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MISTAKE PROOFING (POKA-YOKE) IN BUSH

PRESSING MACHINE IN AN ENGINE BLOCK

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
DEVANATHAN.S 113314114029
KUMARAVELAN.S.K 113314114065
VASANTH.K 113314114134

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree


of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

VELAMMAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


PANCHETTI

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600025


APRIL 2018

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ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “MISTAKE PROOFING (POKA-YOKE)


IN BUSH PRESSING MACHINE IN AN ENGINE BLOCK LINE” is
the bonafide work of “S.DEVANATHAN (113314114029),
S.K.KUMARAVELAN (113314114065), K.VASANTH (113314114134)”
who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr. G. MOORTHY. Prof.G. MOORTHY M.E.,Ph.D,


PROFESSOR & HEAD SUPERVISOR
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Velammal Institute of Technology Velammal Institute of Technology
Chennai - 601204. Chennai- 601204.

Submitted for the board examination held on ………………

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Support on demand, encouragement at the needed moment and
guidance in the right direction are in dispensable for the success of any
project. I have received these in excess from all corners from various people,
I am glad to submit my gratitude to them.
We thank Shri. M.V.Muthuramalingam chairman and my sincere
thanks to my Chief Executive Officer, Shri. M.V.M. Velmurugan and my
director, Shri. M.V.M. Sasikumar for their kind support to take up this
project. The esteem head of our institution Dr.T. Chandrasekar M.E.,
Ph.D has been a source of motivation to all the staffs and students of my
college. We are so much thankful to him.
Our sincere thanks to Dr.G. Moorthy, M.E., Ph.D the Head of the
Mechanical Department of for his continuous support and motivation
throughout my project. We would like to thank my project coordinators
Dr. G. Moorthy M.E., Ph.D, Prof. M.S. Heaven Dani M.E., (Ph.D),
Dr .K. Sivakumar M.E., Ph.D. We extend my profound gratitude to my
project guide Dr.G.Moorthy M.E., Ph.D, for his guidance, who has indeed
been a polestar throughout the course of the project. We thank him for
giving us full support to complete the project successfully.
We also take this opportunity to thank all the staff members of the
department of mechanical engineering. Regards to our family, classmates
and friends who offered an unflinching moral support for completion of this
project

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ABSTRACT

In bush press machine, manual stoppers are used to stop the


cylinder block and insert the bush into the block. Sometimes in this system
due to human error the bush is not inserted into the H cylinder block oil
pump bore. This reduces the availability of the machine which in turn affects
the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) level of the machine. This also
leads to increase in operating cost, tool cost, and consumable cost of the
machine per product. The time taken to re – rework the entire block is also
high and it affects the overall production rate. In order to reduce the
concerning cost and increase the OEE level, I have developed a relay based
automation system. This will sense the block once it enters the machine and
sequence of operation is automatically done to engage the stopper thus
eliminating the human error.
In order to ensure that the bush is inserted into the chuck before
pressing it into the cylinder block, a proximity sensor is used. If the
proximity sensor does not sense the bush even if the cycle start button is
pressed it will not start the operation. By this automation, POKA – YOKE
technique is implemented in the bush press machine.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT iv

LIST OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES viii

LIST OF FIGURES ix

1 COMPANY PROFILE 1

1.1 Green Mission 3

1.2 INFRASTRUCTURE 4

1.2.1 Chassis Assembly 5

1.3 OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND SHOPS 7

1.4 MILESTONES 8

1.5 H-CYLINDER BLOCK LINE M/C 11

2 INTRODUCTION 12

2.1 INTRIDUCTION 12

2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CYLINDER 13

2.3 OEE ANALYSIS 16

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2.4 OEE CALCULATION 17

AVAILABILITY 17

PERFORMANCE 17

QUALITY 18

2.5 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 20

DISADVANTAGES 22

2.6 PROPOSED SYSTEM 23

3 PRINCIPLES 24

3.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND THEORY 24

3.1.1 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 24

3.1.2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 26

3.1.3 MECHANICAL SYSTEM 29

3.1.4 BUSH PRESS MACHINE 32

3.1.5 LML ROUGH AND FINISH LINE 34

BORING MACHINE

3.2 COMPNENTS DESIGN 35

CALCULATION

3.2.1 CYLINDER CALCULATION 35

3.2.1.1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION 35

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3.2.2 DCV SPECIFICATION 38

4 WORKING PRINCIPLE 39

4.1 AUTO/MAN SWITCH 42

4.1.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 45

5 FABRICATION PROCESS 47

5.1 COMPNENTS USED 47

5.2 OEE AFTER IMPLEMENTATION 51

6 CONCLUSION 59

REFERENCE 60

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TABLE.NO LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO.

1 H-CYLINDER BLOCK LINE MACHINES 11

2 OEE LEVEL BEFORE IMPLEMENTATION 19

3 OEE VALVE AFTER IMPLEMENTATION 53

4 TROUBLE SHOOTING 54

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FIGURE.NO LIST OF FIGURES PAGE NO

1 H Cylinder Block Line Diagram 12

2 Problem Identification 21

3 Proposed system 23

4 Pneumatic system 24

5 Direction Control Valve 25

6 Electrical System 26

7 Mechanical System 30

8 Cylinder Block 31

9 Bush Pressing Machine 32

10 DCV Specification 38

11 Circuit Diagram 39

12 Auto/Man Switch 42

13 Sensor and Relay setup 50

14 Before and After Modification 57

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1. COMPANY PROFILE

For over five decades, Hinduja Group flagship Ashok Leyland has been a major
presence in India's Commercial Vehicle industry. The Company’s product range spans
from 7.5 T GVW to 49T GTW in goods transport and from 19 seaters to 80 seaters in
passenger transport, this will ensure our transport facility apart from a host of special.

Served by its own comprehensive R&D base, complemented by collaborations


with global technology leaders, Ashok Leyland has established a tradition of
technological leadership and a strong reputation for product reliability. The history of the
Company has been punctuated by a number of technological innovations, which have
since become industry norms. It was the first to introduce multi - axled trucks, full air
brakes and a host of innovations like the rear engine and articulated buses in India. In
1997, the Company launched the country’s first CNG bus and in 2002, the first Hybrid
Electric Vehicle. In 2006, the first common rail engine capable of complying with Bharat
Stage IV emission norms was launched and in 2008, it developed the country's first H-
CNG engine. I-BUS, a CNG Hybrid Plug-in bus, was developed in 2010.

With seven manufacturing locations at Chennai, Hosur (three plants), Alwar,


Bhandara and Pantnagar, the Company has an annual production capacity of 1, 50, 000
vehicles. An integrated chassis and bus assembly plant in Ras - al - Khaimah in the
Middle East is scheduled to commence production soon.

In 2009-10, the Company’s turnover stood at Rs. 7,244.71 Cr with sales topping
63,926 vehicles. Ashok Leyland has an unbroken track record of profitability since
inception.

AVIA Ashok Leyland Motors in Prague is the Company's beach head in Europe
which produces and markets the famous D-Line series of trucks in Hungary, the UK,
Ireland, Spain and Slovakia in addition to the Czech Republic. In 2008, the Company

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formed Albonair GmbH in Germany focusing on development, production and sales of
exhaust after-treatment systems.

Ashok Leyland vehicles are exported to over 20 countries worldwide. Significant


presence is still maintained in Sri Lanka, Mauritius and the Middle East.

Ashok Leyland offers design and engineering services under the brand name
Defiance. Through Defiance Technologies, it provides end-to-end solutions in the space
of design, development, prototyping, testing and validation. In the US, Defiance Testing
& Engineering delivers high-end testing capabilities and along with Defiance Tech offers
integrated Engineering Manufacturing Enterprise (EME) solutions.

Its other associates companies include Automotive Coaches & Components


Limited (ACCL) which offers an extensive range of fully-built vehicles including tippers,
tip-trailers, bulk pressure tankers and transit mixers, while Hinduja Foundries Ltd. (HFL)
has now emerged as India's largest automotive jobbing foundry.

To become a full-range player, Ashok Leyland has tied up with Nissan Motor
Company for the light commercial vehicle business. The first product from this
partnership is expected to roll out by 2011.

The 50-50 joint venture with John Deere marks the Company's foray into the
high-potential construction equipment business. Another joint venture with the Alteams
Group of Finland is for the manufacture of high-pressure die-casting extruded aluminium
products while the JV with Continental AG is for design, development and adaptation of
infotronic products and services for the transportation sector.

Committed to Total Quality Management, Ashok Leyland is the country's first


automotive manufacturer to obtain the coveted ISO 9002 certification followed by the
more comprehensive ISO 9001:1994 certification, QS 9000 (1998) and ISO 14001(2001).
Ashok Leyland is also the first automobile company in India to receive the world-

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renowned TS 16949 Corporate Certification in 2006. These are major milestones in the
Company's TQM journey.

Making all this happen is a team of 13,000 who master the ever-changing
technologies and market environment, in a culture of continuous learning. Employee
participation is central to the all-round gains in internal efficiencies the Company has
achieved as it evolves as a global player in Commercial Vehicles.

1.1 Green Mission

Much before emission regulations came, R&D engineers in Ashok


Leyland have been addressing the twin concerns of fu el-efficiency and
emissions. In 1997, when the Company launched the country's first CNG
bus, India became one among a handful of countries to tame Compressed
Natural Gas to power commercial vehicles. The Company's CNG -run bus
is a non-polluting, eco -friendl y signpost with a great promise. Mumbai's
BEST and the Delhi Transport Corporation run Ashok Leyland's CNG
buses. As on date, more than 2,500 of these CNG buses are on road. In
2002 yet another frontier technology was conquered when the Company
unveiled India’s first Hybrid Electric Bus.

The Company’s all -India customer base is served through an all -


India sales and service network, supplemented by over 250 Service points.
The parts operation, to ensure availabilit y of genuine spares to the
customers, is supported by 15 warehouses.
A unique facet of after-market support to its customers is the Ashok Leyland
Driver Training Centre at Namakkal, in the heartland of trucking in South India.
Established in 1995, this state-of-the-art school has comprehensive training facilities
including a 2.5-km driving range, and imparts wholesome training to drivers for life on
and off the road: scientific driving techniques apart, the curriculum includes health care,

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AIDS awareness and yoga. Special programmes are also conducted for drivers engaged
in the transportation of hazardous goods. A Driver Training Institute has been recently
established at Burari near Delhi as a joint venture with the Government of NCT of Delhi.
A Learning Organisation

Making all this happen is a team of 12,000 who master the ever
changing technologies and market environment, in a culture of continuous
learning. Centre stage in the learning process is the Management
Development Centre at Hosur. Its comprehensive facilities - including
residential accommodation - spread over 3.5 acres of lush greenery
provide a serene setting conducive to learning. Employee participation is
central to the all -round gains in internal efficiencies the Company has
achieved as it evolves as a customer -oriented, world-class organization,
ready for the new world order.

1.2 INFRASTRUCTURE

The origin of ashok Leyland can be traced to the urge for self reliance, felt by
independent India. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister persuaded Mr .
Raghunandan saran, an industrialist, to enter automotive manufacture. In 1948, ashok
motors was set up in what was then madras, for the assembly of Austin cars. The
company’s destiny and name changed soon with equity participation by British Leyland
and Ashok Leyland commenced manufacture of commercial vehicles in 1955.

Since then Ashok Leyland has been a major presence in India’s commercial
vehicle industry with a tradition of technological leadership, achieved through tie-ups
with international technology leaders and through vigorous in-house R&D.

The Ennore plant has been divided into seven shops and one separate shop for
heat treatment process. It is detail below.

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SHOP 1:

In this shop, the chassis assembly, gear manufacturing and gear box assembly
works are processed.

CHASSIS ASSEMBLY:

Chassis assembly is another divisional operation processing here. For that, parts
are coming from other shops the parts such as frame, front axle, rear axle, engine,
propeller shaft and steering gear box…etc., the parts such as spring, exhaust pipes, fuel
tanks, radiators, tires cabs are out sourced. After assembly all the parts the fuel tanks in
the chassis is filled by fuel. And some parts of the joints is oiled and greased according to
their requirements. After this all the chassis are sent to PDI department (pre delivery
inspection department).

ZFGB:

A separate division is made for gears manufacturing. Timing gears and allow the
gears of ZF gear box are manufactured here. The process flow of ZF gear box is as
follows

Raw Materials Soft Materials Heat Treatment

Assembly Hard Machining

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SHOP 2:

This shop is known as engine shop. Because here the entire engine requirements
are fulfilled. The important inside engine parts such as camshaft, cylinder head,
crankcase and connecting rod are prepared here each has separator division and these
divisions are 4c. The engines are assembled in a separate division called engine assembly
shop.

SHOP 3:

Frame assembly and the fabrication of required materials for assembly the frame
are processed here. The plate cutting, hole punching and folding are the operations
carried out in this fabrication the division.

Standard dies are used for folding the plate, an electric riveting machine is
used to rivet the cross members. And these cross members and accessories are getting
assembled in the assembly section called frame assembly section.

SHOP 4:
Front and rear axles are assembled here, so this shop is called by axle assembly
shop. The special conveyors are used to transfer the axles between the processing stages.

Both the axles are processed in separate divisions. The front axles are assembled
in the separate divisions and the rear axles are assembled in another division called rear
assembly.

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1.3. OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND SHOPS

The other departments and shops are

Heat treatment department

1. Metrology department
2. Tool wear house
3. Tool room
4. Standard room

And four maintenance departments,

1. Electric maintenance department


2. Machine tool repair department
3. Mechanical maintenance
4. Mechatronics department

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1.4. MILESTONES:

Year Milestone

1966 Full air brakes introduced

1967 Double decker buses introduced

1968 Power steering offered in commercial vehicles

1979 Multi-axle trucks introduced

1980 The international concept of integral bus with air suspension introduced

1992 Self-certification status for defence supplies won by a vehicle manufacturer

1992 Vestibuled buses introduced

1993 ISO 9002 certification given to an automobile manufacturer

1997 India’s first CNG-powered bus joins BEST fleet

2001 Ennore unit receives ISO 14001 certification

2002 Hybrid electric vehicle launched

2010 U_TRUCK launched

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Nissan Ashok Leyland

In 2007, the company announced a joint venture with Japanese auto giant Nissan
(Renault Nissan Group) which will share a common manufacturing facility in Chennai,
India. The shareholding structures of the three joint venture companies are:

 Ashok Leyland Nissan Vehicles Pvt. Ltd., the vehicle manufacturing


company will be owned 51% by Ashok Leyland and 49% by Nissan
 Nissan Ashok Leyland Power train Pvt. Ltd., the power train manufacturing
company will be owned 51% by Nissan and 49% by Ashok Leyland
 Nissan Ashok Leyland Technologies Pvt. Ltd., the technology development
company will be owned 50:50 by the two partners.

Dr. V. Sumantran, Executive Vice Chairman of Hinduja Automotive Limited and a


Director on the Board of Ashok Leyland is the Chairman of the Power train company and
he is on the Boards of the other two JV companies. The venture, once it takes off, will be
one of the largest investments made in automotive field in the country

I BUS

Ashok Leyland announced iBUS in the beginning of 2008, as part of the future
for the country's increasingly traffic-clogged major cities. Its Rs 60-lakh, iBus, a feature-
filled, low-floor concept bus for the metros revealed during the Auto Expo 2008 in India,
a vehicle for a first production run of pilot models should be ready by the end of this
year. The start of full production is scheduled for 2009. Developed by a team of young
engineers, the low-floored iBus will have the first of its kind features, including anti-lock
braking system, electronic engine management and passenger infotainment. The
executive class has an airline like ambience with wide LCD screens, reading lights, audio
speakers and, for the first time, Internet on the move. A GPS system enables vehicle
tracking and display of dynamic route information on LCD screens, which can also port

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infotainment packages including live data and news. The bus will probably be equipped
with an engine from the new Neptune family, which Ashok Leyland also introduced at
this exhibition, which are ready for the BS4/Euro 4 emission regulations and can be
upgraded to Euro 5.

U - TRUCK

Ashok Leyland, announced sale of vehicles on the new U-Truck platform from
November,2010 with the rolling out of the first set of 10 models of tippers and tractor
trailers in the 16 – 49-tonne segment. Further, another 15 models are set to enter the
market in the next 12 months.

DOST

DOST is a 1.25 ton light commercial vehicle (LCV) that is the first product to be
launched by the Indian-Japanese commercial vehicle joint venture Ashok Leyland Nissan
Vehicles. Dost is powered by a 55 hp high-torque, 3-cylinder, turbo-charged Common
Rail Diesel engine and has a payload capacity of 1.25 Tonnes. It is available in both BS3
and BS4 versions. The LCV is being produced in Ashok Leyland's plant in Tamil Nadu's
Hosur. The LCV is available in three versions with the top-end version featuring air-
conditioning, power steering, dual-colour of a beige-gray trim and fabric seats. With the
launch of Dost Ashok Leyland has now entered the Light Commercial Vehicle segment
in India

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H – CYLINDER BLOCK LINE MACHINES

MACHINE CODE MACHINE NAME


LA 10162 SPECIFIC HOLE WASH
LA 10115 OILWAYS LEAK TESTING
LA 9989 MICONUT RUNNER
LA 10118 BRANDMA MARKING
LA 9883 SEMI FINISH CRANK,CAM,OIL PUMP BUSH BORE
LA 10309 BUSH PRESS MACHINE
LA 10278 HMT GROOVING
LA 9999 LML FINISH BORING CRANK,CAM,OIL PUMP BUSH BORE
LA 10331 DEBURRING MACHINE
LA 10440 DRYING MACHINE
LA 10411 HONING MACHINE
LA 10160 CES WASH MACHINE
LA 10157 PART GRADING MACHINE
LA 9990 MICO NUT RUNNER
LA 10163 INJECTION FLOOD WASH
LA 10119 CAM BUSH PRESS MACHINE
LA 10123 SPM PLUG PRESS MACHINE
LA 10124 WELSCH PLUG PRESSING MACHINE
LA 10125 WELSCH PLUG PRESSING MACHINE
LA 10116 CYLINDER BLOCK ROTATION
LA 10142 OILWAYS LEAK TESTING
LA 10161 GENERAL WASHING MACHINE

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2.1 INTRODUCTION
The H –Cylinder block line is used to finish the cylinder block of Euro – II
& Euro – III, 4 &6 Cylinder engines. Initially the block undergoes a specific hole wash at
a temperature of 45 C and then it is dried using a hot blower. In the next step, oil ways
leak testing is done at the pressure rate of 2.5 bar by means of manual ON/OFF operation.
The crankshaft holder is attached to the H block Cylinder block by means of micro nut
runner machine in which the pitch and angle are maintained. The crankshaft is marked
with a serial number using a BRANDMA marking machine. Now the CNC LA 9883
machine performs semi – finish operation in the crank, CAM, oil pump bush bores.

The bush press machine is used to press the bush into the oil pump bore by
means of manual operation. Then the bush is grooved and manual inspection is done for
every 5 to 10 components. Now the CNC LA 9999 machine performs full – finish
operation in the crank, CAM, oil pump bush bores. The deburring operation is done in
order to smooth out the ragged edges of the cylinder block. Now the automated guided
vehicle (AGV) that is used to move the material around a manufacturing facility takes the
block and places in several machining centres. After various operations are performed the
block is taken out and a surface finish inspection is done and it moves onto the next step.
In the injection flood wash the H block undergoes several stages of operation such as
high pressure deburring , top butting , spray wash etc., The manual inspection is done at
this step to find out any error. The open waterways for cooling are sealed using plug
pressed by Welsch Plug press machine, and then the waterways are tested for leaks.

A sample oil pump is fitted and tested for its working. An general wash is
made and linear bore oiling is done by SPM oiling machine. Cylinder liner is selected as
per the requirement and placed on the cylinder; liner press machine now presses the liner
into the cylinder. A full inspection is done and H – cylinder block is now ready for
assembly.

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2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE H- CYLINDER BLOCK:

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EXPLANATION FOR ABOVE DIAGRAM:
 LA10162- This machine is used to wash the holes in the engine cylinder block.
 LA10115-This machine is used to pre-test the oil ways in the engine block.
 LA10304-It is used to wash the engine block after completing pre-test process.
 LA 9989-It is used to tighten the nuts under the bottom of piston region.
 LA10118-This machine is used to mark the number of components for
identification.
 LA10673-Semi finished boring operation is done in this machine.
 LA10309-Oil pump bush (gun metal) is pressed to the engine block in this
machine.
 LA10278-Grooving operation is performed to create oil ring in the engine block.
 LA 9999- This machine is performed to achieve tolerance level with the help of
finished boring operation.
 LA10337-This machine is used to test the leakage and crack in the crank area.
 LA10440-This machine will blow the air to remove dust particles in the engine
block.
 LA 9955-Reaming operation is performed in this machine.
 LA10411-In this process diamond ceramic rod is used to maintain the accurate
dimensions inside the cylinder block (honing).
 LA10160-It is used to wash the liner bores in the cylinder block.
 LA10157-It is used to inspect whether the dimensions are in proper condition
inside the liner.
 LA9990-In this operation loosening of nuts is done under the bottom of the
cylinder block.
 LA10163-This machine is used for complete washing process of the engine
blocks.
 LA10119-Cam bush is pressed inside the engine blocks.

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 LA10123-Welsch plug is used to close the gap with bush at the left hand side of
the engine block (one way press).
 LA10124-In this process the bush is used to close the devel pin region with the
help of welsch plug (three way press).
 LA10125- Welsch plug is used to close the gap with bush at the right hand side of
the engine block (one way press).
 LA10116-This machine is used to test the hardness of the engine block using
pressure test water ways.
 LA10342-Oil pump pre-testing operation is performed in this machine.
 LA10161-General washing is performed in this machine.
 LA10306-It is used to clean the liner bore with the help of oil.
 LA10432-Liner assembly for engine block is arranged in order as per the grades.
 LA11244-In this operation the machine is used to press the liner inside the
cylinder block.
 LA10210-It is used to check the liner projection.
 LA11101-It is used to mark the number of component after projection.
 LA10442-After completing all the operations the engine block is taken to the
assembly shop.

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2.3 OEE ANALYSIS
An Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) analysis produces standardized
figures about plant efficiency. Overall equipment effectiveness is a hierarchy of metrics
which evaluates and indicates how effectively a manufacturing operation is utilized. OEE
measurement is also commonly used as a key performance indicator (KPI) in conjunction
with lean manufacturing efforts to provide an indicator of success. The below table shows
the details of H-cylinder block lines with its special features

Capacity per year 42600


Area 1650 sq.ft

Target per shift 61

Target time 363 sec

Number of shifts 2

Special features 1. CNC machine with AGV for


loading and unloading
2. centralised coolant and chip
handling system

The critical machines identified in the H- cylinder block lines are,


1. BUSH PRESS MACHINE (LA 10309)
2. GROOVING MACHINE (LA 10278)
3. DEBURRING MACHIHNE (LA 10331)
4. HONING MACHINE (LA 10411)

The overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) for these critical machines are done in
order to check their availability, performance, quality. The machine with the lowest OEE
level is taken in order to increase the availability rate.

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OEE CALCULATION FOR BUSH PRESS MACHINE :
AVAILABILITY:

The availability portion of the OEE metric represents of scheduled time that
the operation is available to operate. The availability metric is a pure measurement of
uptime that is designed to exclude the effects of Quality, Performance, and Scheduled
downtime events.

Availability = available time / scheduled time


In the given work centre is scheduled to run for 8 hours per shift. The
normal shift includes 50 min break. The work centre experience 134 minutes of
downtime period.

Scheduled time: 480 min – 50 min = 430 min


Available time: 430 min – 134 min = 296 min

Therefore,

Availability = Availability time / scheduled time = 296/430


Availability = 69%

PERFORMANCE:
The performance portion of the OEE metric represents the speed at which
the work centre runs as a percentage of its designed speed. The performance metric is
a pure measurement of speed that is designed to exclude the effects of quality and
availability.

Performance = (parts produced x ideal cycle time) / available time

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A standard rate for the part being produced is 4.11 min / part. A work centre
produces 60 units during a shift.
Parts produced = 60
Ideal cycle time = 4.11 min
Available time = 296 min

Therefore,
Performance = (parts produced x ideal cycle time) / available time
= 60x4.11/296
Performance = 83.3 %

QUALITY:
The quality portion of the OEE metric represents the good units produced as a
percentage of the total units started. The quality is a pure measurement of process
yield that is designed to exclude the effects of availability and performance.
Quality = good units / units started
The parts being produced per shift is 71. All the parts produced are good.
Quality = 71 / 71
Quality = 100%( Assumed)

OEE: (OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS)

OEE = availability x performance x quality


= 69 x 83.3 x 100
OEE = 53.3%

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The below table shows the available time and scheduled time of the various critical
machines. From this data, the availability rate of the bush press machine is
comparatively low.

MACHINE AVAILABLE TIME SCHEDULED TIME AVAILABILITY


(MIN ) (MIN) (%)
BUSH PRESS 296 430 69
MACHINE
HMT 320 430 74.3
GROOVING
MACHINE
DEBURRING 345 430 80.32
MACHINE
HONING 337 430 78.56
MACHINE

The below table shows the OEE level for different critical machines in H-Cylinder
block line. From this data, the OEE level of the bush press machine is comparatively
low.
MACHINE AVAILABITY PERFORMANCE QUALITY OEE
BUSH PRESS 69% 83.3% 100% 57.7%
MACHINE
HMT GROOVING 74.3% 98.32% 98.59% 72.02%
MACHINE
DEBURRING 80.32% 97.48% 100% 78.3%
MACHINE
HONING 78.56% 96.42% 100% 75.38%
MACHINE

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PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION :

When the OEE analyses of different critical machines are made in the H-
Cylinder block line in which the bush press machine has the low availability rate.
This problem is caused due to the manual stoppers used to stop the block at the
machine when it arrives from the conveyor. The manual stopper is engaged by an
operator, so when the operator is not noticing when the person from the previous
machine pushes the block with high force it will bypass the bush press machine by
means of conveyor. So the bush will not be inserted into the bore. In the next section
the bush undergoes grooving operation, in which without the bush the operation will
be done in an empty hole. And several stations the H-Cylinder block is made to
undergo an human inspection again this time subjected to human error.

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Then after some machining stations a sample gear pump is fixed and tested for
working and only at this station we can identify that the bush is not pressed in the
block. Once the error is identified it undergoes the re-work for inserting the bush in
the cylinder block and undergoes grooving operation. During grooving operation it
may affect the dimensions and accuracy of the other bores. It may affect the
availability rate of the bush press machine for its normal work.
EXISTING SYSTEM:

SEQUENCE OF THE MANUAL OPERATION:

 Pull out outside stopper


 Push in inside stopper
 Component to be pushed in
 Push in outside stopper
 Bush to be inserted in the bush press unit
 Press the cycle start button
 Pullout inside stopper
 Component to be pulled out

21
H- BLOCK
FROM STORES

BEARING
ALLIGNMENT OIL GALLERY SPECIFIC
AND LEAK TEST HOLE
TIGHTENING WASHING

PROBLEM
IDENTIFICATION

NUMBER SEMI FINISH OIL PUMP


MARKING ON LINE BORING BORE BUSH
BLOCK PRESSING

DISADVANTAGES OF MANUAL OPERATION:


 Tool cost and power costs are high
 OEE (overall equipment effectiveness) value is low
 Downtime is high
 Human error may occur frequently
 Consumable cost also comparatively high

22
PROPOSED SYSTEM :
In order to avoid these circumstances we are implementing the mistake proofing
(POKA - YOKA) system by providing relay based automation. In this system, the relays
and proximity sensors are used to automate the bush press machine. The four proximity
sensors are used to detect the presence of bush , arrival, exit and cycle operation. The
pneumatic system are used to hold the cylinder block in the work station until the bush is
pressed.

Hydraulic
Cylinder

Pneumatic
Proximity
cylinder
sensor

ADVANTAGES:
 OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) value becomes high
 Tool cost and power cost will reduce
 Machine break-down time is low
 Since the system is automated the human intervention is minimal, hence no
human error will occur.
 Relays cheaper than PLC.

23
3.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND THEORY:

3.1.1 PNUEMATIC SYSTEM:


Pnuematic systems are mechanical systems that use compressed gasses. They
are similar to hydraulic systems, which are mechanical systems that use liquids in the
transfer of forces. Pneumatic systems are almost everywhere in modern world. Any
punematic system gets its power, ultimately, from an air compressor. Pneumatic devices
offer several advantages over standard fluid dynamic devices. While they are safer and
more reliable than their hydraulic counter parts, they do suffer lack of power needed for
some strength – based operations. Pneumatics is basically a method to turn electricity into
mechanical motion using compressed gasses instead of motors or electromagnets. For
many applications, this is much more efficient and practical.

PNEMATIC CYLINDER:
Double Acting Cylinder (DAC) use the force of air to move both extends and
retract strokes. They have two strokes one for outstroke and one for in stroke to allow air.
The double acting cylinders with outward and inward stroke are shown in the figure.
Stroke length for this design is not limited, however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to
buckling and bending. Material range from nickel plated brass to aluminium, and even
steel and stainless steel are used.

24
DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE:

Direction control values are one of the most fundamental parts in pneumonic
system. They allow air flow into different paths from one or more sources. They
usually consist of a piston inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically
controlled. The movement of the cylinder restricts or permits the flow, thus it controls
the fluid flow. The flow of fluids and air can be controlled with solenoid controlled
valves. Solenoid actuated 5/2 direction controlled valve. When actuated it will drive
the central spool left. The top of the valve body has two ports that will be connected
to a device.

These valves make use of electromechanical solenoid for sliding of the


spool. Electrical power is readily available and these valves are extensively used but
electrical solenoid cannot generate large forces unless supplied with larger electrical
energy which makes there use limited to low actuating forces. Heat generation poses
the threat to use of these valves when held in one position longer. In practice
combination of these actuators. Such as low power solenoid valve is used to operate
the other pneumatic valve. Here solenoid valve starts the flow of air which in turn
operates pneumatic valve.

25
3.1.2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also
used. A sensor is also an electrical device that measures a quantity which receives and
responds to a signal.

PROXIMITY SENSOR:
Inductive proximity sensors operate under the electrical principle of
inductance. Inductance is the phenomenon where a fluctuating current, which by
definition has a magnetic component, induces an electromotive force (emf) in a target
object. To amplify a device’s inductance effect, a sensor manufacturer twists wire
into a tight coil and runs a current through it.
An inductive proximity sensor has four components; the coil, oscillator,
detection circuit, and output circuit. The oscillator generates a fluctuating magnetic
field the shape of a dough nut around the winding of the coil that locates in the
device’s sensing face.

When a metal object moves into the inductive proximity sensors’ field of
detection, Eddy currents build up in the metallic object, magnetically push back, and
finally reduce the inductive sensors’ own oscillation field. The sensors’ detection circuit
monitors the oscillator’s strength and triggers an output from the output circuitry when
the oscillator becomes reduced to a sufficient level.

26
The specification of the proximity sensor used in the project is

DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION
Type Inductive type PNP - NO
Voltage 5-30 V DC
Current 250mA
Make TAP INDIA
Model no. GLP 18APSR

RELAY:
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the
relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changed the switch contacts.
The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are
doublethrow switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can
be completely separate from the first. Low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to
switch a 230 V AC manic circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay
between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical.

27
The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically around 300mA for
a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower
voltages. Most IC’s chips cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to
amplify small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum
output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay
coils directly without amplification. The common type relays and relay circuits are given
as shown in figure.

Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch
contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available.
Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins
providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The figure shows a
working relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being
attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch
contacts. There is one set of contacts in the foreground and another behind them, making
the relay DPDT.
Normally, when overload current occurred, the bimetallic strip gets heated and
melts. This will trip the relay and cuts the power supply. But this is not the one we use
here. Here, it is a “electrically operated switch”.

28
The specification of the relay used in the project

DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION
Type Electro mechanical
Voltage 24-30 V DC
Current 10A
Make OMRON
Model no. G2R 1SN

3.1.3 MECHANICAL SYSTEM:

OIL GEAR PUMP:

The oil pump in internal combustion engine circulates engine oil under pressure
to the rotating bearings, the sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. This
lubricates the bearings, allows the use of higher – capacity fluid bearings and also
assists in cooling the engine. A gear pump uses the meshing of gears to pump fluid by
displacement.

29
Gear pumps are also widely used in chemical installations to pump fluid
with a certain viscosity. There are two main variations; external gear pumps which use
two external spur gears and internal gear pumps which use an external and an internal
spur gear. Gear pumps are positive displacement (or fixed displacement), meaning
they pump a constant amount fluid for each revolution. Some gear pumps are designed
to function as either a motor or a pump.

30
CYLINDER BLOCK:
A cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinders of a
reciprocating engine and often some other of their associated surrounding structures
(coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crank case). In the
earliest decades of internal combustion engine development, Monobloc cylinder
construction was rare; cylinders were usually cast individually. Combining their
castings into pairs or triples was an early win of mono bloc design.

BUSH:
It is an independent plain bearing that is inserted into a housing to provide a
bearing for rotary applications. This is most common form of plain bearing. Common
designs include solid (sleeve and flanged), split, and clenched bushings. The
difference between the three types is that a solid sleeved bushing is solid all the way
around, a split bushing has a cut along its length, and a clenched bearing is similar to a
split bushing but with a clench across the cut. A flanged bushing is a sleeve bushing

31
with a flange at one end extending radially outward from the OD. The flange is used to
positively locate the bushing when it is installed or to provide a thrust bearing surface.

The material and specification of the bush are shown in the table as follows,

SPECIFICATION EURO II EURO II EURO III EURO III


4 CYLINDER 6 CYLINDER 4 CYLINDER 6 CYLINDER
MATERIAL GUN METAL GUN METAL GUN METAL GUN METAL
CHUCK 17.7 17.7 17.7 19.7
DIAMETER (mm)
BUSH 21 21 21 23
DIAMETER (mm)

3.1.4 BUSH PRESS MACHINE:


The oil gear pump requires an bush bearing to rotate freely so a bush needs
to be present at the end of the rotating shaft. For that purpose the bush is inserted into
the H- cylinder block using the bush press machine. The sequences of operations in
the bush press machine are,
 Pull out outside stopper
 Push in inside stopper

32
 Component to be pushed in
 Push in outside stopper
 Bush to be inserted in the bush press unit
 Press the cycle start button
 Pull-out inside stopper
 Component to be pulled out
Initially in this operation, the engine block is fixed with the help of the
stopper at both sides of the machine, to fix it in a proper dimension to avoid error. Then
the bush is placed at the bush pressing shaft and the proximity sensor is used to identify
whether the bush is pressed or not in the end of the shaft. After the identification, the
bush is pressed in the engine block. This process is repeated continuously for every single
blocks.

33
DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION
MODEL EURO II $ EURO III
CUSTOMER MACHINE NO 10309
W.O. NUMBER 9001 - 59
MANUFACTURER SPM INDIA LIMITED , BANGALORE

GROOVING MACHINE:
It is the type of machine which is used to create oil rings in the engine block. It is
mostly used in the Euro-2 type engine. But in our operation Euro-3 type engine is used.
The design of Euro-3 type engine is advanced and different from Euro-2 engine because
the oil flow circulation differs. So grooving operation is not required.

3.1.5 LML ROUGH AND FINISH LINE BORING MACHINE :


The boring machine is used to bore the bush that is inserted in the H – cylinder
block. During this operation it also bores the crank and cam. Even though the bush is not
inserted it will perform the boring operation. When this cylinder block under goes the re-
work again, the tool must be changed which alter the original machining dimensions. In
this operation the dimensions are measured in microns and also used to reduce the micron
size from the semi finish line boring machine.
There are different types of bore performed in boring operation such as:
 Cam bore
 Crank bore
 Hydler bore
 Bush bore
 Devel pin bore

34
3.2 COMPONENTS DESIGN CALCULATION
3.2.1 CYLINDER CALCULATION
3.2.1.1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Bore diameter (D) = 60mm
Piston rod diameter (d) = 16 mm
Stroke length = 50mm
Pressure (P) = 6 bar
Velocity (V) = 100 – 200mm/s

3.2.1.2 Area of the cylinder can be calculated as,


A= 3.14*(D) 2
D=diameter of the cylinder (mm)
Therefore,
A= 3.14 / 4 * (D) 2
= (3.14*60*60)/4
A= 2826 mm2

3.2.1.3 Area of the piston rod can be calculated as,


a= 3.14/4*(d) 2
d=diameter of the piston rod (mm)
a= 3.14 / 4 * (d) 2
= (3.14*16*16)/4
a= 200.96 mm2

3.2.1.4 Maximum force withstand by the cylinder as,


P=F/A
P= pressure (bar)
F= force (N)
A=area of the cylinder (mm2)
Therefore, P=F/A

35
= 10*105*2826*10-6
F= 2826 N
3.2.1.5 Pulling force can be calculated as,
F=P (A-a)
P= pressure (bar)
F= force (N)
A=area of the cylinder (mm2)
a=area of the piston rod (mm2)
Therefore, F=P (A-a)
F=10*(2826 – 200.96)
= 10*105*2625.04*10-6
F = 2625.04 N

3.2.1.6 Flow rate can be calculated as,


Q = A*V
Q = Flow rate (mm3/s)
V = velocity (mm/s)
A = area of the cylinder (mm2)
Therefore, Q = A*V
= 2826 * 200
Q = 565200 mm3/s (or)
Q = 5.65*10-4 m3/s

3.2.1.7 Speed of outward stroke can be calculated as,


Velocity = Q/A (mm/s)
Q = Flow rate (mm3/s)
V = velocity (mm/s)
A = area of the cylinder (mm2)
Therefore, V = Q/A
= 565200 / 2826
V = 200 mm/s

36
3.2.1.8 Speed of retraction stroke can be calculated as ,

Velocity = Q/ (A-a) (mm/s)


Q = Flow rate (mm3/s)
V = velocity (mm/s)
A = area of the cylinder (mm2)
a= area of the piston rod (mm2)
Therefore, V = Q/ (A-a)
= 565200 / (2826 – 200.96)
V = 215.311 mm/s

3.2.1.9 Power can be calculated as,


Power = P*Q (watt)
Q = Flow rate (mm3/s)
P = pressure (bar)
Therefore, Power = P*Q
= 10*105*5.65*10-4
Power = 56.5 watt

Design calculation table


PARAMETERS REQUIRED
PRESSURE 6 bar
PULLING FORCE 2625.04 N
FLOW RATE 5.65 *10-4 m3/s
SPEED OF OUTWARD STROKE 200 mm/s
SPEED OF RETRACTION STROKE 215.311 mm/s
POWER 56.5 watt

37
3.2.2 DCV SPECIFICATION

S 5 2 2 1 E2 - 08 - F

2:2 position 08:1/4 thread size


1: single coil 10:3/8 thread size
2: double coil
E1 AC 110V
2: ½ *valve body E2 AC 220V A: Air control
3:3/8*valve body E4 DC 24V F: flying leads
5:5 way E5 DC 12V D:DIN connector

S: according to SMC VF series

The DCV is selected based on the following specifications. (explained in the


series as shown in the figure )

 S denotes the SMC VF series


 5 denotes the number of ways or ports in the DCV
 2 denotes the number of position in the DCV
 2,3 denotes the size of the valve body in inches
 1,2 denotes the number of coils used
 E1,E2,E4,E5 denotes the power supply
 08,10 denotes the thread size of the port
 A,F,D denotes the air control, flying leads and DIN connector

38
4. WORKING PRINCIPLE:
PROCESS – 1 DESCRIPTION :

(Cycle 8t) RL6 (-)

I4.0 Latch
Contractor
RL6

RL6a

RL7

I 6.3(LS.2) Bush Pressed RL7

I.520 RL6a to RL3 M/C

Cycle complete confirmation

39
Initially, when the bush is present in chuck, the signal passes through I4.0 (sensor).
It activates (holds) the RL6. Thus it presses inside stopper. It cannot by pass the
component without pressing the bushes. Now, when the bush is placed in the chuck, the
proximity (inductive) sensor (I6.3 – LS.2) approves that the bush is pressed in the slot
and passes the signal to the RL7. It brings back the presser to its position after the bush is
placed but doesn’t open the input stopper.
Now I.502 sensor approves that the cycle is complete and it actuates (holds) the
RL6a. This sends signal to the RL6a (relay) and brings back the input stopper & output
stopper to show that cycle is completed. The component is pushed out. The I.502 also ups
the table.
When the bush is put, I4.7 will get on enables the cycle start function, without
I4.7 the cycle won’t get started.I4.7 signal comes from the pressure switch of the bunk,
there are air holes in the bunk. When you put the bush inside the bunk, the air pressure
develops and the pressure switch gets ON.
But the air holes get clogged by dust so the I4.7 is permanently ON.(i.e.)
whether bush is pressed or not .it tends to send the component without bush is getting
pressed. The cycle completes without bush is pressed. It tends to rework. So, to avoid
this, the pressure switch is removed and proximity is provided to sense the bush.
Since the cycle gets ON, the RL6 will get ON and hold. When the lever switch
3 which is present on the bunk, I6.3 is the confirmed that the bunk is inside that releases
the latch by RL7. If RL7 is OFF, the I.502 of cycle complete table up goes to the RL6a
and switches on RL3 so the inside stopper gets ON. Hence total cycle complete gets
approved from exit proximity and releases all the logic interlocks. Then the component
passes through the proximity. Now both in and out stoppers opens and reseted all and
component goes out.

40
Pneumatic
Exit
cylinder
proximity Bush
sensor detecting Cycle
Proximity start/end Entry
sensor promity Proximity
sensor sensor

The relay based system was used because there were no available I/O ports
in the programmable logic controller (PLC). For that purpose relay is used in which the
input is taken from i7 and i5 line of the PLC. Moreover the cost of adding I/O ports to
PLC are high so low cost relay based automation is used. The entry proximity sensor
when detects the H- cylinder block it switches ON the relay RL1 which in turn energises
the solenoid in the DCV (Directional control valve). Now the DCV allows the pneumatic
cylinder to extend to block the H cylinder block in the bush press machine. The cycle
latch proximity sensor detects the cycle start operation and then switches ON the relay
RL 2 & RL 2.1 which de – energises the solenoid in the DCV, but the cylinder will not
retract because it is a double acting cylinder.
When the operation is over the cycle and proximity sensor switches ON the
relay RL3 which energises another solenoid in the DCV causing the cylinder to retract.
Now the H cylinder block is free to move to move on the conveyor, once it leaves the
machine the exit proximity resets the whole system using the relay RL4.

41
4.1 AUTO/MAN SWITCH:

42
The Auto/Manual Switch assembly is designed for installation on the front cover
of the KBAC inverters. It is used to select either the Main Speed Potentiometer for
“manual operation” or a remote voltage following analog signal for “automatic
operation.” It is suggested that the SIAC Signal Isolator / Run Relay option (Part No.
9488) be used with the Auto/Manual Switch assembly to provide signal isolation between
the signal source and the KBAC

The above circuit explains the manual override option in the bush press machine.
This system can be toggled between manual and automatic mode using a AUTO/MAN
switch. In the automatic mode, the system will automatically engage the stopper based on
the sensor information.
But in the manual mode, stopper forward button is used to engage the stopper
and the stopper reverse button is use to dis – engage the stopper in order to stop the H
cylinder block in the machine.

PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:

The pneumatic system circuit can be designed by the software AUTOMATION


STUDIO version 5.0. In the software, the pneumatic and hydraulic components are
available and the circuits has been made and analysis is performed in the following
figure.

43
A pneumatic cylinder is usually a single acting cylinder, where there is a single
port in the cylinder and were cylinder extension is done by compressed air and retraction
by means of open coiled spring. In double acting cylinders two ports both extend and
retract by means of compressed air.

Compressed air is the main source of energy for all pneumatic braking systems,
air suspensions and clutches in heavy commercial vehicles. The main component in air
provision is the compressor itself. It is necessary to protect the entire pneumatic system
from freezing and internal corrosion and there by ensure its efficient operation and
increase the overall life of the system. When the solenoid (S1) energises the cylinder will
extend and when the solenoid (S2) energises the cylinder will retract. The air supply is
supplied at a pressure rate of 6 bar from centralised compressor unit.

44
4.1.2 PROCESS – 11 DESCRIPTION:

L3
MASTER ON MASTER E – STOP E - STOP

OFF MAIN AUX L4

RE

BUSH PROXIMITY

R1 R1

RE
TO PLC

A proximity sensor is used to detect the presence of the pump bush and only after
the bush is in place it will send the power to the system to start the operation. Then the jig
lower into position and a clamping mechanism are used to hold the H cylinder block in
place. Now the jig with the bush lowers and presses the bush into the cylinder block. This
operation is done by PLC, in order to make this system fail – safe we have placed this
bush proximity so that the operation will not commence without the bush.

Initially in this operation, the H cylinder engine block is fixed with the help of the
stopper at both sides of the machine, to fix it in a proper dimension to avoid error. Then
the bush is placed at the bush pressing shaft and the proximity sensor is used to identify
whether the bush is pressed or not in the end of the shaft. A proximity sensor is
a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact.

45
A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam
of electromagnetic radiation ( infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or
return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target.
Different proximity sensor targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive
proximity sensor or photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic target;
an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target. After the identification, the
bush is pressed in the engine block. This process is repeated continuously for every single
blocks.

46
5. FABRICATION PROCESS
AIR SUPPLY

Compressed air is the main source of energy for all pneumatic braking
systems, air suspensions and clutches in heavy commercial vehicles. The main
component in air provision is the compressor itself. It is necessary to protect the entire
pneumatic system from freezing and internal corrosion and there by ensure its efficient
operation and increase the overall life of the system. In order to increase the life of the
system, it is necessary for a highly efficient solution for stripping oil in droplet and
vapour form from the compressed air before the air is dried. As a result, especially the
seals fitted in all the different valves are protected and their life span significantly
increased. The compressed air is got from a centralised compressor unit on the shop floor.
The details of the machine are as follows:

SPECIFICATION DETAILS

Make Atlas Copco

Machine code LM00722

Maximum pressure 100 psi

FITTINGS

The set up involves electrical components like sensors , relays ,


pneumatic like pneumatic cylinder , Direction control valve (DCV) in the machine to

47
automatically engage the stopper. The sensor used in the system are inductive type PNP –
NO proximity device. Solenoid actuated 5 way, 3 position DCV is used in the system.
The parker pneumatic sensor fittings has a unique sensor that detects the pressure drop
when a cylinder at the top of the device in which it reaches the end of its stroke
They produce a pneumatic or electric output signal when the pressure drop below their
back pressure threshold.

SENSOR SETUP

The entry proximity is connected to the relay RL 1. It is placed at the bottom side of the
conveyor at the entry of the machine. The exit proximity sensor is connected to the relay
RL 4, which is placed at the bottom side of the conveyor at the exit of the machine.

48
The bush sensor is placed at the top of the bush chuck. It is an inductive
type sensor so when the bush is in place it will detect it and send the signal to the
machine control unit.

The cycle latch sensor is placed in the underside of the machine, right in
the middle. When the jig lowers with H cylinder block it will sense the block and send
the signal to the relay.

49
CYLINDER SETUP:

The pneumatic cylinder is fixed at the exit stopper gate. The cylinder is a
double acting cylinder connected to a solenoid operated 5/3 direction control valve. The
DCV is operated by a set of relays. The pneumatic supply from the compressor is
directed to the cylinders through the hoses. The DCV connected between the relay and
pneumatic cylinders is temporarily placed at the control panel.

RELAY SETUP:
The logic for the system was executed in the RS Logix 500 in order to
avoid mistakes while implementing the logic circuit. The relay logic circuit which was
shown above was drawn using EZ schematics software. The input from the sensor is
connected to the wiring rack and from this rack the signal is taken by the relay. The
relays are fixed in the already existing PLC rack.

50
OEE ANALYSIS FOR BUSH PRESS MACHINE AFTER
IMPLEMENTATION:
AVAILABILTY:

Availability = availability time / scheduled time

A given work centre is scheduled to run for 8 hours per shift. The normal shift
includes 50 minutes break. The work centre experiences 25 minutes of downtime period.

Scheduled time: 480 min - 50 min = 430 min


Available time: 430 min - 25 min = 405 min

51
Therefore,

Availability = availability time / scheduled time


= 405 / 430
Availability = 94.18 %

PERFORMANCE:

Performance = (parts produced x ideal cycle time) / available time


A standard rate for the part being produce is 2.9 min / part. A work centre
produces 71 units during a shift.

Expected parts to be produced = 125 but due to other machine availability only
71 parts are produced.
Ideal cycle time = 2.9 min
Available time = 405 min

Therefore,

Performance = (parts produced x ideal cycle time) / available time


= (125*2.9)/405

Therefore,

Performance = 89.5 %

QUALITY:

Quality = good units / units started


= 71 / 71
Quality = 100 %(assumed)

52
OEE: (OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS)

OEE = availability x performance x quality

= 94.18 x 89.5 x 100

OEE = 84.29 %

5.3.1 OEE VALUE FOR BUSH PRESS MACHINE BEFORE AND


AFTER IMPLEMENTING AUTOMATION:

SPECIFICATION BEFORE AFTER AUTOMATION


AUTOMATION
AVAILABILITY 69% 94.18%
PERFORMANCE 98.48% 89.5%
QUALITY 100% 100%
OEE VALUE 67.7% 84.29%

COMPARISON CONSTRAST:

EXISTING SYSTEM PROPOSED SYSTEM

The operator has to engage the stopper The stopper will be engaged automatically
manually

53
Availability rate is low Due to automation availability rate
becomes high

Manual operation. So it is difficult. Sensor is used for quicker response. It is


easy method

Chances of human error is high Chances of human error is nil as it does


not require any human intervention
frequently
Tool cost, power cost and consumable cost Tool cost , power cost and consumable
are high. cost becomes low

TROUBLE SHOOTING

S.NO SYMPTOMS PROBABLE CAUSE REMEDY

1. Cycle does 1.Machine not ON 1.Switch ON machine


not start 2.No air. 2.Ensure 6 bar air pressure
3. Initial conditions not OK. 3.Ensure initial conditions are
OK
2. Pneumatic 1. No air supply 1. Check air compressor
cylinder not 2. Damage in the spool 2. Check hoses for leakage
working 3. check the connection with
DCV

54
3. Chuck Proximity sensor 2 is not ON Check the position ,
operation functioning and electrical
down not OK connection of proximity
sensor.
4. Bush not Varying dimensions of bush for different Check whether the correct
inserted cylinder blocks bush is placed on the holder

5. Chuck for Varying dimensions of chuck for Check whether the correct
bush not OK different cylinder blocks chuck is placed to hold the
right bush.
6. Clamping not Hydraulic pressure not enough Check the functioning and
OK hydraulic connection in the
machine
7. Automatic 1. No signal from the entry proximity 1. Check the position ,
stopper not sensor functioning & electrical
working 2. Manual stopper is engaged connection of this sensor
2. Check the conveyor path for
obstruction
8. The next Exit proximity sensor is not working Check the position, functioning
system is not & electrical connection of the
ready for next exit proximity sensor
cycle
9. Pneumatic The relay RL 2.1 or RL 3 is not working Check the functioning and
cylinder not electrical connection of the
retracting relay RL 2.1 & RL 3

55
10. Cycle not BUSH may be not in place Place the bush on the chuck so
starting even the bush proximity sensor will
when the not stop the operation
power supply
is ON

11. De – Hydraulic pressure not enough Check the functioning and


clamping of hydraulic connection in the
the cylinder machine
block not
proper
12. Bush sensor 1. Incorrect bush in place 1. Place the right bush
not detecting 2. Sensor damaged corresponding to the cylinder
block
2. check and replace the sensor

56
BEFORE MODIFICATION

AFTER MODIFICATION

57
BEFORE MODIFICATION

AFTER MODIFICATION

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6. CONCLUSION

This automation project ensures that the bush is inserted into the
cylinder block. It will increase the availability time, performance and
quality. Initially in the Overall Equipment Effectiveness analysis the OEE
value was at 67.7%. After implementing the relay based automation system,
the OEE value increased to 84.29%. Since the OEE levels is increased, the
ideal cycle time per component will decreases. Due to this the power
consumption rate, consumable cost becomes low. Due to the use of
proximity sensor the machining cost and time will be reduced which will
increase the maximum production. If the bush is inserted correctly the time
required to do the re – work is saved. And the tool cost incurred in the
grooving machine is also saved. Further, under the loading conditions the
Total Effective Equipment Performance (TEEP) can be calculated.

59
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2. Stewart Anderson,“Poka-Yoke: Mistake-Proofing as a Preventive


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3. Dr. Shrikrishna N. Joshi, Mechantronics and Manufacturing


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5. Ishikawa K., 2011, Universal design of workplaces through the use of


Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications,journal of Industrial
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6. Review on “Poka-Yoke: Technique to prevent defects” by Aishwarya


J. Kurhade,DOP- November 2015.

7. Guidelines to Implementation of Poka yoke in an Assembly Line by


V.K. Kannan, R. Shanmuga Prakash, 2017.

8. Implementation of Poka yoke technique in a gear industry- A case


Study by Dr.magendra Sohani,June 2016.

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