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ME - 312

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER


Arranged By
PROF. DR. ASAD NAEEM SHAH
anaeems@uet.edu.pk
HEAT EXCHANGERS
(H. Es.)
The devices or systems in which heat is transferred from one
flowing fluid to another.
PART-1
HEAT EXCHANGERS
 The weight and size of heat exchangers used in space or
aeronautical applications are very important parameters,
and are considered as economic variables.
 The focus of the study, however, will remain on technical
analysis i.e. the methods of predicting the performance
and discussion of the techniques used to estimate the size
and type of a H.E to accomplish a particular task.
 The discussion will be restricted to H.Es where the primary
modes of heat transfer are conduction and convection
only. However in space applications, the role of radiation
is predominant in H.Es.
 Specific applications of H.Es are found in space heating,
air conditioning, power production, waste heat recovery,
process industry, etc.
HEAT EXCHANGERS Cont.
 NOTABLE EXAMPLES:
• Boilers (evaporators), super heaters and
condensers of a power plant.
• Evaporator of an ice plant and milk-chiller of
a pasteurizing plant.
• Evaporators and condensers in refrigeration
units.
• Water and air heaters or coolers.
• Automobile radiators and oil coolers of heat
engines.
CLASSIFICATION OF H.Es
 H.Es are typically classified according to flow
arrangement and type of construction.
 In parallel flow, both the hot and cold fluids enter the
H.E at the same end, move in the same direction and
leave at the same end.
 In counter flow, the hot and cold fluids enter the H.E
at opposite ends, flow in opposite directions and
leave at opposite ends.
 Both parallel and counter flow H.Es, in simple form,
consist of concentric tubes (or double-pipe) of
different diameters as shown in Fig. 1.
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

Fig. 1: Parallel & counter flow H.Es


CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

 In cross-flow H.Es, the


two fluids usually
move perpendicular to
each other.
 The cross-flow is
further classified as
unmixed and mixed
flow, depending on the
flow configuration. For
example in finned type
Fig.2: Cross-flow H.E
cross-flow H.E both
fluids remain unmixed
as shown in Fig. 2 (a).
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.
 The most common type of heat
exchanger in industrial applications
is the shell-and-tube heat
exchanger. Specific forms differ
according to number of shell & tube
passes. These heat exchangers
contain a large number of tubes
(sometimes several hundred)
packed in a shell with their axes
parallel to that of the shell.
 Baffles are commonly placed in the
shell to force the shell-side fluid to
flow across the shell to enhance
heat transfer and to maintain
uniform spacing between the tubes
as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 3: Shell-and-tube H.Es
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

Fig. 4: The schematic of a shell-and-tube


H.E with baffles (one-shell pass and one-
tube pass).
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

Fig. 5: Shell-and-tube H.E with one tube pass Fig. 6: Miniature shell-and-tube H.E
with one shell pass and one tube pass
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

 A special class of H.Es used to achieve a very large


𝟐
around (≥ 𝟕𝟎𝟎 𝒎 𝒎𝟑 ) H.T surface area per unit
volume is termed as compact H.E.
 These are used when at least one of the fluids is gas
and hence is characterized by a small convective H.T
coefficient. Figure 7 shows a compact H.E.
 The large surface area in compact heat exchangers is
obtained by attaching closely spaced thin plate or
corrugated fins to the walls separating the two fluids.
 A compact H.E has low overall heat-transfer
coefficient which is desirable to achieve the
compactness.
CLASSIFICATION OF H.E Cont.

Fig. 7: A gas-to-liquid compact heat exchanger


for a residential air-conditioning system.
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT (U)
 The heat transfer through
the plane wall shown in Fig.
1 is:

Fig. 1

 Also, the heat transfer


through the double-pipe H.E
shown in Fig. 2 is:

Fig. 2
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) Cont.

 The overall heat-transfer coefficient may be based on


either the inside or outside area of the tube at the
discretion of the designer, so

 The Approximate values of overall heat-transfer


coefficients for different cases are depicted in the
following Table.
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) Cont.
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT (U) Cont.
Fouling Factor:
 During normal heat exchanger operation surfaces
are often subject to fouling by fluid impurities, rust
formation, or other reactions between the fluid
and wall material leading to accumulation of
deposits on heat transfer surfaces.
 The layer of deposits or scale represents
additional resistance to heat transfer and causes
the H.T.R to decrease. The net effect is
represented by a fouling factor or fouling
resistance (𝑅𝑓 ).
 The value of 𝑅𝑓 depends on the various factors.
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) Cont.

 Fouling factors must be obtained experimentally by


determining the values of U for both clean (c) and dirty (d)
conditions in the heat exchanger. The fouling factor is thus
given as:
1 1
𝑅𝑓 = −
𝑈𝑑 𝑈𝑐
 The value of U given in previous formulae is valid for clean
surfaces and needs to be modified to account for the
effects of fouling on both the inner and the outer surfaces
of the tube.
 Thus for an un-finned double pipe (shell-and-tube) heat
exchanger:
1 1
𝑈𝐴 = 𝑈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 = 𝑈𝑜 𝐴𝑜 = = 𝑟𝑜
𝑅 ln
1 𝑅𝑓,𝑖 𝑟𝑖 𝑅𝑓,𝑜 1
+ + + +
ℎ𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝐴𝑖 2𝜋𝑘𝐿 𝐴𝑜 ℎ𝑜 𝐴𝑜
THE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (U) Cont.

 An abbreviated list of recommended values of the fouling


factor for various fluids is given in Table: