus Press,
1967) 499.)


A Numpha (Νύμφᾱ) is a Nymph, a Goddess who presides over

a particular place, such as a forest, river, spring, meadow, or

Marble votive relief with nymphs; Hellenistic Greek, circa 250

BCE. The three nymphs, dressed in peplos tunics and stylishly
coiffed, clasp hands. The relief is adorned with flowers and
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum. Credits: Barbara McManus,
2006 (The College of New Rochelle)

A Neeias (Νηϊάς), is a Naiad, a Goddess who presides over a

community’s fresh water source, such as a river, spring, or
spring-fed fountain.


Naio (ναίω) and naietao (ναιετάω) mean to dwell in a place.

Naetees (νᾰέτης) means an inhabitant.  Naois (Νάϊος) is an
epithet of Zeus at Dodona.

Nemo (νέμω) means to pasture or graze. Nemos (νέμος) is a

wooded pasture or glade (open space in a forest).

Nemeesis (νέμησις) means occupied land, territory.

Noma (νῶμα) is an owner’s mark, such as the brand on cattle.

Nomao (νωμάω) means to possess or occupy.

Nomos (νομός) means pasture and sphere of command.

Nomarchees (νομαρχης) means the governor of a region or


Nomas (νομάς) means roaming, grazing, the basis for the word

Nomazo (νομάζω) means to graze livestock.


Nao- (νᾶο-) is a prefix meaning temple, shrine.

The naos (νᾱός, νηός) is the inmost part of a temple or shrine, it
also refers to a portable shrine carried in processions.

Naeuo (νᾱεύω) means to take sanctuary in a temple.

Naikos (νἂϊκός) means of a temple.


Nagma (νάγμα) means anything piled up.

Neeneo (νηνέω) means heap. Neeeo (νηέω), neetos (νητός),

and neo (νέω) mean to heap up or pile up.

Many things can be piled in a heap, including stones, wood,

embers, corn, straw, and corpses of animals and slain soldiers. A
funeral mound is heaped high with earth to cover the body. A
funeral pyre is heaped high with wood and gift offerings of
respect. A mound might be erected over a tomb to memorialize
the dead.

Neenia (νηνία) means public eulogy for great persons, a lament,

or dirge.

The following excerpt from Quintus Smyrnaeus illustrates how

heaps play a role in mourning the deceased:
“And so he heaped a high broad pyre without the city wall: upon
the height thereof that warrior-queen (Penthesilea) they laid, and
costly treasures did they heap around her, all that well beseems
to burn around a mighty queen in battle slain. And so the Fire-
God's swift-upleaping might, the ravening flame, consumed her.
All around the people stood on every hand, and quenched the
pyre with odorous wine. Then gathered they the bones, and
poured sweet ointment over them, and laid them in a casket:
over all shed they the rich fat of a heifer, chief among the herds
that grazed on Ida's slope. And, as for a beloved daughter, rang
all round the Trojan men's heart-stricken wail, as by the stately
wall they buried her on an outstanding tower, beside the bones
of old Laomedon, a queen beside a king.”

(Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy, translated by A. S. Way,

Loeb Classical Library Volume 19 (London: William
Heinemann, 1913) 1062,
QuintusSmyrnaeus1.html )


Nau- (ναυ-) is a prefix meaning ship. Naus (ναῦς) means ships.

Nauteia (ναυτεία) means nautical.

Nausarcheo (ναυαρχέω) means to command a fleet of ships.

Nautilos (ναυτίλος) and naubatees (ναυβᾰτης) mean seafarer,


Nausiasis (ναυσίᾶσις) means seasickness, the basis for the word


Neeios (νήϊος) means of or for a ship.

Neo (νέω) and neecho (νήχω) mean to swim. Neusis (νεῦσις),

neektos (νήκτός), and neeksis (νῆξις) mean swimming.
Neecheion (νηχεῖον) means a swimming-place.  

Neetta (νῆττα) means duck, an animal that floats over the

water’s surface.

Neesos (νῆσος) means island, a land mass that prevails over the
surface of the sea.

Neereus (Νηρεύς) is Nereus, the immortal God of the sea, the

father of the Neereeides (Νηρηῗδες), Goddesses of the sea.

Nereus the Old Man of the Sea, Athenian red figure

amphora circa 450 BCE, Harvard University Art Museums.

Orphic Hymn 23. To the Nereids (8-16) proclaims:

" . . . Leaping and wand’ring through the liquid sea:

Bright, wat’ry dolphins, sonorous and gay,

Well pleased to sport with bachanalian play . . .

For you at first disclos’d the rites divine,

Of holy Bacchus and of Proserpine [Persephone],

Of fair Calliope from whom I spring,

And of Apollo bright, the Muse’s king.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 148.)


Neilos (Νεῖλος) is the Nile, the great river of Egypt. Neios

(νειός) means rejuvenated land.
Egypt, Nile Delta, Nile River from Terra/MODIS satellite
2000-08-10 (NASA) corey/ss1/egypt.htm

Nothing was more central in the lives and culture of ancient

Egyptians than the Nile River. The annual inundation of the Nile
brought rich, fertile topsoil to the farmlands adjacent to the Nile,
providing a basis for prosperity and peace.

“During the flood, all of the minerals and organic nutrients

needed to fertilize the crops would be deposited on the land.
Ancient Egyptian farmers knew that their black soil was the
result of the highly fertile silt carried by the floodwaters.” 

(James Barter. The Nile (Farmington Hills, Michigan: Lucent

Books, The Gale Group 2003) 32.)

Neilos is the immortal God of the Nile, as described by

Aeschylus, circa 450 BCE:

Aeschylus draws a connection between the Ethiopian Nile and

mountain snow:

“ . . . the land of Ethiopia, from which the seven-mouthed Nile

rolls down its fertilizing stream in overflowing abundance: the
land where the fiery sun shines out in flame and melts the snows
on the mountains, so that all of fruitful Egypt is covered by the
flow of the sacred river and sprouts with the ears of Demeter’s
life-giving grain.”

(Aeschylus (circa 500 BCE). “Memnon Fragment 126a (300),”

Fragments, translated by Alan H. Sommerstein, Loeb Classical
Library (Cambridge, MA and London, England: Harvard
University Press, 2008) 131.) 

The Greek is shown below:

” . . . Αίθιοπίδος γῆς, Nεῖλος ἕνθ’ έπτάρροος

γάνος κυλίνδει ῤευμάτων έπομβρία

έν ᾗ πυρωπόν ᾕλιος έκλάμψαν φλόγα

τήκει πετραίαν χιόνα πᾶσα δ’ εύθαλής

Αϊγυπτος άγνοῦ νάματος πληρουμένη

φερέσβιον Δήμητρος άντέλλει στάχυν.”

Euripides (circa 450 BCE) opens his play Elenee (Helen

Έλένη), with the title character (the famed Helen-of-Troy),
setting the scene as Egypt, the land of the Nile:

“This is Egypt; here flows the virgin river, the lovely Nile, who
brings down melted snow to slake the soil of the Egyptian plain
with the moisture heaven denies.”

Νείλου μέν αϊδε καλλιπάρθενοι ῤοαί άντί δίας ψακάδος

Αίγύπτου πέδον λευκῆς τακείσης χιόνος ύγραίνει γύας.

(Euripides The Bacchae and Other Plays, translated by Phillip

Vellacott (London and New York: Penguin Books, 1954,
reprinted 1973) 135.)


The word prevailing is often used with regard to the weather, as

in “prevailing winds,” or “prevailing weather patterns.”
Precipitation hovers over and falls from the sky, prevailing over

Clouds prevail over the earth and gravity. Nephela (νεφέλα) and
nephos (νέφος) mean cloud or mass of clouds.

Interestingly, the word for kidneys, nephros (νεφρός) is very

similar to the word for cloud. Both clouds and kidneys serve as

Neipho (νείφω) and nipha (νίφα) mean snow, a type of

precipitation, a prevailing feature of mountaintops, and white
like clouds.
Notos (νότος) are the moisture-laden autumn winds prevailing
from the south. Noteros (νοτερός) means damp, moist, wet,

Orphic Hymn 81. to the South Wind proclaims:

“Wide coursing gales, whose lightly leaping feet

With rapid wings the air’s wet bosom beat,

Approach benevolent, swift-whirling pow’rs,

With humid clouds the principles of show’rs:

For show’ry clouds are portion’d to your care,

To send on earth from all surrounding air.

Hear, blessed pow’rs, these holy rites attend,

And fruitful rains on earth all-parent send."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 219.)

Noos (νόος) means mind, resolve, purpose, reason, intellect;

Mind as the active principle of the Universe, literally
“prevailing-point entity.”

Noo- (νοο-) is a prefix meaning the mind. 

Noeetikos (νοητικός) means intellectual.

Noeros (νοερός) means intellectual; the spiritual sense or world;

to think, perceive, reflect, consider.


Not- (νωτ-) is a prefix meaning the back, spine, ridge, literally

“prevailing-point brings-forth stretch/extend.”

Notiaios (νωτιαῖος) means spinal vertebrae.

Noton (νῶτον) means back; the ridge of a hill. 


Ancient Greek cosmologies place Night as the first creative

entity to emerge out of primodial Chaos.

Nuks (νύξ) means night. Nukt- (νυκτ-) and nuch- (νυχ-) are
prefixes meaning night.

In Hesiod’s Theogony, at the impetus of creation, Night emerges

out of primordial Chaos and brings forth Aether and Day:

"From Chaos came forth Erebus (Darkness) and black Night; but
of Night were born Aether (Bright Upper Atmosphere) and

(Hesiod (circa 750 BCE), Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and

Homerica. Theogony. translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann Ltd., 1914. Reprinted in English by Dodo Press, 2011), Theogony 123-124 ff). http://

The lines from Hesiod are shown below in Greek:

Ἐκ Χάεος δ᾽ Ἔρεβός τε μέλαινά τε Νὺξ ἐγένοντο·

Νυκτὸς δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ Αἰθήρ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἐξεγένοντο . . .”

(Greek at: )

Orphic Hymn 2. To Night (1-14) describes Night as Creator, as

well as presiding over sleep, dreams, night-time festivities,
shadowy visions, and the necessary division between days.

“Night, parent [G]oddess, source of sweet repose,

From whom at first both Gods [and Goddesses] and men (sic)

Hear, blessed Venus, deck’d with starry light,

In sleep’s deep silence dwelling Ebon night!

Dreams and soft ease attend thy dusky train,

Pleas’d with the length’ned gloom and feastful strain.

Dissolving anxious care, the friend of Mirth,

With darkling coursers riding round the earth.

Goddess of phantoms and of shadowy play,

Whose drowsy pow’r divides the nat’ral day:

By Fate’s decree you constant send the light

To deepest hell, remote from mortal sight;

For dire Necessity which nought withstands,

Invests the world with adamantine bands . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by

Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 115-116.)

Pausanias describes Night as the nurse of Sleep and Death:

“There is a figure of a woman holding on her right arm a white

child asleep, and on her left she has a black child like one who is
asleep. Each has his feet turned different ways. The inscriptions
declare, as one could infer without inscriptions, that the figures
are Death and Sleep, with Night the nurse of both.”

(Pausanias (circa 150 CE). Description of Greece 5. 18. 1,

translated by W. H. S. Jones and H. A. Omerod, Loeb Classical
Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London:
William Heinemann Ltd., 1918.)
Pausanias5B.html )

Sleep, an inevitable part of human existence, eventually prevails

over wakefulness.

Nust- (νύστ-) is a prefix meaning doze, nap, drowsy.

Nothros (νωθρός) means heavy sleep. Notheia (νώθεια) means


Nokar (νῶκαρ) means lethargy.


Narkao (ναρκάω) means to grow stiff or numb.

The narcissos (ναρκίσσος) (daffodil), narcissus, is known for its

narcotic properties.

Nardos (νάρδος) is spikenard, Nardostachys Jatamansi, an

aromatic herb with sedative effects.

Nartheeks (νάρθηξ) is giant fennel, Ferula communis, the stalk

of which was used as a Dionysian pinecone-topped thyrsus staff.
Giant fennel’s slow-burning pith made it an effective torch and a
means to transport fire over long distances (

Nosos (νόσος) means sickness, disease, plague. Noso (νοσο-) is

a prefix meaning disease, sickness.

Noseema (νόσημα) means disease, illness; grievous affliction.

Nosios (Νόσιος) means Healer.

Nosokomeo (νοσοκομέω) means tend the sick, medical


Nosokomeion (νοσοκομεῖον) means infirmary, hospital.

Nosogynomonikos (νοσογνωμονικός) means skilled in judging

of diseases by their symptoms, diagnostic.


Death prevails over mortal life.

Nek- (νεκ-) is a prefix meaning the deceased. Nekros (νεκρός)

means corpse. Nekus (νέκυς) means a deceased person.

Nekuia (νέκυια) refers both to a funeral ceremony and a rite by

which the deceased are questioned about the future.

Interestingly, both nectar (νέκτᾰρ), and the nympha of

silkworms (νέκυς) begin with the prefix associated with the
deceased, nek- (νέκ-).

Nerteros (νέρτερος) means nether, belonging to the afterlife.


Something can’t be new for long. Webster’s define new as

“having but lately come or been brought into being.” Newness is
a point in time.

Neo- (νεο-) is a prefix meaning fresh, new (νέος). Neoo (νεόω)

means renovate, restore. Neotees (νεότης) means youth.

Neo- (νεω-) is a prefix meaning new.

Neorees (νεώρης) means new, fresh.

Neazo (νεάζω) means to be young or new. Nearos (νεᾰρός)

means youthful. Nean- (νεᾶν-) is a prefix meaning youthful.

Neao (νεάω) means to plough up land after lying fallow, a type

of renewal.
Neeros (νηρός) means fresh.

Nebros (νεβρός) is the young of the deer, a fawn.


Spinning (of the cosmos, of the thread of life), and flow are
manifestations of prevailing forces in the universe.

Neo (νέω) and neetho (νήθω) means spin, literally “prevailing-

point essence brings-forth” and “prevailing-point center divine

Neema (νῆμα) means that which is spun. Neesis (νῆσις) means

spinning. Neetron (νῆτρον) is the spindle.


Nao (νάω) means flow, literally “prevailing arising brings-


Nama (νᾶμα) means anything flowing, such as running water, a

stream, or spring.
Naros (νᾶρός), nasmos (νασμός), and nator (νάτωρ) mean


A nageus (νᾰγεῡς) is a pestle, which can have a shape similar to

lower-case ν. A pestle is used in conjunction with a mortar
(bowl) to grind substances to a finer texture.

Pestle in a Williams-Sonoma catalog.


Nakos (νάκος) means fleece, wool.

Nannas (νάννας) means uncle or an aunt; ninnee (νίννη) means

grandmother or mother-in-law.

Nanos (νᾶνος) means dwarf, little person.

Naksos (ναξος) means solid, not hollow. Naxos (Νάξος) Island

has the highest mountain of all the Greek islands.

Naxos Island. Greek National Tourism Organisation. http://  Download high resolution image
(1.54 MB)

Naeeleis (ναηλεῖς) are the upright threads in a loom.

Illustration on a Greek vase, showing women working at an

upright loom.

Nasso (νάσσω) means press, squeeze close, stamp down.

Nastos (ναστός) means close-pressed, firm, well-kneaded;

solidity, absence of void.

Naphtha (νάφθᾰ ) means petroleum, crude oil; pitch.

Naphron (ναφρόν) is linen thread.

Nee- (νη-) is a prefix meaning not, without.

Needus (νηδύς) means any of the cavities of the body, such as

the stomach, bowels, womb.

Neeis (νῆϊς) means unknowing of, unpracticed.

Neepho (νήφω, νάφω), neepsis (νῆψις) mean to be sober, to

drink no wine.

Nizo (νίζω) means purge; cleanse.

Nimma (νίμμα) means water for washing; nipsis (νίψις) means

Nitron (νίτρον) means soda water.

Noar (νόαρ) means phantasm or spectre.

Notheia (νοθεία) means birth out of marriage.

Nothos (νόθος) means born outside of marriage.

Nosphi (νόσφῐ) means aloof, apart, aside, clandestine, secretly,


Nodos (νωδός) means toothless.

Ξ ξ              ksei (ξεῖ)  ksi (ξῖ)   ksu (ξῡ)            detached-

from                            pronounce: “ks”   


The letter Ξ means detached-from.

The shape of Ξ suggests an entity that is not touching anything

from above or below. The center horizontal line of the letter Ξ
appears to be floating in space.
Ksustos (ξυστός) is a detached portion of a building, a covered
colonnade, a walking place on the grounds of a private residence
or gymnasium.  

Covered colonnade on the Savannah River, USA. http://


Ksen- (Ξεν-) is a prefix meaning guest, foreigner, mercenary.

Ksenee (Ξενη) is a foreign woman or a foreign country.

Ksenagia (ξενᾱγία) means to command a body of mercenaries

(paid foreign soldiers).

Ksenia (Ξενία) means hospitality shown to a guest.

Ksenos (Ξενος) means guest, stranger, wanderer, refugee,

foreigner, mercenary; a person or state to which one is bound by
treaty; anything strange or unusual.


A sword or knife are used to cut flesh. A scythe is used to cut
down plants or people.

Ksithos (ξίθος) means sword.

Ksuraphion (ξῠράφιον) means surgical knife.

Ksustron (ξῦστρον) is a scythe fixed to chariots as a weapon, as

illustrated below in a painting by Andre Castaigne depicting the
charge of Persian scythed chariots at the battle of Gaugamela (in
modern Iraq).

Scythed chariots cut down the enemy.


Ksul- (ξῠλ-) is a prefix meaning cut wood (note that ul (ῠλ)

means forest, woodland, or wood).

Ksuleia (ξῠλεία) means felling and carrying of wood.

Ksuleus (ξῠλεύς) means woodcutter.

Ksuleuo (ξῠλεύω) means cut wood.

Ksulee (ξῠλη) means timber.

Ksuleera (ξυληρά) means timber-market.

Ksulon (ξύλον) means wood that is cut and ready for use, such
as firewood, timber, logs, a piece of wood, club, bench, table.

Ksoanon (ξοᾰνον) means a wooden image or statue of a deity; a

wooden instrument.


Ksulamao (ξῠλᾰμάω) means to plant or to sow, with amao

(ᾰμάω) meaning to reap corn.


Kseo (ξέω) means shave or plane timber; shape by carving;

scrape smooth, polish; roughen by scraping; flog; whittle; pare.

Ksestos (ξεστός) means hewn, shaved, planed, or polished.

Ksesis (ξεσις) means planing; that which is smooth or carved;
shaving; filing.

A ksoidion (ξοΐδιον) is a chisel.

Ksuron (ξῠρόν) means razor. Ksuro (ξύρω) means to have

oneself shaved.

A ksustar (ξυστήρ) is a scraper, rasp, file, or polishing

instrument. Ksusis (ξῦσις) means scraping, filing, polishing.

A ksustis (ξυστίς) is a garment made of shorn/clipped fabric

such as plush velvet worn by nobles.

Ksuston (ξυστόν) means shaved, whittled, scraped, shredded,

grated, trimmed, or cropped. A ksustra (ξυστρα) is a scraper
used after bathing.

Ksuo (ξύω) means to scratch, scrape, graze, whittle, plane, or

shear the nape of cloth. Ksureo (ξῠρέω) means shave.

Ksaino (ξαίνω) means to scratch, comb, or card wool.


Something that is dry is detached from its source of moisture.

Kseeros (ξηρός) means dry; eeros (ηρός) means springtime, so
that the literal translation is “detached from springtime.”

Kseer- (ξηρ-) is a prefix meaning dry, literally “detached-from

center outflow.”

Kseeraino (ξηραίνω) means to parch, dry up.

Kseerasia (ξηρᾰσία) means drying of hay, dryness, become dry,



Ksouthos (ξουθός) means rapidly moving to and fro, nimble,

rustling, whirring, chirruping, trilling, humming, twittering.


Ksanthos (ξανθός) means yellow. Anthos (ανθός) means


Yellow dyes are derived from the anther, the pollen-bearing part
of a stamen. Brief contact with the pollen-covered anther at the
end of the stamen can leave a bright yellow stain on fabric.

(How to Remove the Dye From a Flower Stamen Out of Fabric |

The anther is the tip of the stamens, yellow with pollen.

The anther is the yellow pollen-covered tip of the stamens.

Ksanthion (ξάνθιον) is a plant used for dyeing the hair yellow,

Xanthium Strumarium, broad-leaved burweed.

Xanthium Strumarium, broad-leaved burweed.

Ksanthias (Ξανθίας) is a typical name of a slave in Greek

comedy (from his yellow hair.) Yellow hair is an indication of
being non-Greek, being foreign-born, a stranger.

The city of Xanthos (Ξανθός) is so-named because of its

yellow-tinged Xanthos River.
Xanthos is the location of a shrine and theater dedicated to Leto,
the immortal mother of the twin deities Artemis and Apollo.
Leto is said to have given birth to her children in Xanthos, Lycia
(southern coast of modern Turkey). Quintus Smyrnaeus says
that the river Xanthos arose as a result of Leto’s brith travail:

“. . . Xanthus’ stream, [in Lycia], the stream revealed to men

(sic) by Leto, bride of Thunderer Zeus, when Lycia’s stony plain
was by her hands uptorn mid agonies of travail-throes wherein
she brought to light mid bitter pangs those babes (Artemis and
Apollon) of birth divine.”

(Quintus Smyrnaeus (circa 350 BCE), Fall of Troy 11.21 ff ,

translated by Arthur S. Way, Loeb Classical Library
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William
Heinemann, 1913.)

Note that amniotic fluid is clear or tinted yellow, so the

implication could be that the Xanthos River is the Goddess’s
amniotic fluid when her “water broke” in the process of giving
birth to Artemis and Apollo.

(US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health.

“Does the color of amniotic fluid still matter?” Department of
Obstetrics/Gynecology, Hutzel Hospital/Wayne State
University, Detroit, Michigan,
Xanthos River (Eşen Çay) near Kınık, at the base of Xanthos'

The Letoon theater (Theater of Leto) at the end of the road from
Xanthos in Lycia (modern Turkey), circa 150 BCE.  http://

Lycia is described by Herodotus as a matriarchal society:

“The Lycians did come from Crete in ancient times . . . They

(the Lycians) name themselves after their mothers and not their
fathers. If one person asks another who he (sic) is, he (sic) will
recite his (sic) maternal lineage, recounting his (sic) mother and
grandmother and the mothers before her.”

(Herodotus. The Histories 1.173, edited by Robert B. Strassler,

translated by Andrea L. Purvis (New York: Anchor Books, a
division of Random House, 2007) 95.)


Kseron (ξερόν) means terra firma, mainland; note that ero-

(ερό-) is a prefix meaning love, so kseron (ξερόν) means
“detached from love; grounded.”

The prefix ksun- (ξύν-) means with, partner, in common; un-

(ύν-) is a prefix meaning ploughshare, so perhaps “detach-from
the ploughshare.”

Ksuneebos (ξύνηβος) means drinking-buddy.

The prefix ksun- (ξύν-) may also derive from the word ksuo
(ξύω), which means to scratch, scrape, graze, and could be
interpreted as to mean “to rub elbows with.”

Ksunos (ξῦνός) means common, public, general.

Ksunophron (ξῦνόφρων) means friendly-minded.

Ksumm- (ξυμμ-) is a prefix meaning fellowship.

Ksunonia (ξῦνωνία) means partnership. Ksunoo (ξῦνόω)

means to cause to participate.

Ο ο            ou (οΰ, οὗ); later: o mikron (ὅ μικρόν)  entity

 pronounce: long “o,”, also “ho”

Note that the name omicron (ὅ μικρόν) is a relatively late-

coming description of the letter Ο, which was originally called
ou (οΰ). Omikron (ὅ μικρόν) did not come into use until
200-400 CE to distinguish Ο, ou (οΰ), from Ω, omega (ῶ
μέγα). Mikron (μικρόν) means little or short; mega (μέγα)
means great or long. It may be noted that the shape of Ω
(omega), literally “brings-forth,” has the appearance of a broken
or loosened circle.

The letter Ο, a letter shaped as a circle, means entity.

Webster’s defines entity as “something that has a real existence;

thing; being or existence, especially when considered as distinct,
independent or self-contained.”


Ode (ὂδε) means what is present or before one, this, here.

Onta (ὃντα) means things which actually exist, the present,

reality, truth, property.

Ontees (όντης) means reality.

Oun (οὖν) means “certainly” or “in fact.”

Ousi- (ούσι-) is a prefix that means being, existence, substance.

Ousia (ούσία) means being; essence; stable being, immutable
reality; true nature; substantiality; the primary real, the
substratum underlying all change and process in nature, applied
by Aristotle to the atoms of Democritus; the Pythagorean name
for the number 1; in Philosophy, it is similar to phusis (φύσις)/

Ousia (ούσία) is defined as the opposite of genesis (γένεσις)

(becoming, making). Ousia just is.  

Ousiarchees (Ούσιάρχης) means the source (άρχης) of

existence (Ούσιά).


Ogkos (ὃγκος) means bulk, size, mass, body.

Oio- (οιό-) is a prefix meaning alone. Oios (οἷος=οἷFος) means


Omas (όμάς) means the whole, together, one sum. Omos

(ὃμως) means all the same. Omalos (όμᾰλός) means even,
level, uniform, average.

Ol- (ολ-) and olo- (όλο-) are prefixes meaning whole, all, entire,
complete, sound.

Olos (ὅλος) means whole, entire, complete in all its parts.

Olosis (ὅλωσις) means totalization, integration.

Olbos (ὅλβος) means happiness, prosperity, wealth, with bosis

(βόσις) meaning food, so that olbos (ὅλβος) means “wholly

Olbios (ὅλβιος) means happy, blest, prosperous, with bios

(βιος) meaning life, so that olbios (ὅλβιος) means “whole life.”

Olikos (όλικός) means universal, with kosmos (κόσμος)

meaning the universe.

Olokatharos (όλοκάθᾰρος) means completely pure, with

katharos (κάθᾰρος) meaning pure.

Olethr- (όλεθρ-) is a prefix meaning deadly. Olethros

(όλεθρος) means death. Note that ethrisen (ἒθρῐσεν) means
reap, so that olethros (όλεθρος) means “wholly reap.”

Oleteer (όλετήρ) means destroyer; oleteira (όλέτειρα) is the

feminine form. Teiro (τείρω) means oppress, distress, weaken,
so “wholly oppressed.”

Olesi- (όλεσί-) is a prefix meaning destroy. Esis (ἒσις) means a

sending forth, so that olesi- (όλεσί-) means “wholly sent forth.”
Olesipolis (ολεσίπολις) means city-destroying, with polis
(πολις) meaning city, so “wholly sent city.”

Olessiturannos (όλεσσῐτύραννος) means destroying tyrants,

“wholly sent tyrant.”

Ollumi (ὅλλῦμι) means destroy, make an end of living beings,

kill, perish, die (especially a violent death). Lumee (λύμη)
means ruin, so that ollumi (ὅλλῦμι) means “wholly ruined.”

Oleros (όλερός) means impure. Note that eros (ερός) means

sexual love, so that oleros (όλερός) means “wholly sexual

Oulo (Οὕλω), means to be whole or sound, an epithet of the

immortal Goddess Demeter.

Oulumpos (Οὓλυμπος), Olumpos (Ὅλυμπος) means Mount

Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.

Oulos (οὖλος) means whole, entire; corn-sheaf.  

Corn sheaf and pumpkins.
Oddly, another definition for oulos (οὖλος) is destructive,
baneful, deadly, cruel, which likely reflects the “wholeness” or
“entireness” of the characteristic.


Engraving a circle into a stone tablet to form the letter Ο is not

an easy task. Ancient writers would have used some type of
stick/obelisk/compass for accuracy.

How to draw a circle with a stick/pin and a thread/rope.

Osos (ὅσος) means as much as, how much; as if to draw a line

around an amount.

Opee (όπή) means opening, hole, literally “entity unified

center.” Opee (ὅπη) also means where. The hole created by the
pin/stick/obelisk/compass marks the center of the circle.

Obel- (όβελ-), the basis for the word obelisk, is a prefix meaning
a spit or skewer, a pointed rod or bar, literally, “entity basis.”

Obelos (όβελός) means spit, nail; pointed square pillar, obelisk.

(Note that belos (βελός) means missile. Interestingly, the shape
of ancient obelisks resembles that of modern missiles.)

Traditionally, an obelisk is a single intact block of material.

(William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities

(London: John Murray, 1875) 816.)  

The obelisk in St. Peter’s Square, Rome, Italy, serves as a point

of orientation for visitors to Rome.

Obelisk in center of a circle in St. Peter’s Square, Rome. http://

The Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. is an obelisk.



A pronoun is a replacement or substitute for a noun.

O (ὁ) means that, a pronoun defined by Webster’s as “used to

indicate a person, thing, idea, state, event, time, remark, etc., as
pointed out or present, mentioned before, supposed to be
understood, or by way of emphasis: That is her mother.”

O (ὁ) also means the, a pronoun used to specify particular


O (ὁ) means son, daughter, brother, wife, house, district, word,

notion, phrase, term.

O ge (ὅ γε) means he, she, it.

Οὗ means him or her.

Outos (οῦτος) means this. Outos (οὕτως) means in this way or

manner; thus; so.


Oikia (οίκία) and oikos (οἷκος) mean one’s house, literally

“entity divine-power core.”  

Oikade (οϊκᾰδε) means home.

Oikeo (οίκέω) means to inhabit.  

Interestingly, oiktos (οἷκτος) means compassion.

Oikodespoeia (οίκοδεσποεία) means planetary predominance,

as “in the house of (a particular planet).“


An och (όχ) is an ox, an uncastrated (intact) male animal used as

a stud for breeding. The ox is often the one common-ancestor in
a herd of domestic animals.

Ochee (οχή) means a prop or support, literally “entity

foundation center.”

Ocheus (όχεύς) is anything used for holding or fastening.

Ocheia (όχεία) means fertilization or to impregnate.  Ocheuma

(όχευμα) means embryo.

Ochl- (όχλ-) is a prefix meaning mob, tumult, disturb, trouble,

or distress. An ochlos (ὅχλος) is a crowd, throng, mob, mass, or
multitude. Ochlokratia (όχλοκρᾰτία) is mob-rule, the lowest
grade of democracy, literally “entity foundation loosened.”

Oa (ὅα) means a hem or border.

Oasis (Όασις) is the name of many ancient cities in the Libyan

(North African) desert, and is defined by Webster’s as “a small
fertile or green area in a desert region, usually having a spring or
well.” An oasis is an entity, an area that supports life in the
otherwise inhospitable desert.

Oros (ὅρος) means boundary, bounds, boundary-stone.

Oro- (όρο-) is a prefix meaning boundary. Oria (όρία) and orion

(ὅριον) mean boundary. Oraios (όραῖος) means of a boundary,
literally “entity outflow.”

Ork- (όρκ-) is a prefix meaning bounded by oath. Orko 

(όρκόω) means to make one swear to, to bind by oath. Orkos
(ὅρκος) is an oath or the object by which one swears an oath.

Orizo (όρίζω) means to divide or separate from as a border or


Orizon (όρίζων) means horizon, separating circle, and is the

Pythagorean name for 9, because it limits/finishes the series of
units. (For example, the number 19 completes the units
beginning with 10.)
The diagram below illustrates an individual’s view of earth’s

Diagram illustrating view and distance of horizon. http://

Orophee (όροφή) means the roof of a house or the ceiling of a


Orros (ὅρρος) means rump or rear. Ouraios (ούραῖος) means of

the tail, hindmost.

Orthrios (ὅρθριος) means at daybreak.

Ormos (ὅρμος) means harbor-giver, a cord or chain. It reflects

the notion of bounded by connection/meta.

Orrion (ὅρριον) means horreum, the granary, the place that

contains the grain.

Ostrimon (ὅστρῐμον) means an enclosure for cattle.

Orei- (όρει-) and oreo- (όρεο-) are prefixes meaning mountain,

a land-feature that often serves as a boundary-line for territory.
Oreios (ὅρειος) means of the mountains.

Orchas  (όρχάς) means enclosing.

Orchatos (ὅρχᾰτος) means orchard or garden.

The orcheestra (όρχήστρα) is the space in the theatre on which

the chorus dances. Breaking “orcheestra (όρχήστρα)” into its
component parts, orchas (όρχάς) means enclosing, and eestikos
(ήστικός) means what is pleasing, agreeable.

Parts of a Greek Theater. The orchestra is the circular part in the



Orchea (ὅρχεα) and oschee (οσχη) mean scrotum, the pouch of

skin that encloses the testicles. 

Orchis (ορχις) means both ovary (ορχις) and testicle (ὅρχις).

The ovary is the egg-shaped female reproductive gland which
releases eggs/ova. The testicle is the egg-shaped male
reproductive gland which releases sperm.

Ovaries are the two white egg-shaped glands flanking and

connected to the uterus (center bulge) by fallopian tubes.
Ovaries release eggs/ova.

Testicles are the two white egg-shaped glands that flank and are
connected to the penis by the vas deferens. Testicles release


Orgas (όργάς) means fertile land, literally “entity outflow


An organ is an instrument, implement, or tool for making or

doing a thing. It is the root for the word organization.

Organon (ὅργανον) means organ, of the body and its different


Organon (ὅργανον) also means a musical instrument, a surgical

instrument, an instrument of philosophy, and an instrument or
table of calculations.

Orgao (όργάω) means growing ripe, getting ready to bear fruit;

also, to be eager or excited.
Orgee (όργή) means a natural impulse or propensity,
temperament. Orgee (όργή) also means initiated into the
Mysteries (made complete).

Orgia (ὅργια) means religious mysteries, rites, sacrifice,

worship, literally “entity outflow generative divine-power
arising.” Religious rites are an instrument (an organ) for
becoming one with the divine.

Orgizo (όργίζω) means to feel passionately about. Orgiao

(όργιάω) means to be fierce, like a lion. Orgiastikos
(όργιαστικός) means exciting.


Ouron (οὖρον) means urine. Oureo (ούρέω) means to urinate,

with reo (ῤέω) meaning full stream, flow, so “entity pure

Oureethra (ούρήθρα) is the urethra, the tube that conveys


Ouros (ούρος) means a trench or channel for hauling ships.


The sun and constellations appear to revolve about the earth in a

constant circular path.

Heavenly Ouranos (Ούρᾰνός) and Ourania (Όύρᾰνία,

Ώρανία) are the only major Greek God and Goddess whose
names begin with the letter Ο.

Ouranioi (Ούράνιοι) means the heavenly Gods and Ouraniai

(Ούράνιαι) means the heavenly Goddesses.

Ouranios (ούράνιος) means heavenly. Note that ran- (ράν-)

means drop, raindrop, sprinkle, so that ouran- (ούράν) means
“entity pure rain.”

Ouros (οὖρος) means fair wind. The word roos (ῥόος) means
stream, flow, current.

Ourios (οὓριος) means with a fair wind, prosperous, successful.

In Aeschylus’ play Danaids, Aphrodite (the immortal Goddess

of love) describes her role in instigating Ouranos’ (Heaven’s)
and Gaia’s (Earth’s) urge to merge, which ultimately brings
forth Demeter’s gifts:

“The holy Heaven passionately desires to penetrate the Earth,

and passionate desire takes hold of Earth for union with Heaven.
Rain falls from the brimming fountains of Heaven and makes
Earth conceive, and she brings forth for mortals grazing their
flocks, cereals to sustain their life, and the fruit of trees: by the
wedlock of the rain she comes to her fulfillment (τέλειος). Of
this, I (Aphrodite) am in part the cause.”

(Aeschylus (circa 450 BCE). “Danaids 44,” Fragments,

translated by Alan H. Sommerstein, Loeb Classical Library
Volume 505  (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University
Press, 2008) 41).

Ouranos (Ούρᾰνός) is the vault or firmament of heaven; the

immortal God of the sky.

In Orphic Hymn 3. To Heaven, Orpheus describes Heaven

(Ouranos) as “forever whirling round this earthly ball,” and

“Great Heav’n, whose mighty frame no respite knows,

Father of all, from whom the world arose:

Hear, bounteous parent, source and end of all,

Forever whirling round this earthly ball;

Abode of Gods [and Goddesses], whose guardian pow’r

Th’ eternal World with ever during bounds;

Whose ample bosom and encircling folds

The dire necessity of nature holds.

Aetherial, earthly, whose all-various frame,

Azure and full of forms, no power can tame.

All-seeing Heav’n, progenitor of Time,

Forever blessed, deity sublime,

Propitious on a novel mystic shine,

And crown his wishes with a life divine."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE). translated by

Thomas Taylor, Introductory Preface by Manly P. Hall (London:
Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The
Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 117.)

Nonnos describes Ourania (Όύρᾰνία, Ώρανία) as “the Muse

who knows the round circuit of the stars . . ."

(Nonnos (circa 450 CE). Dionysiaca Books 36-48, translated by

Rouse, W.H.D. Loeb Classical Library vol. 356 (Cambridge,
MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1940) 95.)

The National Observatory in Athens features Ourania on its

round logo.

Each of the12 signs of the zodiac occupies its place in the

heavens for approximately 30 days, totaling approximately 360
days per year.

A circle contains 360-degrees, roughly the number of days in a

calendar year. The circle, below, is divided into 12 sections of
30-degrees each.  The letter Ο is this shape.

Note that hours of the day on a circular clock are also divided
into 12 sections. Ora (ώρα) means hour, spelled with the letter


Ogdoos (ὅγδοος) means eighth. 

Okto (όκτώ) and oktas (όκτάς) mean 8. Okta- (όκτά-) is a

prefix meaning 8.

Okto (όκτώ) refers to the 8 spheres: the 7 planets + the stars.

“Xenocrates of Chalcedon intimates that the planets are seven

[G]ods [and Goddesses] and that the ordered arrangement of the
fixed stars is an eighth.”

(Clement of Alexandria. The Exhortation to the Greeks, Loeb

Classical Library, translated by G. W. Butterworth (London:
William Heineman; New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1919)

The number 8 has the shape of two circles touching, quite

possibly because every eight years the lunar and the solar cycles
come into alignment.

Geminos’ (circa 50 BCE) description of the 8-year cycle that

brings the solar and lunar cycles in alignment is discussed by
Evans and Berggren:

The octaeteris/oktaeteeris (όκτάετηρίς) is “an 8-year lunisolar

cycle . . . If we pick any 2 years that are 8 years apart, we find
that the January new Moon falls on nearly the same date in

The authors conclude that “All we can be sure of is that the

octaeteris was introduced earlier than 432 B.C.[E.], the date
associated with the beginning of Meton’s 19-year cycle . . . In
any 2 years separated by 19 years, the date of the January new
Moon repeats almost exactly.”

(James Evans and J. Lennart Berggren, Geminos’s Introduction

to the Phenomena: A Translation and Study of a Hellenistic
Survey of Astronomy (New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
2006), 82-84; 86-87.
eteris&f=false )


Osphus (οσφΰς) means loins (the genital and pubic area),

literally “entity synchronized-contraction.”

Opuio (όπυίω) means marry, literally “entity unified.”

Opuieetees (όπυιητής) means husband. Oar (ὂᾰρ) means wife,

literally “entity arising flow.”

Ozos (ὅζος) means offspring, bough, branch, twig, offshoot,

scion, literally “entity spark.”

Orpeeks (ὅρπηξ) means sapling, young shoot, scion, or

descendant, literally “entity outflow-of.”

Ogko (όγκόω) means to raise or rear a child to adulthood,

literally “entity generative.”


Om- (ὅμ-) and omo- (όμο-) are prefixes meaning together,

shared, in common, kin, like, equal, literally “entity meta/

Ombr- (όμβρ-) is a prefix meaning rain. Ombros (ὅμβρος) is a

storm of rain, a thunderstorm, rains, heavy rain, inundation, with
bro- (βρο-) meaning thunder/loud sounding, so that ὅμβρος
means “entity connected-to thunder.”

The umbilical cord connects the fetus with the mother’s

placenta. The umbilical cord is the medium by which nutrients
flow to the fetus, drawing oxygen and nutrients from the mother.

Omphalee (όμφᾰλη) means umbilical cord. Note that phalagks

(φάλαγξ) means main body, center, so that umbilical cord,
omphalee (όμφᾰλη), literally means “entity (ό) medium-of-
connection-to (μ) the main body (φάλαγξ).”

Omphalos (όμφᾰλός) means navel. The navel is the location of

the umbilical cord’s attachment.

Orpheus (Όρφεύς, Ὅρφης, Όρφήν) is the author of the

Hymns of Orpheus. An Orpheotelestees (Όρφεοτελεστής) is
one who initiates into the mysteries of Orpheus, a hierophant.  

In Euripides’ play The Bacchae (679-684), a maiden says of


“In the elm-woods and the oaken,

There where Orpheus harped of old,

And the trees awoke and knew him,

And the wild things gathered to him,

As he sang among the broken

Glens his music manifold.”

(Euripides (circa 450 BCE). The Bacchae, translated by Gilbert

Murray, The Harvard Classics (New York: P.F. Collier and Son:
1909-1914) 679-686 ff.)

Orpheus with animals. Roman mosaic, circa 225 CE. From

Building A of the Piazza della Vittoria in Palermo. Regional
Archaeological Museum of Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

Diodorus of Sicily gives a brief description of Orpheus in his

discussion of Heracles:

“Heracles . . . went to Athens and took part in the Eleusinian

Mysteries, Musaeus, the son of Orpheus, being at that time in
charge of the initiatory rites.

“Since we have mentioned Orpheus it will not be inappropriate

for us in passing to speak briefly about him. He was the son of
Oeagrus, a Thracian by birth, and in culture and song-music and
poesy he far surpassed all men (sic) of whom we have a record;
for he composed a poem which was an object of wonder and
excelled in its melody when it was sung. And his fame grew to
such a degree that men (sic) believed that with his music he held
a spell over both the wild beasts and the trees.  

“And after he had devoted his entire time to his education and
had learned whatever the myths had to say about the [G]ods
[and Goddesses], he journeyed to Egypt, where he further
increased his knowledge and so became the greatest man among
the Greeks both for his knowledge of the [G]ods [and
Goddesses] and for their rites, as well as for his poems and

“He also took part in the expedition of the Argonauts, and

because of the love he held for his wife he dared the amazing
deed of descending into Hades, where he entranced Persephonê
by his melodious song and persuaded her to assist him in his
desires and to allow him to bring up his dead wife from
Hades . . .”

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History 4. 25,

translated by C. H. Oldfather, published in Vol. II of the Loeb
Classical Library (New York and London: Harvard University
Press: 1935) 425.)

Larousse Greek and Roman Mythology describes Orpheus as the

founder of the mysteries of Eleusis and describes “Orphism” as

“Orphic theogony differed considerably from traditional

theogony or that of Hesiod. The world was born on an egg; the
upper part of the shell became the sky and the lower part, the

(Joel Schmidt. Larousse Greek and Roman Mythology, edited by

Dr. Seth Benardete (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980) 202.)


Orphanos (όρφᾰνος) means orphan. Phanes (Φάνς) is a

divinity in the Orphic religion representing the first principle of
life, so that orphanos (όρφᾰνος) means “entity outflow-of first
principle of life.” (Phanes had no parents).

Phanee (Φᾰνή) means torch or light, literally “divinely-

animated-entity arising.”

The Derveni Papyrus describes Phanes as a male-female entity

who emerged from an egg created by Chronos (Time). Phanes,
in concert with Night, created the Heavens. The Heavens, in
concert with Earth, created many Gods and Goddesses.

(Gabor Betegh, The Derveni Papyrus: Cosmology, Theology

and Interpretation (New York: Cambridge University Press,
2004) 141-142.)

Phanes is depicted below as winged and enwrapped by a

serpent, suggesting both heavenly and earthly qualities.  

Phanes hatched from the world egg &

circled by the zodiac. Greco-Roman
bas relief circa 150 CE. Image located in Galeriea e Museo
Eustense,Modena, Italy.


Serpents are ambassadors of the earth, while birds are

ambassadors of the sky. Serpents live both on and below the
earth, birds live both on and above the earth. 

Ophis (ὅφις) means serpent. Opheo- (όφεό-, όφεω-) and ophio-

(όφῐο-) are prefixes meaning serpent.

Ornis (ὅρνις) means bird. Orneo- (όρνεό-) is a prefix meaning

bird. The letter Ν is associated with prevailing over, as in the
winged Nike and nephele (clouds).

Oion- (οίων-) means an omen from the flight or cry of birds.

Oionos (οίωνός) means a large bird, a bird of prey, or a bird of
omen or auguries (divine interpretations).


To owe is to be indebted in a way that completes the

requirements of justice.
Ophra (ὅφρᾰ) means in order that, so long as.

Ophlema (ὅφλεμα) means a fine incurred in a judgment, a

judgment debt.

Ophlano (όφλάνω) means to become a debtor.

Ophello (όφέλλω) means to owe, to have to pay or account for,

to be due. Ophello (όφέλλω) also means to increase, enlarge, or
strengthen. Ophelos (ὅφελος) means a furtherance. Ophelees
(όφελής) is an advantage or help.


Opheltreuo (όφελτρεύω) means to sweep; tre- (τρε-) is a prefix

meaning change or turn.

Opheltron (όφελτρον) and ophelma (ὅφελμα) mean broom.


Ophrus (όφρῦς) means brow, the part of the face that reflects
one’s natural dispositions.
Philostratus the Younger describes Medea’s and Jason’s brows
in reference to their dispositions:

“Who is the woman with a grim frown above her eyes, her brow
charged with deep thought . . . I believe one must recognize
Medea . . .

“The form of Jason is slender, but not at all lacking in strength;

his flashing eye is overhung by a brow that is haughty and
defiant of all opposition.”

(Philostratus (circa 190 CE). “Medea among the Colchians,”

Imagines, Elder Philostratus, Younger Philostratus,
Callistratus, translated by Arthur Fairbanks, Loeb Classical
Library Volume 256 (London: William Heinemann, 1931) 313.)

Seneca describes Lycus’ disposition with reference to his brow:

“But see, ferocious and with threats upon his brow, the same in
gait and spirit, Lycus comes, brandishing another’s sceptre in his

(Seneca. Hercules Furens, Tragedies, translated by Frank Justus

Miller, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press; London: William Heineman, 1917.)

Osiris (Ὅσῑρις) is the immortal Egyptian Father-God, literally

“entity synchronized divine-power outflow.”

When the reigning Egyptian pharaoh died he became Osiris (the

deceased ruler). Osiris was then resurrected as the new reigning
ruler: Oros (Ὣρος), Horus.

(Manfred Lurker, An Illustrated Dictionary of The Gods and

Symbols of Ancient Egypt, translated from the German (1974) by
Barbara Cummings (English-language edition London and New
York: Thames & Hudson, 1980) 93.)

The name Horus/Oros (Ὣρος) means ascendant. Similar-

sounding orusso (όρύσσω) means dig up, excavate.


Adherence to divine law completes mortal obligation to the

immortals, especially at the commencement of an undertaking.

Osia (όσία, όσίη) means divine law; the service or worship

owed by humans to Gods and Goddesses; personified
Righteousness; worship, offerings; funeral rites, last honors paid
to the dead.

Osia (ὅσιᾰ) means the voice of the Muse; the sound of the lyre;
the din of battle; a prophecy or warning. 

Osios (ὅσιος) means hallowed; sanctioned or allowed by divine

law; holy; lawful, not forbidden by any law; pious, devout,
religious; pure, holy.


Divination is a means by which humans discern alignment with

the divine.

Omphee (όμφή) means the voice of the Gods and Goddesses, an

“oracle;” song; scent.

Omphee (όμφή), in addition to meaning voice of the immortals,

also means sweet sound and, specifically, an “oracle” delivered
from the inner shrine at Pytho (Delphi).

Onar (ὅνᾰρ) meanss a dream or vision in sleep. Oneir- (όνειρ-)

is a prefix meaning dream, literally “entity prevailing essence
divine-power outflow.” Oneiros (ὅνειρος) means dream.
Oneiraiteesia (όνειραιτησία) means obtaining revelations in a

Otta (ὅττα) means the voice of the Muse; the sound of the lyre;
the din of battle; a prophecy or warning. Otteia (όττεία) means
divination from ominous sounds.


“Oracle” is not a Greek word. The closest word in Greek is

orakiao (ώρᾶκιάω), which is defined by Liddell-Scott as “faint,
swoon, sway.”

“Oracle” is a Latin-Christian contrivance dated to circa 1400

CE employed to replace the Greek word chreestees (χρήστης)
(prophet) in translations of ancient Greek texts. (Note that the
printing press was invented circa 1450 CE.) (Note that the root
of the word Damateer (Δαμάτηρ, Δημήτηρ), the immortal
Goddess Demeter, became a Latin-Christian curse: damn. The
root of the word Hellenic, Hellas (Έλλάς), became the Latin-
Christian place of damnation: hell.)

Chreestees (χρήστης) means prophet, “oracle.”

Chreesteerios (χρηστήριος) means prophetic, “oracular.”

Chreesteerion (χρηστήριον) means “oracle,” the seat of an
“oracle.” Chreesmos (χρησμός) means “oracle.”

Sir William Smith in his Dictionary of Greek and Roman

Antiquities equates the Latin word “oraculum” (ps. 836-843)
with the Greek manteion (μαντεῖον) or chreesteerion

The Collins Greek Pocket Dictionary gives the Greek equivalent

of “oracle” as manteio (μαντείο) or chreesmos (χρησμός).

(Harry T. Hionides, Collins Greek Pocket Dictionary (London:

William Collins Sons & Co, 1988.)


The prefix or- (όρ-) literally, “entity outflow,” suggests a change

in the status quo.

Orino (όρίνω) means to stir, raise, move, excite, or incite.

Ormao (όρμάω) means to set in motion or to start.

Ormee (όρμή) means rapid motion forward, onrush, onset,
assault, attack.

Orsi- (όρσί-) and orso- (όρσό-) are prefixes meaning to stir.

Oruk- (όρυκ-) is a prefix meaning to dig.

Orego (όρέγω) means to reach, stretch, or stretch out. Orektos

(όρεκτός) means longed for, desired. Oreksis (ὅρεξις) means
longing, yearning, desire.

Orrodia (όρρωδία) means horror.  Orrodeo (όρρωδέω) means

to dread or shrink from, be horrified.

Orchamos (όρχᾰμος) means leader or chief.

An oreus (όρεύς) is a mule, a beast of burden. Webster’s defines

mule as “the sterile offspring a female horse and a male donkey
valued as a work animal.” 


The prefix orth- (όρθ-) means straight, righteous, literally

“entity outflow divine.” (This is consistent with the meaning of
the vertical letter Ι, “divine-power,” particularly with regard to
magnetic fields such as gravity and the earth’s magnetic fields.)

Ortho- (όρθο-) is a prefix meaning straight; right, just, upright,

true; standing, safe, prosperous, correct, real, genuine. Orthos
(όρθός) means straight, upright, standing; right, true, correct,
genuine; safe, prosperous.

Orthios (ὅρθιος) means straight up, steep, uphill, high, upright,

standing, high-pitched, formed in a column, straight (the
opposite of crooked).

Orthotees (όρθότης) means upright posture, erectness,


Ortheia  (Όρθεία, Όρθία, Όρθωσία, Fωρθεία, Fορθεία,

Fορθασία, Βωρθεία, Βορθέα) is an epithet of the immortal
Goddess Artemis.

Orthodoksia (όρθοδοξία) means orthodox. Note that doksa

(δόξᾰ) means expectation, opinion, judgment; vision; honor,
glory, splendor.

Orthagoriskos (όρθᾰγορίσκος) means sucking-pig. Gor- (γορ-)

is a prefix meaning fierce, spirited, vigorous, grim, quick.

Orthologia (όρθολογία) means correctness of language

Orthomanteia (όρθομαντεία) means true prophecy (μαντεία).

Orthopolis (όρθοπόλις) means upholding the city (πόλις).

Orthoteer (όρθωτήρ) means one who sets or keeps upright,

restorer or preserver.


Oieek (οιηκ) is a prefix meaning steer, guide, pilot, literally

“entity divine(ly)-powered.”

An oiaks (οῐαξ) is the handle of rudder. Another word for

rudder is oieeion (οίηϊον), similar to the word for opinion,
oieema (οϊημα), that which steers one.

Oimos (οἷμος) means way, road, or path.

Oitos (οἷτος) means fate.

Oichneo (οίχνέω) means to go or to come.

Oima (οἷμα) means rush, swoop, pounce.


Odusseia (Όδύσσεια), the Odyssey, is a famous Greek epic

chronicling the travels of Odysseus (Όύδυσσεύς, Όδυσσεύς). 

Od- (ὂδ-) is a prefix meaning travel, journey, passage, highway,

thoroughfare, literally “entity directed-trajectory.”

Odeuo (όδεύω) means go, travel.

Odios (ὂδιος) means belonging to a way or journey.

Odo- (όδο-) is a prefix meaning road. Odos (όδός) is a way,

road, course, or channel. The odos iera (όδός ίερά) is the sacred
road to Eleusis.

Odoi- (όδοι-) is a prefix meaning roam, walk, journey.

An odometron (όδόμετρον) is an instrument for measuring


Odopoieo (όδοποιέω) means to make passable, make a path,

and to act as a pioneer or road-maker.

Odotos (όδωτός) means passable, practicable, feasible.

Odaia (όδαῖα) is merchandise which a merchant must travel for.

Odao (όδαω) means to be carried away and sold.
Othen (ὅθεν) means whence, from whom, from (a source).


Ou (οῦ) means where. Outos (οὕτως) means in this way, in this

manner, so, thus.

Ou (ού), according to the Lexicon, also indicates the negative of

a fact or statement. The Lexicon then goes on to qualify this
definition in a lengthy 29-part explanation. The stand-alone
combination of the letter O with the letter Y literally translates
as "entity pure," that is, "entity free-of."

The prefix oudo- (ούδο-) means way, direction, literally “entity

pure directed-trajectory.”

Oudos (ούδός) means threshold, entrance.

Oudaios (ούδαῖος) means on the ground, underground (epithet

of the immortal Goddess Persephone). 

Oudas (οὖδας) means surface of the earth, ground.

Oudeeeis (ούδήεις) means terrestrial.

For some reason, when ou- (ού-) precedes dam- (δᾰμ-), it
results in a translation that means naught, nowhere, non-existent.
 This may be significant because Damatros (Δάματρος) is the
Greek name for the immortal Goddess Demeter, possibly
indicating intentional mis-translations, because, alternatively,
this combination of letters would mean “the way/path of

The following have a smell of mistranslation:

Oudama (ούδᾰμά): never, not at all.

Oudamee (ούδᾰμῆ): nowhere, in no place.

Oudaminos (ούδᾰμῐνος): worthless.

Oudamothen (ούδᾰμόθεν): from no place.

Oudamothi (ούδᾰμόθῐ): nowhere, in no place.

Oudamoi (ούδᾰμοῐ): to no place.

Oudamos (ούδᾰμός): not any one, no one.

Oudamou (ούδᾰμοῦ): nowhere.

In the same vein, when the letters ou- (ού-) precede de- (δε-)
they are translated to mean not.
Oude (ούδέ): but not, nor, and not, not even.

Oude pee (ούδέ πη): never.

Oude po (ούδέ πω): not yet.

Oudeis (ούδείς): not one, zero, naught, none whatever.

Oudenia (ούδενία): nothingness.  

Oudenaki (ούδενάκῐ): not once, in no times.

Oudeteros (ούδέτερος): neither of the two, neutral.

Ou dee (ού δή): certainly not.


Opeedeuo (όπηδεύω) means to follow, accompany, attend, or

go with.

Oplizo (όπλίζω) means to get ready, harness, equip, or arm.

Oplon (ὅπλον) means tool, implement, tackle, implement of

war, armor, shield, or weapons.
Opaon (όπάων) means comrade. Note that a paon (πάων) is a
song of triumph, battle-song, a solemn song or chant on
beginning an undertaking. 

Opos (ὅπως) means in order that.


Olinoi (ὅλινοι) means sheaves of barley.

Sheaf of barley

Oulai (ούλαί) (originally όFλαί) are the barley-corns or barley-

groats sprinkled on the head of an animal before a sacrifice to
“complete” the sacrifice.

Ompneios (ὅμπνειος) means of or relating to corn, nourishing.

Ompnia (Ὅμπνια) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess

Ompnai (ὅμπναι) are sacrificial cakes of meal and honey.

Oporo- (όπωρο-) is a prefix meaning fruit.

Opora (όπώρα) means the fruitful part of summer/fruit/ripeness,

the part of the year between the rising of Sirius and Arcturus
(i.e. the last days of July, all of August, and part of September).

Opt- (όπτ-) is a prefix meaning roast. Optos (όπτός) means

roasted, broiled, baked, scorched, or forged, the meat is
complete and ready to eat.

Opson (ὅψον) means cooked or otherwise prepared food, such

as fish, relish, or sauce, eaten with bread and wine.


Oros (όρός) means a milky fluid, literally “entity outflow.”

Orobachos (όρόβακχος) means the fruits of the pomegranate,

suggesting an association with the immortal God of wine,
Bacchos (όρό=fluid, βακχος=Bakchos).

Outhar (οΰθαρ) means udder/breast, literally “entity pure divine

arising outflow.”

Opo- (όπο-) is a prefix meaning juice or milk. Opos (όπός)

means juice.

Opizo (όπίζω) means to extract juice from.

Incidentally, opion (ὅπιον) is poppy-juice/opium, the basis for
the word opiate. Opikos (όπικός) means made of opium.

Oinos (οΐνος) means wine. Oinee (οϊνη) means the vine.

Oino- (οίνό-) and oin- (οίν-) are prefixes meaning wine, literally
“entity divine-power prevailing.”


Oa (ὅα) and oea (όέα) mean sheep-skin.

Oes (ὃες) means sheep-skin or bulb. Both sheep and bulbs have
a bulging, pear-like shape.  

Oeidees (όειδής) means egg-shaped. 

Ogchnee (ὅγχνη) means pear or pear-tree. 

Sheep have a bulging-shaped, pear-like body.  http://

Pear-shaped bulbs.

A pear has a bulging shape.

Oid- (οιδ-) is a prefix meaning swell, swollen.

Oiis (οἶις, ὅϊς) means sheep, both the ram and the ewe.  

Oios (οϊεος, ὅϊος) mean of or from a sheep.


Oa (ὅα) means service tree. The service tree is so-called because

it blooms in spring when the ground has softened enough to
bury winter’s deceased and hold funeral services.

The service-berry (ὅοιγα, ὅον) is highly astringent when first

picked, but when left to over-ripen becomes sweet. The
astringent fruit of the service tree, Sorbus domestica, is a source
of sorbic acid, a preservative.

Omphakos (όμφᾰκός) means unripe; sour grapes used to make

vinegar. Vinegar is a preservative used, for example, in pickling.

Oksos (ὅξος) means vinegary wine. Oks- (όξ-) is a prefix

meaning vinegar; acidic, sharp, sour.

Odous (ὀδούς) means teeth.

Odont- (όδοντ-) is a prefix meaning teeth; don- (δον-) is a

prefix meaning reeds; shake, agitation, percussion. 

Odaks (όδάξ) means biting with the teeth. (Note that aks- (άξ-)
is a prefix meaning axe; counterbalancing.)


Eyes are generally spherical, which may account for so many

words that mean eye beginning with the letter Ο.

Okkon (ὅκκον) and omma (ὃμμα) mean eye.

Osse (ὃσσε) and ophthalmos (όφθαλμός) mean eyes.

Ophthalmikos (όφθαλμικός) means of or for the eyes.

Opopa (ὅπωπα) means a sight or view.

Orao (όράω) means to see or look. Orama (ὅρᾱμα) means that

which is seen, a visible object, or sight. Orasis (ὅρᾱσις) means
the act of sight or the eyes.


Opsis (ὅψις) means aspect, appearance of a person or thing,

countenance, visual impression, thing seen, sight, vision,
apparition, power of sight, literally “entity incorporeal.”

Ops (ὅψ) means voice; word; eye; face.

The following definitions with the prefix ops- (όψ-) may reflect
the position of the letter ψ as one of the last letters of the

Opse (όψέ) means after a long time, at length; late; late in the
day, at evening; late at night; late in the season.

Opsi- (όψί-) is a prefix meaning late; delayed.

Opsia (όψία) means the latter part of day; evening.

Opsios (ὅψιος) means late; later.

Opsonion (όψώνιον), the word for salary/pay, probably derives

from its being long-awaited or received at day’s end.

When objects give off molecules, they smell. They may be in a

state of ripeness, readiness. An object’s smell is an indication of
what it is.

Ozo (ὅζω) means smell, scent, odor, literally “entity spark


Osmee (ὀσμη) means smell, scent, odor, literally “entity

synchronized meta.”

Osphr- (όσφρ-) is a prefix meaning to catch the scent of, smell,

be able to smell, literally “entity synchronized divinely-
animated-entity outflow.”


Words beginning with ost- (όστ-) suggest hard structure; the

prefix st- (στ-) begins many words that mean strong.

Osto- (όστο-) is a prefix meaning bones. Osteon (οστέον)

means bones.
Ostrakas (όστρᾰκᾶς) means potter, earthen, made of clay.

Ostrakon (ὅστρᾰκον) meanss an earthen vessel or a shell.

Ostreon (ὅστρεον) means oyster; στράβηλος means snail or



Onee (όνή) means help; nee (νή) is a particle of strong

affirmation with the divinity invoked.

Oneesis (ὅνησις) means something of use, profit, advantage, or


Oneiar (ὅνειαρ) means that which brings profit, advantage,

strength, or refreshment.

Oneios (ὅνειος) means useful.

An onos (ὅνος) is a useful animal, a beast of burden. Onosis

(ὅνοσις) means burden or blame, as in “the onus is on you.”

Onthos (ὅνθος) is the dung of animals, used as fertilizer.


Obrimos (ὅβρῐμος) means strong and mighty. (Note that brimos

(βρῐμος) means mighty.)

Ogmos (ὃγμος) means a furrow made by a plow; row. A furrow

looks like bulging and indented lines after plowing.

Furrows bulge up from the ground in a field after plowing.

Plowing furrows.


Othon- (όθον-) is a prefix meaning fine linen, sails, linen cloth,


Othonna (όθόννα) is greater celandine, Chelidonium majus, a

relative of the poppy, a central nervous system sedative, toxic,
purgative, antispasmodic that can cause nausea, vomiting,
numbness, fainting, and coma.

Oigo (οϊγω) means open.

Okl- (όκλ-) is a prefix meaning to crouch down or squat, “entity

core loosened.”
Okn- (όκν-) is a prefix meaning reluctance, fear, to shrink from,
“entity core prevailing.”

Okrio- (όκριο-) means rugged, jagged, rough, or having many


Okris (ὅκρῐς) meanss a jagged point, roughness, literally “entity

core flow.”

Olig- (όλῐγ-) is a prefix meaning few, as in oligarchia

(όλῐγαρχία), oligarchy, government in the hands of a few
families or persons.

Olis- (όλισ-) is a prefix meaning slippery, “entity loosened.”

Olk- (ολκ-) means draw, track, trace, haul, pull, literally “entity

Olmos (ὅλμος) is a socket; mortar; any bowl-shaped body;

drinking vessel. A mortar is a bowl used to break down herbs
into medicines.

Omeeros (Ὅμηρος) is Homer, the famous poet. Omeeros

(Ὅμηρος) shares the prefix omeer- (όμήρ-), which means meet,
accord, agree.

Onoma (ὅνομα) means name.

Onuks (ονυξ) means fingernails.

Opallios (όπάλλιος) means opal.

An opal.

Opiso (όπίσω) means backwards, back again, again.

The suffix –os (-ος) frequently ends Greek nouns, as if to serve

as punctuation marking the end/completion of an idea, such as
the period at the end of this sentence. It should be noted that
ancient Greek texts did not feature breaks between words.

Osprion (ὅσπριον) means a pulse. Note that prion- (πριον-) is a

prefix meaning notched.

Otan (ὅταν) means at the time when, when.

Oti (ὅτi) means for what; otiee (ὅτιή) means because.

Otlos (ὅτλος) means suffering or distress arising from


Ous (οὖς) means the handle of pitchers or cups. Ous (οὖς)

means ear. (acoustic)

The letter Ο is the symbol for the number 70.

Π π              pei (πεῖ), pi (πῖ)              unified, bridged           
                        pronounce: p

The letter Π means unified; under the same roof; bridged;


While the letter Ο means an entity or individual unit, the letter

Π means “units united.”

Webster’s defines unite as “to join, combine, or incorporate so as

to form a single whole or unit.” Unify is defined as “to make or
become a single unit.”

The letter Π resembles a bridge, poros (πόρος), a connecting


Traditional Greek bridge, Apeiros, Greece. (Photo credit: Greek

National Tourism Organisation)

The letter Π also resembles a portal, pulee (πύλη), door, gate,


Ancient Lion Gate entrance to Mycenae, Greece, circa 1250

BCE. The entrance is in the shape of the letter Π. http://

The letter Π also resembles Greek temples, reflecting the

meaning "under the same roof."


Pas (πᾶς) means all, the whole.

Pan- (πάν-) is a prefix meaning all, entirely, wholly. Pan-

(πάν-) is a prefix for many, many Greek words. (See Appendix
for examples.) Webster’s defines the prefix pan- (πάν-) as “a
combining form meaning ‘all’ . . . implying the union of all
branches of a group.”

Panellas (Πᾰνελλάς) means the whole of Greece.

Panto- (παντο-) is a prefix meaning all. (See Appendix for


Pam- (παμ-) is a prefix meaning all, utterly, wholly, entire.

Pag- (παγ-) is a prefix meaning all, a prefix for many Greek
words. (See Appendix for examples.)

Note that circa 300 CE, the word paganos (πᾶγᾶνός) came to
mean civilian. Webster’s defines civilian as “anyone regarded by
members of a profession, interest group, society, etc., as not
belonging.” Circa 600 CE, paganos came to mean unofficial,
lay. Eventually, pagan came to mean all the rest besides Jews,
Muslims, or Christians (Webster’s.)

Poseia (ποσεία) means enumeration. Posotees (ποσότης) means

quantity. Postos (πόστος) means how many, literally “unified
entity synchronized.”


To pan (τό πᾶν) means the whole, the universe. To panti (τῷ
παντί) means in every point, altogether.

On Nature by Empedocles (circa 495-435 BCE) is based on the

claim that everything is composed of four material elements,

Empedocles conceived the universe as consisting of:

-        peelos (πηλός): earth, “unified center loosened”

-        pnoee (πνοή): wind, “unified prevailing entity”

-        pur (πῦρ): fire, “unified pure outflow”

-        peegee (πηγή), water, “unified center generative.”

Pan (Παν) is the immortal God commonly associated with

flocks and shepherds. 

(Similar-sounding pon (πῶν) means a flock of sheep or goats.)

Orphic Hymn 10. To Pan describes Pan as the “substance of the

whole (1).” Pan’s all-encompassing dominion includes the air,
water, earth, and fire. Pan directs the harmony of the seasons and
“all nature’s change (37).” Pan is the “pow’r, from whom the
world began,/

Whose various parts by thee inspir’d, combine/ In endless dance

and melody divine (10-12).”

“I call strong Pan, the substance of the whole,

Etherial, marine, earthly, general soul,

Immortal fire; for all the world is thine,

And all are parts of thee, O pow’r divine.

Come, blessed Pan, whom rural haunts delight,

Come, leaping, agile, wand’ring, starry light;

The Hours and Seasons, wait thy high command,

And round thy throne in graceful order stand.

Goat-footed, horned, Bacchanalian Pan,

Fanatic pow’r, from whom the world began,

Whose various parts by thee inspir’d, combine

In endless dance and melody divine.

In thee a refuge from our fears we find,

Those fears peculiar to the human kind.

Thee shepherds, streams of water, goats rejoice,

Thou lov’st the chace, and Echo’s secret voice:

The sportive nymphs, thy ev’ry step attend,

And all thy works fulfill their destin’d end.

O all-producing pow’r, much-fam’d, divine,

The world’s great ruler, rich increase is thine,

All-fertile Paean, heav’nly splendor pure,

In fruits rejoicing, and in caves obscure.

True serpent-horned Jove, whose dreadful rage

When rous’d, ‘tis hard for mortals to asswage.

By thee the earth wide-bosom’d deep and long,

Stands on a basis permanent and strong.

Th’ unwearied waters of the rolling sea,

Profoundly spreading, yield to thy decree.

Old Ocean too reveres thy high command,

Whose liquid arms begirt the solid land.

The spacious air, whose nutrimental fire,

And vivid blasts, the heat of life inspire;

The lighter frame of fire, whose sparkling eye

Shines on the summit of the azure sky,

Submit alike to thee, whose general sway

All parts of matter, various form’d, obey.

All nature’s change thro’ thy protecting care,

And all mankind thy lib’ral bounties share:

For these where’er dispers’d thro’ boundless space,

Still find thy providence support their race.

Come, Bacchanalian, blessed power draw near,

Fanatic Pan, thy humble suppliant hear,

Propitious to these holy rites attend,

And grant my life may meet a prosp’rous end;

Drive panic Fury too, wherever found,

From human kind, to earth’s remotest bound.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,
introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 130-133.)  


θυμίαμα ποικίλα

Πᾶνα καλῶ κρατερόν, νόμιον, κόσμοιο τὸ σύμπαν,

οὐρανὸν ἠδὲ θάλασσαν ἰδὲ χθόνα παμβασίλειαν

καὶ πῦρ ἀθάνατον τάδε γὰρ μέλη ἐστὶ τὰ Πανός.

ἐλθέ, μάκαρ, σκιρτητά, περίδρομε, σύνθρονος Ὥραις,

αἰγομελές, βακχευτά, φιλένθεος, ἀντροδίαιτε,

ἁρμονίην κόσμοιο κρέκων φιλοπαίγμονι μολπῇ,

φαντασιῶν ἐπαρωγέ, φόβων ἔκπαγλε βροτείων,

αἰγονόμοις χαίρων ἀνὰ πίδακας ἠδέ τε βούναις,

εὔσκοπε, θηρητήρ, Ἠχοῦς φίλε, σύγχορε νυμφῶν,

παντοφυής, γενέτωρ πάντων, πολυώνυμε δαῖμον,

κοσμοκράτωρ, αὐξητά, φαεσφόρε, κάρπιμε Παιάν,

ἀντροχαρές, βαρύμηνις, ἀληθὴς Ζεὺς ὁ κεράστης.

σοὶ γὰρ ἀπειρέσιον γαίης πέδον ἐστήρικται,

εἴκει δ' ἀκαμάτου πόντου τὸ βαθύρροον ὕδωρ

Ὠκεανός τε πέριξ ἐν ὕδασι γαῖαν ἑλίσσων,

ἀέριόν τε μέρισμα τροφῆς, ζωοῖσιν ἔναυσμα,

καὶ κορυφῆς ἐφύπερθεν ἐλαφροτάτου πυρὸς ὄμμα.

βαίνει γὰρ τάδε θεῖα πολύκριτα σῇσιν ἐφετμαῖς

ἀλλάσσεις δὲ φύσεις πάντων ταῖς σῇσι προνοίαις

βόσκων ἀνθρώπων γενεὴν κατ' ἀπείρονα κόσμον.

ἀλλά, μάκαρ, βακχευτά, φιλένθεε, βαῖν' ἐπὶ λοιβαῖς

εὐιέροις, ἀγαθὴν δ' ὄπασον βιότοιο τελευτὴν

Πανικὸν ἐκπέμπων οἶστρον ἐπὶ τέρματα γαίης.

The letter Π (unified) combined with the letter Λ (loosened)

indicates the meaning plural, many individual items.

Pleeth- (πληθ-) is a prefix meaning plural, numerous.

Pleio- (πλειο-) is a prefix meaning plurality, manifold. Pleiotees

(πλειότης) means a plurality. Pleion (πλείων) means more,
greater, longer. Pleo- (πλεο-) is a prefix meaning more. Pleistos
(πλεῖστος) means most, greatest, largest. Plees- (πλησ-) is a
prefix meaning full. Pleos (πλέως) means full, filled.

The Pleiads (Πλειάδες) is a constellation of several stars that

rises in the spring and sets in the fall, corresponding with the
seasons for agriculture and seafaring.

 “In the age of Hesiod (800 BCE), the heliacal rising of the
Pleiads took place at Athens . . . on the 19th of May . . . which is
just the season when the wheat comes to maturity in that
climate . . . he indicates the commencement of the ploughing-
season, and the close of the season for navigating, by the
morning setting of the Pleiads, which in that age and latitude fell
about the third of Julian November.”
(Sir William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Antiquities, p. 227.)

Pol- (πολ-) is a prefix meaning many, much, literally “unified

entity loosened,” a prefix for many, many words.

Poll- (πολλ-) and polu- (πολυ-) are prefixes meaning many,


Poli- (πόλι-) is a prefix meaning city, polis (πόλις). Politeia

(πολῑτεία) are the conditions and rights of citizenship. Polias
(Πολιάς) and Polieus (Πολιεύς) are epithets of Athena and
Zeus respectively as guardians of the city/of the many. Polios
(πολιός, πολιόω) means to be grey with many years.

War requires recruiting, organizing, and deploying large

numbers of people against large numbers of other people.
Polemos (πολεμος) means to make war, battle. Polemeo
(πολεμέω) means to be at war, to make war, fight, do battle.

Polos (πόλος) is the pole or pivot on which anything turns, an


Poul- (πουλ-) means many. Pou (που) means anywhere,

somewhere; in some degree, perhaps, I suppose; about,


Plousios (πλούσιος) means wealthy, opulent, rich. Plouteo

(πλουτέω) means rich, wealthy. Ploutos (πλοῦτος) means
wealth, riches.

Plouton (Πλούτων) is Pluto, the immortal God who, with

Persephone, rules the afterlife. Plouton’s name means wealth-
giver, God of riches. The wealth of a bountiful harvest springs
from beneath the earth, the wealth of precious gems (pazion
(πάζιον)), and the wealth of minerals such as gold and silver
also come from beneath the earth.

Plouton and Persephone are depicted as an attractive, royal


Persephone and Plouton enthroned. Detail from a painting of

Orpheus in the Afterlife. Plouton holds a bird-tipped staff, and
Persephone an unlit crossed Eleusinian torch.
Apulian red figure Volute krater, attributed to White Saccos
Painter, circa 320 BCE. The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu,
California, USA.


British Museum, London, United Kingdom

Catalogue Number: London F277, Apulian Red Figure
Krater, circa 350 BCE.

Plouton returns Persephone to the upper world in his chariot,

accompanied by Hermes and Hekate. The Gods and Goddesses
have their usual attributes: Plouton, a bird-tipped staff, Hermes a
herald's wand, winged boots and petasos cap, and Hekate a
crossed Eleusinian torch.


Pulee (πύλη) means door, gate, entrance, portal, orifice. Pulon

(πυλών) means gateway, literally “unified purity loosened.”

Pulai (πῠλαι) are the gates of a town; an entrance into a country

through the mountains; a pass, the narrow straits by which one
enters a broad sea. A Pulagoras (Πῠλᾱγόρας) is a delegate sent
to the Amphictyonic Council at Pulaia (Πυλαία) (Pylae),
Thermopylae, the “Gate of Hot Springs.”

Map of Thermopylae, circa 480 BCE. http://

Thermopylae is just north of Delphi. http://


Palai (πάλαι) means long ago, of old. Palaios (πᾰλαιός) means

aged, old, venerable. Paleo- (πᾰλεο-) is a prefix meaning old,

Oddly, the similar words pallas (παλλᾶς) and pallaks (παλλαξ)

mean youth.

Pallas (Παλλάς) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess Athena

and a term interpreted as meaning maiden-priestess. 

The epithet Pallas (Παλλάς) Athena could be in reference to her

role as a warrior-Goddess. The word for wrestle/overcome/
endeavor is palaio (πᾰλαίω). Palee (πάλη) means to wrestle,
fight, or battle. A palton (παλτόν) is something thrown, such as
a missile, dart, or spear. These words may derive from the word
palamee (πᾰλᾰμη), palm, to take in hand or use the hand.


The letter Π (unified) combined with the letter Ρ (flow/outflow)

indicates the meaning para: around, alongside; periphery.

Par- (παρ-) is a prefix meaning beside, near; among; on the side,

literally “unified arising flow.”

Para (πᾰρά) means from the side of, from beside, from, issuing
from, by the side of, beside, in the presence of, along, near,
throughout, past, beyond.

Peri (περί) means round about, all around, as in the word

perimetreo (περιμετρέω), perimeter: to measure (μετρέω) all
around. Peri- (περί-) is a prefix for many, many Greek words,
literally “unified essence flow.”

Perao (περάω) means to drive right through, pass right across,

traverse, penetrate, pierce. Peiro (πείρω) means to pierce or run

(Note that the number represented by the Greek letter π (pi) is a

mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle’s
circumference to its diameter.)

Peran (περᾱν) means on the other side, bring to an end,

conclude. Peraino (περαίνω) means to be fulfilled,
accomplished, brought to an end, finished, concluded.

Peras (πέρᾰς) means end, limit, or boundary.


Persephonee (Περσεφόνη, Περσεφόνεια, Περσέφασσα,

Φερσεφόνη, Φερσεφονείη, Φερσέφασσα, Φερσέφαττα,
Φερρέφαττα) is Persephone (pronounced “Per-se-fon-ee” or
“Pher-se-fon-ee”) is the immortal Goddess who presides over
both the afterlife and new life in Spring.

Persephone is often spelled with a Φ: Phersephonee


P[h]ersephone is the daughter of the immortal Goddess

Demeter. Together, Demeter and P[h]ersephone are referred to
as the Mother and the Daughter.

(William Smith. A Smaller Classical Dictionary of Biology,

Mythology, and Geography (New York: Harper & Brothers,
1878) 296.)
%20persephone&f=false ).

Below, in a relief from the Sanctuary of Demeter at Eleusis,

circa 450 BCE, a crown-bearing Demeter is seated on a throne
holding a staff and an unlit torch. P[h]ersephone stands before
her holding two lit torches: one in a raised position and the other
in a lowered position.

Demeter and Persephone, relief from Sanctuary of Demeter at

Eleusis, circa 450 BCE.

Ancient texts found in grave mounds were engraved with

instructions for the deceased to journey “to holy meadows and
groves of P[h]ersephone:”

“But as soon as the soul has left the light of the sun,

 . . . Journey on the right-hand road

to holy meadows and groves of


Άλλ' όπόταμ ψυχή προλίπηι φάος άελίοιο,

. . . δεξιάν όδοιπόρ[ει]

λειμῶνας τε ίερούς καί ἅλσεα


-circa 400 BCE, from a grave mound in Thurii, now in the

Museo Nazionale in Naples, Italy.

(Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, Ritual Texts for the
Afterlife: Orpheus and Bacchic Gold Tablets (New
York: Routledge, 2007) 8-9).

“Now I come as a suppliant (feminine) to P[h]ersephone,

so that she may kindly send me to the seats of the pure.”

νῦν δέ <ί>κ<έτις> ᾕκω, ᾕκω παρά Φ<ερ>σεφ<όνειαν>.

ὥς {λ} με <π>ρόφ<ρων> πέ[μ]ψει {μ} ἕδρας ές


-circa 400 BCE, from a grave mound in Thurii, now in the

Museo Nazionale in Naples, Italy.
(Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles Johnston, Ritual Texts for the
Afterlife: Orpheus and Bacchic Gold Tablets (New
York: Routledge, 2007) 14-15.)

P[h]ersephone is frequently depicted in artwork holding a torch.

Below, P[h]ersephone is shown holding the crossed Eleusinan
torch in her underworld palace.

PERSEPHONE Museum Collection: Antikensammlungen,

Munich, Germany
Catalogue Number: Munich 3297, Apulian Red Figure Volute
Painter: Name vase Underworld Painter
Date: ca 330 - 310 BCE.

Detail of Persephone in a scene depicting Orpheus' journey to

the Underworld. The Goddess stands in the underworld palace
holding a crossed Eleusinian torch.

The story of P[h]ersephone’s abduction by the immortal God

Plouton, Demeter’s grief over her lost daughter, and the Mother-
Daughter subsequent reunion is both famous and at the same
time little known outside the field of classical scholars.

(It should be noted that many translators inaccurately use the

term “rape” to describe Persephone’s seizure by Pluto, which
has the inappropriate connotation of a sexual attack. A
comparison could be made to saying that the Christian Jesus was
raped in the garden by Roman soldiers. Also, the word
anthropopois (άνθρώποις), the basis for the word anthropology,
is misleadingly translated as “men” when it could just as
accurately be translated as “women.”)

According to Diodorus of Sicily, Phersephone’s mother,

Demeter, destroyed the corn crops when her daughter was taken
from her, and restored them when she was returned to her:

"Now she [Demeter] had discovered the corn before she gave
birth to her daughter P[h]ersephone, but after the birth of her
daughter and the rape (sic) [άρπαγήν=seizure, robbery, forcible
abduction] of her by Pluton, she [Demeter] burned all the fruit of
the corn, both because of her anger at Zeus and because of her
grief over her daughter. After she had found P[h]ersephone
[Φερσεφόνην], however, she became reconciled with Zeus and
gave Triptolemus the corn to sow, instructing him both to share
the gift with men (sic) (άνθρώποις) everywhere and to teach
them everything concerned with the labour of sowing."

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of History

( 5. 68.1), translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library
Volume 340. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;
London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1939) 281.)
Ovid describes the kidnapping of Persephone in Fasti:

“Cool-fresh Arethusa had called divine matrons

            To a sacred feast; the blonde [G]oddess [Demeter] came.

Her daughter (Persephone) and usual entourage of girls

            Rambled barefoot across their meadows . . .

Her [Persephone’s] passion for plucking gradually leads her


            No attendant happened to follow her.

“Her uncle (Plouton) sees her and swiftly abducts what he sees,

            And bears her to his realm on black horses.

She screamed, ‘Oh, dearest mother, I’m being taken!’

            And had ripped her frock apart at the breasts.

Meanwhile, a path gapes open for Dis (Plouton); his horses

            Barely endure the foreign daylight.

Her band of servant friends, piled with flowers, call out,

            ‘Persephone, come and see your presents.’

When the shout meets silence, their howling fills the hills;

            They hammer naked breasts with grieving hands.

Their lament stunned Ceres [Demeter] (she had just reached


            No delay: ‘Ah! My daughter, where are you?’

She is swept away mindless, like (we are often told)

            A Thracian Maenad with streaming hair.

As a cow bellows for the calf ripped from her udder

            And ransacks every grove for her brood,

So the [G]oddess roars out her pain and rushes

            Pell-mell. She begins with your fields, Henna [Sicily].

There she found the footprints of a girl and observed

            The familiar tracks in the soil.

That day would have terminated her wandering,

            If pigs had not disturbed the marks she found …

[Demeter searches throughout Sicily].

She fills everywhere she goes with pitiful

            Wailing, like the bird grieving lost Itys.

And she shouts by turns, ‘Persephone!’ and ‘Daughter!’,

            She shouts and screams each name in its turn.

But Persephone does not hear Ceres [Demeter], the daughter

            Her mother: each name dies in its turn.

And whether she saw shepherd or ploughman, the one

            Question was, ‘Did any girl pass this way?’”

(Ovid. Fasti 4. 423-426, 443-466, 481-488, translated by A. J.

Boyle (London, New York, et. al.: Penguin Books, 2000)

Latin version available at


The reunion of P[h]ersephone with her Mother in the spring

marks the period of growth and new life.

“In spring, when the first tiny shoots appear and the first flowers
deck the meadow, Persephone comes to her rejoicing mother,
and together they watch the young blade, ripen the ear, and see
the sheaves reaped and the corn threshed.”

(A.H. Petiscus. The Gods [and Goddesses] of Olympos,

translated by Katherine A. Raleigh (London: T. Fisher Unwin,
1892) 136).

The Return of Persephone, by Frederic Leighton (1830-1896

CE), English Academic painter. Hermes holds a serpent-
entwined, winged staff (caduceus). Persephone is reunited with
her mother, Demeter. Leeds Museums and Galleries, Leeds,
Jane Ellen Harrison reports that Persephone is equated with

“Theopompos, according to Plutarch, relates that

‘Those who dwell in the west account and call the Winter
Kronos and the Summer Aphrodite, the Spring
Persephone . . .’” 

(Jane Ellen Harrison. Themis (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge

University Press, 1927, digitally published 2010) 179.)

Below, an ancient Sicilian coin features P[h]ersephone.

Greek Agathokles, Sicily, Syracuse 317--289 BCE. 

Diademed head of P[h]ersephone left, poppy behind. Rev. Biga

right,  Calciati II 123; Copenhagen. In Ovid’s Fast 4. 531-534,
Ceres [Demeter] breaks her fast by tasting a poppy, and then
places her mouth on the infant Triptolemus, curing his illness.

Orphic Hymn 28. To Proserpine (Περσεφόνη) calls Persephone

“Pluto’s honored wife (3),” “source of life (4),” “Whose holy
form in budding fruits we view (19).” The hymn ends with a
plea to join Persephone after death in “the blissful plains:”

“. . . Last in extreme old age the prey of Death,

Dismiss we willing to the realms beneath,

To thy fair palace, and the blissful plains

Where happy spirits dwell, and Pluto reigns. (29-32).”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 153-155.)

Deconstructing the Meaning of P[h]ersephone’s Name

Peri- (περί-) means round about, all around, as in the word

perimeter (περιμετρέω).
The second syllable of Persephone’s name, epho- (εφο-), means
oversee, guard, rule, the basis for the word “ephor,” the ruler of
ancient Sparta.

The last syllable of Persephone’s name, neia (νεια), means to

make new, to reinvigorate.

Taken together, the three syllables of Persephone’s

(Περσεφόνεια) name translate as “all around (Περσ) ruler
(εφό) of renewal (νεια).”

In the spelling Phersephonee (Φερσεφόνη), the first syllable,

pher- (φέρ-) is a prefix meaning to bear or carry, bring, or

The second syllable, seph (σεφ), means to feel awe.

The third syllable, onee (όνη), means profit, use, advantage,


Phersephonee (Φερσεφόνη), then, means “bearing (Φερ)

awesome (σεφ) benefit (όνη).”

The suffixes –atta (-αττα) and –assa (–ασσα) in some spellings

of Persephone (Περσέφασσα, Φερσέφασσα, Φερσέφαττα,
Φερρέφαττα) are salutations used to address elders.

Persepolis (Περσέπολος) (Iran) is the capital city of the ancient

Persian (Περσίς) empire. The Persian Empire (circa 490 BCE),
shown below, extended west from India, including all of the
modern “Middle East” to modern-day Turkey, Egypt, and
Phoenicia. Western migration and battles caused a significant
interaction of “Persian” culture with “Greek” culture.

It is worth noting that our modern English term for Persia

(Περσίς), “Middle East,” reflects the bridging function of this
region of the world between the “West” and the “East.”

The Persian Empire, circa 490 BCE. http://

Persikion (περσίκιον) means scepter. Note that kion (κιον)

means pillar/column.

Persithea (περσιθέα) is an epithet of Aphrodite, the immortal

Goddess/Thea (Θέα) of the unifying power of passionate-love. 


Persea (περσέα) is a sacred Egyptian tree, Mimusops Schimperi,

found in artwork surrounding Egyptian kings, in tombs, and
around mummies. Persikia (περσικία) means peach-tree.
Persikon (περσικών) means peach-orchard.

“ . . . Various interpretations are described concerning the

significance of the ‘sacred’ (persea) tree in Egypt, which often
depicted kings protected by its foliage or emerging from it . . .

“Specimens of the Egyptian persea Mimusops have been found

in tombs at Illahoun (twelfth dynasty) and in wreaths around the
mummy of Rameses II at Saqqara (third dynasty), and in the
tomb of Tut-ankh-Amon.”

(W. J. Darby, P. Ghaliongui, and L. Grivetti, DARBY, W. J., P.

GHALIONGUI, Food: The Gift of Osiris, Vol. II (New York:
Academic Press, 1977).


Por- (πορ-) is a prefix meaning walk, go, march; course, way,

path, literally “unified entity flow.”

Poros (πόρος) means a means of passing a river; a ferry; ford;

narrow part of the sea, strait; passage-way; paths, pathway;
bridge; passage through a porous substance, opening; ducts or
openings of the body, pores; way or means of achieving,
accomplishing, discovering, etc; journey, voyage, the basis for
the word porous.
Poreia (πορεία) means journey, a medium of connection
between two places.

Poreus (πορεύς) means ferry driver. Poreusimos (πορεύσιμος)

means that may be crossed, passable, able to go.

Porthmos (πορθμός) means a ferry or a place crossed by a ferry,

strait, narrow sea; any narrow passage.


Poro (πόρω) means to furnish, offer, give, bring; equated with

Fate and Destiny.

Porsuno (πορσύνω) means prepare or provide. Porizo (πορίζω)

means bring about, furnish, or provide.

Porphuro (πορφύρω) means heave, swell, surge, froth: (bring-

about” (πορ-) mixing (φύρω)); also, grow red, dye red.
Porphura (πορφύρα) means purple.

Porphuromata (πορφῠρώματα) means the flesh of the swine

sacrificed to the immortal Goddesses Demeter and Persephone
(“bring-about (πορ) mixing with (φῠρώ) the Mother (ματα)”).

Peira (πεῖρα) means trial, attempt, to gain experience of,

become acquainted with, or to go forth upon an enterprise.

Pieria (Πῑερία) is the coastal region north of Mount Olympos

sacred to the Muses, literally “unified divine-power essence
outflow.” Greek poets conventionally open their works with
homage to the Muses.

Pieria is north of Greece.

Hesiod opens his Works and Days by invoking the Muses of


“Muses of Pieria who give glory through song, come hither . . .

(Hesiod, “Works and Days,” Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and

Homerica, translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge:
1914 and UK: Dodo Press, 2011) 1.) http://www.sacred-

Ovid invokes the Pieridum (Muses) in Fasti:

“May the favour of all the Muses alike attend me, and let me
never praise anyone of them more or less than the rest.”

(Ovid, Fasti V.110, translated by James George Frazer, Loeb

Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
and London: William Heinemann, 1931).

“gratia Pieridum nobis aequaliter adsit,

 nullaque laudetur plusve minusve mihi.” http://  

Pindar (Πίνδαρος), circa 500 BCE, invokes the Muse and other
divinities at the outset of most of his hymns, including Nemean

“Muse whom I worship, mother of my spirit,

I beg thee come . . .”

(Pindar, Nemean 3, translated by G. S. Conway and Richard

Stoneman, Everyman Library (London: J. M. Dent, Orion
Publishing; Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle, 1997) 203.)

Pimpleia (Πίμπλεια) is a place in Pieria sacred to the immortal

Muses and to the poet Orpheus.  Pimpleemi (πίμπλημι) means
to fill full of, to be filled, to become pregnant.

Pur (πῡρ) means fire, pyre, funeral-fire; hearth-fire; torch;

summer solstice, literally “unified pure flow.” It is a prefix for
many, many Greek words. Interestingly, the prefix pur- (πῡρ-)
also sometimes refers to wheat: puros (πῡρός).

Puramis (πῡρᾰμίς) means pyramid, the magnificent burial

monument of prominent Egyptians.

Egyptian Pyramid.

Purg- (πυργ-) is a prefix meaning tower. Purgos (πύργος)

means tower; lighthouse. Purgos (πύργος) is also the
Pythagorean name for the central fire of the universe (Arist. Fr.

“Philolaus (circa 450 BCE) says there is fire in the middle

around the central point, which he calls ‘the Hearth of the
Universe,’ ‘the House of Zeus,’ ‘the Mother of the Gods [and
Goddesses],’ ‘the Altar.’ (Aetius 11.7-7)” 

(David J. Furley, The Greek Cosmologists: The Formation of the

Atomic Theory (Cambridge University Press: 1987) 57.)

Papuros (πάπῦρος) is papyrus, an Egyptian material used to

make documents, the basis for the word paper. Papyrus
documents, like all documents, serve as points of reference.

Puktis (πυκτίς) means a book made of parchment, first

developed in Pergamos. Puktion (πυκτίον) means tablet,
picture, or parchment codex. (A codex is a quire (24 sheets) of
manuscript pages held together by stitching, the earliest form of
a book, replacing the scrolls and wax tablets of earlier times.)
Puk- (πῠκ-) is a prefix meaning close, frequent, thick, dense,
literally “unified pure core.”

Pergamos, Troy (now Bergama, Turkey) was one of the most

powerful cities of the ancient world, the site of a magnificent
library, and the site of many temples. A theater seating 10,000
was built into the hillside of Pergamos. Pergamos (Πέργᾰμος)
means citadel, a strongly fortified fortress. (Note that gamos
(γᾰμος) means wedding or sexual intercourse.)

Aerial photo of Pergamos, Troy/Bergama,Turkey .
Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamos. http://

The great Library of Pergamon first developed parchment

(πυκτίς) to compensate for a shortage of papyrus (πάπῦρος):

“As regards trade, Pergamon was the rival of Ephesus (Turkey).

On the artistic and intellectual plane, it was the rival of
Alexandria (Egypt) and Antioch (Syria).  (Pergamon,
Alexandria, and Ephesus had the most important libraries in the
ancient world.) When the Ptolemies prohibited the export of
papyrus to Pergamon (in an effort to undermine Pergamon’s
library), the use of sheep or goat skin, already long established
in Pergamon, was improved and a new writing material, the
“Pergamene” (later parchment) was born. The finest parchment,
made of calf, was known as vellum. More flexible than papyrus
and more easily folded, it allowed scribes to transition from
writing on scrolls to writing in books.”


Prin (πρίν) means before, formerly, hitherto. Webster’s defines

principle as “. . . an originating or actuating agency or force . . .
beginning or commencement.”
Pro- (πρω-) is a prefix meaning early, first, foremost, primary,
literally “unified flow brings-forth.”

Pro- (πρό-) means before, in front of.  Pro- (πρό-) is the prefix
for many, many Greek words.

Proteros (πρότερος) means first in order of existence, primary,

primary things, elements, the components into which matter is
ultimately divisible.

Prothuraia (Προθυραία) is Prothyraea, the immortal Goddess

of childbirth. Her name means “before (πρό) opening
(θυραία).” She is honored in the first Hymn of Orpheus as
“great Nature’s key (7):” 

“Thine is the task to loose the virgin’s zone (11),” the Hymn
says,  “. . . when rack’d with nature’s pangs (15)” of childbirth.
Prothuraia “bring’st relief in labour’s dreadful hour (20).”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 114-115.)

Prateus (πρᾱτεύς) means first principle and is the Doric word

for Proteus (Πρωτεύς, Πρωτέως).
Proteus is the immortal God of first (πρω-) cause (τεύχω), as
described in Orphic Hymn 24. To Proteus:

“Proteus I call, whom Fate decrees, to keep

The keys which lock the chambers of the deep;

First-born, by whose illustrious pow’r alone

All Nature’s principles are clearly shewn:

Matter to change with various forms is thine,

Matter unform’d, capacious, and divine.

All-honor’d, prudent, whose sagacious mind

Knows all that was, and is, of every kind,

With all that shall be in succeeding time;

So vast thy wisdom, wond’rous, and sublime:

For all things Nature first to thee consigned,

And in thy essence omniform confin’d.

Come, blessed father, to our rites attend,

And grant our happy lives a prosp’rous end.”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 149.)


θυμίαμα στύρακα

Πρωτέα κικλήσκω, πόντου κληῖδας ἔχοντα,

πρωτογενῆ, πάσης φύσεως ἀρχὰς ὃς ἔφηνεν,

ὕλην ἀλλάσσων ἱερὴν ἰδέαις πολυμόρφοις,

πάντιμος, πολύβουλος, ἐπιστάμενος τά τ' ἐόντα,

ὅσσα τε πρόσθεν ἔην ὅσα τ' ἔσσεται ὕστερον αὖτις·

πάντα γὰρ ἐν Πρωτεῖ πρώτη φύσις ἐγκατέθηκεν.

ἀλλά, πάτερ, μόλε μυστιπόλοις ὁσίῃσι προνοίαις

πέμπων εὐόλβου βιότου τέλος ἐσθλὸν ἐπ' ἔργοις.

The immortal God Protogonos (Προτόγονος) is honored in the
fifth Hymn of Orpheus as the “first-begotten (1) . . . from whom
the race of Gods [and Goddesses] and mortals springs (4) . . .
pure and holy light (7) . . . Priapus (11) . . .”

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 118.)


θυμίαμα σμύρναν

Πρωτόγονον καλέω διφυῆ, μέγαν, αἰθερόπλαγκτον,

ᾠογενῆ, χρυσέῃσιν ἀγαλλόμενον πτερύγεσσιν,

ταυρωπόν, γένεσιν μακάρων θνητῶν τ' ἀνθρώπων,

σπέρμα πολύμνηστον, πολυόργιον, Ἠρικεπαῖον,

ἄρρητον, κρύφιον ῥοιζήτορα, παμφαὲς ἔρνος,

ὄσσων ὃς σκοτόεσσαν ἀπημαύρωσας ὁμίχλην

πάντῃ δινηθεὶς πτερύγων ῥιπαῖς κατὰ κόσμον

λαμπρὸν ἄγων φάος ἁγνόν, ἀφ' οὗ σε Φάνητα κικλήσκω

ἠδὲ Πρίηπον ἄνακτα καὶ Ἀνταύγην ἑλίκωπον.

ἀλλά, μάκαρ, πολύμητι, πολύσπορε, βαῖνε γεγηθὼς

ἐς τελετὴν ἁγνήν πολυποίκιλον ὀργιοφάνταις.

Orpheus calls Protogonos “Priapos (Πρῐάπος).” Diodorus of

Sicily equates Priapos with the penis of Osiris, the Egyptian

"We shall at this point discuss Priapus and the myths related
about him . . . certain writers say that when the ancients wished
to speak in their myths of the sexual organ of males they called
it Priapus . . .

“. . . the Egyptians in their myths about Priapus say that in

ancient times the Titans formed a conspiracy against Osiris and
slew him, and then, taking his body and dividing it into equal
parts among themselves, they slipped them secretly out of the
house, but this organ (the penis) alone they threw into the river,
since no one of them was willing to take it with him.

“But Isis tracked down the murder(ers) of her husband, and after
slaying the Titans and fashioning the several pieces of his body
into the shape of a human figure, she gave them to the priests
with orders that they pay Osiris the honours of a [G]od, but
since the only member she was unable to recover was the organ
of sex she commanded them to pay to it the honours of a [G]od
and set it up in their temples in an erect position. Now this is the
myth about the birth of Priapus and the honour paid to him, as it
is given by the ancient Egyptians."

(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily) (circa 50 BCE). Library of History

(4 .6.1), translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library
Volume 303. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press;
London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1935) 357-358.)

Preiga (πρείγα) means from the stump, from the trunk of the
tree. Preiga also means an assembly of Elders, literally “unified
outflow essence.”

The prefix pres- (πρέσ-) means senior, old, ancient, elder,

honored. Presbon (Πρέσβων) means Elders. Presba (πρέσβᾰ)
means august, honored; aged woman; ambassador.

Pomp- (πομπ-) is a prefix meaning procession, solemn

procession, triumphal procession, ritual procession, parade, as in
the “pomp and circumstance” of a graduation.

Pompee (πομπή) means procession; conduct, escort, guide.

Pompos (πομρός) means conductor, escort, guide, literally

“unified entity meta/medium unified.”

A procession of the Olympian Gods and Goddesses is depicted


Procession of Olympian Gods and Goddesses, circa 200 BCE.

The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland. Acquired by
Henry Walters, 1913.


Pacts are mutual agreements that bring parties together, unifying

Pakteuo (πακτεύω) means come to terms, literally “unified
arising core.”

Paktoo (πακτόω) means to fasten or make fast. Pakt- (πακτ-) is

a prefix meaning fastening together.

Pakton (πακτον) means pact, agreement.

Peda (πεδα) means with, among.


Leaders can use their powers of persuasion and tools of

obeisance to unify followers.

The prefix pei- (πεῖ-) means persuade; obey; desire; attempt;

tempt, literally “unify(ing) essence (of) divine-power.”

Peitho (πείθω) means both to persuade and to obey; make

obedient; prevail upon, win over, seduce. Peitho (Πειθώ) is the
immortal Goddess of persuasion.

Peitho is often depicted as a companion of the immortal

Goddess of love, Aphrodite.

Peitho and Aphrodite.

Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas, USA, Apulian Red Figure
Krater, volute, Attributed to the Underworld Painter, circa 350

Nonnos describes Peitho’s superior powers of persuasion:

“. . . winning Peitho sat ever upon her lips and enchanted the
clever wits of men whom nothing else could charm."

(Nonnos. Dionysiaca 41. 250 ff, translated by W. H. D. Rouse,

Loeb Classical Library vol. 356 (Cambridge, MA and London:
Harvard University Press, 1940) 215.)

Aeschylus describes Peitho as having influence over all Gods

and Goddesses with the exception of the immortal God of death,

"Alone of the [G]ods [and Goddesses], Death desires no gifts;

one can gain nothing by making sacrifice or pouring libation to
him, nor has he any altar, nor is he addressed in songs of praise;
from him, alone among divinities, Persuasion (Peitho (Πειθώ))
stands aloof.”

(Aeschylus. Fragments, ff 161, translated by Alan H.

Sommerstein, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge and London:
Harvard University Press: 2008) 169.)

Peisi- (πεισί-) is a prefix meaning both persuade and obey.

Peistikos (πειστικός) means persuasive. Peisa (πεῖσα) means

Peisma (πεῖσμα) means a ship's cable, rope, rein, cable.


Trust can be the bedrock of relationships.

Pist- (πίστ-) is a prefix meaning trust, put faith in, literally

“unified divine-power synchronized.”

Pistis (πίστις) means trust, faith, confidence, assurance, honesty.

Pistos (πιστός) means to be trusted or believed; sure; to rely on.

Pistikos (πιστικός) means faithful.


Peeos (πηός) means kin by marriage, literally “unified central


Connection by marriage is indicated with the prefix penther-

(πενθερ-). Penthera (πενθερά) means mother-in-law; pentheros
(πενθερός) means father-in-law.

Pappos (πάππος) means grandfather; ascendants, ancestors.

Pater- (πᾰτερ-) and patr- (πάτρ-) are prefixes meaning father.

Pateer (πᾰτήρ) means father or grandfather. Patra (πάτρᾱ)
means fatherland, native land, literally “unified arising stretch/

Peos (πέος) means penis, literally “unified essence entity.”

Peerin (πηρίν) means scrotum, literally “unified central



Children bridge the present with the future.

Pais (παῖς, παῦς) means child, son, daughter, boy, girl, literally
“unified arising divine-power.”

Paida- (παιδα-) and paido- (παιδο-) are prefixes meaning child.

Paidophilos (παιδοφῐλος) means loving children, from which
the despicable euphemism pedophile is derived, meaning one
who sexually abuses children.
Prasinos (πράσῐνος) means the first color of early spring
growth: light green, literally “unified outflow arising.”

Ptorth- (πτορθ-) is a prefix meaning sprout, bud, shoot, sapling,

or young branch, literally “unified stretch/extend entity.”


Pepaino (πεπαίνω) means to bring to maturity or perfection (of

fruit), to become ripe, to mature, literally “unified essence

Pepeiros (πέπειρος) means ripe. Pepon (πέπων) means cooked

by the sun, ripe.

Pesso (πέσσω) and pepsis (πέψις) mean to soften, ripen.


Puthomeneo (πυθμενέω) means the base of a series, the basis,

the first in a series. (Note that menos (μένος) means might,
force; spirit, passion and putho (πύθω) means cause to rot,
decay, moulder, putrefy, suggesting that the degeneration of one
thing forms the foundation for something new.)
Puthomenothen (πυθμενόθεν) means from the foundation.

Puthmeen (πυθμήν) means the bottom, base, foundation, root,

stem, base of a series. 

The Puthia (Πῦθία) is the Pythia, the priestess of Pythian

Apollo at Delphi who channeled divine responses to inquiries,
literally “unified pure divine divine-power arising.”

Puthia (Πῦθια) are the Pythian games celebrated at Delphi in

honor of Pythian Apollo.

Orphic Hymn 78. To Themis (1-8) describes Themis as a child

of Heaven and Earth, residing in Pytho, and the source of
Apollo’s manteion (μαντεῖον) (“oracles”):

“Illustrious Themis, of celestial birth,

Thee I invoke, young blossom of the earth:

Beauteous-eyed virgin; first from thee alone,

Prophetic oracles to men (sic) were known,

Giv’n from the deep recess of the fane

In sacred Pytho, where renown’d you reign;

From thee, Apollo’s oracles arose,

And from thy pow’r his inspiration flows."

(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus, translated by Thomas Taylor,

introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the
Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical
Research Society, 1981) 217.)

The Theater at Delphi in Pytho.

Themis sits on the Delphic tripod in the role of Puthia, the

oracular prophetess of the Delphic shrine. King Aigeus of
Athens approaches her to receive an oracle regarding the birth of
a son. Antiken-sammlung Museum, Berlin, Germany
Catalogue No.: Berlin F2538
Beazley Archive No.: 217214, Attic Red Figure
Kylix,  Attributed to the Codrus Painter, circa 430 BCE.  http://

Peutheen (πευθήν) means inquirer. A peusis (πεῦσις) is an

inquiry or question.

Peutho (πευθώ) means information or tidings.

The Puthia had the final word on many matters of justice and
affairs of state. The Puthioi (Πύθιοι) were the four persons of
Sparta whose official duty was to consult the Delphic Puthia on
affairs of state.

An example of such a mission and the Puthia’s admonition and

warning is described by Aelian (this passage illustrates the value
placed on protecting the right to artistic expression):

"The Sybarites sent a delegation to Delphi (after Sybarite rioters

murdered a musician in the temple of the immortal Goddess
Hera) and the Pythia responded:

“‘Go away from my tripods, there is still blood on your hands,

pouring down in quantity, to keep you from the stone threshold.
I shall not deliver oracles to you; you have killed a servant of the
Muses by the altars of Hera, without respect for the vengeance
of the [G]ods [and Goddesses].

“‘For evildoers the fulfilment of justice is not long in coming,

nor can it be put off, even if they should be descendants of Zeus.
It hovers over their heads and among their children; misfortune
after misfortune stalks their homes.’

“Justice was not slow; for having taken up arms against the men
of Croton they (the Sybarites) were overwhelmed by them, and
their city disappeared."

(Aelian (circa 200 CE), Historical Miscellany 3.43, translated by

Nigel Guy Wilson, Loeb Classical Library (Harvard College:
1997) 175.

Putho (Πῦθώ) is Pytho, the region in which the city of Delphi

was situated.  Puthoi (Πῦθοῖ) means at Pytho or Delphi.

Puelion (πῠελιον) means setting (of a ring), eye-socket, cup,

sarcophagus, reservoir, basin, or bathing-tub. Pundax (πύνδαξ)
means the bottom of a jar, cup, or other vessel. Puon (πύον)
means discharge; pus; the first milk after birth.

Pumatos (πύμᾰτος) means root, literally “unified pure (πύ) of

the mother (μᾰτος).”


Puthagoras (Πῠθᾰγόρας) (circa 550 BCE) is Pythagoras, a

philosopher and mathematician credited with many discoveries
and tearchings, including the Pythagorean theorem (a2 + b2 =

Pythagoras was born in Syria, brought up in Samos, and at 18

left to “satisfy his thirst for knowledge.” He traveled to Miletus,
to Phoenicia, spent 25 years in Egypt, and traveled to Chaldea,
Babylon, and India. He visited Crete, Sparta, several countries
of Greece, and eventually opened a school in Italy. According to
Hutton, “His house was called the temple of Ceres (Demeter),
and his court-yard the temple of the Muses . . .”

Pythagoras cautioned his students to express themselves “‘not a

little in many words, but much in a few.’”

“In arithmetic, the common multiplication table is, to this day,

still called Pythagoras’s table. In geometry, it is said he invented
many theorems . . . In astronomy his inventions were many and
great. It is said he discovered, or maintained the true system of
the world, which places the sun in the centre, and makes all the
planes revolve about him (Helios) . . . He first gave the world the
name Κοσμος (Kosmos), from the order and beauty of all things
comprehended in it; asserting that it was made according to
musical proportion . . .”

(Charles Hutton, A Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary,

Vol. 2 (London: Printed for the Author, 1815) 266.) http://

“Pythagoras’ house at Metapontum was consecrated after his

death as a temple of Demeter the mother of Persephone, in
commemoration of this aspect of his teaching.”

(Kathleen Freeman, God, Man and State: Greek Concepts

(Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1952) 17).


Pathos (πάθος) means that which happens to a person or thing,

an incident, accident, what one has experienced, literally
“unified arising divine.”

Iamblichus describes the unifying effect of emotional

experiences depicted by actors in the theater and in sacred rites,
equating pathos with emotions:

‘When we see the emotions (páthē) of others in comedy and in

tragedy, we still our own emotions (páthē) and make them more
moderate, and purge them (apokathairein), and in sacred rites,
through the sight and sound of obscenities, we are freed from the
harm that comes from actual indulgence (érga) in them.

(Iamblichus, Myst. 1.11. 39.14 in Richard Sorabji’s The

Philosophy of the Commentators 200-600 [CE]) Vol. 1 (New
York: Cornell University Press, 2005) 298.)

Pithanos (πῐθᾰνός) means persuasive, plausible, credible.

Pithos (πίθος) means a large wine jar, which could prove an aid
to persuasion in some instances. Pithon (πῐθών) means cellar.

Potheo (ποθέω) means to long for, yearn after, love, or mourn.

Pothos (πόθος) means longing, yearning.


Paian (Παιάν) and Paieeon (Παιήων) mean physician, healer;

savior, deliverer; a title of the immortal God Apollo.
Paian (παιάν) means paean; choral song; song of triumph after
victory; any solemn song or chant on beginning an undertaking.

Paian (παιάν) is a foot consisting of 3 short and 1 long


The Paiones (Παίονες) are the Paeonians, the people of

Macedonia (north of the Greek Peloponnese).


Poieo (ποιέω) means make, produce, bring about, cause, or do.

Poi- (ποι-) is a prefix meaning make or do, literally “unified
entity divine(ly)-powered.”

Poieet- (ποιητ-) means capable of making, creative, productive,

the basis for the word poet.

Poinee (ποινή) means price paid, requital; penalty; recompense,

reward; personified as an immortal Goddess.

Pra- (πρᾰ-) is a prefix meaning doing, action, literally “unified

outflow arising.”

Pragma (πρᾶγμα) means deed, act, matter, affair, or concrete

reality, the basis for the word pragmatic.
Prak- (πρακ-) is a prefix for one who does or executes; an
officeholder, official, or tax collector, the basis for the word

Prasso (πράσσω) means to do, to achieve, effect, or accomplish,

to manage, to practice, to demand, to exact for oneself, to deal

Praxis (πρᾶξις) means to do or act, the basis for the word


Praksidikee (Πραξῐδίκη) is Praxidike, the immortal Goddess

who exacts justice, “Do-er of (Πραξῐ-) justice (δίκη).”


Pascho (πάσχω) means done to one, suffer, to have something

happen to one, passivity.

Potmos (πότμος) means that which befalls one, one’s lot,

destiny, personified as Destiny.

Potnia (πότνια) is a title of honor, used chiefly in addressing

women and Goddesses, meaning queen, revered, august.

Homer addresses Demeter as “potnia (πότνια)” in his Hymn to


“And now, queen of the land of sweet Eleusis and sea-girt Paros
and rocky Antron, lady (potnia), giver of good gifts
(aglaodoros), bringer of seasons (orephoros), queen (anassa)
Deo, be gracious, you and your daughter all beauteous
Persephone, and for my song grant me heart-cheering

(Homer (circa 550 BCE). “Hymn 2 to Demeter (490-495),”

Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica, translated by Hugh
G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge: 1914 and UK: Dodo Press, 2011)

“ἀλλ᾽ ἄγ᾽ Ἐλευσῖνος θυοέσσης δῆμον ἔχουσα

καὶ Πάρον ἀμφιρύτην Ἀντρῶνά τε πετρήεντα,
πότνια, ἀγλαόδωρ᾽, ὡρηφόρε, Δηοῖ ἄνασσα,
αὐτὴ καὶ κούρη περικαλλὴς Περσεφόνεια:
πρόφρονες ἀντ᾽ ᾠδῆς βίοτον θυμήρε᾽ ὄπαζε.”


Penees (πένης) means one who toils, one who works for a
living, a day-laborer, a poor person. Penomai (πένομαι) means
toil, work.

Peina (πεῖνα) means hunger, famine.

Penthos (πένθος) meanss grief, sorrow, mourning.

Ponos (πόνος) means hard work, toil. Poneo (πονέω) means to

work hard, suffer toil, labor.

Poneeros (πονηρός) means oppressed by toils. Poneer (πονήρ)

means a bad state or condition.


Paphos (Πάφος) on the island of Kupros (Κύπρος), Cyprus, is

the location of an important ancient temple to the immortal
Goddess of love, Aphrodite, the Paphian (Πάφιος, Παφίας).

The coin (circa 200 CE), below, depicts a relatively modern

temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, Cyprus.

Bronze coin of the Emperor Caracalla (198-217 CE) issued by

the Community (Koinon) of the Cypriots showing the temple of
Aphrodite at Paphos
(British Museum).

Nonnos in Dionysiaca describes the unquenchable nature of

Paphian passion:

“The blazing earth, the flaming sea, the rivers--all have been
swept clean by the downpour of Zeus, only one trifle it has not
quenched, the Paphian [Aphrodite’s/Love’s] fire . . .”

(Nonnos (circa 450 CE), Dionysiaca, translated by W.H.D.

Rouse, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA and London:
Harvard University Press, 1940) 6. 356 ff).

Paphos, Cyprus/Kypros


Ancient coins of Paphos, Cyprus/Kypros feature the image of


N1528: PTOLEMAIC. Ptolemy V Epiphanes. 204-180 BCE.

AE obol.

PTOLEMAIC. Ptolemy V Epiphanes. 204-180 BCE. AE obol

(29 mm, 22.09 gm). Salamis, ca. 204-202 BCE. Diademed head
of Zeus-Ammon right. Rev: Cult statue of Aphrodite of Paphos
facing; c/m: dolphin right within circular incuse. Svoronos 1006
(Ptolemy III). Weiser 108. SNG Copenhagen 645 (Ptolemy III).

Paphos, Cyprus/Kupros, circa 310-306 BCE. Head of Aphrodite

right, wearing ornamented stephane and earring, Eagle standing

Apuleius in Lucius’ prayer for help equates the “Queen of

Heaven” with Demeter, Aphrodite, and other immortal

“Queen of Heaven (regina caeli), whether you are fostering

Ceres (Demeter) the motherly nurse of all growth, who,
gladdened at the discovery of your lost daughter, abolished the
brutish nutriment of the primitive acorn and pointed the way to
gentler food, as is yet shown in the tilling of the fields of
Eleusis; or whether you are celestial Venus (Aphrodite) who in
the first moment of Creation mingled the opposing sexes in the
generation of mutual desires, and who, after sowing in humanity
the seeds of indestructible continuing life, are now worshiped in
the wave-washed shrine of Paphos . . .

“O by whatever name, and by whatever rites, and in whatever

form, it is permitted to invoke you, come now and succour me in
the hour of my calamity. Support my broken life, and give me
rest and peace after the tribulations of my lot. Let there be an
end to the toils that weary me, and an end to the snares that beset

(Apuleius (circa 120 CE), Metamorphoses 11.2 (renamed The

Golden Ass after Apuleius’ death), translated by P. G. Walsh
(Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).)


Pet- (πέτ-) is a prefix meaning broad, spread out, outspread,

literally “unified essence stretch/extend.” Petalon (πέτᾰλον)
means petal or leaf.

Peda- (πεδα-) is a prefix equated in the Lexicon with meta-

(μετα-, μετη-). Peda (πεδα) means with, among. Meta- (μετα-,
μετη-) means in the midst of, among.  Both prefixes express
connecting functions.

Pedaphora (πεδᾰφορά) is equated in the Lexicon with

metaphora (μεταφορά): transference.


Pama (πᾶμα) means property, literally “unified arising meta/

Pateo (πᾰτέω) means to tread or walk. Patos (πάτος) is a
trodden or beaten path, “unified arising stretch/extend.”

Pedias (πεδῐάς) means flat land, on or of the plain. Pedion

(πεδίον) means plain, flat land, “unified essence directed-

The prefix pedo- (πεδο-) means earth, ground. Pedon (πέδον)

means ground, earth. Pados (πάδος) means garden or grove.

Pedilon (πεδῑλον) means sandals, shoes, boots, or any covering

for the feet. Pod- (ποδ-) is a prefix meaning feet, the basis for
the word podiatry.

Pez- (πεζ-) is a prefix meaning land, traveling on land. Pezos

(πεζός) means on foot, walking, and refers to land animals. In
reference to verse, pezos (πεζός) means unaccompanied by

Peel- (πηλ-) is a prefix meaning clay, earth, mud. Peelos

(πηλός) means clay, earth, mud, literally “unified center

Pisos (πῖσος) means meadows, “unified divine-power.”

Plaks (πλάξ) is anything flat and broad, flat land, plain, “unified
Plat- (πλατ-) is a prefix meaning flat-shaped, broad and even. A
platee (πλάτη) is a flat or broad object, such as a plate or platter.
Platos (πλάτος) means breadth, width; plane surface, plane, the
basis for the word platform.


Pleumon (πλεύμων) means lungs. Pleura (πλευρά) means ribs,

literally “unified loosened essence flow.”

Pneo (πνέω) means to breathe, literally “unified prevailing


Pneuma (πνεῦμα) means wind, breath, breeze.

Pneumonia (πνευμονία) means of the lungs.

Pnoee (πνοή) means to blow.

Poiph- (ποιφ-) means blow, puff, hiss, literally “unified entity


Preetho (πρήθω) means to swell out by blowing, such as by

blowing into a flame. Preesis (πρῆσις) means to blow up,
inflate, distend, fill out, inflame, swell, “unified outflow (from)
Prapides (πρᾰπίδες) is the diaphragm, literally “unified outflow
arising.” The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the chest
cavity from the abdomen. It is the main muscle of respiration,
drawing downward in the chest on inhalation, and pushing
upward in exhalation, like a spring.



In a region including more than 400 islands (http://, water is a major
transportation bridge and unifying force.   

Paga (πᾰγά, πηγή) means flowing liquid: of tears, of mother’s

milk; fount, source, origin; from a spring; running water,
streams, “unified arising/center generative.”

Pagasi (Πᾰγᾰσί) is Pagasae, the port of the city of Pherae in

Thessaly, from which the Argonauts sailed for Colchis.

The port of Pagasi is in Pherae, shown in southeast Thessaly.
Pagkreas (πάγκρεας) means pancreas, an organ that secretes a
fluid containing enzymes that break down protein, fat, and starch

Palaimon (Πᾰλαίμων) is the immortal God of the sea friendly

to sailors.

Pelagos (πέλᾰγος) means the open sea, the high sea, the sea.

Pelanos (πέλᾰνός) means a thick, liquid substance that is just

liquid enough to be poured, such as blood or honey; it also refers
to a mixture of meal, honey, and oil offered as a libation to the
Gods and Goddesses and the deceased, literally “unified essence

Peegazo (πηγάζω) means to spring or gush forth, literally

“unified center generative arising.”

The prefix pid- (πιδ-) means spring of water, fountain, literally

“unified divine-power directed-trajectory.” Pidaks (πῖδαξ)
means spring or fountain. Piduo (πῑδύω) means to gush forth.

Pino (πίνω) means “drink up!” Pinon (πῖνον) is a liquor made

from barley.

The port of Peiraieus (Πειραιεύς), is Piraeus, a major and very

ancient port west of Athens.

Plados (πλάδος) means an abundance of fluids.

Pleo (πλέω) means to sail, literally “unified loosened essence.”

Ploion (πλοῖον) means floating vessel, a ship. Ploos (πλοός)

and ploas (πλωάς) mean sailing.

Poma (πῶμα) means drink, draught.

Pont- (ποντ-) is a prefix meaning sea, literally “unified entity

prevailing stretch/extend.” Pontios (πόντιος) means of the sea.
Pontos (πόντος) means sea.