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Transmission and distribution systems is an essential link between power stations and
load centers for bulk transfer of power and it has a vital role in the management of power.
KSEB has pioneered the modern concept of developing a large transmission network for
transferring power from power stations to the local load centres. The major substations
include one 400 KV sub-station, and fourteen 220 KV substations and four 220kV
substations under construction. The main grid comprises of the 220 KV systems

The Kerala power system consists of 13 hydel stations, 11 small hydel stations, 2 captive
power plants, 2 thermal stations, 3 IPPs, and 1 wind mill. The grid is connected to the
Southern Region Transmission system through two 400kV double circuit lines at
Madakkathara and Trivandrum. The major substations include one 400 KV sub-station,
and fourteen 220 KV substations and four 220kV substations under construction. The
main grid comprises of the 220 KV system. Sabarigiri Hydro Electric Power Project is
one of the major projects among them



110 KV substation Kizhisseri is commissioned in 1990.

 Substation capacity – 57 MVA

 Transformers – 4
 110 KV feeders – 6
 33 KV feeders – 2
 11 KV feeders – 8 (It includes 1 dedicated feeder & 1 station Auxiliary)


1. 1ARKI 1 (Areacode – Kizhissery, 9.2km)

2. 1ARKI 2
3. 1KIML 1 (Kizhissery – Malappuram, 17.608 km)
4. 1KIML 2
5. 1NLKI 1 (Nallalam – Kizhissery, 21.96 km)
6. 1NLKI 2
7. 1PRKI (Parappanangadi – Kizhissery, 22.61 km)


1. 3KIEV (Kizhissery – Edavanna)

2. 3KIVL (Kizhissery – Valluvambrum)


1. AR Nagar
2. Kondotty
3. Omanur
4. Pulikkal


5. Karipur
6. Thrippanchi
7. Calicut International Airport (Dedicated)
8. Station Auxiliary


1. 110/33 KV, 16 MVA, 3 phase transformer (TELK made)

2. 110/33 KV, 16 MVA, 3 phase transformer (TELK made)
3. 110/11 KV, 12.5 MVA, 3 phase transformer (TELK made)
4. 110/11 KV, 12.5 MVA, 3 phase transformer (Indo tech made)
5. 11 KV/ 433V, 160 KVA, 3 phase transformer


1. ACSR Kundah – 726 A

2. ACSR Wolf – 343A
3. ACSR Dog – 254 A
4. ACSR Racoon – 197 A


110 V DC is the control voltage of control protection and annunciation system at

substation. Single PLANTE type batteries (Exide make) with chargers are provided for
100 V DC supply. Each battery is 200 Ah battery.


Dedicated station auxiliary feeders is normally fed from 110/11 KV transformers. The LT
supply can be availed through 11 KV Kondotty feeders in the absence of auxiliary
supply. The 11 KV supply can be availed through Thrippanchi feeder (from11 KV
Puthalam feeder) in the absence of 110 KV supply at Kizhissery substation and thus
station auxiliary supply can be made available.



Single bus with double Kundah conductor having two sectionalize and two tie isolators.


The 3 phase fault level at 110 KV Bus is 2203 MVA, at 33 KV Bus is 343 MVA and at
11 KV Bus is 235 MVA.

Station is provided with MAT earthing and Plate earthing. The portion covering 1KIML
1, 1KIML 2, 1NLKI, 1PRKI feeders and two 12.5 MVA transformers are under plate
earthing with 20 number of Pits.

The portion covering 1ARKI 1, 1ARKI 2, feeders, two 16 MVA transformers and
capacitor bank are provided with MAT earthing with 3x3 m dimension. The station earth
resistance is 0.74 ohm as on 28/02/2017.




This 16000 kVA three phase, 110/ 11 kV 50 Hz Power Transformer has been
manufactured by TELK against Purchase order No.P.ONo:TCM.18/2009-10/84 Dated:
18.05.09 for Kerala State Electricity Board (K.S.E.B).Main specifications are shown in
the Rating and connection Diagram Plate drawing TK213094. General arrangement and
overall dimensions of the transformer are as per drawing TK 107382 Some special
features of the transformer are given below.

Fig 3 transformer


The core is built up with high grade non-ageing cold rolled grain oriented silicon
steel laminations having high permeability and low hysterisis loss. A three legged, mitred
and interleaved type core construction is adopted. Both the limbs are bound by epoxy
glass fiber tape. Yokes are rigidly clamped by tie plates and tic rods. This construction
gives adequate mechanical strength and prevents vibration during operation Lateral
movement is prevented by guide pins at the bottom and vibration preventive brackets
provided at top. The clamping structure and core sheets are specially connected to avoid a
closed circuit and connected to tank at one point for getting single point earthing.


Fig 3.1 core

The winding arrangement and connections are shown in internal assembly drawing
TK 210710.The windings are arranged to ensure free circulation of oil and to reduce hot
spot in windings. Type of cooling is ONAN/ONAF. All insulation parts are made from
quality Pre- compressed press board Windings are designed and manufactured with-
stand short circuit forces Radial and Axial thrusts are prevented axial and radial.
Windings are clamped with clamping bolts and clamping pressure is uniformly by
clamping blocks. All leads from windings to bushing and tap changer are y supported to
prevent injury from vibration during transport as well as in service conditions.

Fig 3.2 winding



The tank Is of welded construction, Side walls, top and bottom of tank are stiffened by
structural steel. All bolted construction to tank are made oil tight with oil seals. Tank 1s
provided with two earth terminals, one on each side for earthing the transformer. The
tank and accessor1er of the transformer can withstand full vacuum and n positive
pressure of 0.35 kg/cm" [ABOVE OIL HEAD]


The transformer is provided with TELK make YB1, 33kV class on-load tap changer.
Driving mechanism o the QLTC is transported separately.In larger electrical power
transformer, forproper voltage regulation of transformer,on load tap changer is required.
As thereis no permission of switching off thetransformer during tap changing. Thetapping
arrangement, is placed inseparate divertor tank attached toelectrical power transformer
main tankInside this tank, the tap selectors aregenerally arranged in a circular form.
Thedivertor switches have contacts operatingin rapid sequence with usually fourseparate
make and break units.Figure shows a typical selector andswitching arrangements with no
load tapchanger or NLTC on neutral and of thestar connected winding of a
electricalpower transformers.


HV bushings are oil filled condenser type and HV neutral, L and LV neutral bushings are
of plain porcelain type. Bushings are transported in crates.In electric power, a bushing is
an insulateddevice that allows an electrical conductor topass safely through a grounded
conductingbarrier such as the case of a transformer orcircuit breaker. Bushing is made up
ofPorcelain material.All materials carrying an electric chargegenerate an electric field.
When an energizedconductor is near any material at earthpotential, it can cause very high
fieldstrengths to be formed, especially where thefield lines are forced to curve sharply


aroundthe earthed material. The bushing controls theshape and strength of the field and
reducesthe electrical stresses in the insulatingmaterial

Fig 3.5 bushes




Lightening arrestors are the instruments that are used in the incoming feeders so as
to prevent the high voltage entering the main station. This high voltage is very dangerous
to the instruments used in the substation. Even the instruments are very costly, so to
prevent any damage lightening arrestors are used. The lightening arrestors do not let the
lightening to fall on the station. If some lightening occurs, the arrestors pull the lightening
and ground it to the earth. In any substation the main importance is protection which is
firstly done by these lightening arrestors. The lightening arrestors are grounded to the
earth so that it can pull the lightening to the ground. The lightening arrestor works with
an angle of 30° to 45° making a cone.

Fig 4.1 lightening arrestors


2. C V T

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to

step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for
measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device consists of
three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive element
used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and
further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay. The device has
at least four terminals, a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a
ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the
instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for
measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage
transformers would be uneconomical.

In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors

connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that
replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second
capacitor, C2, and hence the secondary terminals

Fig 4.2 CVT



Wave trap is an instrument using for tripping of the wave. The function of this trap
is that it traps the unwanted waves. Its function is of trapping wave. Its shape is like a
drum. It is connected to the main incoming feeder so that it can trap the waves which may
be dangerous to the instruments here in the substation


A Capacitor Bank is a group of several capacitors of the same rating that are
connected in series or parallel with each other to store electrical energy. The resulting
bank is then used to counteract or correct a power factor lag or phase shift in an
alternating current (AC) power supply.

Fig 4.4 capacitor bank



A CT is an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is

Substantially proportional to primary current and differ in phase from it by ideally zero
degree. A CT functions with the same basic working principle of electrical power
transformer, as we discussed earlier, but here is some difference. In case of CT, primary
current is the system current and this primary current or system current transforms to the
CT secondary, hence secondary current depends upon primary current of the current
In case of CT, the primary is connected in series with power line. 80 current
through its primary is nothing but the current flows through that power line.
The primary current of the CT, hence does not depend upon whether the load or burden is
connected to the secondary or not or what is the impedance value of burden. Generally
CT has very few turns in primary whereas secondary turns are large in number.

Fig 4.5 CT



Potential Transformer or voltage transformer gets used in electrical power system for
stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low ratings meters
and relays. Commercially available relays and metersused for protection and metering,
are designed for low voltage. This is a simplest form of potential transformer definition.
Primary of this transformer is connected across the phase and ground. Just like the
transformer used for stepping down purpose, potential transformer i.e. PT has lower turns
winding at its secondary. The system voltage is applied across the terminals of primary
winding of that transformer, and then proportionate secondary voltage appears across the
secondary terminals of the PT. The secondary voltage of the PT is generally 110 V.
In an ideal potential transformer or voltage transformer, when rated burden gets
connected across the secondary; the ratio of primary and secondary voltages of
transformer is equal to the turns ratio and furthermore, the two terminal voltages are in
phase opposite to each other.

Fig 4.6 PT


The circuit breakers are used to break the circuit if any fault occurs in any of the
instrument.These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in
the station. For any unwanted fault over the station we need to break the line current. This
is only done automatically by the circuit breaker. There are mainly two types of circuit
breakers used for any substations. They are (a) SF6 circuit breakers; (b) spring circuit
breakers. The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having
high input kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker
by force ie under high pressure. If the gas gets decreased there is a motor connected to the
circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20.8 bar. There is a
meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. The
circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produced in it due to any fault in the
line. The circuit breaker has a direct link with the instruments in the station, when any
fault occur alarm bell rings. The spring type of circuit breakers is used for small kv
stations. The spring here reduces the torque produced so that the breaker can function
again. The spring type is used for step down side of 132kvto 33kv also in 33kv to 11kv
and so on. They are only used in low distribution side.

Fig 4.7 circuit breakers



Principle of Differential Protection scheme is one simple conceptual technique.

The differential relay actually compares between primary current and secondary current
of power transformer, if any unbalance found in between primary and secondary currents
the relay will actuate and inter trip both the primary and secondary circuit breaker of the
The faults occur in the transformer inside the insulating oil can be detected by
Buchholz relay. But if any fault occurs in the transformer but not in oil then it can not be
detected by Buchholz relay. Any flash over at the bushings are not adequately covered by
Buchholz relay. Differential relays can detect such type of faults. Moreover Buchholz
relay is provided in transformer for detecting any internal fault in the transformer but
Differential Protection scheme detects the same in more faster way. The differential
relays normally response to those faults which occur in side the differential protection
zone oftransformer.


An external fault in the star side will result in current flowing in the line current
transformer of the affected phase and at the same time a balancing current flows in the
neutral current transformer, hence the resultant current in the relay is therefore zero. 80
this REF relay will not be actuated for external earth fault. But during internal fault the
neutral current transformer only carries the unbalance fault current and operation of
Restricted Earth Fault Relay takes place. This scheme of restricted earth fault protection
is very sensitive for internal earth fault of electrical power transformer. The protection
scheme is comparatively cheaper than differential protection scheme. Restricted earth
fault protection is provided in electrical power transformer for sensing internal earth fault
of the transformer. in this scheme the CT secondary of each phase of electrical power
transformer are connected together as shown in the figure. Then common terminals are


connected to the secondary of a Neutral Current Transformer or NCT. The CT or Current

Transformer connected to the neutral of power transformer is called Neutral Current
Transformer or Neutral CT or simply NCT. Whenever there is an unbalancing in between
three phases of the power transformer, a resultant unbalance current flow through the
close path connected to the common terminals of the CT secondaries. An unbalance
current will also flow through the neutral of power transformer and hence there will be a
secondary current in Neutral CT because of this unbalance neutral current. In Restricted
Earth Fault scheme the common terminals of phase CTs are connected to the secondary
of Neutral CT in such a manner that secondary unbalance current of phase CTs and the
secondary current of Neutral CT will oppose each other. If these both currents are equal
in amplitude there will not be any resultant current circulate through the said close path.
The Restricted Earth Fault Relay is connected in this close path. Hence the relay will not
response even there is an unbalancing in phase current of the power transformer.


There is one type of relay which functions depending upon the distance of fault in
the line. More specifically, the relay operates depending upon the impedance between the
point of fault and the point where relay is installed. These relays are known as distance
relay or impedance relay. The working principle of distance relay or impedance relay is
very simple. There is one voltage element from potential transformer and an current
element fed from current transformer of the system working principle of distance relay,
depends upon the ratio of system voltage and current. As the ratio of voltage to current is
nothing but impedance a distance relay is also known as impedance relay. The operation
of such relay depends upon the predetermined value of voltage to current ratio. This ratio
is nothing but impedance. The relay will only operate when this voltage to current ratio
becomes less than its predetermined value. Hence, it can be said that the relay will only
operate when the impedance of the line becomes less than predetermined impedance
(voltage / current). As the impedance of a transmission line is directly proportional to its


length, it can easily be concluded that a distance relay can only operate if fault is
occurred within a predetermined distance or length of line.

Fig 5.2 impedance relay


Backup protection of electrical transformer is simple Over Current and Earth Fault
protection are applied against external short circuit and excessive overLoads .These over
current and earth Fault relays are connected to the in-feed side of the transformer. The
over current relays can not distinguish between external short circuit, over load and
internal faults of the transformer. For any of the above fault, backup protection i.e. over
current and earth fault protection connected to infeed side of the transformer will operate.
Backup protection is although generally installed at in feed side of the transformer, but it
should trip both the primary and secondary circuit breakers of the transformer. Over
Current and Earth Fault protection relays may be also provided in load side of the
transformer too, but it should not inter trip the primary side circuit breaker like the case
of backup protection at in feed side. The operation is governed primarily by current and
time settings and the characteristic curve of the relay. To permit use of over load capacity
of the transformer and co-ordination with other similar relays at about 125 to 150% of
full load current of the transformer but below the minimum short circuit current. Backup
protection of transformer has four elements; three over current relays connected each in
each phase and one earth fault relay connected to the common point of three over current
relays as shown in the figure .The normal range of current settings available on over

current relays are 50% to 200% and on earth fault relay 20 to 80%. Backup 0 C &E F
Protection Scheme Another range of setting on earth fault relay is also available and may
be selected where the earth fault current is restricted due to insertion of impedance in the
neutral grounding. In the case of transformer winding with neutral earthed, unrestricted
earth fault protection is obtained by connecting an ordinary earth fault relay across a
neutral current transformer. The unrestricted over current and earth fault relays should
have proper time lag to co-ordinate with the protective relays of other circuit to avoid
indiscriminate tripping.

All the circuit breakers of electrical power System are DC (Direct current)
operated. Because DC power can be stored in Battery and if situation comes when total
failure of incoming power occurs, still the circuit breakers can be operated for restoring
the situation by the power of storage station battery. Hence, the battery is another
essential item of the power system. Some time it is referred as the heart of the electrical
substation. An electrical substation battery or simply a station battery containing a
number of cells accumulate energy during the period of availability of AC supply and
discharge at the time when relays operate that relevant circuit breaker is tripped at the
time failure of incoming AC power.



The visit was really helpful for better understanding of transmission and distribution of
electrical energy and helped to realize the real working of the Transmission system in






The industrial training of the year 2016-2017 was held at various contribution sites
it was a gladful event in my life as a student. We got a practical experience and a free
approach in this field.

I believe that industrial training may be held me a great extent future profession in
my life.




AND REPAIRING under K.S.E.B and includes energy meter testing and repairing centre
too. This is situated at ANGAMALY. There repair transformer and energy meters. T.M.R
also facilitates the testing for newly testing transformer before installing. TMR mainly
consist of two workshop (1,2) in work shop 1, faulty transformers repaired by replacing
its faulty section whereas a transformer completely recounted and serviced in work shop
2 TMR offer industrial training for students as well as KSEB workers .This centre is
manly reserved Ernakulam,Idukki,Thrissur district of Kerala. Our training was started
from 04.07.2018 to 08.07.2018 through this they provide theory as well practical of


Fig. 2.1 flow chart of transformer in TMR



As the part of wave curriculum, two week industrial training is included in the
diploma syllabus by the revision 2015. This will give the students a practical experience
of transformer construction and repairing. Students can compare the theories they studied
in their syllabus with the actual construction and repairing of transformer. Staff members
of electrical and electronics engineering department, ORPHANAGE POLYTECHNIC
COLLEGE EDAVANNA have given necessity guidance to our training.

We the students under revision'10 scheme are really have a training
period in an industry during our academic semester itself. Even though we had industrial
visits in the past years. in fact they were insufficient to meet our needs. Especially due to
the time limitation we had there. The room for acquiring knowledge about the
machineries and technology on which the industry is running were very limited. we were
really in need for an opportunity to spend much more time, even for days to work with
the machines that we had so learned from our lectures and books so that we could
experience and understand real life situations in industrial organizations and their related
environments and accelerating the learning process of how student knowledge could be
used in a realistic way .

We were looking forward on an Electrical related industry to have our training and
thus T.M.R division (under KSEB. ANGAMALY) Was a catching one because T.M.R
provide training on transformer maintenance and repair. As we all know, transformers are
one of the most important components of the modern power system. Electrical energy
transmission and distribution system, without transformer is almost impossible. These all
made as focused on T.M.R. on our request, we got permitted for a week of training.



The main objective of the industrial training is to experience and understand real
life situations in industrial organizations and their related environments and accelerating
the learning process of how student knowledge could be used in a realistic way. ln
addition to that industrial training also makes one understand the formal and informal
relationships in a industrial organization so as to promote favourable human relation and
team work. Besides it provides exposure to practice and apply the acquired knowledge-on
so in the working environment. Industrial training also provides a systematic introduction
to the ways of industry and developing talent and attitudes, so that one can understand
how human resource development works.

Moreover, students can gain hands-on experience that is related to the students
major in so that the student can relate to and widen the skills that have been learnt while
being in university. Industrial training also exposes the students to the real career world
and accustoms them to an organizational structure business operations and administrative

Further more students implement what they have learnt and learn more throughout
this training. Besides students can also gain experience to select the optimum solution in
handling a situation. During industrial training students can learn the accepted safety
practices in the industry. Students can also develop a sense of responsibility towards

By this training we all are looking forward to have an efficient study on the
working of Transformer, assembling, maintenance and controlling of TMR
ANGAMALY Division and also a little idea about energy meters.




Fig. 5.1 structure of transformer

Transformer is a simple silent static efficient piece of apparatus which transfers

electrical energy from one circuit to another without changing its power and frequency.
The physical basis of transformer is mutual induction between two circuits linked by a
common magnetic flux. lf one coil is connected to a source of alternating voltage, an
alternating flux is set up in the laminated core, most of which is linked with the other coil
in which it produces mutually induced EMF (Faraday's laws of electromagnetic
induction) as indicated below.


The figure below shows a General 3 –Phase Transformer

Fig. 5.2 Three phase transformer

A typical Transformer name plate is shown below

Fig. 5.3 Transformer name plate




It is assembled from plain boiler plates or cast Aluminium parts, usually mounted
ona shallow fabricated steel base. The lids of these transformer tanks can be of cast iron,
a water proof gasket being used at the joints. For cooling purpose , cooling tubes are
welded with tanks, but in the case of radiators, separate radiators are individually welded
and then bolted on to the transformer tank afterwards. It is used to accommodate
transformer winding, Oil, Core etc. It is the protective covering of the transformer.

Fig. 6.1 Steel tank


The core material and its construction should be such that the maximum flux is
created with minimum magnetising current and minimum core loss. In all types of
transformers, cores are made of CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) silicon steel
laminations assembled to provide a continuous magnetic path with minimum of air – gap
included in order to reduce Hysteresis loss. They are also laminated to reduce Eddy
Currents. The complete laminated core consists of a number of rectangular laminations
placed alternatively one over the other so that the joints are staggered. The joints are
staggered to avoid continuous gap causing increasing magnetising current.

Fig. 6.2 Core


Transformer windings are made of solid or stranded copper or aluminium strip

conductors. Heavy current capacity needs conductors of large cross-section. To
reduce eddy current losses in the conductors, several small wires or parallel straps are
preferred to one large strap. This gives rise to unequal reactance of the components of the
conductor which can be eliminated by transposition of conductors

Fig. 6.3 Winding



Cross over winding :- Such windings are largely employed for HV winding where
number of turns may be large but conductors are small circular section with double
cotton covering or paper covering. The whole winding is divided in to a number of coils
depending upon a voltage rating. Each coil is wound on a former, with several layers of
several turns per layer. The coil ends, one from inside and one from outside, are joint
together similar coils in series, spaced with blocks of insulating material to allow free
circulation of oil. The axial length of each coil and the separation distance between each
coil vary according to the voltage rating.


Helical Winding:- such windings are employed for LV coils of medium and high
capacity transformers where the number of coil turns is small but the current is high.
Low voltage windings of medium and high capacity transformers, therefore, require the
use of conductor consisting of row of parallel rectangular conductors arranged in one
radial direction of the winding flat wise and close to each other. For more uniform
distribution of current between the parallel conductor may take to each position. The
number of parallel conductors in the turn of a helical winding usually varies from 6 to 20.


It is a small auxiliary oil tank 9 an air tight cylindrical metal drum) that may be
mounted above the transformer and connected to the main tank by a pipe .Its function is
to keep the main tank of the transformer completely filled with oil in all circumstances
despite expansion or contraction of oil with the changes in temperature. Conservator is
always partly filled with oil and absorbs the expansion and contraction of oil and keeps
the main tank full of oil. It also reduces the rate of oxidation of oil, partly because less oil
surface is exposed to air and partly because of the reduced temperature of the oil exposed
to air. Thus the sludge formation is considerably reduced and whatever sledge is formed


settles to the bottom of the expansion chamber in to sludge pan from where it is
periodically withdrawn by means of a drain tap.

Fig. 6.4 Conservator tank


When the transformer become warm, the oil and gas expand. The gas at the top
of the oil is expelled out. When the transformer cools, air is drawn in to the transformer.
Unless preventive measures are taken, moisture is drawn during
this process, called the breathing. This moisture is readily
absorbed by the oil, and the dielectric properties of the oil are
correspondingly reduced. The entering the transformer is made
moisture free by letting it pass through an apparatus called the
breather. A breather consists of a small container connected to
the vent pipe and contains a dehydrating material like “Silica gel
crystals” impregnated with cobalt chloride. The material is blue
when dry and a whitish pink when damp. The colour can be
observed through a glass window provided in front of container.

Fig. 6.5 Breather



Every transformer is provided with a temparature gauge to indicate hot oil or

hottest spot temparature. It is a self contained wheather proof unit made with alarm
contacts. It is adial type operated by Bourdon gauge connected to a thermometer bulb
located in the regionof hottest oil.

Fig. 6.6 temparature guage


An elbow relief device is also provided on transformers equipped with expansion

tanks. This device consists of a large diameter steel pipe on the transformer cover or in
the wall near the top.It is usually at an angle to the vertical, but may be vertical. The pipe
which has an elbow at its end, is of sufficient length so that the oil can rise in it to the
maximum level in the expansiontank without splitting over the elbow portion.

A thin glass relief diaphram is placed at the top of the device, above the
maximum oil level. A fault in the transformer (Breakdown or short circuit) may produce
a considerable pressure inside the tank, and under these circumstances the diaphram
should burst, thus protecting the tank. A protective hood extends past the diaphram and
prevents moisture from entering the expansion tank in case the diphram is accidently



This is the most usual method of cooling. Here the assembly of core and winding
is immersed in an insulating oil contained in an iron tank. The heat produced in core and
windings is passed on to oil by conduction. Oil in contact with heated parts rises and its
place is taken by cool oil from the bottom. The heated oil transfers its heat to the tank
surface which dissipates it to the surroundings. The advantages of this method of
cooling are (1) freedom from dust (2) freedom from atmospheric moisture which would
have affected the insulation (3) Easy extraction of heat from innermost parts as oil is
better conductor of heat (4) Good amount of natural convection currents since oil has
high coefficient of volume expansion.

In many cases smooth tank walls are not sufficient to dissipate the heat, therefore,
the tank dissipating surface area is increased by providing ribs, also called “fins” and
corrugations. For further increasing the heat dissipating capacity radiators or tubes are
provided on all the four walls of the trans former.

Fig. 6.8 Cooling tubes



The transformers are usually provided with few tappings so that output voltage
can be varied over a small range for constant input voltage. Most industrial transformers
are provided with four tappings on the HV winding, two on each side of the normal
voltage, so that the tap changer has five positions. The common variations of voltages can
be made by a tap changer is shown below.

Fig 6.9 Tape changr

STUD1 +5%

STUD2 +2.5%

STUD3 0%

STUD4 -2.5%

STUD5 -5%

STUD6 -7.5%

The tappings are normally used on transformers with rating above 160KVA.



Transformer oil is a highly refined mineral oil that cools the winding s and
insulation by circulating within in the transformer tank. The mineral oil and paper
insulation system has been extensively studied and used for more than 100 years. It is
estimated that 50% of power transformers will survive 50 years of use, that the average
age of failure of power transformer is about 10 to 15 years,


Transformers are connected to HV lines, and therefore, care is to be taken to

prevent flash-over from the high voltage connections to the earthed tank. Connections
from cables are made in cable boxes, but overhead connections are to be brought through
bushings specially designed for different classes of voltages and that about 30% of
power transformer failures are due to insulation and overloading failures. Prolonged
operation at elevated temperature degrades insulating properties of winding insulation
and dielectric coolant, which not only shortens transformer life but can ultimately lead to
catastrophic transformer failure. With a great body of empirical study as a guide,
transformer oil testing.

Fig6. 11.1 LT Bushing Fig6.11.2 HT Bushing




For any fault the transformer should be opened and checked. Steps involved in
opening is as follows,

There are mainly two types of transformers are there Hanging type or Side bush
transformer, both are opened differently.


 First of all recorded the name plate details.

 Check the oil level in the conservator, open the top oil valve and remove oil in the
conservator tank.
 Loosened nuts on the transformer then lifted up its top cover using Crain .For this
type of transformers the JOB(core + winding) is fitted in top cover.
 Initially observe for any visual faults at windings(ie any break for windings).
 Do a simple SC test by 433 V supply is given to HV side and shorted one phase
and neutral of LV side with conductor. Observed its after effect. lf heavy sparking
occurs winding of that phase is considered as perfect. Otherwise, low or no
sparking at LV side is taken as defective phase winding. Checked several times
and concluded how many phases are defective or not. Then to shop1 or shop2
according to fault.


 First of all recorded the name plate details.

 Check the oil level in the conservator, open the top oil valve and remove oil in the

Conservator tank.


 Loosen the nuts of the top cover then remove it.

 Remove the connections of the HT bushes (ie HT may be at top cover or side
 Unscrew the LT bushes (which are at sides) and disconnect.
 Unscrew the foundation bolt.
 Lift the job using a Crain and look for any visual faults.
 Do a simple SC test by 433 V supply is given to HV side and shorted one phase
and neutral of LV side with conductor. Observed its after effect. lf heavy
sparking occurs winding of that phase is considered as perfect. Otherwise, low or
no sparking at LV side is taken as defective phase winding. Checked several times
and concluded how many phases are defective or not. Then to shop l or shop 2
according to fault.

Removed the upper and lower channel of core, opened each core stampings of
upper core. Disconnect all interconnections between windings; remove each HV stacks
one by one of three limbs, and removed LV winding with the same procedure. And
remove all insulating materials used ( cotton tape, wood, press board etc).

Fig 7.3 Dismantling core



Cleaned up the core with transformer oil and wiped away the oil content on core
with cotton waste. Wrapped the cotton tape around the limbs using PVA ( Poly vinyl
acetate)gum. Inserted LT winding on spacers and tightened it with wedge. Wrapped the
assembly with press board. Inserted HT winding over LT winding after placing runners.
The upper portion of core is assembled. HT and LT winding are connected to delta and
star respectively.

Fig. 7.4 Assembled core



There are several Tests are conducted on a transformer. the tastings may be HOT
Testing(testing with dangerous volts, ie above 80 V) or may be COLD Testing (testing
with non dangerous volts).The final testings are made after repairing the default winding
then take the job to the Heating chamber up to need then Tanked again .The common are
SC Test, OC Test, Meggar (lnsulation )Test and Turns Ratio Test. Each tests are for.

Sl No Test Purpose
Ensure required insulation resistance
Meggar(insulation between body to HV & LV winding,
test) HV to LV Winding.
2 Open circuit test To find open circuit current, hence no
load loss.
3 Short circuit test To find voltage required to flow rated
current. Hence to full load loss.
4 Ratio test To ensure the ratio of transformation.


 Given a supply of 433 V in HV side (delta connected).

 Short each phases of LV side (star connected) by a conductor and observe the
strength of the spark, if there is standard spark the winding is healthy or if spark is
low there is a fault.
 To confirm check the voltages across each phases .(It is in the range of 9.2 V for
healthy one 0.2V difference is allowed).
 In final testing current at each phases also measured using a clamp on CT, a
neutral current of 4% is allowed.



There are two types of OC Tests are conducted in TMR .It is only done during final

1. OC Test for finding the no-load loss

 Given a supply of 433 V to the LV side (it should be aware that 11KV at HV
 Look for any visual errors.
 Connect a clamp on CT and measure current at each phase for no load primary
 By analyzing value of current with standard value we can identify the loss.
 (I proportional to Loss).
2. Real OC Test by giving 1 1KV
 Given a supply of 11KV to HV side by reverse feeding process.
 Check the voltage at LV side using a multicentre it is around 400 V.


This test is conducted using a Meggar by rotating this megger at constant speed the test is
conducted. Meggar test is conducted. After getting the required insulation resistance
(Meggar value), the core winding assembling is placed in to cleaned tank, filled purified
transformer oil( Askeral ), and subjected for following tests

Between body and winding (HV & LV winding).

One of the Meggar (500v DC) terminals is connected to one terminal of anyone of
winding(U1) and the other terminal of the Meggar is connected to body
Between winding and winding (HV & LV winding):


One of the Meggar (500v DC) terminals is connected to one terminal of any one of
winding(U1) and the other terminal of the Meggar is connected to another terminal(V1).

SL No Between winding and body Insulation resistance values in M

1 U and V 5000
2 U and W 5000
3 V and W 5000
4 Body to winding 5000


11Kv supply is given to HV side with an additional distribution transformer and

measured LV side voltage. It must be 433 and verified the result.



There are several properties for the oil so each property should be tested. So some of
the tests are,
1) Acidity Test.
The acidity test is used to estimate the total acid value of the transformer insulating
liquid. As acid values increase (usually due to oxidation of the oil), the insulating quality
of the oil decreases. In general, acidic by-products produce increased dielectric loss,
increased corrosively, and may cause thermal difficulties attributable to insoluble
components called sludge.

2) Interfacial Tension Test.

The interfacial tension test of electrical insulating fluids is an indicator of the
presence of polar compounds. These compounds are considered by some to be an
indicator of contaminants of oxidation or deterioration of the materials of transformer

3) Water content Test.

The water content test detects the moisture content in parts per million of the liquid
insulation. The electrical characteristics of an insulating liquid are dramatically affected
by its water content. A high water content may make a dielectric liquid unsuitable for
some applications because a deterioration in properties such as dielectric breakdown
voltage will occur. This test is suitable for evaluating filtration.

4) Dissolved gas Analysis.

The most important test that can be done on the liquid insulation of a transformer is
an annual Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). This test can give an early indication of
abnormal behavior of the transformer. As the name implies, this test analyzes the type


and quantity of gases that are dissolved in the transformer oil. Small samples of oil are
taken for this test, using a clean, moisture-free, gas-tight container - usually a ground-
glass 50 ml syringe. It is very important that a DGA sample is kept air tight; otherwise
the gases that are dissolved in the liquid can escape into the atmosphere or external gases
can be admitted, which would invalidate the test results.
The syringe is sent to a laboratory for gas extraction and analysis. Gases are
extracted from the oil with a vacuum pump and the gases are identified using gas
chromatography. The principal gases that are typically found are hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ethylene, ethane, and acetylene.
Certain quantities and combination of these gases are indicative of: insulation
overheating/overloading, liquid overheating , partial discharge (corona), or arcing in the

5) Insulations Liquid Overheating.

Overheating of the liquid insulation is a slightly different problem in transformers.
A DGA test will indicate high thermal gases (methane, ethane and ethylene) as a result of
overheating of the liquid. These gases are formed from a breakdown of the liquid caused
by heat. Heating may be caused by poor contacts on a tap changer, or loose connections
on a bushing or a grounding strap, or circulating currents in the core due to an unintended
core ground.
Actions that can be taken once a thermal gas problem is detected would depend on
the severity of the problem. lf conditions are not severe, the transformer should be
monitored closely. lf conditions gets worse, and thermal combustibles elevate, the
transformer will need to be taken out of service. lf the combustibles are stable and remain
present, the transformer should be inspected at the next outage or downtime scheduled.


6) Corona
Corona is considered to be partial discharge and occurs at areas of high electrical
stress, such as at sharp points along an electrical path. Partial discharge is commonly
explained as being intermittent.

7) Color
Determination of the color of petroleum products is used mainly for manufacturing
control purposes. lt is an important quality characteristic since color is readily observed
by the user of the product. ln some cases, the color may serve as an indication of aging
and presence of contaminants. However, color is not always a reliable guide to liquid
quality and should not be used as a stand-alone test for determination of contamination.

8) SK value TEST
In SK value test a 100m1 of a chemical (eg; NaoH) is mixed with 100m1 of oil to be
tested and remain the mixture for some time the percent of chemical in oil determines
quality of oil.
9) Tan Delta Test.

10)Flash point

The only test practicing in TMR is BDV Test explained below.


The dielectric breakdown test is a physical test that measures the breakdown
voltage of insulation liquid. The dielectric breakdown test serves as an indicator to the
presence of contaminating agents such as water, dirt, moist cellulosic fibers, and


conducting particles in the insulating liquid. One or more of these items present in
significant concentrations will contribute to a low dielectric breakdown value.
Break down voltage is the maximum voltage of the insulating oil it can withstand. This
test conducted for ensuring the required break down voltage of insulating oil. This
carried out in a BDV kit, it consist of a small chamber with two electrodes placed at a gap
of 2.5mm through which supply is given. The voltage of the supply across electrodes is
automatically increased by a automatically rising motor in the kit itself. The point at
which (flashing point) the oil break down, an arc establishes between the contacts. The
voltage reading on BDV kit provide us break down voltage of the oil .The figure below
shows the arrangements.

Fig. 9.11 BDV kit

The break down strength of some types of oil is shown below.


New oil 60-70

Reclaimed Oil 55-60

Filtered oil 35-50

Using Oil 20-30



There commonly to methods for purification (Conditioning) of transformer oil they are.

 Oil is collected in a tank
 Allow to pass through a Y-trap using a suction pump (a magnet placed in Y-trap
attracts metallic impurities).
 Pass through a paper filter
 Add activated alumina (base material) to decrease acidity.
 Pass through a fine filter (Cartridge filter)
 Passes to a heating chamber heat the oil to 60 degree Celsius.
 Pass through a vacuum chamber at 800 PSIAgain recycled through tank, this
process continues according impurity.


ln this process oil to be reclaimed is added with an alkali compound, then boiled to
a (300-380) degree celcius, then oil is collected and added with certain CHEMICAL
ADDICTIVES to retain insulation properties then filter before use



An electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of

electric energy consumed by a residence, business, or an electrically powered device.

Electricity meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one
being the kilo watt hour [kWh]. Periodic readings of electric meters establishes billing
cycles and energy used during a cycle.

In settings when energy savings during certain periods are desired, meters may measure
demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. "Time of day" metering allows
electric rates to be changed during a day, to record usage during peak high-cost periods
and off-peak, lower-cost, periods. Also, in some areas meters have relays for demand
response shedding of loads during peak load periods.



Fig 11.1 Electromechanical induction motor

Aluminium rotor disc., rotor brake magnets., spindle with worm gear. display dials ,
Stator ,Current coil, Voltage coil



Fig 11.2 Electronic meter


Time of Day metering (TOD) also known as Time of usage (TOU) or seasonal
time of day (STOD), metering involves dividing the day , month and year in to tariff slots
and with higher rates at peak load periods and low tariff rates at off-peak load periods.
While this can be used to automatically control usage on the part of the customer
(resulting in automatic load control), it is often simply the customers responsibility to
control his own usage, or pay accordingly (voluntary load control). This also allows the
utilities of plan their transmission infrastructure appropriately. See also Demand side
Management (DSM)

TOD metering normally splits rates in to an arrangement of multiple segments

including on peak, Off peak, Mid peak or shoulder and critical peak. A typical
arrangement is a peak occuring during the day (non – holidays only), such as from 1 pm
to 9 pm Monday through Friday during the summer and from 6:30am to 12noon and 5pm
to 9pm during the winter. More complex arrangements the use of critical peak which
occur during high demand periods. The times of peak demand/cost will vary in different
markets around the world.

Fig 11.3 TOD Meters



Really this training provided us an unforgettable and valuable experience. The

actual transformer was entirely different from what we have learnt so far, mainly on the
basis of construction ie, the assembly of the core and placement of winding etc. were
beyond our thoughts. Earlier I was awarded of only theoritical aspects of transformer,
but now I am well equipped practical important of transformer

Experience and understand real life situations in industrial organizations and their
related environments and accelarating the learning process of how students knowledge
could be used in realistic way. In addition to that industrial training also makes one
understand the format and informal relationship in an industrial organization so as to
promote favourable human relation and team work. Besides, it provides exposure to
practice and apply the acquire knowledge on so in the working environment. Industrial
training also provides a systamatic introduction to the ways of industry and developing
talent and attitudes, so that one can understand how human resource development works.

By this training we all are looking forward to have an efficient study on the
working of Transformer, assembling, maintenance and controlling of TMR Angamaly

I proudly say that this Industrial training program is neccessary in the Diploma
curriculam because the practical experience will get us more knowledge than a
description and figure in the text book.


The industrial Training of the year 2016 – 2017 conducted at the various
ANGAMALY during the days 04, 05,06,07 and 08 JULY, 2018. This gives me a
practical experience of Transformer construction and repairing. Now I understood that
the theory and practical application was entirely different. By this training I could
achieve practical knowledge. Above all I could understand the difficulties and
responsibilities taken by the workmen while doing a work.

But we didn’t get enough time to analyze the maintenance and repairing of
transformer completely. If we get more days to spend at the industry then we could have
come back as ready professional. By this time we could have made aware of the
organizational structure and working of TMR also.

However even under all above mentioned limitations, I could achieve several
things. Mainly I could develop some sort of skills, which is required while working in an