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Propionic cheese types

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
I- General part
1. Characteristics of Propionic cheese types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Emmenthal cheese types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.Maasdammer cheese types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3. Propionic cheese types: Cooked cheeses (Emmental type) or
continental cheeses (Maasdammer type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1. Cultures used for manufacture of propionic cheese types . . . . . . . 4


2.1. Cultures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3. Production procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1 Manufacturing process: Cooked cheese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Manufacturing process: Continental cheese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3 Critical Manufacturing points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3.1 Milk treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.2 Culture addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.3.1 Emmenthal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.3.2 Maasdammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.3 Renneting 8
3.3.3.1 Emmenthal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3.3.2 Maasdammer. . . 8
3.3.4 Cutting – First stirring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.4.1 Emmenthal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.4.2 Maasdammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.5 Scalding – Final stirring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.5.1 Emmenthal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.5.2 Maasdammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.6 Molding – Pressing – Returning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.6.1 Emmenthal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.6.2 Maasdammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.7 Salting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.7.1 Emmenthal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.7.2 Maasdammer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3.8 Ripening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4. Cause and prevention of faults in Emmenthal/Maasdamm cheese


types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1. Eye formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.2. Shape problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3. Appearrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Case of clostridium butyricum “late blowing“ 14
14
I - Chr.Hansen Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1. Cultures range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2. Culture characteristics relevant to Emmenthal/Maasdammer cheese 17
production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1 Technical information on Mesophilic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Technical information on Streptococus thermophilus . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3 Technical information on Lactobacillus helveticus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4 Technical information on Propionic Acid bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Growth of PAB according to physiological conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.5. Other characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3. Coagulant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4. Other ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

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Propionic cheese types
April 2009

Introduction

Emmenthal/Maasdammer cheese segment


This brochure is one of a series that has been products. From the beginnings with rennet,
produced to give you an overview of starter Chr. Hansen has grown into a full-range
culture performance and modern supplier for the dairy industry. Apart from a
manufacturing technology. It also provides a complete range of coagulants, the cheese-
good insight into the experience and maker now has far greater flexibility and better
knowledge available to you as a partner of control over his processes and products,
Chr. Hansen. For more than 50 years cheese- thanks to Chr. Hansen colors, dairy cultures
makers have turned to us to improve the and enzymes – all from natural sources.
quality of the food they make for people all
over the world. Chr. Hansen bridges the gap between
traditional methods and the development and
Our aim has always been to provide excellent implementation of innovations, allowing
products and we are aware that a product is people like you to concentrate on what they
only excellent when it gives the best results. are best at – making cheese. For more
One of the major reasons behind the success information contact your local sales office or
of Chr. Hansen’s products is the partnership application center, there are more than forty
we establish with our customers. A continuing in as many countries throughout the world.
dialog ensures that our customers use the
best products for their needs in the best way.
This dialog is also a source of inspiration for
new developments as the needs and
requirements of our customers are the main
driving force behind our R&D.

For nearly 130 years Chr. Hansen has


worked to help food manufacturers offer high
quality

Segment description Typical examples Scalding Texture


max 35°C Semi-soft
Feta types Feta, White cheese
(95°F) cheeses
Camembert, Brie, Argentine max 35°C Soft to semi-soft
Soft cheese types
Port Salut, Crescenza, Gorgonzola (95°F) cheeses
Gouda, Edam, Samsoe,
35°C - 40°C Semi-hard
Continental types Maasdammer/Leerdammer, Saint
(95-104°F) cheeses
Paulin, Raclette, Manchego, Prato
22°C - 32°C Soft fresh
Cottage cheese types Cottage cheese
(72-90°F) cheese
Cheddar, Territorials, American 38°C - 42°C
Cheddar types Hard cheeses
Cheddar, Monterey Jack, Colby (100-108°F)
37°C - 43°C Semi-hard to
Pasta filata types Mozzarella, Pizza cheese, Provolone,
(99-109°F) hard cheeses
Cooked: max Semi-hard to
Propionic types Emmenthal, Maasdammer, Greve, Hard cheeses
53°C(122°F)
(Emmenthal/Maasdammer) Graviara….
Non-cooked: max 40°C with holes
50°C - 55°C
Grana types Grana, Parmesan, Sbrinz Hard cheeses
(122-131°F)

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Propionic Cheese Types
1. General characteristics
1.1. Emmenthal cheese types

Emmenthal (550,000 t/year) is the most • Dry matter > 60 %


common cheese in the Propionic cheese • Fat in dry matter 40–55% (46–47% is
segment. Europe is the main producer more common).
followed by the US. • Water content in fat free cheese < 55%.
• Calcium in fat free dry matter > 2.9%.
Due to the high scalding temperature of the • pH 5.20 – 5.40
curd during processing they are also called
“cooked cheeses” and can be characterized Most of the cheeses are large (30–130 kg)
as being of “rennet” character, on an “acid with round or egg shaped eyes (1–4 cm in
to rennet” scale. diameter).
All Emmenthal cheese types are low in The Emmenthal cheese types are used as
moisture, have propionate taste and table cheese or ingredients. In the case of
generally long shelf lives. the latter, grated cheese packing is
increasing, and in some countries
Some of the general characteristics of the Emmenthal is widely used on pizzas.
segment are listed as follows:

1.2. Maasdammer cheese types

Maasdammer type(300000t/year) covers all


continental cheeses made with Propionic Some of the general characteristics of the
bacteria allowing to make big holes in the segment are listed as follows:
cheese paste. On the opposite to
Emmenthal, thoses cheeses are not scald • Dry matter 50-60 %
at high temperature, so their water content • Fat in dry matter 40–55% .
is higher. • Water content in fat free cheese >55%

• pH 5.20 – 5.40
All Maasdammer are submitted to a ripening
at high temperature (around 20°C for 2 Most of the Maasdammer type cheeses are
weeks minimum) to allow the development smaller that emmenthal (5-40 kg) with round
of Propionic bacteria. or egg shaped eyes (1–4 cm in diameter).

1.3. Propionic cheese types: Cooked cheeses (Emmental type) or continental


cheeses (Maasdammer type)

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Propionic Cheese Types
Diameter and
Scalding Eye formation Salt %
weight
Emmenthal
70-100 cm 50-54°C < 1%
1–2 cm
30-100 kg (122-129°F) Brine
>1.5%
Gruyère 40-60 cm 50–57°C
Few small eyes Brine or dry
35-40 kg (122-135°F)
salting
>1.5%
Comté 40-50 cm 50–57°C
Few small eyes Brine or dry
35-40 kg (122-135°F)
salting
>1.5%
Beaufort 30-70 cm 50–57°C
Few small eyes Brine or dry
12-70 kg (122-135°F)
salting
Appenzeller 20-30 cm 42–46°C >1.5%
No eyes
6-8 kg (108-115°F) Brine
Sbrinz 50-70 cm 55–57°C >1.5%
No eyes
20-45 kg (131-135°F) Brine
Graviera 30-40 cm 48–50°C >2.0%
No eyes
12-15 kg (118-122°F) Brine
Maasdammer 30 Kg 38-42°C Big eyes >2.5% Brine
Greve 12 Kg 38-42°C Big eyes >2.5%Brine
Svenbo 30 Kg 38-42°C Big eyes >2.5%Brine

2. Chr. Hansen ingredients for production of Emmenthal cheese types

2.1. Cultures

The process for the manufacture of (PAB, secondary cultures) during the
Emmenthal/Maasdamm cheese types is ripening of the cheese.
characterized by two distinctive steps. First,
acidification by lactic acid bacteria (LAB, In the tables below the different cultures are
primary cultures), and then lactate given and the function they have in the
fermentation by propionic acid bacteria production of Swiss cheese types.
Primary cultures

Function in Propionic cheese


Strain name Growth condition
production

Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis Emmenthal: Pre-ripening of the milk.


Maasdammer: acidification of the Can grow until
Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris
milk 40°C
Lactococcus lactis subsp diacetylactis
Proteolysis in cheese. (104°F)
Leuconostoc cremoris
Cheese flavor.
Emmenthal:Production of lactic acid
(mostly D-) during the first hours of Grows from 30–
Streptococcus thermophilus
production. 50°C (86-122°F)
Maasdammer: usually not used

All propionic cheeses:


Production of lactic acid (L- and D-). Grows from 30–
Lactobacillus helveticus
Consume remaining sugars. 50°C (86-122°F)
Proteolytic activity.

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Propionic Cheese Types
Remarks

Lactobacillus lactis can be used and has the same role as L. helveticus. It is less sensitive to
high cooking temperature and acidifies earlier than L. helveticus.

Secondary cultures

Strain name Function in Emmenthal cheese production

Fermentation of lactic acid (lactate) to propionic and


acetic acid (ratio 2:1) and CO2

Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. Release of proline for taste (Sweet)


Shermanii
Lipolytic activity

Grows in warm room during ripening

Fresh curd Acidification by Lactic acid bacteria


Milk

Ripened
Fresh curd Propionic fermentation by Propionic acid
cheese bacteria (PAB) + Proteolysis by Lactobacilli

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Propionic Cheese Types
3. Production procedure

3.1. Manufacturing process: coocked cheeses


EMMENTHAL COMTE

Milk treatment 63-75°C Raw milk


(145-167°F)/15 sec

Bactofugation
Culture addition
30-33°C (86-91°F)
Pre-ripening 15-45
Freeze-dried DVS / 10,000 l milk min
S. thermophilus: 200-500 U
L. helveticus: 50 U
Propionic: 5-10 U
Coagulation
Frozen DVS / 10,000 l milk Renneting time 25-
S. thermophilus: 125-250 g 40 min
L. helveticus: 50 g Temp 30-33°C (86-
Propionic: 30-100 g 91°F)

Mesophilic / 10,000 l
Cutting and stirring
LD or O: FD-DVS: 100 U; F-DVS: 100 g
Cut into 3-5 mm
cubes
Stir for 5-15 min
30-33°C (86-91°F)

Additives / 10,000 l milk


Lysozyme max 100 g
Scalding
To 50-54°C (122-
129°F) for 35-50 min
per 10,000 l milk
Standard Plus 140: 2 to 2.5 l
CHY-MAX Plus: 1.5 to 1.8 l
THERMOLASE 600: 0.5 to 0.6 l Final stirring
30-60 min

Molding and
pressing 4 h-20 h

Salting
Salt – saturated brine
Storage: 2-4°C (36-39°F) 13-15°C (55-59°F) – Salting
3-6 months 24-72 h Dry salt
Cold room: 24 h

Pre-ripening Pre-ripening Smearing


10-13°C (50-55°F) 13-14°C (55-57°F) Rubbing with damp cloth
85-90% RH max humidity and salt
Dry brushing 15 days 20-30 days
Washing
2 times/week
or plastic
wrapping Ripening
Ripening 17-20°C (63-68°F) –
21-25°C (70-77°F) - Max humidity
30 days 40-55 days

Storage 10°C (50°F) Storage 10-13°C (50-


55°F)

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Propionic Cheese Types

3.2. Manufacturing process: continental cheeses


Maasdammer Svenbo
*Maasdammer:
temperature of the curd should Milk treatment 65-75°C Same milk
be 35-38°C (149-172°F)/15- 20 sec treatment
Svenbo/Greve: 37-43°C

Bactofugation
Culture addition
32°C (90°F) Pre-
ripening 10-40 min
Freeze-dried DVS / 10,000 l milk
LD or DCC culture: 1000U
L. helveticus: 100-200U
Propionic: 5U -20U
Coagulation
Frozen DVS / 10,000 l milk Renneting time 30-
LD or DCC culture: 1000g 45 min
L. helveticus: 100-200 g Temp 32°C (90°F)
Propionic: 500-2000 (U or g)

Cutting and stirring


Cut into 5-7 mm
cubes, Stir slowly for
15-25 min Remove
35-45% of vol

Additives / 10,000 l milk


Lysozyme max 100 g
Strir for 15 min, add
15-20% of hot water
at 60°C (140°F)*
per 10,000 l milk *anScald
NATUREN Plus 175: 2-3,5 l
CHY-MAX Plus: 2-3,5 l
CHY-MAX Powder Extra 100-300g Final stirring
30-45 min
Pre-press

Cut in suitable Pre-press at 2-4 Kg/Cm2


blocks and mold under remaining whey

Light press for 20 min, then press


Salting at 4-6Kg/cm2 for 1-2 hours. The
Salt – saturated brine curd may stay in molds in cold
Storage: 2-4°C (36-39°F) 13-15°C (55-59°F) 10- NB : time in brine water until next morning or be
3-6 months 24h . Aim at 1-1.5% salt depends on the size of dumped directly in brine
the cheese blocks

Pre-ripening Pre-ripening
10-13°C (50-55°F) 13-14°C (55-57°F)
85-90% RH max humidity
Dry brushing 7-10 days 20-30 days
Washing
2 times/week
or plastic
wrapping Ripening
Ripening 17-20°C (63-68°F) –
18-22°C (64-72°F) – Max humidity
20-25 days 40-55 days

Storage 7°C (45°F) Storage 10-13°C (50-


until ready for sale 55°F)

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Propionic Cheese Types
3.3. Critical manufacturing points Gruyère and other DOP (Defined Origin
3.3.1. Milk treatment Production) cheeses are made from raw
Maasdammer cheeses are always milk. In modern Swiss type cheeses, heat-
pasteurized. treated milk and even UF concentrated
Emmenthal cheese types are mainly milk can be used.
produced from pasteurized milk (or
thermized milk) and sometimes raw milk. Bactofugation lowers the number of
spores (Cl: tyrobutyricum) having an
impact on eye formation. Only part of the
milk is treated.

3.3.2. Culture addition  Lactobacillus helveticus finishes the


3.3.2.1. Emmenthal acidification process, consuming the
 Mesophilic cultures (Lactococcus lactis remaining sugars (lactose and
subsp cremoris) play a role at the galactose). In Emmenthal manufacture
starting point of cheese-making by it is very important not to have any
boosting, Streptococcus thermophilus sugars left after 24 hours. It also
and furthermore at cheese ripening influences the growth of PAB and the
due to their proteolytic activity. (They proteolysis in the cheese (see further).
are no longer viable after the scalding The rate of inoculation is low.
process).  Propionic bacteria. When using raw
 Streptococcus thermophilus (ST milk , addition of Propionic might not
Galactose negative) is the main player be requested, whereas with
in the acidification process. The rate of pasteurized milk they must be added.
inoculation is low because wheying off In Emmenthal cheese the rate of
must precede acidification in inoculation is low. PAB play a major
Emmenthal cheese to ensure the role during ripening for eye formation
“rennet character”. and taste.
 To monitor acidification speed, the pH
is measured after 2 and 4 hours of
molding.

3.3.2.2. Maasdammer
Mesophilic culture is the main acidifier. A large quantity of Propionibacteria is
For some varieties, when a high scalding added in Maasdammer process. A strong
is applied (Greve/Svenbo), the use of Sweet flavour is requested for this cheese
additional streptococcus thermophilus is type. Besides, due to small size, the
necessary. cheese is more permeable to gas, so
further gas release is expected.
Lactobacillus helveticus plays a role by
simulating Propionibacteria and by its
proteolytic activity, it contributes to cheese
ripening.

3.3.3. Renneting 3.3.3.2. Maasdammer


3.3.3.1. Emmenthal For Maasdammer, CHY-MAX or Naturen
As a high renneting pH (6.6) results in a are recommended.
weak coagulum, it is preferable to use The clotting time is between 30 and 45
THERMOLASE, or CHY-MAX for minutes for Maasdammer.
Emmenthal cheese.
Usually the clotting time is between 20 ans
30 minutes for Emmenthal.

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Propionic Cheese Types
3.3.4. Cutting – First stirring

3.3.4.1. Emmenthal
Cutting is a key parameter in Emmenthal The technique of cutting three times is
cheese because of the small size of the often used (cutting with rest times).
curd (3-5 mm) that is required. To reach Also the duration of first stirring time (5-15
this size, cutting must start when the mins) influences acidification speed.
coagulum is still soft (high pH).

3.3.4.2. Maasdammer
Cutting starts slightly later for Maasdammer.

3.3.5. Scalding – Final stirring

3.3.5.1. Emmenthal
Speed of cooking the whey-curd mixture is determine the cultures remaining in the
important. Speeds that are too rapid or too curd.
slow (associated with a rapid acidification)
can lead to the case-hardening of the Consequently these parameters influence
curd, which can hamper whey removal. acidification and the characteristics of the
(1°C (34°F) / 2 mins) at the final stage of end product (mesophilic cultures are
scalding is used). The final temperature of destroyed, S. thermophilus are slowed and
processing in the vat (50-54°C) (122- L. helveticus are favored).
129°F) and the stirring time after cooking

3.3.5.2. Maasdammer
With mesophilic cultures, the scalding The temperature of scalding will influence
temperature should not exceed the final water content of the cheese.
38°C(100°F). Indeed, Stirring and scalding contribute to
If higher scalding temperature is syneresis. Curd washing reduces the
requested, then the addition of St culture lactose content and allows to get a high
is necessary. final pH.

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Propionic Cheese Types

3.3.6. Molding – Pressing – Most modern Emmenthal/Maasdammer


It is important to reduce air inclusion cheese factories mold under vacuum. In
during molding. This has an effect on eye this way, the number of eyes is reduced
formation (number, size). and their size is increased.

3.3.6.1. Emmenthal Remarks:


Pressure on the cheeses must be The modern trend is to reduce the time for
progressive and uniform. The object of re- pressing and before brining. In Emmenthal
turning the molded curd is to improve curd cheese it is important to complete sugar
homogeneity (moisture distribution). With consumption, keeping the acidification
modern equipment where vacuum is used, time to a minimum (traditionally 20 hours).
re-turning becomes unnecessary.
3.3.6.2. Maasdammer
As most of the acidification takes place Pressing starts slowly, by a pre-pressing. It
during pressing, it is important to control allows removing whey without getting a
the pH. 15-25° Dornic (TA 0.17-0.25%) is hard rind.
reached two hours after molding and (Once the rind is generated, the syneresis
likewise 35-45° Dornic (TA 0.40-0.50%) is is blocked). The pressures to apply
common 4 hours after pressing. depend on the size of the cheese.

Picture : Chalon Megard

3.3.7. Salting
3.3.7.1. Emmenthal 3.3.7.2. Maasdammer
According to the type of cheese, the pH According to the type of cheese, the pH
before salting will be 5.2- 5.4. before salting will be 5.3-5.7. The brine
The residence time (24-72 h) in brine should be cold to stop the acidification.
depends on the weight of the cheese, the
target being to get a salt level in the The consumption of lactose should be
cheese from 0.6-0.8% (Emmenthal) to nearly finished at the brining step.
1.5% (Comté).

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Propionic Cheese Types
3.3.8. Ripening
Propionic fermentation is a phenomenon This fermentation takes place in the warm
unique to Emmenthal/Maasdam cheese room and depends on several factors (see
production. It consists of fermentation of sect. 4).
lactate:
The eye formation will depend on the level
3 lactate → 2 propionate + 1 acetate + 1 of CO2 produced and the ability of the
CO2. cheese to keep the gas inside the cheese.
The number and location of the eyes
PAB contribute to the ripening in different depends on the presence of weak points
ways: in the curd that will permit and encourage
the collection of sufficient gas to form
 Responsible for eye formation: CO2 eyes. Another important factor is the
produced. texture of the cheese for the ‘quality’ of the
 Great effect on taste of the finished eyes.
cheese: propionic acid, acetic acid,
proline produced. In this context it is important to remember
 Slightly lipolytic. that other phenomena beside propionic
 Inhibits the growth of several unwanted fermentation (even if less important) such
bacteria. as proteolysis, plasticity and pH of the
curd are as important for the
characteristics of the finished cheese (see
table below).

- 11 -
Propionic Cheese Types

P re -rip e n i n g c o ld R ip e n in g w a rm ro o m S t o r a g e c o ld r o o m
ro o m

R o om 2 0 °C
T e m p e r a tu r e
1 0 °C
15 days 30 days U n til s a l e

P ro p i o n ic
f e rm e n t a ti o n

P ro t e o l y s i s

P la s t ic it y o f t h e c u r d

p H of th e c u rd

The skill of the cheese-maker


consists of mastering all
these parameters using
different ripening conditions
(temperature, CO2
concentration, humidity, time
in cold and warm rooms) in
order to get the required
cheese. (Number, size,
shape of eyes as well as
taste and texture).

Remarks:
Besides propionic fermentation, it is known
that, even if unwanted, butyric
fermentation (C. tyrobutyricum) plays an
important role in Emmenthal ripening. (see
section 4).

- 12 -
Propionic Cheese Types

- 13 -
Propionic Cheese Types
4. Cause and prevention of faults in Emmenthal/Maasdamm cheese types

Most of the Emmenthal cheese problems deal with eyes and the appearance of the curd at
cutting.

4.1. Eye formation Curd moisture for example, gives shape


and size faults.
As has already been seen, numerous
factors contribute to eye formation, making Examples:
the process complex. Due to the large size of Emmenthal
cheeses, when processing difficulties
Problems with eye development can be (such as acidification, pressing,
divided into two groups: acidification, room temperature) occur,
there can be localized variations in the
 Unfavorable conditions for PAB growth cheese. For example in a cheese that is
result in number and distribution dry, acid and salty on the outside and the
problems. center is moist and low in salt, eye
 Imbalance of all the parameters (PAB formation will be concentrated in the
activity, proteolysis, plasticity of the center, the outside remaining blind. (See
curd… involved in eye formation. section 4, PAB’s pH and salt sensitivity).

4.2. Shape problems


 High moisture: problem with orange
 Low moisture: problem with skin or nutshell.
“scratched” eyes.  PAB activity too high: collapsed eyes.

4.3. Appearance
 Using milk that is too fatty may lead to
 Slits: the result of the production of the same problems (if drainage is not
CO2 in a curd lacking elasticity. sufficient).
 “Acid slits” or “fat slits”: may be the  Late slits
result of using acid milk (infrequent May occur with late PAB fermentation
nowadays) or processing difficulties resulting in weak elasticity due to:
(lack of drainage) giving too high o Proteolysis being too advanced
acidification and demineralization of the o Cold curd in storage room (in this
curd with loss of elasticity. case with PAB still working at low
temperature).
4.4. Case of clostridium butyricum The use of bactofugation and lysozyme
“late blowing reduce the growth of clostridia.

Clostridia are spore forming and ferment In general the following points are
lactate to release butyric acid, CO2 and essential for a good start in Emmenthal
H2. type cheese production:

Hydrogen gas may cause eye defects  Use milk with low cell count.
(“cauliflower eye”), split, or cheese  Ensure the correct balance between
blowing. the starter cultures (ST, LH).
Clostridia are pH sensitive and grow best  Maintain the “rennet” character of the
anaerobically in the later stages of cheese process.
ripening, when the pH is higher.  Maintain minimum processing times to
consume all the sugars in the curd
Clostridia smell is accompanied by the before brining.
smell of butyric acid and a rancid taste.

- 14 -
Propionic Cheese Types
II. CHR Hansen products
1. Cultures range

Item
Name Type Form Size
number
CHN-11 Mesophilic multiple mixed culture (LD) F-DVS 501591 500g
F-DVS 501593 500g
FD-DVS 100100 50U
CHN-19 Mesophilic multiple mixed culture (LD)
100127 200U
100161 500U
CHN-120 Mesophilic multiple mixed culture (LD) F-DVS 501592 500g
F-DVS 501597 500g
DCC-240 Mesophilic multiple mixed culture (LD)
FD-DVS 100093 500U
Mesophilic multiple mixed culture F-DVS 615453 500g
Mesophilic homofermentative FD-DVS 615458 500U
DCC-250 Streptococcus thermophilus
Lactobacillus helveticus
(LD+O+ST+LH)
DCC-230 Mesophilic LD+O F-DVS 501656 500 g
Lactococcus lactis
616880 50 U
S. thermophilus
APM-1 FD-DVS 616881 200U
Lactobacillus helveticus,
616882 500 U
(O+ST+LH)
F-DVS 200112 500g
R-603 FD-DVS 100095 50U
Mesophilic homofermentative (O)
R-703 100122 200U
100156 500U
FD-DVS 100113 50 U
100183 200 U
ST-B01 100210 500 U

F-DVS 5011692 500 g

STEM-01 F-DVS 250 U


S. thermophilus (LAB)

STEM-02 F-DVS 250 U

STEM-03
AP-15 F-DVS 250 U

LH-32 F-DVS 70781 250 g

LH-B01 F-DVS 501698 500 g


Lactobacillus helveticus FD-DVS 100116 50 U
FD-DVS 100185 200 U
LH-B02 FD-DVS 100213 500 U

F-DVS 501699 500 g


EMFOUR F-DVS 500g
FD-DVS 100117 2U
Propionic acid bacteria FD-DVS 100118 5U
PS-1
(PAB)
F-DVS 501579 500 g

- 15 -
Propionic Cheese Types
Item
Name Type Form Size
number

PS-2 F-DVS 501580 500 g

FD-DVS 100121 5U
PS-4
F-DVS 501582 500 g

Process parameters have a major effect


on the development of LAB and PAB. This
range has therefore been carefully .
selected.
This choice and the eventual interaction
between LAB and PAB will be described
and explained further.

Emmenthal cheeses leaving ripening room

Picture : Chalon Megard

- 16 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

2. Culture characteristics relevant to Emmenthal/Maasdammer cheese


production

The following data explain the selection Secondary culture (PAB) should be tested
criteria for the range in this segment, and under relevant conditions for Emmenthal
allows cheese-makers to choose the most /Maasdamm cheese ripening, which are
suited cultures. partly the result of the first fermentation
such as:
The primary cultures (LAB) have been
tested in our laboratory under conditions  pH
simulating Emmenthal cheese-making.  Salt
Thus the ITG* temperature profile, which  Lysozyme
is a reference for LAB test in Emmenthal,  Temperature
has been used.  Nitrate

Furthermore other LAB functions It should be noted that metabolites (lactic


determining the characteristics of the curd acid) produced by the first fermentation
before brining should be measured (post- influence the growth of PAB, ((L+) Lactate
acidification, residual acids and sugars). being fermented faster than (D-) Lactate).

* Institut Technique du Gruyère Finally, tests showing the interaction


(Technological Gruyère Institute). between LAB and PAB should be carried
out.

2.1 Technical information on Mesophilic

For Maasdamm type cheese, mesophilic cultures unsure the major part of the acidification.
A rotation plan should be established.
The following cultures can be used in rotation:
• CHN11
• CHN120
• CHN19
If part of the process occurs at high temperature (over 38°C), LD cultures will not acidify
enough. So, O cultures or ST cultures should be added.

For acidification curves, please refer to the continental cheese brochure.

- 17 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

2.2. Technical information on Streptococcus thermophilus

Acidification on Emmenthal temperature profile


125U/10000l (0.0012% )

7
6,5
6 STEM01
5,5 STEM02
5 STEM03
4,5
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Time (h)

Temperature sensitivity
120

100
Lag phase/minutes

80

60

40

20

0
ITG 32 36 40 44 48
Temperature ( °C )
STEM type STB01

 STEM cultures are well adapted to high cooking temperature (>51°C)


 STB01 is adapted to medium cooking temperature (<51°C)
 STEM-02 allows to keep more water in cheese (slight tendency)
 STEM-01, STEM-02, STEM-03 can be used in rotation.
Due to their resistance to high temperature, STEM can be used at low dosage
Recommended inoculation: STEM: 125U (250g)/10 000l, other ST : 250g/10000 l

- 18 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

2.3. Technical information on Lactobacillus helveticus

Acidifying activities in ITG* temperature profile


7,0

6,5

6,0

5,5
pH

5,0

4,5

4,0

3,5
0 120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200 1320 1440

Time ( minutes )
LH32 LHB01 LHB02

Temperature sensitivity
260

240

220
Lag phase/minutes

200

180

160

140

120

100

80
ITG 32 36 40 44 48

LH32 LHB01 LHB02

- 19 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types
Post-acidification at 40°C : Amino-peptidasic activity :

pH16h Average*

LH-32 3.77 LH-32 73

LH-B01 3.42 LH-B01 68

LH-B02 3.39 LH-B02 29


EMFOUR 58

Proteolysis in cheese

100
90
80
70
60
NS/NT
50
NPN/NT
40
NPN/NS
30
20
10
0
LHB01 LHB02 LH32

Acid and sugar dosage on fermented milk by HPLC

LH-32 LH-B01 LH-B02


40°C ITG* 40°C ITG* 40°C ITG*
Citric acid 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.7 2 1.9
Lactic acid 11.1 6.6 18.3 11.4 18.7 8.4
Acetic acid 0.2 0 0.8 0.2 0.9 0
Lactose 28.5 30.6 17.6 27 27.1 35.4
Galactose 6.4 8 1.9 3.6 1 2.1
Concentration unity : mg/g.

Determination of racemic lactate production by HPLC

LH-32 - 40°C LHB-01 - 40°C LHB-02 - 40°C

D-lactic acid 1.6 5.9 5.7


L-lactic acid 9.5 12.2 11.6

Total lactic acid 11.1 18.1 17.3


Concentration unity : g/l

- 20 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

 LHB02 is the fastest acidifier


 LHB01 is medium acidifier
 LH32 is slower in case of high cooking temperature ( >52°C)

Rq: EMFOUR is also slower in case of high cooking temperature (>51°C)

Flavour

LHB01  Milky/ Brothy LHB02  Sweet


LH32  Sweet/nutty EMFOUR  Malt/fruity

Recommended inoculation

Emmenthal Maasdammer
100g/10000l 100g/10000l

- 21 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

2.4 Technical information on Propionic Acid bacteria

Growth of PAB according to physiological conditions

Growth in optimal conditions

1.5% salt - 20°C - pH 5.5

2,5

1,5 PS1
OD

PS2
PS4
1

0,5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time (days)

Salt rate effect

Low salt 0-2% Medium salt 2-3% High salt 3%-4%


PS1 +++ +++ +
PS2 ++ + -
PS4 +++ ++ - (low pH), ++ (High
pH)

pH effect

Low pH 5.2-5.3 Medium pH 5.3-5.5 High pH 5.5-5.8


PS1 +++ +++ +++
PS2 + ++ +
PS4 + +++ +++

Temperature effect

15°C 20°C 25°C


PS1 - +++ +++
PS2 - ++ ++
PS4 ++ +++ +

- 22 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

 PS1 and PS2 do not grow at low temperature (<17°C)


 PS4 is slower at high temperature (25°C), but is well adapted to low
temperature.
 PS2 and PS4 grow slower at high pH (5.8 or over), but PS1 is not sensitive to Ph

2.5. Other characteristics

• Symbiosis between LH and PS • Gas production by PS


- Boosting effect of LH on PS Reference: Report ITFF (DRS 00-112)

Reference: Report ITFF (DRS 00-112) PS1 ++


LHB01 LHB02 LH32 PS2 +++
PS1 ++ + ++ PS4 +++
PS2 +++ ++ +++
PS4 +++ ++ +++

• Effect of lyzozyme on LH acidification


AFILACT (20% lysozyme): 10ml/100L (i.ie. after syneresis 10 ml/100 Kg cheese)

Reference: Report ITFF (DRS 00-112)

LHB01 LHB02 LH32


No inhibition Slowing down No inhibition

• Flavour

PS1  Mild: milky/slight sweet


PS2  Medium: sweet /lipolytic
PS4 Strong: very sweet/lipolytic

• Recommended inoculation

Emmenthal Maasdammer Maasdammer


>10Kg 1-10 Kg
0,5-1 E5 cfu/ml 2-5 E5 cfu/ml 0,5-1 E6cfu/ml
0.5-1 E12 cfu/10000 l 2-5 E12 cfu/10000 l 0.5-1 E13cfu/10000 l

- 23 -
Emmenthal Cheese Types

3. Coagulants
Chr. Hansen is able to supply a full range
of coagulants. It is within this particular Only legislation and specific coagulation
segment that we have our longest track characteristics have to be taken into
record, supplying rennet for over 125 account when choosing the coagulant for
years. Today, grown according to your Emmenthal cheese.
requirements, we have adapted our range
to fit your needs, linking tradition with Remark: Whey is often a significant
research and innovation: additional source of profit in cheese-
making. Highly nutritious, it is a valuable
Chr. Hansen’s coagulant range: ingredient in a broad range of foods.
NATUREN : Animal rennet (calf and/or However, for whey of the right quality to be
bovine) achieved, it is important to select precisely
CHY-MAX : Chymosin produced by the right coagulant for your cheese-
fermentation making.
MICROLANTTM : Microbial coagulants Consistent clotting activity, specific
proteolytic activity, side activity, yield,
These three groups have varying maturation, flavor and texture, whey,
characteristics with regard to proteolytic certification, all in all there are over 30
activity, heat lability and sensitivity to interactive parameters to be taken into
changes in pH, temperature and CaCl2. consideration when choosing the right
Traditionally, calf rennet has been coagulant. It is a complicated jigsaw but
regarded as the ideal cheese coagulant we offer you our expertise to help you
because of its highly specific milk clotting solve it.
activity. CHY-MAX shares this
characteristic and is rapidly winning 4.Other ingredients
ground all over the world to be the
preferred choice of the cheese-maker. Lysozyme
Lysozyme is an enzyme extracted from
The last two groups, CHY-MAX and egg white. This enzyme is classified as a
MicrolantTM are approved for use in food additive according to EU/89/107 as
kosher, halal and vegetarian products. E1105.
CHY-MAX is also available in a kosher
quality approved for Passover, opening up Lysozyme prevents the swelling of the
opportunities for you. Emmenthal cheese type by inhibiting the
growth of clostridium tyrobutyricum. The
Furthermore, we can demonstrate the
The information contained herein is to our
effect each of these coagulants has on
knowledge true and correct and presented in
your yield. Not necessarily by more than a good faith. However, no warranty, guarantee,
fraction of a percentage point but enough or freedom from patent infringement is implied
or inferred. This information is offered solely for
The following information is important to your consideration and verification.
consider before choosing which coagulant EN-Emmenthal-0801.
to use for Emmenthal cheese production.
In Emmenthal cheese, coagulant has been
widely reported to be inactivated by the
high scalding temperature 50–55°C.

Consequently, the coagulant has no effect


on final cheese properties and
characteristics.

- 24 -